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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P .W. Dorothy Fryar . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . Jan Irvine . J . Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin.R. D. . United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.D.M. Ronald Chaney ( artist) .B.E. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged.
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . 2 . . . . . . 11 . Exercises . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . 1 . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 01 . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . 1 17 ix . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . _ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . 1 1 Canonical Units .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . 2. . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . . . . List of References . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . 71 .2 The NBody Problem . . . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2. . 2 . . . . 74 . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . .6 Coordinate Transformations .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . 2 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . 2. . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . 1 . . 14 . . . . . . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . 1 09 . . .2 Coordinate Systems . 2 . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . 4 .12 . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . 2. .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . . . . . . 3 87 9. . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES .1 8. . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . Exercises . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . . . 279 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . . 27 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 6. . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . . . . 380 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 27 . . . . . . . . . . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 379 . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . 359 . .2 The Solar System . . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . 3 84 . . . . List of Reference s . . . . . 5 . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . . . 258 . . . . . . . . . . Exerc ises . . . . 273 . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . 333 . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 9. . . . . List o f Re ferences . xi 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . Histor ical Background . . . . . . . . 26 5 .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . . . . . 344 352 355 . List of References . . . . . 357 . . . . . . . . . 8. . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . 277 6. . . . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . 275 . 390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . 3 20 . .
Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . 43 1 . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . 440 449 . . . . . .
the year Galileo died. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. the poor and sickly mathematician. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. the noble and aristocratic Dane. as his mother told him in later years. Kepler.CHAPTER 1 TWO. he might have been put into a quart mug. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. Newman! . and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. JarnesR. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. 1 642 .' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. Tycho.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1.
Since the time of Aris totle . It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " .1 Kepler's Laws. not an explanation of planetary motion . In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. therefore . after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. TWO. with the sun at a focus . The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. One day in 1 685 .BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts.1 Still. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . 2 1. Kepler's laws were only a description. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . discoverer of Halley's comet.1. It fit. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. necessarily moved in circles. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. Finally .
1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . when he recovered from his shock. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. casually posed the question. in ellipses. 1 . Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and.Sec. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. "Why. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. 4 1. of course . or . undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. more simply. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. without mentioning the b et. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. t he Principia. they speculated whether a force ." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. Dissatisfied with this explanation.1. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force .
Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia.1 .'�V . Note that equation ( 1 . has the value 6. . . 1 . / . . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. G.67Ox 1 0.1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system..8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .12) t o equat i. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. • .4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. " Figure 1 .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. 1 2) Fg = .1 .11 Newton's Law of Motion . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them. 1.1.n ( 1 . The universal gravitational constant. . .1 .1 ) (1 . . 1 .
j. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. I " '. In addition. . All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion..�I '.. thrust and solar radiation pressure .2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(.Sec 1. X I .. At any given time in its j ourney. . To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. . propellants) to pro duce thrust. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. . y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies.. An important force.e.2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. an earth satellite . 1. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . etc.. a lunar or interplanetary probe.e... or a planet). f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . m2 • m3 m m. I I I Figure 1. .II I I I " I I I I :.
2' The NBody Problem Figure . The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's.. 1 equator. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton.. Thus.���Y � X n 1. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. Although small. These effects. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2.1 . • • • z FOTHER .. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. 2. are discussed in Chapter 3 . This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. Y.
of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. II 3 (1. the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . F gn where =  Gm .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) .2. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . thrust. . (1. . equation ( 1 . The v ector sum. perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. etc . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 .3) Obviously .2.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . Fg.Se c 1. solar radiation pr essure.5 ) The other external force .2 ·1 is T composed of drag.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself. The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. m'J JI 3 (rj j) ..
.28 would not be zero .28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 . r·I = F TOTAL mj 0. Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time . z coordinate system.26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x .I) and all other external forces ..2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody...F I dt TOTAL dt (1.8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. y .27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma.. Thus... (1. . In other words. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL...1 + F OTHER ' (l . is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ.
mn may be the moon.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X .29) is a second order .G And for i = 0 ..1 0) for i = 1. nonlinear.29) reduces to = r· 1 n . we get j = j � *i 1 3 .Sec 1 . m .1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form.2. F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . vector. equation ( 1 . Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present..2. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .1 2) . Equation ( 1 . ( 1. Y. unpowered flight.G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. expelling mass or relativistic effects. sun and planets .10) ( . ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . mi 0).2.11) 2.. Then writin g equation 1 . Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. The only remaining forces then are gravitational.2. m· J (�i) . r JI.2. Equation (1 .
2. Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .. n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.1 4) gives.2.G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1. . Since r 1 2 = .r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence.1 2) into equation ( 1 .2. .21 1 ) and ( 1 .10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.2 1 6) each bracket.1 From equation ( 1 . 2 1 7 ) .2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.
Howe ver .3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. sun and planets on a near earth satellite . Table 1 . 1 .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . mi orbit about the earth.Sec.3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 . This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .9x l O 8 7 .2x l O 8 2. To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion .3. COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . The bodies are spherically symmetric . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.6x l O lO 1 . Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. 1. .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth.1 Simplifying Assump tions.89 6x l 0 4 2.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies. 1 x l 0 10 3. There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .
without relation to anything external.12 TWO. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space.. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. remains always similar and irrnovable. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. Y' . we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . Y.3. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. For the time being. Let (X. " s However. which "in its own nature.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Let (X'. 1 2. Y'.1 . The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'.2 The Equation of Relative Motion.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . . 1 . 3 2 ) . Y'. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies.3. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest.3. Y'.1 ) (1 . Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 .
Y. Y'. Y'. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. GIM+ml r Equation (1.32) from equation (1. Note that this is the same as equation (1.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. velocity. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X.y X' Figure 1 . ballistic missiles.Sec. Y.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1.. 1. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. Note that since the coordinate set (X.33) . Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. and acceleration in a nonrotating. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'.31) we have = _ r . Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. Z) with its origin in the central body. (1 .217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r. Z'). Y.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . Z').33).
It is convenient to define a parameter. namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass.3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . "kinetic . Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. the mass of the orbiting body . M. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. will be much less than that of the central body . If m is not much less than M. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. 1. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 .14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation ." for another form called "potential energy . then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors).3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . If you think ab out the model we have created. 3 ·4 ) . an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. called the gravitational GM. 1 some planet or the sun. m. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. Then equation 1 ." That is. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 .
4 frame (the large mass) does not change . r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(.4. To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. 1. ( 1 .r ) = � r �(r . 1 .lL\I r dt JJ. r 2. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . dt 1:L = O. C. But what about the arbitrary co nstant .SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero.!!.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . 5.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . which appears in . v =r and v= f. then 1 . N 0 tlcmg that .Sec. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero . To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . Therefore. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O .
iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' .2 Conservation of angular momentum. This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary .4.  ( 1 . rX . In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . therefore .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive.g. dt . O. the earth. The expression for � is �. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . Since in general a x a= 0.fL 3 . The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. We conclude . r. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. �. In other words. e . why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . 3 4) by r 2 . at what distance .42) 1 .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. that the specific mechanical energy. Noticing that . If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass.iL (rxv) = O.
The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. 1 . But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . I Figure 1 . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1." "Up" simply means away . we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . (1 .41 Flightpath angle . we have shown that the specific angular momentum. of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec.4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. Therefore . h. We shall refer to this as the orbital plane .43) v I h = r x v. called specific angular momen tum.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. Therefore . </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal.
54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle .4274I+2.8143 = 35. r = 12.0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v.5936 1 + 5 . however.2778 J + 1 0 . Ch. h. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. Also find the flight·path angle. In an inertial coordinate system. the zeni th angle . the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . ¢.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. (4. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. &.4. 1 85 2 1 + 6.8143 r • v > 0 . So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. = 0.899 X 107 ft. J and K are unit vectors. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. respectively.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I.420 . the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . ¢. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. and the specific angular momentum. V =5. Determine the specific mechanical energy . I h = rv c o s ¢. c o s ¢=Jl. • ( 1 .18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.7 1 37J+O. v.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1.
h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.1!y r . 1 .1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v . JJ.Sec. (h xr) =.. While this equation (1.3 3 r r r since r • i = f .. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. Also note that J. 1 . You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain...& . Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity. (1.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 . its complete solution is not.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4. �t (B· .5. we see that J!:.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body.51) The left side of equation (1. err.33) is simple.. .I.( r) r.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see.
52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B.54) . V.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. v. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. 5.. c and a . Equation (1." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation. in general. .53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. I r 1 + e cos V p (1. (1. + r o Since.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section.. +(81J. h2 where vector r. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation.54) .9 cos V (1. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.53) 1 . we obtain = 1 h2 /g . r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B .
remains constant.5. (See Figure 1 . The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. potential and kinetic.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. must change so as to keep h constant. As r and v change along the orbit. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. 1.44) 1 . The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. Before discussing the factors .Sec. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . Although Figure 1. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. ellipse. 4 . 5 . 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . There is. parabola. 2. 3. cp.53) and the equation of a conic section (1.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. the flightpath angle. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem.51 illustrates an ellipse. however. an exchange of energy between the two forms. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. not just ellipses.41 and equation (1 .
or a single point.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. If the plane cuts both nappes. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). Figure 1. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . the section is an ellipse. 1 Figure 1 . these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone.52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow.5 2 illustrates this definition . we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. the section is a parabola. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. If. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines .
53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections .Sec 1 . has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. The secondary or vacant focus. The prime focus.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. F'. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . F.53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. Figure 1 . F and F'.
which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.54)). for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). ( 1 .5 3 . It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee.55) p = a (1 .e2). The dimension. Thus." etc. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c." "perihelion" or "aphelion. is c�lled the semimaj or axis. The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. In the parabola. the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . a.
5 4) we conclude that B = tLe.53) and ( 1 . which points toward periapsis. e = BltL. 5.= a( 1 +e) . tL r ( 1 .59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . we encountered the vector constant of integration.. By comparing equations ( 1 . .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 . 53).58) 1 . since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. the trajectory equation. 1e ( 1 . Quite obviously.4 The Eccentricity Vector.56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). 1. In the derivation of equation ( 1 . B.1 0) . ( 1 .57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = .Sec . 1 ( 1 . .52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. 5.
6. we get • p.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. By comparing equation ( 1 . e = ( v v ) r . of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. Figure 1 .. x v. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. r  r . _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . Therefore. and that as h is . of the satellite.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle.61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag).p. /or any orbit.p. e = V x (r x v) .(r ..1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased.5. v. v ) v . 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. th . v)v. e . ( 1 . is equivalent to increasing h. r r p.6 RELATING &. 1 . By inspection.1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. is zero. h.53) and equation ( 1 .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth. p. If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. equation ( 1 . 1. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. ( 1 .
.. We can then write. �' " .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle.44). R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec.F �. as a corollary to equation ( 1 . (1 . . . . . 1 01) . of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 . is zero..1 ) predicts . r I .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 .62) we obtain &. 57) p rp = a(1 .6.�= � . = �.42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 .increased the parameter.e ) . . Figure 1 . v.  . . I '. p.62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . .
This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . Figure 1 . of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . Many students find equation ( 1 .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. 1 and from equation ( l . or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.6. &. a. Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a.63) misleading.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive .e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive. You should study it together with Figure 1 . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit). while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . the energy of a satellite (negative . zero.56) and equation (1 .1 ) therefore p. Thus.a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l .6.28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit).
1 and perigee altitude 200 n . specific mechanical energy. 64) Notice again that if & is negative. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) .0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. 3 n . and semimaj or axis. Namely. Determine its altitude at apogee. 6 . mi. For a given satellite . = 6. & = 2 .2 Determine its specific angular momentum.Jf5P.. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. 0 .  a=  '!:.. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . 2& = 3 . m i . if & is zero . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. r p = rES + 200 = 3643.. ra = 1 � e = 4453.7 n . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. m i . 9 n . . e is exactly 1 (a parabola). and specific angular momentum. if & is positive . m i . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0.Sec 1 .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . semilatus rectum. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. The student should be aware of this pitfall. e is greater than I (a hyperbola).897  e2 ) = 3.
855 = 6 . The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant.7· 1 .JpjJ.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. 1 . The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period. I ( 1 . 1 n. When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 2a = r a + r = 8097.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa.7· 1 ) B y inspection.7 .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . 1 Geometry of the Ellipse. the distance between the foci is ( 1 . specifically r + 1 .861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a .mi. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. ( 1 . the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit.= 2. an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . h =.m i .7·2) .6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses. = 5. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant. Since an ellipse is a closed curve.r Ell = 1 009.
76) . 2 ( 1 .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis. 1 . you will see that the . Since r + r' = 2a. r and r' must both be equal to a at this point. e is defined as combine to yield da.7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. Using equation ( 1 .2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit. in general.1 . equation ( 1 .7 . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 .Sec. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll.72) and ( 1 .7. 2 b.73) ( 1 . If you refer to Figure 1 . when rearranged .72.75) which.7.
is given by the expression So. we can rewrite equation ( 1 . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. d A.76) as ( 1 .77) dt 2 = 11 dA. Figure 1 . d v.32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. 1 Figure 1 .73 Differential element of area .
During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . since h = /JlP.8 . proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a.79). The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed.Sec. incidentally. 55) and ( 1 . the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired .8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . 1 .8.e2 ) = JaP and. a.75). 1 Circular Satellite Speed.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 . ( 1 . 1 .1 ) 1 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . Thus.8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit. so equation ( 1 . From equations ( 1 .78) b =) a 2 .77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. Integrating equation ( 1 . the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. Naturally.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit.79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . Equation ( 1 . Of course.
There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know. rCS' from the energy equation.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola.9.1 . F or a low altitude earth orbit. Another is that.1 Geometry of the Parabola.000 ft/sec. circular speed is about 26 .1 ) .9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a. One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 .000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 .9.34 TWO .82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.9. The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. the periapsis radius is just r 1 . The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius. 1 .
there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � . its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   .57).E. first at a general point a distance . Theoretically. Of course.2 Escape Speed.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 ." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.92) . as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l.9. 1 .Sec." 1 . r. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .
the semimajor axis. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude . must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . 8. b . Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . 36 TWO . 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic.92) =21 . the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . 53374 106 ft = = 36.400 nm above the surface it is only 26. = j. a.1 57.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. As you would expect.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. a.000 ft/sec.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 . The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 .. Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 .1/2a.Since the specific mechanical energy. 5 7). (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . m i . 06748 106 ft 7087. rb i t P 7087. m i . + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn.53374 106 ft 2 43.amr iO. where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 . 1 .Sec.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21.8 n. 8n.
38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . If. 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). instead. then the righthand branch represents the orbit. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. 1 0. then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . 1 0. F .1 ) . 1 . b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . 1 1 . Obviously. If we consider the lefthand focus. The parameters a.1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. (L l O. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study .
we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. 1 0.but since Sec. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity. V 00' . which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. on the other hand. If. 1 0.for the hyperbola. 1 02) becomes ( 1 .2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. 1 . 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed. is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . The turning angle .1 . the smaller will b e the turning angle . it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value ..0. 0. The angle between the asymptotes. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . 1 .
It is a fact. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. In other words. of course .3 Sphere of Influence. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. for all practical purposes it has escaped. Astronomers call thi� ' . the concept is convenient and is widely used. 1 . e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. 1 (1 . we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. however. a million miles) from earth." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. It is. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . 1 0. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. 1 .
We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. then the value of the gravitational parameter. 5 9362 5 . If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. 1 1 . h.l. J.1 . Using canonical units determine & . will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . p. e. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . 1 1 .046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. moon. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. 1 . Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. earth. or other planet. 1 . r a' r p' . For other problems where the earth. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . 1 The Reference Orbit." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations.Sec. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU.
[1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 .1 . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . 5 D U e �2 _ /J. 1 67 D U �/T U � = .42). 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1.I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Alt = . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . � = . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units.
5 D U = 9.64) Find ra from equation (1.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft . 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.Sec.61) Find h from equation (1. = 3.. 1 . 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 .= 4 .5 7)  r a = 1 e p. 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. 5 D U ".7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 . 25D U EB = 4.58) Find r p from equation (1. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t. = 2.
Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. Find the specific energy of the trajectory. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. in general. 6 J 1 . Why. Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . 1 . Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. a. 2K DU 2 /TU . 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system.000 ft/sec and 4 .1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 .4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. .44 TW O. c. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft.2.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . b .3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi..000 n mi. (Answer : e = 1 .1 . 2J AK IJK h = AI . 1 . respectively. Find the period of the orbit. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. The orbit eccentricity is 0. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. &= . 5 81) 1 . Find the eccentricity of the orbit.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . 1 EXERCISES 1 .
7 Prove that d.9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. 2K + . D U 2 /T U 2 = + . 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24.123K = 1 . 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . D U /T U DU e. 0 1K v = l + l . 354 10" r 1 . 1 . &.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. r v c. a a.5 rpe r i gee = 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n.Ch .6 18 = 59° 58') .000 ft) with a velocity of 25. V ft/sec. 91 J space.5 DU DU DU d. mi during descent? (Ans. Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0.000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. r x ft ) = 3. p 1. 1. p b. (Ans. 4K r r v = . elliptical. ¢ =3 = 1 . hyperbolic. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ).
e=O e = . 1 2 Given that e = �.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. p = 6. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. p = 2.000 ft. c. Determine the maximum altitude attained. e. p = 6. b . p = 3. derive values for e for circles.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. (Neglect atmo spheric drag. P 1 . It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. p = 2. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically.) 1 . ellipses and a hyperbolas.2 e = . d . 1 . 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = .6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 .
V O U EB /TU EB ) .1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v. What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. rc = at +b = 0. 207 1 . c. * 1 . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans . 1 . Show that : b.6.Ch . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. 2 . Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section .4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. you may use the same Figure 2. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation.Xw UK vectors.Sec. Yw '+. 2 .24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . When describing a heliocentric orbit . the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond .2. Q and W respectively.
argumen t of periapsisthe angle . The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. 4 . The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . Similarly. 2. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. Instead of argument of periapsis. Frequently the semilatus rectum. 3 . measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. p. the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. time of periapsis passage . A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . K I I . In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors.3. It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. T. i.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . w. 6. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis.the angle from to periapsis measured h. between the ascending node and the periapsis point.the angle . Q longitude of the ascending node. if you know a and e you can compute p. Obviously . a. 2 .the time when the satellite was at periapsis. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. 5 . shape and orientation of an orbit . e. is substituted for a in the above list. in the fundamental plane .1 as follows : 1 . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. Another system.
31 Orbital elements .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.Sec. 2 .
then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 .60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . then b oth W and n are undefined. 1 £0 £0 + . w and va are all defined.31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. to ' called the "epoch.3. earth. between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . then both w and Uo are undefined. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. both of which are always defined .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 ." Direct means easterly. then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . This is the dire ction in which the sun. in the plane of the orbit. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . From Figure 2. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle .1 ) .3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . (2 . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. n=n+w.
43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . We have already encountered the angular momentum vector.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . n and e.4. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. t o . n an d e. To be perpendicular to h.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . To be perpendicular to K. h. Therefore . n must be perpendicular to both K and h.42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. 2 . n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. n would have to lie in the orbital plane. vI vJ v K J (2 . n.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . 2. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . 2. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . h. The node vector.
The vector.S .4. ex.1 1 )). Study this figure carefully . the cosine of the angle .4. We are only interested in its direction. and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. is obtained from (2 . We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements.1 . e.3. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . The parameter. between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . h. 2. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 2 nodes. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . In general. Now that we have h.1 ) (2 . p. n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. All three vectors.4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l ." Specifically .2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. An understanding of it is essential to what follows . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle .46) Of course .
4 3 . Since Uo is the angle between n and f . Since n is the angle between I and n. c o s U o = !!. Since w is the angle between n and (2.4.) e. (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° . Since Vo is the angle between e and f... 2 . e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.49) 6. (2 .' (2. (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2. Since i is the angle between K and h.4.Sec.) c o S Po = � er (2 .1 1) .L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .) .) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° . � � h.:.48) 5 . 2.1 0) 7 .
3 . If they don't make sense to you.1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now.64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .1 and study it until they do . Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2.4. With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v. . 2 z x 8 . look at the geometry of Figure 2 . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative).
Figure 2. 5 DU e == .42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.Sec. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 .
4 DU p == .5 e == .\ .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch . 2 3 Figure 2 .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .
44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1. 2.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .Sec.
l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 . . r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node . EEl .48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane .6. i.4.1 ) p = . n.i:. e. Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid. Find p using equation (2 . From equation (2. ml . using equation (2 ..= 4D U = 13.1.(r . 7 75 . Find eccentricity. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth..I:!:.45 ) Since h =. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Using equation (2.68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .7 4n ..l h2 .1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 ..47) = . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). f. ) r . Find inclination. [ ( f.
1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. va. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. is undefined.n = COS . .!!.1 (.Sec.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis. Find argument of periapsis. From equation (2 . Find true anomaily .:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . 2 .. for this case . II. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined .n. = cos . Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector . 4 .41 0) v a c os.49) W n · e W. II.1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 . From equation (2.. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . can be determined in this case. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .  Find longitude of periapsis.
3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .. 2 Find true longitude o f epoch. v)v] =.6.1 ) Find e. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=.\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.m i .70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .5 . From equation (2. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .85 n .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .  then from equation ( 1 . EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .E)r(r . = From equation (2.25 EB EB D U EB 7748...33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .
.4.43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n . va : From equation (2.5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.I Find the true anomaly .Sec. From equation (2 .11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 . From equation (2.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis.49) w: 0 W = cos. I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 . 2.5 Find the inclination. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .
72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . consists of two steps. w and va . first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. n.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. .24): ro to. that occurs in a given time .to. n. 2 elements are given.5 2) . 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. 8.ffe si n V (2. In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 . This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. v.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. lV.5. i . changes with time . This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . Let ' s assume that we know p. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. Of the se six elements.5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . i. shown below. w and v. 8. 2. The method.
5P DU E9 (2. Before equation (2. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.Sec.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 . v �[.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .25 45{) (2.54) r = J � [.5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v). 2.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .5 i= p 2.54) from equation r (2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .
the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. namely. direction . A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. For example. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . For example . The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . east ." The phrase in quotes describes what the . and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. suppose you know the south. east. or what it represents. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south." 2. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . have a definite starting point . such as position vectors. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . vector represents. 2 2. east a!1d up. Certain vectors. In other words. suppose you know the south.6. and it still represents the same thing. its fundamental (xy) plane .
" In other words.y Y 75 .61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. Figure 2. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 . the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.61) ." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. Figure 2.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. Let us imagine three unit vectors I. ���________� • . y ����. : r Y I ex a . V and W along the x ' .6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S . y' and z ' axes. 2.6. 2.Sec.61 illustrates the two frames. and extending along the x. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame .
V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.1 ) yields I.62) above and equating it with (2.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch . 65) . We will use subscripts to identify the basis.61 we can see that the unit vectors U.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.6.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2. (2. 2 From Figure 2. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2.
Sec.6. (2 .67) yields the set of equations (2 . derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. .3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame .69) '" axis.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2. 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis.67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2. Rotation about the xaxis. These are summarized belox:: . The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.66) (2.  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex . 68) B '" (2. 2 .64) above .
Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation. 2 (2. Figure 2.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames. So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . a.7 .4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes.78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.6. 1 ). in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 .61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame . We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .
!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . The inverse of any orth. The transpose of the matrix D . .61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). Hence . Equation (2. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.e. 2.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e .1 . Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. AB =1= SA ).61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2. Fortunately. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 .Sec. We can write equation (2. denoted by D . if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. Now.6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . (i.
m1 " fo. d th yo u will b . By me mo C." a ny mp licat e d .. d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [.sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . Perifo ca l to th e G Th . 2 (2.Eq to th e IJ K in at . to p' ter ho w co no. sh ow n in F ig u " Th . n t rizing th .ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es .1 2) Figure 2 . mu " in cid 'n ce b .n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . basis no ma t . th. gl " n i lly . 'o ta t. d wi th ..". a bl . tluee b . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . d w . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . O c M ma t.6 . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc.80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. 6. 62. anglo .". axes in to CO ham . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am .". 5 Tmn .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK .. 6. th' O ugh w hi ch on ..
2 . we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I .The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix...63.. a K and ap .63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. For example . from Figure 2. then Sec . R.. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . Figure 2. ... To . aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. Thus if a i ' aJ . aQ. 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit ...
a �. I • p I · Q J .sin n sin w cos i .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .6. the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .1 3) i.6. the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. Q I ' W J · W K .cos n sin w .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i . Now a. P K · P In Figure 2. 2 from their dot product . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . Similarly. ! • P. J and K Thus R = J . The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A.sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. since I and P are unit vectors. P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides.1 4) R23 = .63 .
2 . But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . 2. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. . relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements.5 .Sec . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4.1 ) and (2. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. V. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both .5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . In this case either n or w or both are undefined. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements.
The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. 2. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. The unit vectors S. The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. 7 .( N o rt h ) 2. E and Z shown in Figure 2 . 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. can also be measured.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . p.71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � .84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . the rate at which range is changing. Az. The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . AZ . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. EI.7 . If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . is measured clockwise from north . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System.7.1 . the elevation angle . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up .7 .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles. The azimuth angle .
1 .1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2.72 we see that r (2 .72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. /l!L. from the geometry of Figure 2.7 4) = + P (2 . Thus. p. Az. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . From Figure 2.3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. We will express the po sition vector as (2 .73) E l (B I ).1 ) where . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. 2.7 .7.7 .75) . we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p.and EO/. Sec. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 . E I . Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2. = Ps PE = P cos Pz.
Unfortunately. things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth.86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .76) . 2 J topo centric frame . A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .
7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .77) .73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . Therefore . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. Figure 2. 2 . It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . EB x f. (2 . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence".Sec.73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed.
5 Z (units are DU).6 1 2 .5 J . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.707 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.612 . Figure 2. 3535 .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . 300 N Lat . is 2 S E + . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 .612) r = R + P = 2S .707 o .1 = [.3535 . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . 5Z (Given) [).866 . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.E + 1 .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .
w) .78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. 2. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.9 1 81 + 2. 332J  . (2.4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x.7. v. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. y. We will denote this quantity by w. .982K .79) J.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. (2. z) system (Figure 2 . V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . y.75 ) . Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . rotating with respect to the (x. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . however.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . I =J =K=O.Sec. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time ... z). K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. The unit vectors D.
Hence . . Similarly. 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . The remaining terms of equation (2.79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U.1 0) reduces further to . . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . Hence . V = w x V and W = w x W . equation (2 .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) .7.1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA.7. equation (2 . .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .
1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q..71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector....75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA. 2 .... " F i xed " System ( x.1 2) .. dt R I (2 . .LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 .... . z) '. . ... v v. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u . Equation (2. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u.. ..... �:.y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ .. . .. W) Figure 2....7.....7.... y. ...Sec.
JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.7.7 .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest. Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .1 2) to the po sition vector r.where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .7 .7.7.9!.1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem. 2 iLl F = . (2 .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .1 3) into equation (2 .7 . Equation (2 .7. The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 . (2 .7. 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch ." Ioox.) .7.
however . in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. In the model which has been adopted. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. Therefore . Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . If the earth were perfectly spherical. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . ae . It is known .) 2. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. Sections parallel to the equator are . ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . 2 . The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. of course . that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. be' is just the polar radius of the earth.Sec. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . 2. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model.8. circles.
This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use .8. When you are given the latitude of a place . While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378.3 Station Coordinates.94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior.785 0. 2." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. Consider Figure 2. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter . The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field .8.1 . 2. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. it does complicate the concept of latitude. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude .8. the difference between L and is usually negligible .2 The Measurement of Latitude. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . 1 45 6356.08182 == km km L La L . it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .
!! o . 4 km Figure 2..." which is illustrated in Figure 2. / (2. 2 . L . c.8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 ..8 .Sec. 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � .82. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude . Thus. The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.82 .. O . the "reduced latitude .1 ) . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3.
0 O D. z .1:  (2 .82) .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But .. a2 . b e =a e V� = b2 + d.and e = da. 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L.. Ch . / . c:  0) x Figure 2. for any ellipse . I C.
8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . Thus. 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2. (2 .85) . 2 .Sec:. (2.8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse .
98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time . {1 ' is known .86) L.4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components.8 8) . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . From Figure 2. The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . 2 ( 2 . {1. (2 .8. sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude . If the Greenwich sidereal time . elevation above mean sea level. The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K.8 7) 2.
the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2.8. L.Sec ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time . If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 .84 shows a spherical earth. Although Figure 2." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) .89) . 2 . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t.3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site .
1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch .1 0) . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components. 2 j i Figure 2 . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth .8 . From (2 .
9 equation (2 . A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time .9. it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun .1 2) and a s ' a E .8. 2 . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. so . a Z If a l . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time .6. This should be made clear by F igure 2. It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . (2 . When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . 2.Sec.1 2) . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined .9 .1 .
2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 . So far. Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time .09054 mean solar seconds .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . when the earth is near perihelion.91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . In early January. it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical.
The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart .0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . This relationship is illustrated on page 99. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day.3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . if it . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O.9. A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . Universal Time (UT). Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. Thus.Sec. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. 2 .9. or Zulu (Z) time.2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . For example . 2. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour.is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 .) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . . Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also .
2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. 8 9=8 9 0 1 . it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. in addition.4 Precession of the Equinoxes.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. ° 229421 1. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. we express time in decimal fractions of a day. 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . Ephemeris and 2.9. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . m i n . .
the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 .. the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. so the lunarcaused precession has this same period.." with a perio d of 1 8 .. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . However ..z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 .6 year s .92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars.000 year s . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . the equatorial plane is not . The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . 2 . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. Due to the asphericity of the earth.. . 0 0 0 y rs " . The period of the precession is about 2 6. As the earth' s axis precesses. 6 yrs I Figure 2.Sec .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 .. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic. The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge.6 years.
74933340 = 1 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 .296 degrees west longitude . 25 8=8 g + A = .1 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account . 6 24 5 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator. What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown . at 0600 GMT.8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl .378km = 0 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. Day  = Long o 57 .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .6245 rad ians o 9 . 00 1 From section 2 . x= [ z= � ae + � .296° H = 6 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 .00 1 + L= 0 . 5 7 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included.
00 1 c o s(S.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .6971 + .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N. 0.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .From equation (2.346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.72) PE p Pz Ps = .7 1 SJ + OK Sec.6245 )1 + 1 .74) .88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .(0. 2 .346E + O. 00 1 (S.6245) = . Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.2D UES = (0.
(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .3.73 p + (O.232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .0588K) From equation (2 .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .061 .46 P =D1 .(0. 3. 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .84J .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.77) v = [� ] [ J 0.25 0.8 .73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.346E + l .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.866 0.4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .46 D U /T U (0. 0.346J + 1 .0 1 .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.0. 1 08 Ch .�� lO.610.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.0E + 1 .46S .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) . 46 = 0.1 .1 .73Z D U (T U r = 0.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .Ps = .1 .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .5 1 .433 .8 .7·5 ) From equation (2 .
W. Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . of course .3. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar).Sec.8J . but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . 2. well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . Ei.081 . 2 . As Baker S points out . Gibbs is. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p .0. EI . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . 1 01 Orbit through f 1 .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. Figure 2. may be lacking. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . and the orb it is uniquely determined. f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. k. Ai. p .
(2 . 1 04) (2 . we can show that : e ' f = p . then u sing (2 . (2 . 1 03) Cross (2. 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . 1 03) by f3 X r l . and the definition of a dot product . 1 08) .1 ) by (2 . 1 05) (2 . (2 .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section.5 4). 1 04) . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . 1 06) Multiply (2 . 1 0. equation ( 1 . 1 0. 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . 1 0.1 ) successively by fl .r 3 ) = 0 . Q and W. 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. 1 05 ) and (2 . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 .r. f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p.11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Dotting (2 . 2 fine scholar . 1 02) gives (2 .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. Notice that C2 may now be divided out. is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 .
1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . equation (2 . 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b .1 3) : (2 . 2 . 1 0. 1 09) D. 1 0. Since P. provided N .e .1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. 1 0. Therefore . 1 0. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. 1 0.(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . D = N P = O' N (2 .1 5) .Let the right side of (2 . (2. i. 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. (2 .1 4) (2 . (2 . 1 0. . N and D have the same dire ction. 1 0 pD = N . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system.1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 .
1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 . 1 0. Therefore. N and S vectors. D and S ve ctors.52) we can write i X h = p. ( f  r + e) . 1 0. Before solving the problem.1 8) to find Q.1 6) . to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. 1 0. and (2 .1 8) N (2 . (2 .1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 0. it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. (2 . since NeQ = pS.1 7) to find e. (2.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . N > o. Q and W are orthogonal. (2 . From equation ( 1 . However .r t ) f2 + ( rt .1 9) to find W.1 9) Since P.r2 ) f3 ] (2 .1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . 1 020) to find P. 1 0. 1 02 1 ) . 1 0. 1 020) Thus. 1 0. 1 0.1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. (2 . The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . Then use (2 . P = Q X W. 1 01 0) to find p.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . check N * O and D .
v = eP.h = P. b) c O . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . 1 025) . h X (h h ) v . D X r + JJ{. ON (2 .. 1 0.Sec . so c) b . v) h and h . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb.( a . 1 024) (2 . (h xr r = + (a .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . e) We can write h v v = . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP.E. = p. h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. 2 . Using the identity .(h ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 .
Form L = = 6.1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . N=FO. By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. This method . find v2 : 2. 4 . 2 L + LS (2 . Finally . The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . to find any of the three velocities directly . using the stated tests. appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. 1 02 6) Thus. 1 . Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . v2 � + L S r2 • . N and S vectors. O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. Test: 0 10 . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. proceed as follows : For example . This is not exactly true. possible two body orbit . = 0 for coplanar vectors.
97 . r 1 and r2 .039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . and S vectors: D= N S 1 . eccentricity. the semilatus rectum. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . Form the D . Since 010. N .5000K Find : P. period and the velocity vector at position two . 2 . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. P = 0= N  2. The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . 9701 = 2. r1 r2 r3 = 1 .000K = 0_700J .0471 O U = 0 ." Thus. Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.Sec.0774J 0. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. and the timeofflight between these po sitions.8000K = 0. 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar.0.9000J + 0.047 1 = .
.0804 e = = = 0 .657K D U /T U 2 0.497 9. then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 . 1r/{: 6.97 o lP = a = 1 .270J + 0. 700J . = .960 DU/T U (4.0. 0408 1 1 .67 TU (89.576J .963K N 1 . 2 S .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0. 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.270K W= N.1 .379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.0.963J .4 to solve for the elements.0.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .
so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. 1 1 2) r .:S :J: JS L K . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . L. ° 2 . (X1 ' < \ � . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. j = 1.7 2). [:i:n :: :.g .6 2 : 1 1 . r = pL [�. Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . = OJ + R j . If we let L .1 ) (2 . As a result . optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . 1 1 . 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. 3. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . then ' . In either case . (2 .Sec. Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . 2 . 2. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required.z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s .
/  L . • ' I . \' P2 i �� G ". p and r. 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. L. . \ •. �J 1  .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . • 00 . I . � . however . (2 . ' ' :. . R and R are known at time t2 . .[. : '< ' . ':. p. p. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = .1 . ..' ' " ': . are not known .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . say the middle ob servatio n . L.1  R ) r3 . \ [L.. the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns .... . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . The vectors L. \ Figure 2. \ . �� I 1 " _ . 0 (2 . f f. r u. 1 1 3) (2 .J V I . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P.
t 1 ) ( t3 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t 3 ( t 1 .t 1 ) ( t.t } ) (t 3 .Sec.t 3 ) L1 + 2t . 2 .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t3 ) (2 .t 3 ) L2 (2. t2 . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t 3 ) ( t } .t 1 ) (t 3 .t 2 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .t2 ) . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2. thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 3 ) (t.t 1 .t2 ) (t. 1 1 .three t�es. Since we have the value of L at.t3 ( t 2 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =. t2 and t3 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t2 L3 ( t 3 .t2 ) ( t} .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t 1 ) ( t2 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t2 ) ( t 1 . 1 1 6) + 2t . t } .t 1 . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t 1 ) ( t2 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t 2 ) + ( t 3 .
p.u R Ir3 J + ..u L /r 3 . p. it is evident that L Dp = . 1 1 5 ) .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule.ons (2 . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . + . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. however. 2 . For the time being. . p' and r. 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . I L . . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. LI . better yet . L J . must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. 1 1 6) and (2 . in fact ..u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract .u L 1 / r 3 L J + . that if more than three observations are available .. 4 Equation (2 . It should be noted. L K + . This. L L L K K K J . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns.L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + .u R Ir3 I + . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . L J I (2 .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . D reduces to L D =2 L I L .
. 1 1 . L K L J L I K (2. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2.. L J L I K J!. p and r. 1 1 .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . Then _ __ K I L J L L K I .1 0) and (2 . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. 1 1 . 1 1 .Sec . O O. Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. 1 1 2). From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 5). R J . R R . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. 2 . 1 1 . 1 1 . .1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. 0. R R I .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . 2 . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. . . 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . L K .1 0) into (2. J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2.L L L J K I p .1 1) Op = . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . If we do this we find that .1 2) . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. R .4 Solving for Velocity . is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. Substituting equation (2 .
1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. 1 1 . Laplace ' s method fails . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. (2 . As a matter of fact . a . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . El. ° 3 . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. E l . 1 1 .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . P. 1 1 . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. k.1 4) p 2. 2 (2 . 1 1 . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . a3 .2). such as P.1 3) for p. This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. ° . D.5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . 1 1 . 2 . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . To obtain the velocity vector . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 .
we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. p) will differ from the computed data. 1 Computing Residuals. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . Assuming that the residuals are small. For example . . It may happen . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. 2. however . Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . t3 .::"P 3 . A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit.Sec. . 1 2. The question then arises. 2 The Differential Correction equations. 1 21) . \ ' t2 .::"P 2 ' . of course. r K ' v " vJ . 2. Doppler rangerate.::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. v Kl at t = to are correct. The six residuals are �1 ' . t4 . "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes.g." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements.::"P . ts and t6 ' These predictions are . that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. 1 2. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e .
r l " v K )p1 ( r l . ap1 . i. Nj.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. The inversion of equations (2 . The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. NI . Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically.Vj' D.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc.) Then.VK . Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit .1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . D. rj .e. 1 2. reduce the residuals to zero . 1 2. V K ) . to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. D. usually 6 for orbit problems) n . In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. . . . by trial and error.VI . NK. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. equations (2 . however. 2. With the aid of a digital computer. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method. for example . New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations.. r K " ' arl D. 1 2 .
4.. Solve equation (2 . Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. use 0. for the exactly determined case (p or b. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . a and (3 are the elements (two here . 3 . A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M).W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . 2 . In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . called the root me an square (RMS) . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points.8 1 ) . since p 2 below) .. zero .tb each of the elements measured. . for 90% confidence . Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. 2 . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2.g . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. = = n) . minimum as described above .
17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2).2. the partial derivatives are : .j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . ex VI.:. Choo se ex and for the first estimates. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3.Assume equal confidence in all data. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations.
= [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 2.Sec. Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . Thus.
This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. 6 orbit elements) would be used. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. we will use a simple .474 Xi 3 . 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. In practice. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. yet still overspecified number of measurements. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. To illustrate the method involved. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch .360 = . large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence .474 and f3 = 3.
500 8.000 n = Vi 0._1.. aa . E ( V 1.828 0 0.007 0..1 26 0.Sec. 934 = 1 . 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l .474 4 0 07 19.000 1 9.866 4 x . ( V i Yi ) 2 4.y. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .000 50. 2 .865 49.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.0 01 1 3. . 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 . 3 .) 2 n . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.1.1 05 9. 969 ____  Vi .Vi 2. 474 x 3 . 0 35 3.
304 0.l Now using (2 . Thus (X new = . The second iteration yields: £::. 0.(X 26 3.027 12.360. so we iterate. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'. which is larger than what we started with.001 07 33 b = 0. {3 = {3 new .304 = ."""'" �T�� .031 8.2.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2. 1 961 0. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 ..z 10. 105.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .733. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .056 ""' T .039 £::.0.1. 27 A WA = [12.670 3.36 . 1 75 ] 5.474 + .1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .021 070 20. 0 18 0.380708 A = 40.3.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. = 3. 81 30 8. 1 96 = 3...4 1 69. 1 22) we have £::.062 .
5 8 2 . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. However. The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . and finally. during orbital decay. 2. 038 . however. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 .Sec . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0.500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth.4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. 2 . 1 2. which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3.735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally .5 8 1 .00 1 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . 038 [3 = 3 . in theory. 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how .000 . The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . 2 . the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . In practice . 7 35 x 3 .
In addition. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. 1 The Spacetrack System. 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). 1 3. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. These detection radars with a range of 2. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected.500 miles make about 1 2 . The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). forming "clouds" of space debris. antisatellite targeting.5 003. 2 . The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. the precomputed 2. spacecraft failure diagnosis. the White Sands Missile Range . and midcourse ICBM inter ception. At present.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 4 . 2 2. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. 1 Radar Sensors.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere.
There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. and is on active spacetrack alert. Turkey.s The prototype is located at Moorestown.Sec. is now on active Spacetrack alert. One of the earlier detection radars. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. the FPS43. Figure 2. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. while three are located at Clear. Alaska. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. 2. Greenland. One FPS49 . New Jersey. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir.
In addition. United Kingdom. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area.142. Alaska. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. under the 140ft radome at the left. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. This BMEWS station at Clear. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. 2 Figure 2. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. Alaska. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . The prototype located at Eglin AFB. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. Florida.
The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. When two or .143. 2.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2.Sec. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. 2.14. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB.2 Radio Interferometers.
In addition to these .3 Optical Sensors. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . 1 4 . but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. Canada . SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . 2 . Considering the type of observational data received. 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 .1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . is well established. the semimajor axis. each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. and therefore . Alberta. the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit.
14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. A separate optical system superimposes. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . and the lighting correct. seeing conditions must be good.400 miles.Sec. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. it is . Alberta. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. 2. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable.145. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. As a result. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages.
000 meters. it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. 4 Typical Sensor Errors. Doppler rangerat e info rmation. 2 . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . in any case . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression.) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . In any case . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. For detection radars. satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 .1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. on the other hand . Further . 1 4 . is relatively accurat e . New Mexico site. This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . Massachusett s . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . takes time. I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics.
more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated.Sec 2. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects.14. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. lunar attraction.7 seconds in time would remain.5 Future Developments. nonuniform gravitational fields.146. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. 2.
An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . Many improvements . the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. Now. It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . Theoretically . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . p. 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . a continuousw ave . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. howeve r . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . of the target . but it also record s target tracks for later playback . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. Operating in the SHF b and . In t he system under development .
2 .1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . 18cP  2 ..Sec. {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. 1 5 . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . 1 5 2 .. 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . 1 5 .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. 1 5 . 1 5 . o f the orbit . respectively with a launch a zimuth . F igure 2 . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. The arc CB which forms the • . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . i. Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination .
La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . betwe en 00 and 1 80° . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . therefore . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . L o?" If i is to be minimized . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . 2. f3 ' be easterly . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . 0 i.1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . A direct orbit require s . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . For a due east launch equat ion (2 .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . i : c os i = . . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . that the launch azimuth. this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator .e . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . 1 5 . 1 5 ·3 .
2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . su r face . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay .Sec. 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . Figure 2 . 2 . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . 1 5 . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n .
i = 90° .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. 2 EXERCISES 2 . = (partial answers : 2. What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy . 9 7 0 .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2.89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . e = . 885. Colorado ( 1 04.4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. Which takes longer .7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . J .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . Englan d . a solar day or sidereal day? b . = u nd ef i ned ) = .7071 + . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU.
) Determine p. 2 + b . (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . c . Determine the orbital e lements. Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. 82 u a .8 I J P = . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I .Ch. W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . 2.8 2075 . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . 1. 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . e.2K DU . . 3<. (Answer [partial] e = . OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . i .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system.
the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. Q. a.060668 8 3 1 .7 6) . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . U se of a computer is sugge sted .3 5 35 3995 0 1 . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. 1 7 1 . b . C alifornia . b . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . PST . b ut not nece ssary. p = 1 . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . W.4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . 2 . 6464495 a. 2. 2. Site longitude is 1 2 1 . equatorial .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . 1 0 2. 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW.4 1 4225 1 1 1 .4 1 4202 0. r3 r l I J K 1 .3 1 065 1 5 0. (Answer : r = 1 . LST = 63 . Units are earth canonical units.5 0 West . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis .system along the unit ve ctor s P. 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . r2 1 . 1 0 January 1 9 70. F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem.8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le .
C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.0 0 2 .Ch.0 1 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.0 0 .0 7 .9 1 420062 4 .89497 879 0. fl f2 f3 d. fl f2 f3 0 .0 2 .0 0 2 .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .97 0 1 .8 0 .1 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.9 1 42 3467 2 .7 0 0 e. fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.6 0.0 7 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .62 1 34384 c.2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.707 1 0 1 0 1 0.6 0.5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .94974 1 7 6 . fl f2 f3 3 . B .97 2 .8 0 0 .20709623 0 .0 1 .207 1 25 5 1 .094964 1 8 0.565 6808 1 0 0 .707 1 1 25 5 0.09497879 1 .0 2 .0 0 . 1 4  DU/TU.89497724 0 0 0 1 . DU * 2.5 65 6808 1 0.n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A . .2K with a velo city o f AI .
___ e.17 p 0.75 K D U /T U )  . v = 0.1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . d . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. Obj ect c. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d .0078 J 0. 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. * 2 . 2 a . ( A ns. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . Obj ect vernal equinox direction.620 1 I 0. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. 9 7 . b. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. . Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . Obj ect b . 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. east and zenith (up) component s? c. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . Express the coordinates.
C ambridge ." in The World of Math ematics . Dover Publications . 9 . Mass. "Space Traffic Surveillance .Ch. . L." Vol 48 . Paul G . Inc. Angus. Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. Simo n and S chuster . Pedro Ramon . Forest Ray . pp 1 08 . Jame s R . Navy Space Surveillance System. 4. 1 0 . 1 95 7 . Jr ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . No 6 . S . 1 962. 1 965 . E . New York . 1 9 66. Armitage . The M acmillan Company. 5 . 8 . NY . K. Carl Friedrich. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Thoma s.1 1 1 . 1 96 3 . Vol 3 . London . Moulton . E scobal. NY. Inc. A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . Academic Pre ss. New York and London . New York . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . G . Edmond Halley . 1 9 67 . 7 . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . John Wiley & Sons. New York . Telescope . "The A erospace Vehicle s . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . NY . Gauss. Space/A ero na utics . Sky Publishing Corp . Thomas Nelson and 3. 6. 2 . November 1 9 67 . Pierre Simo n . Sons Ltd . C leeto n . D avis . Baker . Newman . Robert M . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . Second Revised Edition . C . 1 95 6 . New York . 1 9 1 4. A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. Laplace . Henize . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . NY . U. "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera.
Briskman. 1 962. 17. No 5 . Cheetham. P. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. 1 967 . Air Force Systems Command. New York. NY. S. Gerald C. Inc. 1 4. California. and Eller. 2 1 1 . Davies. 1 962. 1 3 . Journal of Oct 2. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. 1 9 66. Bate. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. R." Satellite Control Facility.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Sunnyvale. SepOct 1 967. NY . . Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . 1 966. New York . NY. 1 966. NY. Roger R. Thomas J. 1 5 . 1 2 . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. p 39 . Carson. New York. Colorado. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. 1 6. 1 970." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. Vo1 40." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Electronic . R." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. USAF Academy. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. "Future Radar Developments. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. McGrawHill. Robert D ." The Vol 1 4. No 20 . the A stronautical Sciences. New York.
according to their different velocity. as of 5 . and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. ) 00 . Goddard. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. After that . Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . those bodies. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. or variously eccentric. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. 1 . the idea seems to have been forgotten. 1 0. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time .000 or more miles. and the different force of gravity in different heights.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. for the next 250 years.
to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . 3 . has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . Manned spaceflight . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . 1 . However. was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. 3 . The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. Rather . On 4 October 1 95 7 . since it contemplated the use of military hardware . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. still in its infancy . particularly if it is manned . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I .research. After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . Project Orbiter. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top .
. YEAR a YEARS .EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr.... I MONTH I . . . mJ77/1/.25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" .(/} � � (I) E � � .....::: 0(I) "" 20 10 ... VI/II � V � .. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .. � . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 .. 71.. � ee..V'h WillI e: � . 20K (. ..J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .H O URS WEEK . (I) CD � .: fiD It: 0 It: <t ....J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E .50K �. .n w . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N .' � S' (1) 0 .///11// ... � '" .J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl . . c. .rrrj. 11 L .+ :=..rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION ..
stated. 3 . 1 . Figure 3 . 1 ·2 . m . Figure 3 . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . 1 . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. m . m . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . a p ogee 1 00 n . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth.1 shows the limits imposed by drag . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit.
The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . 1 3 . The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. 3 ..or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. as you can see from Figure 3 . The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition.Sec. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. 1 2 . The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. The vehicle is not allowed to coast . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for.
1 5 . 1 . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. As a result. its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. 3 . You . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. therefore. Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . Figure 3 . Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude.
9 r�=r�rr.5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t..2 ..Sec.D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�. "::> Figure 3 . 3 .J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.."� ill Q rn o I � fS . 1 > .�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+. 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N ..���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .
1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch . I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: ..J 5 "' C iii 0. "' "' . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0. 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 ..
The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits.6. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . 3 . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 .67 0 /day From Figure 3 . What is the inclination of the orbit? b.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. a.40 and 1 1 6. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . Figure 3 . and oppo. 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits.60 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . With this perturbation . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle.Sec. completing one revolution every 90 days. The ascending node moves to the west . Therefore = .Q 360 ° per 90 days :. 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . which also is due to oblateness. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit.6 0 .40 or greater than 1 1 6.
The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame .2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . 1 2 this would be 2*. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). 3 . On the scale of Figure 3 . The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . 1 . It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. This is. This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite.6 earth radii above the surface . The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious.21 shows why. unfortunately. not the case . Of course. The first stage booster climbs 3 . unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude.2. Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. however. ground trace of a synchronous satellite. This.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .300 nm or about 5 .000 nm altitude . of course. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. 1 The Synchronous Satellite. There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. 3 . 3 Figure 3 . 2 . If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. Figure 3. for example .inches from the surface.
reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more. Dot ted grou nd trace .. intervals . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr.. the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit. curve is \ " " . 3..2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm .Sec.22 Ascent ellipse . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 .� � Figure 3 . burn """ " " . At apogee of the ascent ellipse. .21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit..... .
Usually this is not serious. /:.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height.v (3. and flightpath angle. dv. 3 . a? v. (3. as they are called .3 . for some other reason. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if.33) or = da 2a2 vdv . speed.31) If we solve for '. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. we get a change in .34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed.. 2vdv . We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. (3 . In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. = _ r 2a .  fJ. a very precise orbit is required. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . fJ. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. at appropriate points in the orbit.da a2 = fJ. but . we get (3 . This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis.32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction .
of the orbit given by equation (3 . to the large orbit. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. 3 . For example .34) for small but finite 6. whose radius is r2 .V v P P (3.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. a2 6." 3 . 3 . 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height.h a �  da. along the transfer ellipse.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. Since the major axis is 2a. The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3.1 . a 6. 4 Jl.semimajor axis. Similarly.v) .34). suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. 2 The Hohmann Transfer. whose radius is rl . called Hohmann transfer orbits.3. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. therefore . the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . Since we know r l . We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit .
3 the transfer orbit. its speed is . &.31 (3.37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3. (3. 2at Figure 3 .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. since p.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch .t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3.36) = r i + r2 =  and.31 &./2 a .
The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion .1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. & t = � = .3. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . ra = 3 DU. I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. 3 I N. 3 . i n our example .1 0) (3 . the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU.V implies a Hohmann transfer . Find the minimum /::. Minimum rp = 2 DU. to VI ' So .3.Sec. For the transfer traj ectory.V required to double the altitude of the satellite . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Although. .39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one .
068 D U/TU V cs =.VTOT == .V2 = .JfF"= . Figure 3.3. Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.V1 = . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.346 ft/sec 3 .313) . I::. 3 V cs 1 = (il = .32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.707 DU /TU vi r.3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.� r 1 1 +e p p (3.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .061 DU/TU I::.3. We can express this condition mathematically as r = . I t is obvious from Figure 3 .32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .
(3. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits.3. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3.1 4) (3. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . I &. / 2a .1 5) .3. we can compute the energy.Sec. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area. To satisfy both conditions. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits.33) and interpret them graphically. p p (p. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. in the transfer orbit.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. �. respectively . p p p  = . 3 . and the angular momentum. Knowing and e. ht.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits.
p r2..39) The angle between v1 and va. . Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit . 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.1 is just the flightpath angle .1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . its speed is (3 . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>. __ Figure 3. we get (3.33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r .34 /::.v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.
4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ". ¢l ' is zero.1 'I' . Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . more simply.3. (3 . 3.V using the law of cosines.V required. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . We can solve for the magnitude of b. or it can rotate the line of apsides. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered .41 .3.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. Or. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3.1 . it is not surprising that equation (3 . (3. b. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b.V. the b.V. This is called a simple plane change.34. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit.310) when the flightpath angle . and obtain directly for circular orbits. b. form an isosceles vector triangle. assuming that we know v and e.31 6) Now. b.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the .4. 3 . e. after applying a finite b.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. 1 Simple Plane Change . as shown at the right of Figure 3 . 4 . together with the b. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape .V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion.41) 3. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side .V. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and.Sec. A velocity change .1 7) reduces to equation (3. If.
41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). EXAMPLE PROBLEM . A plane change of 60 0 . Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . Determine the total b. Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized.V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . makes b. If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. 3 Figure 3 . a. DU circular orbit. Therefore .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .vrequired to accomplish the mission.1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . for example . calculate the additional b. . The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . b .
953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L. The given information is: h I = 0. Therefore at = r2 . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( . 1 +� 1 .Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . .0.1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.953 DU/TU L.__ = . & t = = �= .Sec. DU 2 1 Hence .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.Vl = V l . I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis..1 = \1'1 . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.V l 1 . 3.1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.618 = 1 .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) .270.
V22 v.387 DU/TU = 1 0.3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .2(.4) (.(0.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 . 1 5 DU/TU 6. v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0. 447)(.447) (. 3 and we must use equation (3. + v�s2. 31 7 + .= 0 .4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.704 DU/TU 18.2 .626) = 0 .V2 = y'l'5= 0. 3 87 .317) to determine 6.447 DU/TU 2 1 .626 vcs2 = V't.253 ft/sec .626) = 0.V2 . 4 . 2 + 0. 6. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .042 ft/sec Therefore v = .447) 0.
1 ) t:::.078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( . 3.V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .447 ) ( . F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .4.0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .Sec.
What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . a. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. 1 1 DU and e = 0.5 b.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . What is the minimum 6. Ch . 0 . 3 EXERCISES 3 .449 DU/TU) 3. (Ans.5 DU/TU. a plane change or an orbit transfer. a = 2. i. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.21 .76.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU.2 Calculate the total 6. r p = 1 DU e = 0. 3.e. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 .2 DU and 4 DU respectively.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. i changedall other parameters remained the same. 3 .1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . c. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b.4 Refer to Figure 3 .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of . 0.5 DU .
This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. 8 Compute the minimum I::.56 c.v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. 5 & Design a satellite . 9 Calculate the total l::. = 0.412 5 3 . 1 0 Note that in problem 3 .Ch . 34DU2 (fU d. 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . (Ans.3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . using Hohmann transfers. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit .9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode .1 DU 8 1 = 0. 95 DU 8 = 0. * 3 .7 3 . P = 1. . 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . C ompare this with the I::. 0 . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . The . 3 . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode .
1 July 1 965 . Newton . Berkeley and Los Angeles. V2 . 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . 1 96 1 . Ley. Walter . Robert M . Air Force Systems Command . . New York . University of California Press. NY. 5 . Makemson. Vol 2. DC . and Space Travel. Willy. New York and London . 1 95 5 . The Viking Press. L. Principia. Missiles. 1 962. Space Planners Guide. Baker. A cademic Pre'ss. Dornberger. Sir Isaac. The Viking Press. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. NY .1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 1 9 60.. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. 2nd revised ed. Headquarters. Washington . 4 . New York . and Maud W. 3 . Rockets. 1 .
. or perhaps usurping them . . . was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. presupposed the solution of the first. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. of the heirs. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. This was Kepler 's first great problem. Albert Einstein ! 4 . the determination of the true movement of the planets. .CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . including the earth . who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. . by taking the observations under my care . . I quickly took advantage of the absence..2 1 77 . the solution of the second problem. . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. or lack of circumspection. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations.
subterfuges. Thus. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. we not only forgive them. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. . 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 .1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the ." Kepler points out in his Preface.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. 1 . When Christopher Columbus. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. "What matters to me. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. I + . and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. whole grand entertainment would be lost. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . . detour. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. but above all to convey to him the reasons.
yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. for now we are going to invade your territory. Moreover. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . almost with masochistic delight." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. . he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. that. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. prick your ears. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. perihelion and aphelion. as it were. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. . however. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. His results. But then without a word of transition. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. without benefit of any preconceived notions. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. never noticing his error. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed .Sec 4. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. with the warning: "Ye physicists. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . again incorrectly .
2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. " Finally.2 Finally.. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval.. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. . as I shall prove further down . he settled on the oval. 4 Figure 4 . a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. He had . He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. . the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e .
.y it should move in an orbit at all.. which I had rejected . The climax to this comedy of errors. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. until I went nearly mad. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. but he did not know how. along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·.and chased away. have persisted to this day. are one and the same . in a moment of despair. In this chapter we will. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end.. . mine] . Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. . Ah. 4. return e d by stealth through the backdoor. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses.. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. .: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. whereas the two . but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. disguising itself to be accepted.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. came when. . That is to say. made a mistake in geometry.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . . Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. You: are . and velocity and the timeofflight. time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. . : .Sec 4. de rive the .2 T I M EO F .' " . .F L I G HT . I thought and searched. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . . believing that this was a quite different .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits .e . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. hypothesis. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position .
. say from periapsis to some general point. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. (4. i.2.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY . 4 existed . 4.21 Area swept out by r .1 ) i s the area � .e . The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. where the true anomaly is v . using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . 7T a b .l . The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4.2. In going part way around an orbit. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use . A ' in Figure 4. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4.1 ) .. ''"'''"'. We will pursue a lengthier.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''.2 .2.A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . P. but more motivated.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 .. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments..
From analytical geometry.l. \/2 a2 _ . A dotted line .F L I G HT . 2 T i M EO F . the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . 22 Eccentric anomaly. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . E E Circle : .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse.Z x2 + .Sec 4 . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. perpendicular to the major axis.
Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 .a E) . It Tollows directly from equation (4. oos E and whose (4.�rea PSV minus the dotted area. it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis.23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V .22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . . A2 .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 4 Hence .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) .
whose base is (a CDS E). cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.27) (4. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). and whose altitude is (a si n E ). to its corresponding true anomaly.24).2 . v." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E . in order to use equation (4.we get � ( E . E.Sec 4.e sin E (4.E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .2 T I M EO F .1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' . minus the triangle .e si n Ai yields E) .26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally.F L I G H T .22.27) reduces to (4.e si n E (4. Kepler introduced the definition M = It ." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion. From Figure 4. substituting into equation (4.25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.24) E .T = 4 ( E .e si n E ) I (4. Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.28) . Obviously .
The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane . In general we can say that t  to = 4. At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically. In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a .24 left).T o ) .( Eo  E) (4. when v is between o and n. 4 E E. Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.T) .( t o .24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.T) .(to .29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.[ 2kn + (E .24 right. If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .to = lP (t . E Figure 4 .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4.T ) . + t .e Sin . from Figure 4.28). we can say that t . so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .to = ( t .
2 T I M EO F.2.1 3) (4.8 E ) dE (4. From equation (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.21 2).2. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .21 6) V 1 .8 si n E ) V r .2.2.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.2.Sec 4.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.+ COS (4.2.J1=82 d E (4.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4. From equations in section 1 .82 f: ( 1 .1 2) (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .7 .82 ( E .F L I G H T .1 1 ) easily integrable . .2.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
4. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . (4 .42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e . ( 1 .47) has been used to eliminate z. But now we have a problem.4 4. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given.1 3) ro va v t" . From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . since equation (4.1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. a trialanderror solution is indicated. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . Therefore .4. 4. Equation (4 . 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa.2 Solving for x When Time is Known .Sec 4. a. Fortunately .1 2) is transcendental in x. va' a and the trial value of x. Figure 4.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. In one sense .4.
1 = x 2 C + x . it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. the iteration may be terminated. and A and B are not colinear. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . B and C are coplanar vectors.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q.32). 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .3 The f and 9 Expressions. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point. xn . we must then calculate the corresponding and v. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. With x known.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.4. 4 .4.41 9) . 1 dt r (4.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . (4.41 6) dx x . Thus A. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 .42. Substituting for r in equation (4. the four vectors fO ' (4.4.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y .1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.
x. the left side of the O .1 9) gives Sec 4 . First. g . We can isolate the scalar . g . equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q.4. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 . if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity.4.. = fg. f.1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h . We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates... t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities. f and g.420) This equation shows that f .1 8) into equation (4.4.. Crossing equation (4. g. we will derive an interesting relationship between f.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w ... however.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4.where f.. in equation (4.. f and 9 are not independent.. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .
4. 4 h (4.425) Combining equations (4.w o Yw h (4. o . yw x .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.34) and (4. x + Co cos v = .e2 )  r . From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw . .423) (4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4. (4. Xw .1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.4. (4.E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .426) . ) .X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .42 1 ) We can isolate (4. x wYw . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x. .425).4.a l e + Sln Y.
e quation (4.43 0) f (4.. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C ..42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4.426) through (4 ..43 0) 0 1 f C a = ...429) into equation (4...sin r  � (4. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4.. r... 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.(e sin � + cos � ). x =� cos x + c r .426) and (4.Va • W .429) Substituting equations (4. (4.32). ro ro .427) and using the definition of the universal variable .428) yw ..a Va 2 = 1 9. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4.1 ) ..Sec 4 ...43 1 ) . e quation (4. x + co h = .a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum. x = 0 at t = o .42 1 ) c /Ii. ro .4.a  mitions of z. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .
202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY . � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4. r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 ...4.433) (4. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .1 ) and (4 .4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .436) ..32) (4.4. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .435) (4.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.4·3) � r o .] � a .1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.
Also. 4 . can be used.4.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. Si n va = Va =  c o s .4 .e E).43 5) and (4. 5 . Note also that if were not zero . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . the expression (t would replace 4 . 1 .1 ) Va = _ E . its definition. x + Co cos [ � . 1 The Physical Significance of and z. solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme .1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit .x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . Va x (4. 2 . Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4.434) .4. 3 . then compute v from equation (4. then compute r and r from equation (4 . if we are going to use equation (4. in any of the equations where z appears. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4.[ i + x + c 0 ] Va .420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter.4. note that equation (4.1 8). Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z.1 9) .43 6) . but we have not said what and z represent. la .34) (4.43 1 ) and (4.5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. to 4. Obviously . 5 .Sec 4.4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. 4 . Given (usually is assumed to b e zero). From and determine r and a.
therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12. a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x . we get x= D . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .53) Subtracting equation (4. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f.E o l . we can conclude that = V'ii I F . 5 ·1) at time x = 0.7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r. so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .4.Do .3 4) and (4.5 4) (4. (4 .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4. (4 .53) from (4 .52) whenever is negative .57) . 1 (4.F 0 1  Va I E .1 3) .56) la.204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . (4 .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �). To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE. + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .
1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4. In computing the semimaj or axis. so Sec 4. 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. Therefore .5 9) . I z = I F .8) Figure 4 .5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . a.F a ) '· z is zero.to 4 .5.when z is positive . If imaginary. 5 . 5 . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.
. In the case of elliptical orbits.. we get for elliptical orbits.P)/ 2. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. since X = foE.e .cosh .5. so S � V0r eFz 2 .:z.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . with £X. / ( .. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X.ji11.All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. C = 1 . and . 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n.5 . if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value.. .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z . a = ± x 3 . is large. Furthermore .a � eFz ± 2x 3 .v y� ( . z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 . ( t a to) . can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result.. Use this for a first guess .6F. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. wherever it occu rs.. When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. then Z will be a large negative number . so s i n h fi ..fZi3 = q .a vG ) . convergence will be extremely rapid.
t o ) � ( 1 .t o ) Fa . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t . vice versa .Q) eV La 2J.r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.a . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) . 5 .t o ) 2x 3 � + t .t o ) #a ( 1 ] . where appropriate ..1 1 ) . X will be positive and .tohATci ( l .r:z .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.t o ) sign (t . 4 .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4. Therefore. The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.sign (t . Thu s . 5 .to is positive.tJ is positive . so Sec 4 . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the .L ( t . we get � S . Anytime t .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before. for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z. recognizing that X will be positive when (t .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .5. .sign in the above expression .£. n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .t o ) x ::::: sign (t .a eFz sign ( t .
.1 1 ) as But i v:z . use equations (4. use equations (4.1 3).5.4.. z cos i � .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive. (4.B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.1 3) COS . 1 .5. = Similarly. we can write equation (4. 4 (4 .1 2) and (4 .s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .4.4. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S. s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 . so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .cosh .". The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.4.1 0) and (4.1 0) (4.1 1 ) We can write equation (4. Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S . If z is near zero .4.(1  .Ji .5.1 1 ) .7! + ..1 0) as C where = i C = .0 6 + . . if z is negative .5. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .4.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 . w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz.s i n i V} = i si n i B .
.5.. 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .5. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .. . (611)2 etc. . The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 .1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity . 0 . 0 'j (4.Ji! + Ji!.5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z ...1 4) ·· 1 .. Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 .� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4..+ .Sec 4. (4Ir) 2 .
c o s y!? 3 ( VZ.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . Find r.[i) z ] (4 . 4 functions .s i n z dz 2z [ 0. 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin .5 . 1 .3S ) .( 1 . r a . dC /d z and dS /d z .2C ) . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . t=2 T U9 ra = I. va > � a= :l = 1 .[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves. I dS = _ ( C . Differentiating the definition of C.1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM. it is not surprising that the derivatives.1 6) Differentiating the definition of S .266  . and v at = t=2 T U . va = Therefore & = 1. we get I � = fz.)] P (4. 39 5 . Given ra = I D U va = 1 .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. 2& .5.zS . 1 K .
24 1 = 1 .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .4. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .007 2..82 1 1 .8 1 6 1 . solving for t ..t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.1 .821 1 .222 1 .1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 ...8 1 6 1 .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4. 705 . we can make a 2 __ = 1 . we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places. 2 2 x 3 ' etc. 58+.279 1 .t o x_ 21Tya lP :.222 = 1 .973 a Using equation (4.. X l Zl y"""a6E or x .4. using a slide rule .8 1 6 x n+1 . 1 .58 1 .222 Repeating the process.Since x = and .277 dXn 1 . 58+ . y'ii"(t .58 1 .12.1 4) and (4. tn toward t = ZTU. Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.58) 2 1 .000 1 .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.t.705 2 . xn tn fit After three iterations.8 2 1 1 .1 .266 ( 1 ..
Finally. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit.. But .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. v. since e = 1 . g = 1 . we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4.8801 Ch .2. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D.6. 4 4. 236K g.. we will derive expressions for xw .0.1 7).6 .2) . for the parabola. f = 0.6.. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . as D = v'P tan � 2 . Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum.6. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. (4.32 1 1 + 1 . 1 24. yw and r in terms of D. f. 880 1 1 . E and F. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. r = _.321 .1 ) From Figure 4. f = 0. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. E or F.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. D. g.JPt::. 4. E and F.1 we can see that X w = r cos v .. and 9 = 0. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly .Then from the definitions of f. But first some useful identities will be presented.
the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.Sec 4 .63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.6.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.1 ) .65) .1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . (4.61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos . r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .
w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known.J7!.62 Perifocal components of r .62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system.6. Using r • r = and equation (2. For the eccentric anomaly .s i n p v = ffp ta n v . r • v. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. in Figure 4 . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown.66) v . 4 rr. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.1 ) . (4. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .
we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .6. e illS E we get another useful  �. (4.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .8) and simplifying. yw Just as we did for the parabola.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. (4. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .62. we can say that I yw = Q.Sec 4 .67) (a si n E ) a But . we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) .67) and (4 .24) .1 0) e sin E also.6. M  (4. I Substituting from equations (4.
relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly..216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E. when F is a real number . is given by e si n rr = r = $a . solving this equation for • v . when E is a real number. e cos E from equation (4.6. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E . v.:.!.1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation.6.e Si n r E Finally .1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4..6. F is imaginary. E is imaginary .1 3) .. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4. The . 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.. we obtain E = .22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4.1 0) .6..
Il a •v (4.6. r. 6. 6.  But i si n iF = si n h F.1 8) . may be written as (4. The rectangular components of a general position vector.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4. Similarly.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v .2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.e ) . 4.6 .63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system.range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. so (4. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning. Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. But l cos i F = cosh F . From equation (4. In Figure 4 . Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic. so Yw = a � sinh F.61 6) r e cosh F = 1.6.67) we can write Sec 4 .el = a (cos i F .e) .1 4) Xw = a(rosh F .1).a r  (4. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E . 6.
( . so 1 � L (I .x".. 62 1) (4..p ..c os I 9 ' = v'f. 623) .. 626) . r0 · = 1 ..: o s /:. Figure 4..625) (4.P ( 1 .1 ..vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf .._ c��V P IW (4.6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4. 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:..218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y .42 1 ) . .. we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = .V _ 2 1 . where tv = v ..A F U N CT I O N O F T.JiLP.I M E Ch .624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . tan p /:. V.:. 4 +.. . the rectangular components of the velocity vector . and note that h = . are yw = r sin v (4.ji! sin v p (4.c o s tv ) (4..63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .V. (4.
e2 ) v.6. Similarly.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .e 2 ) cos E . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .( L'!.E) 9 r _ 0 j.a ( 1 . From equations (4. E rr .63 1 ) (4.1 0).E ) f = .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4. (4.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .!Ji8 sin L'!.4.� ( 1 . 629) f = 1 . the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.e) v! fJa( l .e cos E o ) .E ) .a E sin E . using equation (4.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o . = . Thus Xw Sec 4..6.cos L'!.67) and (4.sin L'!.6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .e2 ).Ji!.to ) . 627) But. we get f = a( cos E .63 2) .I Jlla sin E.68) . o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .e2 ) = 1.E . yw 9 and (t . (4. r (4.cos L'!.1 (4.6.63 0) (4.
(1 E ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself. ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true. cosh 6F ) .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .26) Even though equation (4.t o ) . and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .6F ) .634) (4. .2 6) is one equation in one unknown .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 .63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.  E. Kepler himself realized this.6.to) . (4. of course .8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) .63 6) 4. (4. from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .2k7T + M o .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm. � V a3 ( t . 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it. In classical terms. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E . The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia . M can be obtained from = (4..220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch .
E n+ l E + M . E It would.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. compute the mean anomaly. M n .64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y .63 7) Now. that results from this trial value . � Figure 4. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. select a new trial value.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4.Sec 4 . we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. of course . but this is not very accurate. ' (4.638) n dM/d E I E=E n .
Determine f and V from equations (4. Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. It can be used for LW or�E . p and va· 2 .t ' are given. however. equation (4. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. e. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. even when e is nearly 1 .1 9).4. va and the timeofflight.4 0) EXERCISES 4. d M = 1 e cos E . e.2.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . dE Therefore.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. 3 .6.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. Solve for V if needed.1 8) and (4. Once E i s determined by any method. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. From fa and va determine r 0' a. where d M / d E l E = En En.1 2) .when e is nearly 1 . 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.  . 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 .e cos En (4.5 + . The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . t .4. 5. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. 1 .M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating.5 cos V DU . Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. 4 . 2.
V = 3481 . x.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse.4 If. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. 4. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. find the universal variable. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting.348J +  1 .. (partial Ans.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. i.e. 625) .3 Given l:J) = ffP. glven fO' vO' and t. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. f = 4 .5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. Find the values of f.6 For the data given in problem 4. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. corresponding to l:J) of 600• . in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. Explain why this must be so .3. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P.85 TU) 4. (Ans. how should the area of search for x be limited. find r and v for . TOF = 5.Ch .
Le. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . if X == x (t ) . an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. Develop.73 TV) 4. and give your analytic reasoning behind.5 . e = .9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. g. 4 . 7 The text.1 1). what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. Va and t .5 DU. then .22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. 4 . e = . Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . (Ans.51 0) and (4. with a perigee above the north pole. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. Va and w and will solve for f.10 rp 4 . TOF = 2.99).. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. 1 1 For problem 4. 4 4 . 2. Do the same for problem 4. 1 0. 5 DU.to and solve for f and v. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. in equations (4. ra == 2. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . == 1 . 9 At burnout. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. 5. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. f and g. 4 .
. Philosophical Library. 4 . 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. The Macmillan 3 . Guidance . 1 964. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. 2.43 5) and (4.. = .. 4. Stahlman. LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . f and 9 in terms of (t . NY. o 4 . Small. equation (4. 4. Albert. The University of Wisconsin Press. Kepler. See equations (4.E. Richard H. 1 95 9 .r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4.6 TU) . r. New York. Wise. r3 fJ. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . Battin.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch .1 8). Einstein. 2. NY.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t .. Company.43 6). L'. . A New York. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company.. Koestler. NY.0 + .2 .16 * 4. 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f. Madison. Arthur. New York. Robert. 1 95 1 . A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters.( t . 1 7 Derive the expression for g . g.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � .630) through (4.I:!:. 63 2). 1 963 . The Sleepwalkers.
Vol 70. pp 1 08. 1 965 . W. 8. Vol 3 1 . "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. Bate. Stumpff. California. 7.1 79." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. F . Forest Ray. 1 9 1 2 . K. . J. A n Introduction York." A stron. 1 9 1 4. Moulton. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. H . "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. 1 965. J. Redondo Beach." A stron." A cta Vol 36. and 1.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . S. 1 947. 9. pp 1 05 . "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem.1 28 . 1 96 1 . Goodyear. Sperling." ARS 1. The MacMillan Company. W . . Unpublished notes. 1 965. Roger R.1 92. 1 1 ." A str. pp 3093 1 5. K. H.ach. H. "Universal Variables. pp 1 89. Vol 275 . Lemmon. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. W. N. Mathmatica. pp 66066 1 . 1 2. Brooks. to Celestial Mechanics. Sundrnan. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. E. United States Air Force Academy . Vol 70. 4 5 . Herrick. New 6. 1 0.
a 24yearold German mathematician.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . in the first year of the 1 9th century. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. Uranus. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. 227 5. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. But. in 1 7 8 1 . But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray..
the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . exactly 1 year later. no less."the Gauss problem.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Hegel asserted. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . no more . Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. but for a different reason. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. 5. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. Because of its importance. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. and for convenience in referring to it later. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before .2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. and the direction of . l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. If they paid some attention to philosophy . precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. The object turned out to be Ceres. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets.
The relationship between the four vectors f l .... p. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . Sec .1 .. the orbit is a degenerate conic. It is not surprising.". particularly if the parameter. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. ." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. or the "long way.21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 ." through an angular change greater than 7r. / I I I I I Figure 5 .. If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r).SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ . that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations... the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. appears in the denominator of any expression.motion. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. Obviously . 2. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . / . . If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. 5 . therefore. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion..
23) Actually.24) Si n �E (5 . (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary ..cos �v) = 1 .. (5 .sin �E ) � JJ.( 1 . Consider equations (5 . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f. 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . what we have is three equations in three unknowns. f.23).( 1 . a or �E.25 ) (5 . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature.cos �V .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si.26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 .cos �E ) f = 1 . p. p.. From equation (5 .. There are seven variablesf1 .cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 .230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . a 9 = 1 . g.1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f.( 1 .22) r2 a ( 1 . Test the result by solving equation (5 .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . f and g. so 2 . a and �E.24) arid (5 . g. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. r . We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . r2 P p rI . Use equations (5. but the first four are known. (5 . bv .y'ii8 .2. 2. a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p.1 ) (5 .27) and (5 . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E .cos �E ) . t. 2. 3. the solut �on to . 27) . 23) and (5 . (5 .25).
= 1 . and would enable us to use the universal variables. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who .Sec. 5 . we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. This last step is perhaps the most important of all.c x2 y. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 .1 ) (5 . let's write the expressions for f. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4.:t x3 S. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. In each case .cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. p. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. x and z. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. introduced in Chapter 4. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. however. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable.3 2) . 3 . adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work.. g .( 1 . { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. a and L'£ or 6F. r1 (5 . Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value.
39) . ( 1 .j A equation (5 .viI x ( 1 zS) \ . 1 .31 ).v) (5 .( c o s b...33)  (5.. A y= .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.33) and cancelling vwp from both sides. p r1 j .232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 . P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b.A .V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable..v y.jE: .. as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.v ) 1 c o s b.1I 1 � . ( 1 c o s b..38) y.v) • 9 = = IE.35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .v (5 .. we get r 1 r 2 (1 ..( 1 c o s b. we obtain A.c o s b.36) may be written (5 . rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 . yields X C.i n b. 5 X2 (5 .37) I y = r 1 + r2 .
From equations (5 .. y.35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 .34). 5 .31 5) (5 . by using equations (5 .".qr::oo .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .r I (5 .31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . A. and the auxiliary variable .=1' Ig =r2 =.1 ).1 0) (5 .31 7) . (5 . so that (5 . 3. the last term of this expression may be simplified.: r I .32) and (5 . we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 . thi 't "p. can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .1 6) (5 . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 .LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ.3.ff.37 ) and (5 .3.Sec.420).31 3) (5 . 3. rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 . I" � \ ·1 fr .38).1 4) 1 The velocity. 32). +.3. 3 We can also express X in equation (5 . . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .on simplllw. we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.
39). 5. Since z = . 4. 5. If it is not nearly the same . Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 .31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. 6. Pick a trial value for z.1 1).dz dz dz 2yy dz . Determine the auxiliary variable.P . such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. Although any iterative scheme .31 9) . 5 1 .S + X 3 _ + .3 . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z.31 3).= 3 x 2 . 2 .31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.31 5).4.1 0) and (4. necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 .0.31 8) ( ) (5 . 7 . this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .1 4) and (5 . The derivative. The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 . 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section.37).31 6) and (5 . 3. a Newton iteration. dt / dz. 9 and 9 from equations (5 .31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 .1 0) . from equation (5 . Determine x from equation (5 .3. (5 ." evaluate the I 2 constant.31 7). y. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .0.4. When the method has converged to a solution. A. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained.E2 and z = .1 2) (5 . Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5. 3. then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. using equation (5 . From f ' f and the "direction of motion. which converges more rapidly. evaluate t.3.
5 .=  dS (C . we get ( 1 . i n section 4 .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 .Sec. .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .320) (5 .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 . 3 .32 1 )  . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 . we showed that y. 5 .39) for dy = dz  But.z S) dS _ .
There is only one path for a given direction of motion. These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 . 51 r2 = 1. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .1 0) and (4. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z.7K DU. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit).325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .v) . ill rl .41 1 ).322) into equation (5 . determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two . equations (4.319) and (5 .+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .OK DU. we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.01 + + O.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.318). Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. 5 so.  (5 .323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 .4." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.6J + 0. "direction of motion": rl =0. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM.326) .320) and (5 .+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0.324) _  (5 . Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S. Using universal variables. D M � si g n (1T L'>.
3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = . from equations (4.Sec.0.CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = . 28406 ( __ = 3 . 0000 + 1 .. 327) r1 = 1 .3 : Step 1 : LW (5 .321 radians Using (5 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 . A A l ong way =1 .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T). I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (. 5 .6V short way = 5.0488008482 OU r2 = 1 .5. a convenient form of equation (5 . 86474323 = 1 . 23287446 yT12 vm .37) does when .1 .1 4) and (4.6V > 1T).327). Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . 0488088482 + 1 .1 5) . For ease of numerical solutions.28406 ( __ ) = 0 .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . 0488088482 + 1 .6V is small.39). 0000 1 .28406 = 1 .962 radians LW long way = 21T . 5 .
so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration.86474323 = 1 . Y l o ng = 3. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 ..23287446 0. 0432z = 1 3.. Step 5: Using equation (5 . X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : ..23287446 t l o ng = 0.28406 y'3.0 we do not normalize.3..444689 m 0. the desired time o f flight is : .672625 1 6 TU + through 6..9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off..238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch ..86474323 2. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 .28406 y'0. from the given data.489482706 (6") . 1 .68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.. (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.780 1 9540 1 /2 0.1 0). 1 3 min = 0445 z ..3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .
5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .t solved .554824 D U /T U f = 3.6 1 856634 = 0.28406 Y = 0.79852734 v2 = 1 . W e have : � 104 (within 0.36 1 677491 + 0.1 5).Sec. 7499473 9 t = 0.02234 1 8 1 1 .28406 Y = 4.3.0.5544 1 39777J 0.314).250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.63049 1 80961 1 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.1 3).5288 97 1 4 = 2.0.989794 D U/TU 0.94746230 A = 1 .83073807 v 2 = 1 .3.76973587J .96670788 z = x 0.t .9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3. 1 7866539741 + 1 .4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.60 1 874421 .3 . 74994739 VI = 0.31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .662242 1 3 A = · 1 .8826885334K v2 = 0. 1 1 39209665J  0. (5 . (5.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0. 5 .1 6) and (5 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.50634848K v2 = 0. (5 .0.6009 1 852 .83236253 Using equations (5 .58 1 43981 VI = 0.
This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T.9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. yet equation (5 .39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number.39).38) and (5 .= 0. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. For "short way" trajectories.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative.zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation . 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position).636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on.52).076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. where f::1) is less than 7T. the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths.31 . From equation (5 . Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell .1 O} VC . In other words. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 . Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 .
6V p � .4. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . hence.4 TH E p.. 5.cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) .42) into equation (5. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.cos !:::. The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .4. From equation (5 .j1 . if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.6V V 1 . The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight. 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.c o s x =.c o s ""E si n ""E . 5. we obtain 5. a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .23).. (sin xl i . a and ""E.. and 2 solving for p.)2 cos . we get  .4.6V COS .v. for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity.va si .?S. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns. we can solve for a and get 1 .1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . This check is only necessary when is positive.1 ) and si n  COS .cos ""V ( 1 .4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.Sec. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive .V ) a (5 .25)./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .
242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .E) •  k = k Ll. and noting that � c os '2 .45) ± Using these same definitions.E Solving for cos2.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch . we get Ll.4.2 Expressing a as a Function of p. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 . (5 .43) as Ll. The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.46) Ll.E CO � = ± p= k = . a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .48) k . we obtain m p a= (5 .45) and simplify. (5 .E ( k .44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions. 2 Ll.c o s bJ)) (5 .43) 5..Qp y'2ni p .E Q ± y'2ni C O S .Q p ) 2 (5 .E .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5. 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.
4 .41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 .F in case a is negative).where k. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048).4. The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero.3 Checking the Trial Value of p. Sec. 5.. Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. a may not be smaller than some minimum value . Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). . The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . 2. am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . however. 5. Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 .1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr. we need to determine � (or . we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . 5 .!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter .4 T H E p.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined..6. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . First .
p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .4 The t vs P Curve .. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that. we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like . we can compute f. In Figure 5.25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .6. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.a r1 (1  f) (5 .6. If (. F . there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation. although t approaches infInity for this orbit.6.Tar (si n h .( 1 . F ) .4.f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .F: (5 . To get a feeling for the problem.24) or the corresponding equation involving .6.49) Since we always assume .s i n .6. (5 . let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length. F 1 ." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 . we see that the limiting case of .23) and (5 .41 2) (5 . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.1 3) .25). If we look at "long way" trajectories. 9 and f from equations (5 .F is positive.6.23). If a is positive. 5 c o s . let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way.F (5 .4.E a If yield is negative.E ) (5 .From the trial value of P and the known information.6.4.. Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p.6.vi.6.6. we can determine . the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .1 0) = = 1 .41 1) c o sh .E from equations (5 .24) and (5 .E .
..42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 ... P must lie between o and P j j . t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j . In Figure 5 . we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 .. for t:sv greater than IT. For l'J) less than IT.. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight.43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories...zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. we should first compute P j or P j j . parabola hyperbola Figure 5 . lie within the prescribed limits... From the discussion above. P must lie between P j and infinity. Since it is important thar the first trial value. 5 .I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse . P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case . Sec.. as well as all subsequent guesses for p..4 T H E p..
In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p.4. . . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value.43 k p a rameter . by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . I . The solution is then bracketed and. b . .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). p )0 p" .. .1 4) Q . '" E 0> '" . � " . one that gives too small a value for t. Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5.. • . and one that gives too large a value.4. The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution.4. ell .5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p..246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . 0 Q + y2in k  (5 . 5 1 :co .46).yLri1 (5 . from equation (5 .1 5) 5 . Several simple methods may be used successfully.
. ... .... . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it.. . . .1 6)..I Figure 5 .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p.. . . If tn. ... .....Sec.. . .. .. . .t n ) ( P n . then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t . . O��_4o P n.t n . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5.1 and Pn . 5 .1 ) (5. .. . ... .1 6) This scheme can be repeated. 4 T H E p. ... It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer.. .. tn t .. . . . .4.P n . then a better estimate of p may be obtained from .4. . . ....44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration ..... but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p..1 ) (t n .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn.
5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S . ( � . fl3  fJ.41 7).1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .4. � ( S .4. we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .iri equati �n (S. We must now obtain an expression for the derivative .24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . 41 9) .si n L'> E l .41 8) (S .
47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE .Qp ) Q.2mk2 Qp 2kQp .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n . that ( k .Sec.Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.( k .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) . bE d�E .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .2 dp k ( k . from equation (5 .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m . we obtain . 5 .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .420) From equation (5 .4 8) .4 T H E p.= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .47).2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .E / dp and noting.
5 (5 .� (6E . _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2. and (5 . which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .4.COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + ..420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 . p(k h JJ.6E JJ.1 8) from (5 .250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch ...si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .423) . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F . (5 .= .Qp) si n 6E JJ. (5 .6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.1 9).4.Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .
2. 4 . 3 . Pn . the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits.27) and (5 . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. As stated earlier . G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. Solve for f. 5 .1 0) or equation (5 .II using 2 .1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.44). Sec. 7 .To evaluate the slope at Pn .4. the values of g. t and . Solve for Ll.6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .E or Ll. 5 . we will develop and use the f and 9 series. Q and m from r] .423). We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 . as appropriate . Solve for t from equation (5 .1 5). equations (5 . a. using equations (5 .1 4) and (5 . Evaluate the constants k. 5 . 25). 5 251 . Using the trial value. 2 .2·3). should be used in equation (5 .F obtained from the trial value. 9 .49) and (5 .1 2) or (5 .6E or Ll.422) or (5 . Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions. r and Ll.4. 8 .F.4. 9 and f from equations (5 .22). Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola.4. Evaluate 9 from equation (5 .8).4. of p. 6. Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo .4. Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. (5 . solve for a from equation (5 4 .24) and (5 . The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter.1 1 ) . 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES .
Therefore. 5 2) (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 4) for n = O. (5 . we write equation (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 .57) (5 .54) we have the following recursion (5 . 5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. 5 5) r r (5 .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 9) .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . (5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.
p and q which will be useful later .51 6) (5 .51 2) u . as we shall u .5W)  (r . 5 . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .1 7) . 5 . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . We define them as follows : O. p.515) =  ur.5. These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec.51 3) rr and the definition of p. u L. v are known .5. 5 . this can be (5 . 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .and the equation of motion f  (5 .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .5 11 ) (5 . q. Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .
r . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly.(v) 2 .57) and (5 . 5.254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . . d q = d t . 5 20) (5 . r r (5 . _ [1 1  2 (v . . r) (v) 2 . 5. 1 1 1 1 .3u p (5 .1 8) Using the definition of P. q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . 5 . .U . = . (5 . v) _ 1 u. ) . 522) q = . ) _ 24 (r .23 r· (V) r   u.p (u + 2q ) . Summarizing: (5 .
3 u p ( u .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing. ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .t!:.30p p + 3 q ) .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \.2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .3p ( u + 2q ) .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u .1 5u p ( u . Fs = F4 . = .u r = . = r 0. Writing equation (5 .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .6 u 2 p = .54) for n = 1 . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = .u G 4 = u ( u . F3 = F .6 u 2 p = .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . = F 1 r + G 1 .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue. 5.Sec.5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .. = . p and q.u G = . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .
52) and (5 . 5 = U (u .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious. therefore. but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 . ) .526) .5.t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t . .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t . Vo (5 .1 . .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. Referring to equations (5 .Gn n.524) (5 .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .523) .tao Comparing with equation (5 .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .
3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 . G = 30up(1 4p2 .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) . 5 .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .51 .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .2 1 q .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .30q . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 . G = u.7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .3q . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u). G = O.1 5p 2 + 3q + U).U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) . F 1 = 0.90q . G 1 = 1 .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .28q .Sec.6q . F 2 = 'U.u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O. F = 3up 3 F = u(.30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .
5·29) .f (r I . From equation (5 .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods.258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u .24) and (5 . 5. Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. 5.0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch .2·3). p. 7) r I g (r I . the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 .51) + 9= 7  1 . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . The f and 9 series may be used . 5 .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy.2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. r I . 7) (5 . In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. 2·5).6. 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 .5·27) + ' (5 . f I . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . (5 .
5.1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6.61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. As. L£ .Sec.77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. thus Figure 5 . This . so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. becomes dt (1 .6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ .61 Sector and triangle area (5 . .
this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.43) and using the identity. E ) . 5.6. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y.6. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 .64) = 2 (2� co s � )3. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 .260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 4 � c o s b. x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �.2E ) 2 ." + l( 1 .63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 .2 The First Equation of Gauss. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 . . but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large.62) (5 .' l'2 2 2 (5 . If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information.c o s b.2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.
68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J. (5 . 5 . equation . n l:> E ) .= .L . t/y..1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E . .L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 .61).6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .s i n l:>E ) . so . From the first of these equations.. Si. Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . Using the identity.67) 1 cos l:>v =.6 .. 3 The Second Equation of G auss.£Q.jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.. ( . si n l:v cos � . L ( l:>E .65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 ..L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.2 2 L (5 .24) and (5 .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .65). 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .Sec. we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .61 ) becomes si n l:v .s i n l:>E ) .(5 .2 ( 1 r1 r ..JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.
s and w. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . a good first guess is y � 1 . We then added another independent equation. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns.1 ) . y. more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y.6. 27) and (5 .262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Next. a and LE. until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. 24) and (5 . (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary. By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations.69) are transcendental. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 .64) and solving for y. y and LE .4 Solution of the Equations . in three unknowns. S + 1 .2(� .64) and (5 .s) .1 0) . n = 2 si n 3 LE . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. When convergence has occurred.1 ) = W (LE .43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. 6. equations (5 . from r I ' r2 . !:JJ and t. Unfortunately.6.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . The first step is to evaluate the constants. and one more unknown.from (5 .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. (5 . recall that we started with three equations. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation.6. 22) completes the solution. pick a trial value for y.25). (5 . p.69) cos f = 1 .si n LE ) we may write. and so on. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . To review what we have done so far.Si." 5 . This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. 23). which is known as "the second equation of Gauss. (5 . y 2 ( y .
If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.1 2) = X = .c:.69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .E is imaginary.6.6. indicating that�. If the given timeofflight is short..c:.c:.E and . Since we already know that when . Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.E is imaginary.c:.c:. then . as y2 = W S + x .69) and to determine y.E . we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.Since the equations above involve .c:.1 1 ) s i n h .cE.c:.F and COS i .E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.F = rush .6. the righthand side of equation (5 .1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .c:.F will be zero and both equations (5 .F is real. Using the identity.S ) y (5 .F whenever the right side is greater than one . equation (5 .69) and · (5 . F. 6.c:.c:.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.F are close to zero.E s i n 3 .c:. E = i .c:.c:.6.c:.cosh 2 .0. 5 .c:.s i n .F .F . they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section. For this reason. F s i n h 3 "2 .c:.1 0) may also b e written as Sec. equation (5 . E or . .1 2) become indeterminate.F 2 ) · (5 . 6. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . )� s + 1 .F . Noting that . difficulties may be anticipated any time . i sin i.c:.c:. S. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .c:. F = si nh .1 0) may become greater than one.c:.
zero.1 5) 1 .1 3).6. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . f. X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 .264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. ) . Compute the constants.63). Determine X from equation (5 . ( 1 + §.6 . 5 . E as a power series in x. it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. 7 . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. (s + x ) · 1 (5 . 2 . replacing CDs 6.24).1 4). determine 6.1 4) Now. 2.1 1).E or 6. or negative. Depending on the type of conic. Evaluate f. 1� = 2 3 1. s and w.Y:i.27) and (5 . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 .1 (5 . Determine p from equation (5 . . The result. (5 .]) and t using equations (5 . 6 . r2 . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. from rl . parabola.6.6. which is developed by Moulton. g . E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit.22).6. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s.. and 9 from equations (5 . the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point.26). 3 . 4.. .2 Ch .62) and (5 .61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . 2 6.. /:. the orbit being an ellipse. is .25) and (5 . Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 .6.F from equation (5 . problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 .6. . . and then expressing 6. or hyperbola according to whether x is positive.1 0) or (5 .43).23). (5 .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 .
then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. ballistic missile targeting. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. To avoid generalities. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. Usually." In all but the simplest cases.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. and ballistic missile interception.Sec. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . �atellite intercept and rendezvous. 5 . The £:. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. 72. To make the problem even more specific. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity.
�/ �/ "..266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ..' ':. \ •• • • • • • .....�: :. fI }/ \ \ .. e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.1 ....".. at t. ) / ot t." \ t a rg e t / \ .\.. ".7. 7 .. I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 .. ".1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .� . r. I n ... . ��y V \" _ . .� ' . 5 i nterceptor .f.
The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . which is when the intercept will occur. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. 5 . The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site .Sec. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor.7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily.
. so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. . . . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. " . . 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . 5 them. \ \ \ Figure 5 . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. . . Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. .238 km/sec. launch vel. we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . �v? �v .
After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t .7 . From Figure 5 . 5 . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . In summary .5 . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . the launch site will have moved eastward . In Figure 5 .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . the better . One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission .7 . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. 5 . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . Because of earth rotation. Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period.
4 /':.270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .7.V plot for example intercept problem .) z :J « ... 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .O F .
i. (5 .e. the three components of r2 . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . v2 • P I ' P2 . Although we have examined a very specific example . P3 · .85) (5 .1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L.86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. t2 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . another method will be develope d . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5. Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. P3 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 .8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 . 5 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series.84) (5 .Sec.8 . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. 82) t2 so (5 .
y.8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. R1 . the components of f2 and V2 . f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . L3 .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . 526) and (5 . in fact only six of the equations are independent. 8. Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . 5 to (5 . � into equations (5 . y and Z .e.1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d .8.1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x. Estimate the magnitude of f2 . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 .8) (5 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . L2 . i. these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z .8·7) (5 . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. ' r2 . y and z .8.R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . Rz . b . and eliminating the K components. the components of Vz be X.T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch .
=: =: 5 . What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter.4 Verify the development of equation (5 048).39). 5 Z.1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. Usirlg specific numbers.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. 5. but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. b. e .423) for hyperbolic orbits.31 ). c.526) and (5 . (5. Ease of computation. Z. and (5. The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer. . Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. which are the components of f2 and v2 .31 3) through (5 .41 . 5.1 5. Limitations.Ch . Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 .2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. Accuracy. 5 .t2 and t2 t } are not too large. Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . Y.32). using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. f2 I + J DU).6 Derive equation (5 .31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . I I I I  x. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04.V required for intercept? 5. f.522).527).3 Verify equations (5 . Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 .
Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. d.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . rl r2 p. r2 'and the distance between them.7 . 5 Given two position vectors rI . = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. h = 1 . Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. p 1 + J + K DU DU 5.0922 TU. 5. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. d. r2 . 5 . The universal variable method . t2 .t l determine v2 using a.J + K).009 (. vI = 0.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 .9 Repeat problem 5 . (Ans.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . which will contain both position vectors. b. (Ans. + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . as a function of rI r2 . The piteration technique. c.00256 (J + K» .tl = 1 .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . The original Gauss method. although a few iterations can be made by hand. 5 .8 using the universal variable.
Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. NY.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. Inc. Liu. Bell. A n Introduction York. A stronautical Guidance. 3. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . McGrawHill Book Company. Simon and Schuster. NY.6J + 0. (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. S. d . John Wiley & Sons. 51 + 0. c . Eric Temple . a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H.0. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. 2 . f l = 0 . Davis. Gauss.Ch . Battin. Pedro Ramon.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b .t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. 1 9 59. Herrick. 1 . r 1 = 2I t2 .7K D U t 2 . Carl Friedrich. Appendix A. 1 963. 4.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. Dover Publications. Forest Ray. Escobal. r 1 = I t 2 . New York. .t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . a. and A. NY. Inc. New 6. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . Richard H. (Answer : v = 0.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 .66986 9921+0 . New York. r 1 = 41 t 2 .t 1 = 0." in The World of 1 . 2I D U t2 . f 1 = 1 . 1 965. 1 964. Mathematics. Moulton. New York. "The Prince of Mathematicians.4804847 1 1 2 +0. New York. the MacMillan Company. 1 9 1 4. Vol 5 . to Celestial Mechanics. Methods of Orbit Determination. 1 956. NY.
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CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . Napoleon I 6. 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . which concern us in this chapter. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . longrange ballistic missiles. culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. have a very short history .000 V2's had been fired in anger . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. ironically . . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. Efforts. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . The result is well known. World War II as "too late . the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I .
convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . According to Dr. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. In July 1 95 4. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. After all. Trevor Gardner . it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless.000 pounds thrust. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. 4 Accordingly. California. Brigadier General 3 . The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. in June 1 9 53 . The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority .
After three unsuccessful attempts. the program had. Otherwise. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory.000 people participating directly. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P.Sec. While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. Blasingame . To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. by mid· 1 95 9 . 6 . From 2 main contractors at the beginning. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. 6. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. Progress was rapid. Atlas was a reality. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight .
280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here .22) .2." "height of apogee. such terms as "height at burnout. There are.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. 6 from launch to burnout. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory . We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 .2 The Nondimensional Parameter. Since Va:..2. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory.. however. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. It will not be discussed in this text. need not be redefined. Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . Figure 6. (6 . 6 . =.2. 1 defines these new quantities. 6 .. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics. Q . We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range." etc. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system." "flightpath angle at burnout. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 .2.ji1Tr.
21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 . 6.Sec .
23) or IQ=2�·1 p .the expression p. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.1 ) . 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit.3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . and substitute for V. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .2. 24) 6 . (6.26) . If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit.O/r from equation (6. If Q is greater than 2 .282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . When Q is equal to 1 .2. the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2.
27) . and co s � = . half the freeflight range angle . lies on each side of the major axis. 'l'.Sec.26) above can. 6 .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) . be written as (6. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .f6. 2 Equation. therefore.co s v b o .
28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6. (6. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation.1 1) into equation (6.284 . .2. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6.e2 ). h = rv cos cp. . the required freeflight range angle. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 .29) and (6. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1./. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. since p = a( 1 .29) Now. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. ¢ro. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. e.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions.2.2. what should the flightpath angle. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry.T. also becomes known. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. the total range angle.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6.28) p. A. = r Q C O S2 cp . .
the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . In Figure 6 . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . with a little algebra. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . ¢bo. Sec 6 .In other words. and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . is called r bo . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . Instead . The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . Now. F'. it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal.2.4 The FlightPath Angle Equation.23 Ellipse geometry 6 . We could . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle .
1 6) . It means. This is. shown in Figure 6. Qb o 2 2 (6. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery.000 ) from equation (6. d. � + 'lr) = .23) and r60 + rbo = 2a .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. that. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . for example.2. we can express d as 'i' d = o S .2.24. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . in fact.I n 2 and also as rb (6.2. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal.1 3) (6.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. F' and the burnout point." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.2. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror .286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.x) = sin (6.Qb o sin � . we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .
sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .Sec. the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .1 6) gives us .2. so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = . 6.9. 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .866.
The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. If Q bo is exactly 1 . 2. one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. This would not be a very practical missile trajectory.1 6) does not exceed 1 . 2. so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. Because a = . but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy.21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . equation (6 ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. Provided that 'l' is attainable.25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. Table 6.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . Nevertheless. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. If Q bo is greater than 1 .P/2&. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . Figure 6 . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . .
Sec. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 6 .
low traj . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU. Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. hits earth 000 > 1 high only . ha p og ee 0. hits earth Table 6 .625 . skims earth high only . range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. cos ¢ b o == 0. During the test firing of a ballistic missile. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. vbo = 2/3 DU/TU.11 5 18 1 .21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'.low traj . 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max.5 DU.
1 . We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . c os � = + N .4Deg.2.1 2) . 6 2 1 . 36° . Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) .2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . 6 . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36. 'IT.Sec. 600 E. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 6. :. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N.. Notice or <P b o = :.2.5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . versus the flightpath angle .08 1 7 DU/TU and .025) = 1 . ) (60 n m i ) =2. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = .025 DU respectively. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . 08 1 7 ( 1 .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 60 0W . 26. 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . 2<P b o + 64°20.
.1 6) equals exactly 1 .. � 80 . 0> <1> <1> � IJ.. (2<P bO � ) 2 . be the maximum range condition..:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' . s 0> Q) 0 � c .� 90 Figure 6. en EO I . A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 .. If the right side of equation (6. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target.26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory.1 7) I (6..1 8) L__________________� .s. 2.292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell . we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must. .. :.Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .2.. then.'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.2.7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight .
We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .222) .e cos 2 (6.8) .1 9) for maximum range conditions. 6 .Sec:. 2.cos 2 .7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). 6 . 2. VI 1 800 . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.2. 220) for maximum range conditions.22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. From the symmetry of Figure 6. noting that l .'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e .2. due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 .. This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only.6 Time of FreeFlight./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. 2 .1 7 ). The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory . 'JI . By inspection. but . sin �= 2 2 .Qbo Qb o (6 .
2. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . since five variables have been plotted on the figure. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24.27 Time of freeflight (6. In fact . Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . a. 23) and (6. e. Figure 6 . 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. and the eccentricity. 6 The semimajor axis. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 1). 28. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . can be obtained from equ ations (6.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch .
What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.95 From Figure 6. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8. 6 .884) ( 1 .000 nm.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.750 n m .8 period vs. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.Sec.075) == 0.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.25 D U == 7 .
� '" �� :. : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: . ' . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C.. : : . : ' . :: : J: : : . .CI�rie� v X I . � ren I ("') !XI r » Free . hi..aje.I ' : ' : : : : : : . : :/ .. . : : . :: :"/ N .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . .9h Ir. . .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:.
. . 8. suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ .933 D Urr U � 24. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. position.77 0 = 0 .  Vbo 6. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. For brevity .1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. 'l' From equation (6. For a fixed burnout altitude . If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount.1 � 0. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.6C represents the cro ssrange error. impacting at B. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point. 6 .1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 .6X and .3 ° From equation (6. the crossrange error. 2 00 ft/sec . The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance .444 n m = 2. 957 Hsi 66. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant.2. The arc length .6C. 3 . As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first.OOO nm max = 3.220) .6C may be / 9 57 1. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. .3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed.3 .6X.Sec. F or purposes of this example. 6 . In Figure 6 . at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry.32 r ads = 1 33. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.
In Figure 6 . . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. 3. cos . 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane .1 . if they are in degrees. for example. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point .3 . I 1 . we get (6. if the intended target had been the north pole .32) 2 X Figure 6. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6.thought of as angles. Equation (6.1 ) to (6. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. we can use the small angle approxunatlOn."2 to simplify equation (6 .1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles.3.
we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. 6(3.Sec. are as planned. The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . 299 Figure 6. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth.'l1. �C. a crossrange error. 'l1. P.3 . this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section.33) .32 Azimuth error 6 .32 is the crossrange error . Figure 6 . before . 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. will result. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . 6 . 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error.2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount.
if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.0.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . <Pb o IM� Figure 6 .0. If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.\]I will represent a downrange .3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point. This . The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6. 6 If we assume that both 43 and .\]I. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn .D..21 about the center of the Earth. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.y I  : : i. 6.oo a "'00 Fl ight .34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount .x ' to simplify equation (6.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle.0. (6. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it . In other words.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range. <Pbo' In Figure 6.C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. cos X � 1 .� I a q.3 .3. it will hit the target anyway .. \]I. are shown by a solid line in the figure .33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 ...300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch .path angle .
3 . But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation.1 0) Qbo I i .cot <P b o (6. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .8) (6.3. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .1 2) of this chapter .37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 . then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.6.36) (6. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3.2. 6 .Sec. The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6. We could get an approximate value for .35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo.
302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .3.1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = . a'l1 .1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.3.c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = . Let us first express equation (6. _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 . 3.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 . Vb Substituting from equation (6.1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .3.3.1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .
33. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . when used in the manner described above. 3 . The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. In fact. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 .1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient.1 3) This partial derivative .3 . 6 . We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. equation . remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way .3. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . particular burnout error . Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . While we need equation (6. the actual range error on a 3 .Sec. A plot of range versus burnout radius. angle errors. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . If this seems strange. Figure 6.000 nm range.33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot).
1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6. The magnitude of the error is (6.3.3.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . if burnout occurs too low. the missile overshoots .. 6. differentiating the range equation (6 .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .1 1) implicitly. the missile falls short of the target in every case . too slow and the missile falls short.3.3.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 .6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout . 6 however.3.1 4) for small values of .3.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = .2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ. b o 'fJ ' (6 . .6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended. Again.1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.
An analysis of equation (6 . Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better. We will need Q bo (.9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .9 0 5 D U !TU . r bo = 1 .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error .6¢ b o = .4 rad ians. ub o = 5 x 1 0 . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 .905) 2 ( 1 . like the other two influence coefficients. 735 rad DU r b o ( . .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range .4 D U .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . 1 D U . Total downrange error : . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .1 8) would reveal that. 6 . 3. LW b o = . 1 ) 2 .1 0. 649 r ad U D U/T . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = .Sec. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.3.6V b o + a 'lr .5 x 1 05 D U/TU . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. There is no crossrange error.735 = 6 .
735 ( 5x 1. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation. 6 =2. 56x 1 0 . 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 .4. <p. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives. its flightpath angle. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. 0.2 1 (. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar.1 .5 24 ft/sec.649 (5x 1 O . v.1 0. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly.56x 1 0. In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. and its azimuth angle. for example). The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character.S ) .4 ) TOT =1 1 .4 )+6. both the launch point and the target are in motion. {3.1 . then all three . That is. ove rshoot 6. The rotation is from west to east. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. 6. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame .306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr .2sin 1 60 o 2 = . we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 . That is.4 ) (3444) � 4 n . m i .
we will refer to measurements of burnout . (6. and a speed of." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 .I ·=<� • . An observer at rest would not agree .1 ) . direction in this frame as 1>e and �e.1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 .:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . Like the observer on the moving train.4. Hereafter. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. of 900 (east). He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle.5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . of 45 0 . . and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . This frame is called the topocentric horizon system..000 ft/sec. 6 . �.Sec. 1>.000 ft/sec. A simple example should clarify this point. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. an azimuth.4. of train l \\�. say 1 .
finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. flightpath angle .44) �. It is.42) The true speed. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . v. �.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . of course. (6 . We can obtain the south. Vs (6 . first. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . Once you have the components of ve. lies. this will not be difficult. east . v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. Thus. and up components of the true velocity. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . break up V into its components. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site .
In Figure 6 . If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. when the missile arrives at point B. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . 6. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . the target will be there also.Sec.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. The term. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate .4. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory.43 is just 90 0 L o. so the arc length OA in Figure 6. Rather . The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched .42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . Hopefully. then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively.
N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. (6 . The longitude difference.0. tA .si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . . then a value of . Once we know the total range angle. we get c o s {3 = sin L t . this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 .48) Again. we can solve for the required launch azimuth.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 .0. {3. A. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight.N + w ffitA ) . by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.0. .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.0.N + wffitA' where .43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for .0.0.47) Solving for cos {3. (6 . we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. and if.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions. (6 . {3. If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.N.
4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . 6 . and launch azimuth. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6.Sec. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . (3. A. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. Needless to say. tA But . " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range.
4 5) : v= .42) through (6 . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 8° v n /3 = v = ... what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.. 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( .0 58 8cos290 = .3 ° W burns out at 30o N. 9 s i n 300= . 1 ) 1 . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. 9cos3 00cos 3300= . 33° ¢bo = v E = .. 6 .. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .. 87 9 30. Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . using Q bo = .5022 ta . 1 DU. 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 .. 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . 5 1 1 95 v . 339 ) 2 + ( . 339 ) =. 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of .9 DU/TU.j( . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 29 . 85 From Figure 6 . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . v = . . 45 ) 2 = .( .675 s (J=333 .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 79 .
w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . . 77° = . 334TU ) =123.Sec. 334 TU boN = 135° . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = .203. 3709 �GG (3. 6.80° .85 and ¢bo = 3 0.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = .3.4 . E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. 770 N re = 156. 334)=135° . 29 . 2 5 TU :.we(3. tff=3.7 8 0 .123 . 6 70) =.13 = 7.
m i . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing.926 D U /TU . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6.1 9)? Why? 6 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude.2. 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . r b o = 1 . and a spherical Earth.6 ft/sec) 6 . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans.4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . R = 6 0 n . m i .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .5 D U!TU 1 . 6 EXERCISES 6 . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . = .840. 4> b o p Vb o = 6 .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 . v = 1 6 . . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6.000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .05 D U = 1 0° .
6 EXER CISES 315 6 . Do not use charts. 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8.'lr ). an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + .6.2 1 2 run) 6. 1 0 During a test flight. 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . how large can . 6 . A lateral displacement . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 .6. Rtf = 5 . Using the equations si n iL. .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans.98 to 1 . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 .02. in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. (Ans. how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . Rtf = 4 . 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of .)(.x and L¥3 be? . 7 I n general. .Ch.06 DU. 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 .000 run) 6 .400 n mi.02. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 .
or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 .. ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . 7 .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 .346 n mi long) b. 6 .0 DU for a ballistic missile. c . 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:.800 nautical miles? (Ans.6888 n mi L:. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . 6 6 .V = 25 .r = 0. vbo = 0..642 DU/TU) . ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range.31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 . low. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . Is this a high. (Ans. a. b . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal.
.22 The range error equation could be written as: b. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . Q bo + .092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N.ri. tff 40. What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum..where e is the 6 .700 n mi using a high trajectory.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N.. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . 5 DU. Do not use charts. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory .QL. 6 . Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. 6 . Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of .6 .530 ft/sec. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 . �bo and analyze the result . 1 2 00 W.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.. at the same altitude . 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity. 5 DU and whose perigee is .23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . 6. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 .4 min) = 6. using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). 3 0 0 E.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. R t of 4. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range .e . determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. at an altitude of 2. 1 5 00 E.'I' = � b. Ch . i. b. If the velocity at burnout was 28.
1 200W .5 0 . 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .1 045 . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of .1 0 .25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.318 V bo =23.2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44.3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . Do not assume a nonrotating Earth.66E+20784. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20. or maximum range trajectory? 6 .48966 = 3 1 5 . v bo = . It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 .6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . 92S1 0608.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . (Ans.4 rad ian s a. c. b.500 ft/sec=O. and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. How far will the missile miss the target? 4. (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 . elevation . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .0057 ° = .02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O. low. 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 .
In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . 0 (Ans. What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical.649 n mi .6 1 8 . and r bo � r(fl. (Ans. Assuming a symmetric orbit. the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' .Ch . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. 1.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . What was the freeflight range. atmosphereless Earth. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . tff 3 2 . L t 54 0 3 1 '. 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . rotating. downrange displacement of burnout point .73 n mi. . 1 20 OW .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N.8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. 43e . 5 7 min) == * 6 . site located 319 During the actual firing.1 2 ' . == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6.
ed . 1 960.2. 2.2. Schwiebert. The MacMillan Company. Inc. 3 . Lt Col Kenneth.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Gantz .3 1 The approximation : * 6. and truncate all terms third degree and higher).800 n mi. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. New York .3 . 5 . Vol 2.6Vb o . Burgess. Garden City. Los Angeles. "Free Flight .02 DU.1 2) . New York.S. Space Technology Laboratories. 1958. altitude at bo ::: . 1 965 . 6 * 6. * 6.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . Doubleday & Company. The Viking Press. Eric. (Hin t : See section 6. LongRange Ballistic Missiles .1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . NY. New York. Ernest G . Walter. R ff ::: 1 0. Publishers. 1 95 5 . Dornberger . LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. Inc.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . Frederick A. NY. A History of the U. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. Wheelon . 1 962. Praeger. Calif. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. 4. . Albert D. NY. V2 . NY.4) . A ir Force Ballistic Missiles.
CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. whence arise several irregularities in her motion.the Moon. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . when it is dark. have been discovered. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. . and moving round it. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. since it gives us light during the night. together with the Earth. and is. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. Proctor. The Moon is the more useful. of all which.. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . about which she moves. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. . fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . move round the Sun once a year. the Sun or the Moon? . the 32 1 . does. when it is light anyway. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. though principally attracted by the Earth.
in this case the Sun. Clairaut . but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. but because it comes close to being a double planet. 7. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. W. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more .2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. . Even interplanetary trajectories." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . Lagrange and Laplace . this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. with no less subtility than industry. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. D'Alembert. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. Brown . not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. has given a full account. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. 7 Author in this book.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . W. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body.
.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . Darwin. H. . . the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . ��===c==Q.: =j Figure 7. . son of the great biologist Charles Darwin.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . . . The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . . As a result . . Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . 7 .3 04 of the mass of the Earth.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system.:. . .3 days. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation.. These periodic fluctuations in longitude were.. This puts the center of the system 4. :. in fact.400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .Sec. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. . According to one theory advanced by G. the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present.
324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane.22 Lunar orbital elements 7. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. 7 Figure 7. In the case of the Moon's orbit .2. the orbital elements are constantly .1 Orbital Elements of the Moon.
7 . b. The line of nodes.000 years ago by Hipparchus. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . called "evection. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 .8 days.Sec. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . c.054900489 .400 km. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a.3 1 66 1 days. The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. This effect ." was discovered more than 2 .
In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory .2 Lunar Librations. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . its mean value is 5 0 S ' . The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . in l S72. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes.6 years. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. 23 ° 27' . but more than a century later . making one complete revolution in l S . is the descending node .6 years. Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . e . d . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum.2. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670.5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' ." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . Thus.000 years.9 years. rotates westward. the other . the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. where the Moon crosses from north to south. and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. If the Moon's orbit were = . Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . From Figure 7. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . for only then can Sun. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period.
daybyday. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration.75 0 around each limb of the moon. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. and 7. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. This permits us to see about 7 . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. monthbymonth basis. among other things. the computer time required could become prohibitive . As a result. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris.Sec. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. at one time or another. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. and the terminal attraction of the Moon.3 . lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . solar pressure . solar perturbations. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. Actually we see . The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . we would see exactly half of its surface . ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. 7 .
With this thought in mind. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe... this will not introduce significant errors. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ.0549 .. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. a = :l:!:. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit .3 . we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. It is not important that the analytical method be precise. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . 7 . 7.400 km.Q.3. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem.6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. semimaj or axis. 2& e = y'1  pia . In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions.
In Figure 7.r1 1..31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed ..Sec. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10. we get c o s V = 2... E i= .9 I njection 1 1...c C/) . we can solve for va .g' .:.0 S pe e d . II.. We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4. 1 r1 1 ..  I. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit. j 80 . 60 \ \ I njection ..i. e r Figure 7.2 10..M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 . . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly. 7 .c " 0 .3 .
the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection. : . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.. .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . 7 . 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . . In Figure 7. \ 0 �� ' earth " . to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.... As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic .32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP..')'. . then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit... Actually.. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero.. to parabolic. : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 .3 ..J! . .: / :1 .. For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite .330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed . 7 an injection altitude of ..
4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. which we can call 1/1. 82 km/sec. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. Assuming an inj ection altitude of . If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . 3 . is a function of . Moon from our assumed inj ection point . . this minimum injection speed is 1 0.966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. due to errors in guidance or other factors. Assuming no lunar gravity . 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity .32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0.32 we see that. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. as the injection speed is decreased. From Figure 7 . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case .32. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . In such a case .Sec. we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. Eventually . if we keep reducing the injection speed . This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. 7 . an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . if we try to take longer by going slower. 1 8 8 km/sec. the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. 7 .we will never reach the Moon at all. we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . In general the sweep angle .
where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. .33 . But. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. and wrrft.. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. If. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . that is. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. for example . the initial velocity is too high. Neglecting lunar gravity.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . This may be seen from Figure 7 .33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch.
We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite .0 km/sec. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . for all practical purposes. only are interested in determining ap. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. 7 . In effect. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 .p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. R s' given by the expression Sec.4.arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . There is. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and.1 ) . 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 .3 00 km. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . 5 However. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. 7. . however. the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle.
300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth. consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent . a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h .) Then. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure .1 ) can be found in Battin .334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .4.4.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.1 ) yields the value Rs = 66. A full derivation of equation (7 . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.4. Figure 7 . 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin.4 .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit. 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit. 7 .
at lunar arrival is (7 . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables. r 1 .r h V 1 I (7 . A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence.43) From the law of cosines. Finally. Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions.Sec. r 1 . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . from geometry . 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration.44) . the radius.42) (7 . 1 .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee .45) COS <P I . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit.
a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .49) (7 . t l .1 0) . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p.47) 2& e = ".4. JJ.to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined. p=� (7 .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight. 7 Figure 7.48) (7 . 1 p ia  a = :l!.
1 5) 2.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .4.649 2.1 3) (7 . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.1 6) The phase angle at departure. Wm = = t 1 . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = . 1 37 X X 1 0.1 1 ) (7 . Eo and E1 from Finally.4.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .4.to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence . 7 .4.6 rad/sec 1 0 .3 rad/TUEIl (7 . timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ . the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 . .4.1 2) Next.4.e 1 r1 __ (7 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system. we can determine the eccentric anomalies.Sec.
1 8) (7 .4.1 9) . then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. We will do this in the sections that follow.4. result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . then the selena centric radius.42 : V m = 1 . r 1 . In Figure 7 .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body.45). is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed.2 Conditions at the Patch Point . 7 . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft .4. 7 . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon .4.48) through (7 .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. at arrival is completely determined by \ .4. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO . the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. (7 . The geocentric radius.which we chose arbitrarily . Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . r2 . (7 . If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory.1 6) above .0 1 8 k m/sec.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .50 � � c 0 i e 1.40 .30 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7. «>  0.20 .348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .
5 0 . if we add a coasting arc. once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. b oth of which are undesirable. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. However. Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination . 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7.5. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . 7 . From Figure 7 .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth.52) and Figure 7 . sir! 0 1 . 54.5 0 and 28 .3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . If lunar declination at intercept is specified. Figure 7 .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . As a result . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. 5 4 worth noticing. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . It should be obvious from equation (7 . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.Sec.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . If lighting conditions are important.si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 .52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 .5 3) .
05 28 33 1 1 .308 1 8 22 22. 24 .27 3 5 .242 1 66 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0. 1 0 28 27 29 .424 1 67 .254 1 67 .97 28 34 3 9 .963 1 8 27 5 5 . 1 0 1 6.020 1 8 1 6 49.45 8 0.3 1 8 5 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.203 28 1 8 49 .35 28 1 6 08 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . 5 7 1 1 66 . 1 969 .84 60. 2 1 28 34 42 .85 4 1 .32 1 1 67 .88 28 33 3 5 .07 47.97 29. 8 0 1 36. 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .23 1 23 .85 1 1 66 .87 28 34 22. 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 . 1 7 2 1 67 .695 1 8 02 54 .7 1 54.460 1 67 . 267 1 67 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 .44 28 2 1 1 8 .89 28 24 29 .05 8 1 65 .376 1 67 .63 1 1 1 . 7 .90 28 33 5 3 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .41 7 1 67 .342 1 7 40 3 5 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 . .58 73.3 3 3 1 67 .97 1 1 9.44 22.9 8 9 8 . 1 5 28 34 1 0.56 .34 28 32 1 7 . 5 8 67.08 28 29 08 .47 28 25 3 8 . 7 1 7 1 66 .970 1 66 .97 28 3 1 47 .949 1 8 05 42.00 28 28 1 5 .435 1 65 .4 1 3 1 66 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .46 1 1 67 . 86 28 26 29 .38 + 9 .445 1 67 .449 1 67 . 1 3 . 1 9 173.6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 . 8 1 28 32 47 . 1 6 +1 6 1 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40. 973 FIgure 1 65 .95 7 1 7 37 48. 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39. 1 90 1 67 .374 1 8 00 07 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .998 17 5 7 20. 078 1 66 . 5 9 28 34 33 .3 .3 1 9 3 .766 1 7 43 23 .72 1 1 8 25 08. 1 67 1 7 29 26 . 624 1 7 3 5 00.78 1 3 1 .1 44.385 1 67 .737 18 1 9 36 . 24 28 23 34 .39 28 3 0 34. .76 28 3 1 09 .3 1 28 29 48 . 1 4 1 06.6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .862 1 65 .3 1 + 1 48 .
5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . 5 3 . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. at the launch point (see Figure 2. 5 4).si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . and may be obtained from equation (2. 7 . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . slightly (7 . the total time . 84). ao' at this launch time . c o s 1/1 t . tt ' is (7 . The launch time. Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . The difference i n right ascension .3 . which may be computed from the injection conditions.5 . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. 1/1 c ' Thus.57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E .Sec.55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time.54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . �. This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . it is possible to adjustt l ." 8. = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. !::lX .53 .9 .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . we get cos 6a.89) : (7 56) . is the same as the "local sidereal time .
The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon.2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. What additional 6. 7 .(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon. and the exact We now know the injection conditions.3 224 .426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 000 k m 33 . � . 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. . 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune .t I ES Ch .4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .54) agree.300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. 7. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. 7.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl .3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier.
Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. b.400 k m : a .9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . a . Determine the /:. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. 7 . 7 EXERCISES 353 7 .I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° .Ch . Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions.6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. . 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A.v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit.
1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. select ro ' vo ' to meet this .) * 7 . 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . Specifically. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. <1>0 = = = * 7 . 7 7 . One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). Use h bo l OO n mi . 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. requirement.
A n Introduction to A strodynamics.Ch. George . A stronautical Guidance. 5. an d Maud W. 1 943 . 1 9 5 9 . Gamow. Doran and Company. Doubleday. 1 964. McGrawHill Book Company. 3 . NY. Academic Press. NY. Garden City. Battin." ARMA Document DR 220. . New York. 6. Fisher. L.1 6. Richard H . "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. NY. 1 967. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Robert M. Inc. The Story of the Moon . Clyde . University of California Press. Abelard Schuman. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 2. 1 962. Newton. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. New York. November 1 95 9 . Second Edition. London and New York. Makemson. Baker. Principia . Isaac . 4. The Moon .
.
By 1 507 he was 357 . Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . But the tide of opinion ebbed. two eyes. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. two ears. two nostrils. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. At first it was not understood .. indeed. and a mouth . compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . C opernicus. such as the seven metals. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. two luminaries.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. etc. two unpropitious. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. which it were tedious to enumerate ." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance .
are spread much more widely throughout the system. 8. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. The "law. 1 Bode's Law. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. . and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. Neptune. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. indeed. . Venus. Saturn. and Pluto . 6. nevertheless. some of which pass near the Sun. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. Uranus. If we write down the series 0.2. 8. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. In addition. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. Earth. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. the members of the solar system. . add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. 1 2 .2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. comets.1 . diameter. Mars. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . 3. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . at the age of 70. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic ." as may be seen in Table 8 . After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. . Jupiter ." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system.2. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury.
this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune . 8.20 9. compared with the total mission duration. The sixth orbital element. 0 is presented in Table 8 . 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 .8 77.72 1 . Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .4 0.52 1 9.0 1 9 .21 Actual Distance 0.22.28 3 0.2 1 0. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit. is its path . 8. Table 8 . A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.65 5.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. 1 7 39. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.2 Table 8.52 2.39 0.8 5 .23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.00 1 . The size.6 3 8 .7 1 .2. Only for brief periods. 8.Sec. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.0 1.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.6 2. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. Except for Mercury and Pluto .
. 1 42 1 02 ° .400 276 ° .225 237 ° .405 undefined 49 ° .684 93 ° .850 1 ° .096 1 88 ° . 8 94 341 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28.275 222 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° . 1 3 6 47 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° . 0482 . 38 7 1 . 074 1 83 ° .5 1 9 1 9 . 1 1 7 265 ° . 76 ° . 5 73 1 75 ° .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .) 00 .000 1 .489 0° .0539 .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . 0068 .970 7 6 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 . 0 1 67 . 1 1 1 326 ° .2583 7 ° . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 0934 .28 3 0. 05 1 4 .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.5 24 5 .. 7 73 1 ° .. 5 1 3 5 2 ° .306 2 ° .828 1 7 1 °..870 L.005 0 .394 0° . 000 1 °.441 73 ° .76 . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (. 1 39 1 1 3 ° . 2056 .203 9.322 1 00 ° ..773 1 7° .497 1 3 ° . 1 7 3 9 .004 3 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .7233 1 .
8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .2 1 4.986x l O s 4. 1 1 49 .268x 1 0 B 3 .65 6.24 1 .06 9 .6 1 7 .. 1 4 1 3 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .6 1 5 1 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J." .46 84.3 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m . 0 1 1 64.257x l O s 3 .05 6 .8 6 29.80 5 .7 5 7 .820x 1 0 6 6 .232x l 0 4 3 .000 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .04 29.3 05x 1 04 1 .000 1 .8 8 1 1 1 .8 247 .896x 1 0 6 3 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 ..9? 1 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .74 2 .0 95.795x 1 0 7 5 . 5 227.49 4.87 3 5 .79 24.9 1 08 .8 1 7 1 . 1 08 3 1 8 .
In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point .3 . The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. For transfers to mo st of the planets. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee.3l . The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). would not provide a suitable return traj ectory.v required. this consideration is important. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . 8. however. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. from the standpoint of /:. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. if continued past the destination planet . For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. was the Hohmann transfer. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. The Hohmann transfer. Just as in lunar trajectories. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8.
.. Nevertheless. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip. 8.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / . \ _. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit..' ." .v required for an interplanetary mission. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .Sec. Therefore .u o_____+.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit.V.
VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion.33) In Table 8 . VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .where f. • . and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29. 3 .l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time. B (8 .3 and should be reviewed .3 . the difference between the heliocentric speed. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. The heliocentric speed. t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f.78 kIn/sec.l 0 (8 .31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system.3. In any case . From Table 8. for the Hohmann transfer.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . then.
379 1 .9  2 . 40.07 4 1 .42 4 1 . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.524 A U From equation (8 .\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . From Table 8 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun. 1 6 30.04 1 6.099 1 .748 .295 1 .345 1 . VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight .78 46.60 Table 8. r d = 1 . 1 2 5 8 .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence.28 27.31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .9 1 6 1 . In other words . 8. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. t2 . Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.397 22.57 .31 1 05 .5 1 46 . rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun. rE9> are respectively : . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.Sec.05 4 1 .74 6.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .73 38.28 32. Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .3 9 1 1 .
t1 ) wt .3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . where is the angular velocity of the target planet. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8. and is illustrated in Figure 8 .VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.t 1 = 1T = 4.099A U/TU 0 = 32.32 for a Mars trajectory.3.34) __ (8 .3.32) the heliocentric speed .366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 8 From equation (8 .73Km/sec . From equation (8 .7088 years = 258.4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.35) wt (t2 . Thus.9 d ays 8.2 Phase Angle at Departure. the phase angle at departure . The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 . v . The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.
.3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . . If we miss a particular launch opportunity. . pp 1 60.32 Phase angle at departure.. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun.. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Figure 8. ... . 'Yl (8 . .1 76 .. Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. . and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct. . 367 .. 8.Sec.36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place .. .
01 1 .38) .w t I (8 . 1 3 1 .03 8 .530 .00 Table 8. we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km.3. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed. so W EfJ7 s .32 1 . Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. 3 ·2.3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence.W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 .09 1 .2 1 7 3 . 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period.0 1 1 .213 .368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .v 1 determined. the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .37) (8.07 5 .32 In a time . rad/yr 26 . Mars and Venus. yrs 0.07 1 1 0. 340 .025 Synodic Period.04 1 .60 2. It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth. 8. 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �. Thus.
. . . ". . (8 . . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. . . . �.33 / . ..Sec.:V. 8 ..310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . '?. � Figure 8.. . '\ . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola.. . .39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . . . 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . � _ i t_ r b_ ..r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. . . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 ..
2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. This may be seen by solving equation (8 . the angle .1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. C but since e = da for any conic. Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola.6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . so equation (8 .34 we see that the angie . fI. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 . From Figure 8. For transfer to one of the outer planets. is given by cos fI =  §.39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8. we may write . between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola. 3.3. fI.33 .1 1 ) becomes = 2 . km/sec.98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 .the injection speed .
Sec. 3 T H E PATC H E D.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .1 e where the eccentricity .1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8.3. 3. 8 . is obtained directly from the injection (8 . conditions : = (8 .3.1 2) e.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .
then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 .72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur.3. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity.4 Arrival at the Target Planet. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . 8. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth. however. At arrival. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.3.35 Interplanetary launch (8 .3. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 .36. Generally.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . cfJ as shown in Figure 8.
Sec. sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. 3.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. 3 . 8 .36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 .1 6) (8. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 .1 8) . 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :. (8 .3.
32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet.s i n if> 2 v (8 . 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. 3. the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. It also means that the relative velocity vector. 3 7 we see that  (8 .The angle . S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. will be directed toward the center of the planet. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . In Figure 8.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . .3 . in Figure 8. From Figure 8 . If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet.36).36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . e. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. 3 7 . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 .320) y = x si n e (8.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. 8 .
3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.lt/ 2 X _ .Sec.37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.322) . (8 . 8 .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f.
376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . we obtain . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . 324) (8.327) for y Yields (8 . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = . y. 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . the speed at periapsis is simply .326) Because angular momentum is conserved.)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance.(8. Solving equation (8 .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence.
The given information is .05 DU. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking.328) we 'get (8 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . V2 + 2fJ. The.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission.329). the "inwact parameter. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. 8. then a much smaller target must be considered. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .t 3  rt (8 .39. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed.329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. rt This particular offset distance is called b .3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 .33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 .Sec. b.
099 A U/TU 0.39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 . 3 .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.1 :: 0.373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.1 VI = 1 .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 . 6V 1 = 1 . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .05 D U 1 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .099 .099 A U/TU = :.378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .
Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .905 = = 379 37 .1 ) .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.044 8 .43 DU/TU .4. 1 39 + 1 . From Table 8 .1 . 8 . {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept.22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic.v = 2v si n L 2 /::.4.Sec. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.07 6 ft/sec 2 . departure Figure 8 .v (8 . the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude. t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::. 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.
7.5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .1 ) . 8. 8.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units...7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years. 8.3. " . 8.3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 .4. 8 .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun . _  /' . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.. EXERCISES 8 .380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . (Ans. 5 for the planet Jupiter.32. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) . 8. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8.3 ..62 DUJTU� 8.1 )) .8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.. 8 as derived in equation (3 .
l:.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans.l:. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the .l:.35) ITbo no .V = 0. M = 5.Ch.V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . where 8..000 ft/sec.v = 1 5 . lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years.394 DUe/TU� b .348 DUe/TUE9> . 1 00 ft/sec) c. a. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.V required? (Ans.l:.l:. Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . . e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit . 1 DUE[) radius. It can be shown that . What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the . If c = 9 . Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. vesc = 1 .9 In preliminary planning for any space mission.900 ft/sec. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.v ? (Ans.�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 . P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. v = 39 . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .
which results if the same 6.. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. What is the 6. 8 8 . 3 .Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 .V is applied at perigee. = 0. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans. 8. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . The mission will begin in a 1 .382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .046 DU� /TU � b .) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. 0.. 0.. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long..0. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 .? (Ans.V of . 0.5 DUEI1 circular orbit.. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6. � = 0.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . Find the 6. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. Find the hyperbolic excess speed.28 AU2 /TU2 .9 00 ft/sec) 8 .V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. (Ans. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. (Ans. a. v=' (Ans.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. 6.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. 09 DUe/TU$) = . What is the 6. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units.. What is the 6. 1 DUe/TUEl1.254 AU/TU� . a. so work carefully and follow any suggestions. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0.73 1 DU8TU� b ..0.0.V at apogee or perigee? 8. v= 0..
(Ans.3 9 DU oITU& 2 .) (Ans.2 AU/TU� d.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . for the above transfer.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. then find h. O o) 8. 8 . (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. 3 . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0.050 ft/sec) 8 . 'Y1 .Ch. For a given planet. called the turning angle .867 AU/TU� e .5 AU? (Ans. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans.373 AU/TU � f. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. P. Compute the phase angle at departure. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. 1 4 a. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. 1 .5 AU. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . 1 . <P2 and vll1II in that order. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . 0.87 TU� b . (Ans. 0. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. c. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . Vrrw = 0.
American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. 4 . R. 1 963. Assume circular. Newman. D C . Vol 1 . U S Government Printing Office . Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . Washington. 3 . "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. 1 . LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . New York. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office.V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . 1 95 6 . James R. 8 8.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. transfer time. and the angular rates of the planets. 1 967. 1 96 1 ." AIAA Journal. p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. Vol 2. coplanar planet orbits. pp 430434. 1 969. Fimple . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. NY. London. Simon and Schuster. * Ch . No 2 . W . What would be an estimate of the return b. The World of Mathematics.
but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. it is found that there seem to be distinct. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). There is always some variation 385 . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. " Webster 9 . it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. Macroscopically .CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . and at times unexplainable . irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies.
Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. and relativistic effects. which had not been treated by Newton . The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. solar radiation effects. M. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. Fortunately. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. meteoroid collisions. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. etc. 9 . Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. about a century later. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. E. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. atmo spheric drag and lift. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. except the motion of the perigee. Brown 's papers of 1 897. magnetic. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .from the norm. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . Then. The wind gust was a perturbation. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. 6 .) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. In fact.
but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth.Sec. 9 . See section 1 . Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. H. a section discussing methods and errors is included . Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . and variation of elements techniques are discussed. Encke. It was developed by P. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. the Cowell. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. 9. This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. In particular. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. With the capability for orbital flight . The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control.
23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration. Sun and planets. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. including all the perturbations. F or numerical integration equation (9 . ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon.2. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. y = vy (9.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body .22) would be further broken down into the vector components. the equation would be (9 . For the twobody problem with perturb ations.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. r=Y �r (9 . the equations would be .
This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . and he would be correct . Classically. When motion is near a large attracting body .Sec. 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. 8 . Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . In spherical coordinates (r. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic .22).3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to.  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea .24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 .25) . Intuitively. 9 . satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon.Il m ( 3 . Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. Even in double precision computer arithmetic.23). There are some disadvantages of the method . ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2.'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 .
and . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . In the Encke method . in our case . this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. The term connotes the sense of contact. contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed .390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . 9. Presumably .g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere .'l. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method.31 The osculatil. 9 (9 . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together.25) As a reminder. reference or b i t Figure 9. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory.
The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). 9 . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors.. At that time .3 2) into (9 .  (9 .3 . respectively . the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 . Let r and p be the radius vectors to . r + � r3 r = a t . = p ( tb ) p p to = 0.1 ) .1 ) . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. 3 . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. be defined as (see Figure and . the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 .1 ) and (9 . Note that at the epoch. or epoch.32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit . Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration.3.Sec.32)  Sr..3.33) we obtain .1 ) and for the osculating orbit. Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. 9. Now w e will consider th.33) Sub stituting equations (9 . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit.to ) ' p (9 . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r .
35) 3 3 r _ (9 . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) . 6r.392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .. p is a known function of time .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:.t) can be calculated numerically. theoretically. However.3 / 2 (9 .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation .6r] r3 r (9 .34) then becomes (9.37) . So . so r can be obtained from 6r and p.was to obtain more accuracy. 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .3 6) Equation (9 .6r ) ... 6r (to + . one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method. we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object . For a given set of initial conditions.lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r .6.
OZ are the cartesian components o f or./  Our problem is not yet solved .Sec. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] .32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . Expanding. o y . In terms of its components Figure 9. 9 . however.
at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q.( 1 . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . /) y2 .(1 . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. 3. 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .38)  1 . (9 . 9 From equation (9 .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.1 0) (9 . There are two methods of solution at this point . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .31 2) .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .3.1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.37). but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .37) becomes (9 .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 . . .38) and (9 .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .2q So q =  Now.
care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. but of the order of magnitude of 0. Go to step c with t:. Calculate r = p + (jr.> a specified constant. e . calculate (jr (to + t:. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. The method using equation (9 .3 8) 3. = = = = = p continue. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . (jr 0. If equation (9 . Knowing 5r(to + t:. Then the tables could be u sed to find f .39) is recommended for use with the computer.t) from equation (9 . t:. so larger step sizes can be taken.1 0). Rectification should be initiated when . p 229). r (to ) . For an integration step.3. and 5r 0 at this point. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. f. rectify and go to step a . k. d . If.1 2) may be slightly faster. c.Sec.does not remain quite small.t . 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated . f(to + t:.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. p(to + t:. b. Otherwise (jr p .3. g.t to get (jr{ to + kt:.t).t ) from equation (9 . but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . v = p + (jr. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary.01 ).t where k is the step number. Vol 2.t replaced by kt:. a. although the use of equation (9 .t) 2 . Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. In (jr p v as described earlier. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . q( to + t:. Integrate another t:.t) .1 2) is used. 9 .t) calculate 1 .3. q (to ) O.nowing p (to ) . Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit .
t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . a . Then e � . 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known./l m {m s .3.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. e eccentricity.cSr ) (9 . The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. from the Encke method 9. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration .6. = .396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces .4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . Though. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . they would remain constant. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. etc . See equation (9 .23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . For instance. at the outset. Thus. this method may seem more difficult to implement. A similar check could be made on i . One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs. In the absence of perturbations.6. Similarly.
The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . � . 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. Therefore . The axis S is . or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method.. It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . R (unit vector R). The standard orbital elements a.g. w and. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. 9 . p 246.Sec.T (or M) will be used. 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. n. 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . Eventually . The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . .tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for .variations (e. Vol 2 . These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time .and dM ?. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker.4 .n (t .I OOS . but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. . This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. along the instantaneous radius vector. e. 9 .. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. r. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. for a table of parameter sets). it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. i.
42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 . 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9. The third axis. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.43) . W.4.rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .
dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .46) and F S (9 .4 and .43).o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a . (9 .48) Substituting in equation (9. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 . 9..� 2& ' = 399 (9 . Differentiating the conic equation Qr.46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.1 0) .45) To express this in known terms.Sec.!I=8!" nr from (9 . (9 .44) (9. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.1:!:. so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations. This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.44).48) we find da dt = (9.4.45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a . expressions for found.
9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 . the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.2 )% a = (1 .1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).) Since h = hW. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.4.lae dt h $) a dt .la _ (9 04..1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904. r hW + h da S dt (9 .�) % J.1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .
1 8) .n di dt (9 .4.1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .. so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i . 9 .4.Sec.h cos i rF s h2 . K) � (9 .4.4.�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 . K . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .4. 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h. 1 e2 (9 .1 6) we obtain . 4 .4.sin QL = dt .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
. . Since p. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .vt 2p.v 2p. ] (9 . .4.v = . Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion .45 1 ) . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.4.2p.2p.2p.5 1 ) correct to first order in J. .vt . The constant of integration. • .4. C. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.2 p. the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 . . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence .e . allowing c to vary with time .v {at + c ) c (9 . c = ve 2 p.v which can be easily solved for c.45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. 9 . 4 where c will be the parameter.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. which is a common method of expression of the perturbation.J.vc . From equation (9 .45 1 ).45 0) should be small. {at + c) + 3p. .vat a+v a .450) and solving for e we find (9 .2 (at + C)2  .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l .454) + 2p. and V are small.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . but more practically we would consider � = v ..Sec.
The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. allow as large a stepsize as possible. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. such as the disturbing function. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. should be the criteria. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. economical in computing time. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. d. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. Unfortunately. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. at best. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. accuracy. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. In theory. 5 . or has not carefully selected. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. not expediency. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. 9 . . 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i.. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. 9 . b . the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or.e. his integration method. 9 in detail. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. efficiency. c. storage and complexity. highly questionable.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell .
The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. Baker (v 2. 9 . In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ .476.57 = 7 . They are roundoff and truncation errors.28 + 3.388.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method.Sec. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation. In fact. 2 Integration Errors. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as .567 = 7.5 (9. The larger the . and f. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s .276 + 3 . In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (.476. For instance .864. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. 4. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. 5 .51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. 9 .accumulated roundoff error .5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations.388. Obviously .843. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places.
62) (9. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. 9 . The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. AdamsMoulton. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. Thus. 1 RungeKutta Method. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes . Of course .63) dx dt (9.6. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). the larger the truncation error. We will treat the first order equation . any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. Gill. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation .= f(t. in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. h. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . 9 stepsize.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch .6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. 9.1 ) . In general. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. EulerCauchy and Bowie . Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. 6 .
x n .k +. It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.% ] + k 2 [ 1 . This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .64) 1 1 + . X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h . 9 .( 1 + y.63) and n is the increment number. easy to implement . One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize . One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step .6.yV:. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. they are faster than the singlestep methods. The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated.h ) k3 +. In general. X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. and stepsize is easily changed ..( 1 . though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . have a relatively small truncation error. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n . x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . 9 .yry. x n + k 3 ) (9. They are relatively simple .65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% .Sec.) k2 6 3 l2 (9.
3 9. 25 1 /720. In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . 3 /8 .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas).6. Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. 5 / 1 2 . 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k.66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . . 1 /2 .\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + .1 f . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0. The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . .beginning and after each stepsize change.\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9.67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. .
6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method. This method.6. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. for instance.Sec. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 . Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis). so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.x n + (5 5 f ri . . 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.69).x n+1I I (P 270 (9.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. In equation (9. 9 .1 + 37 f n2 .61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. the error terms are not generally known.h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +.59 f n .
9.1 ' etc.1 . "x. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". It is. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.h ) .2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k. x.1 f(t n h) 2 2   .8 k . The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. though it also includes a corrector.° n + . n + 1 2 n i \.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n . The GaussJackson method is one of the best. . and most used. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. 9 like other multistep methods.6 .1 f(t n + h).° n 60480 (9.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. n + � 84 "x.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. though. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) .6.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x.
the accelerations can be found from (9. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. 2 . The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator.l 005).7. but only the simpler forms will be treated.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec.5 Numerical Integration Summary . However. 9. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. is known.1 The Nonspherical Earth . p/r. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b.Bashforth) methods are preferred. 9.1 ) One such potential function.72) .6. 2 and NASA C R. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. is ¢ = � [1 . They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion .I n=2 r (9. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. 9 .The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. If the potential function.6.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric.7. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. according to Vinti. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. ¢. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. Table 9.e presented in this section. Some of them become quite complex. V. 9 .
it could be very fast. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . very difficult to determine proper size. Vol t . * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required.' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. 9 CI) . Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations.
r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L ..J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .] (9 .2.42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.. if> = I!:.7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .L = gravitational parameter Sec. 9.. = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.  I.where J.945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .74) ..J s � ( � ) (35� .
l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 . There have been various determinations of the J coefficients. l )x 1 0.64 ± O. Vol 1 .6 J = (0. 1 5 ± O. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . ..1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J .44 ± O.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 . Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � .3003 ""6 ) + .6 J4 = (1 .6 ± O. The first term in x.6 .70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .l ( �) 3 ( 3 . 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .5)x 1 0. which are slightly in variance .5 ± O.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr.57 ± O.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 . I )x 1 0. l )x 1 0.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 . .6 6 (0.03)x 1 0. These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. y. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.
To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric.Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . and other parameters. To do this.2 Atmospheric Drag. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). p 147). A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33).7. Vol 1 . s 9. 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . There are a few ctmtiol). Therefore . The equations are formulated in the geocentric . by definition. care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . term) to the RSW sy stem.Sec. simply use r3 r= where .. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . 9 . There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker... The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent .77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . but will not be presented here. equatorial coordinate system. Thus. However. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . the drag coefficient. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered.s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. 7 Drag.
In the geocentric.7 .7 .ie.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . Equation (9 . though small. etc.ilc coffc.lli.78) z . equatorial coordinate system. . 9 . altitude above an oblate Earth.424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . z refer to the geocentric.3 Radiation Pressure. y .t b ae ==ic. but the reader can find this in other documents. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. Radiation pressure. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. 9 m p C O A . can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).
3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. EXERCISES 9.Ch.4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates. 9 . z directions.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).4 Thrust. but a major force . 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . 9 . 9. 9 where A = cross section f = 4. y. Prove this assertion . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x .79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters.25). the variation of eccentricity.1 5) . See equation (9. Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 .4. m (9. . m = mass of vehicle (grams) . . 7 .4349 0 x .2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . 9 .
J . Allione . Planetary Coordinates for the. 1 9 1 4. Mendez. . 1 960.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 9 9 . Academic Press. Years 1 9601 980. L. A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office.445). Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. S ." NASA CR. M. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. M.ittouck. 9 . Vol VI. Moulton . * 9 . Inc. * 9. Academic Press. G. L.l 005 . and Clemence. 1 . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Ralston . New York. The Macmillan Co . . Jr . New York. New York. Blackford. 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. 5 . DC. and Wl). 1 96 1 .000 n mi. John Wiley and Sons. Guidance. New York. London . Robert M . LIST OF REFERENCES 2. M. M. Feb 1 968. 3 . F . . Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. 6. 4. 1 967. R.. A. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . C .9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . * 9 . Baker. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. and Wilf. D. A. Washington. Brouwer.
M. G. 8 . . Vol 1 . H. Longmans. 1 0. The Computation of Orbits. B . . A stronautical Guidance . 1 3 . Smart. Robert M. L. 1 95 3 .Ch . Hildebrand. Inc. E . W . Herget. New York. Ann Arbor. New Yark. M . Escobal. Methods of A strodynamics. New York. Celestial Mechanics. 1 963. John Wiley and Sons. A . Jr and Makemson. New York. Th e Determination of Orbits. Maud W. 1 964. Dynamical A stronomy . R. Published privately by the Author. F . Michigan. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Part 1 . Dubyago . Plumber. 1 96 5 . The Macmillan Co. John Wiley and Sons. 1 948 . Jr. 1 5 . Methods of Orbit Determination.. R. 1 1 . P . Orbital Flight Handbook. McGrawHill. 1 4 . Paul. NASA SP33 . New York. Academic Press. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Baker. 1 967. Townsend. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . D. 1 2. New York. DC . 1 95 6 . Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. C. 1 6. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). Washington. 1 968 . 1 96 1 . 2nd ed. Inc. Battin. Cambridge University Press. New York. Escobal. 9 . New York. McGrawHill. R . P.
.
.9053682 8 km' . 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. 3.05883 36565 � TV. r.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .092567257 x 107 ft 3963 .0226757 x 1 06 sec 29. Speed Unit I� TU.922786 NM 1 3 . 1 Center. 1 . 44686457 min 6378... 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 .24764 11sec 806 . 2506844773 deg min 7.68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 .. 2593 6. 1 328 2 1 days 9..APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. 'Derived from those values of Il .9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec . 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter. we 0.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. I DU� TUi.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 . r.. English Units Metric Units 2. Ile Angular Rotation. 1 97 5 . 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. . Canonical Units I DU. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 .327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .4959965 x 1 0' km 5 .
1f = 3 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 . 1 2 64963205 0 .3 14 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0. there is no roundoff or truncation.3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .2342709 5 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 . .07 1 0 1 50424 4 .08 1 52366 0 . i.3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii. _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A. foot = 0.01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .4 3 .239446309 x 1 0.2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .8 9.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .e .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .
relationships involving vector quantities. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. not a null or zero vector. If A i s a vector . temperature . A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . C. (Example : 3 or A). J. length of a vector . W). force and acceleration. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. Scalar. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. I DEFINITIONS Vector. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . speed. Q. 43 1 . Examples are displacement. Examples are mass. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. velocity . time or any real signed number. K) and (p. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. Thus. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . Unit Vector.
such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor.. regardless of the position of their origins. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. . 1 Similarly. and A and B are not collinear. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. Coplanar Vectors. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . If A. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . B and C are coplanar vectors.
The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C . l . e I I l (C ..2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . Scalar or Dot Product. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.2. denoted by A • B.B which is the same as A + (B).2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.C. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .1 ) I AI cos B . is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors.l ) C.
J =K . 23 ) (C.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . K are unit orthogonal vectors.J = J o K=K o I = O where I . denoted by A x B . The cross product of two vectors A and B.8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C .24) (C. .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . A o A = Aft.K= 1 I . B and C form a right handed system.22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.B + A ..1=J . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them. if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible .(B + C) = A . sma l lest ang le ( L e . then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . J .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A . < 180° ) AxB =C . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. That is.
C.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. J. e < In fact A x B = . Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . then A X B = O. K are unit orthogonal vectors. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C.
Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .29) Scalar Triple Product.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C. BI C1 .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .
l 3) (C. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .B3 C) + A ( B3 C .21 4) C.3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.2.(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B . denoted b y A x (B x C) .(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below. 2.C.1 2) (C.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.2. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.2. The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K . The vector triple produce.
.with itself.... K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P... v C P K y . .. . " .. . ..... then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + .......... dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ....438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o ... thus .. x J Then the velocity relative to the (I.9..YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of ..
Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) . the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. VE LOCITY 439 which. In this special case then. dr v = .C. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path.T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. v = wT ..= .= .3 b.
EI. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. EI. Its geodetic latitude. p. latitude of the launch site.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . azimuth. From the 440 . azimuth rate. Az. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . D . longitude. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . The input to TRACK should be range. AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. The input to SITE should be latitude. range rate . elevation rate . and of the satellite (R and V). I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). positive to the east) of the launch site. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . elevation. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. The radar determines p.
08 30. 0) = (. END OF LSTIME . 6 .05 1 9 5238) .75 1 003 9 1 .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . .0027379093®2®PI®D . observation time and radar tracking data. 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . e .01 2035 7 5 . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 .044 1 8440.7 . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. BEGIN REAL D. INTEGER DAY. GST.5 3 0 .7 5. UT. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. 2 2 29.3 . . . UT. 5 7 5 for data set 3). .74933340. . .75 components are : (.26347 1 9 8 . LST. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . If the above program is used.57 76.5 1 35 . Following are five sample sets of data for site location. PI . GST.8 S 1 7 5.27907 599.775 1 80 1 9. 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. . 3 315 .63745829) z = . 040075. LST) .62624920) = (.D. .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT . Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .7 . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 .8 N 7 8 . REAL LONG. 8 0.5 . y.5 3 4 ON 4 5. DAY.07 1 05 .5 90 . GST _ 1 . 5. 1 4923608. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 .48 201. 9 W 0 1 9 05.2045 72 1 6 . = (. 007 N 1 04 .05 1 37. . E 7 2 . LST and LONG are in radians. 6 8 2.. PI.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . Input UT as a decimal (i. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . . 22 1 0. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI).74933340.
85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse .4 1 722472 .001 5 30 0 . b . 01 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. . 1 0 0 2 .293 . c. Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . 0) (.9 1 . 7 0 3 VK . From this information you are required to fmd : a.2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. d. hyperbolic).9 1 046 1 80. The type of trajectory (circular.707 .001 1 0 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach. 0 1 7 45 ..01 . 1 29579 1 9 .4 1 4 2.1 . 6 2 . elliptical. 05 . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth.2 VI . rectilinear. .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D.703 .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . 49 0 0 2. 48 4 0 2.9 0 2 0 . For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK).49 0 . 5 .1 0 22. .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29.8 .4 1 4 0 0 65 .5 0 . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. 00001 .6 0 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. parabolic.1 . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 .
use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . 61. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z).025 9 1 7 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.3 D. you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. 1 38878 . To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered.8 .5 0 0 . 1 5 0689 1 . 61 (calculated) . a . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. To determine when convergence has occurred. c.4 of the text for guidance . When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds.3 1 0 .5 . Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. b. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. x should never be greater than 2m. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 . RJ 61 . If your iteration process is efficient.jiL d. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. and dt/dx for each iteration.7 .0. Also for an ellipse. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods.5 .
w).6 for 1 :::. For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. One of the data sets tests this situation.t c l :::.00006057 .6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight... You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives.4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z.. 0 ... Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text.70655823. It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11').5 1 . 0.002 1 7 7 1 .. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . and sign (7T . Given r l ' r2 . 1 8 1 .. 1 0.1 . 1 65 08 . Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 ..9 20 ..01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 .. t :::.999 o 1 03 D. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. For instance note that y can never be negative . R2 V2 = (0. 0003 6 1 . If there is no convergence in 50 iterations..444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory. 00 1 074 . bt. . 1 06 1 0. I�I :::. 1 362596) = (0. I t . 3. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem..1 . For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points.
Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target.8 5 +1 .1 . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.6 .2 . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (. y.4804847 1 .6 . Also print t:J) and a for each data set .7 0 1 0 20 1 .3 . .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. 7 for further discussion o f this project .1 . Check for this case .. The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .S = (0. .0 .5 .201 . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem.6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 . time of radar observation. a message printed and you should go to the next data set . See section 5 .2 .4 . print out a message and go to the next data set .3 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.0001 +1 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 .6 .7 0 1 0 1 . and the location of an interceptor launch site . 1 2298 1 44.2 .3 .4 .9378 1 789) = 4.66986992.6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite.4 1 . location of the tracking site .1 specifies the long way. The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight. .2 1 . so a check should be made for that condi tion. The following data i s i n canonical units. D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT. 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = . x.66993 1 97 .6 .5 .4 .6 .7 . 1 .
e .3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . TRACK.45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . and the number of timeofflight increments desired . Make some provision to print out all of your input data. g. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . Times should be read in as minutes. f.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . d. When you point out your arrays. Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . c. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. KEPLER and GAUSS. the number of reaction times desired . Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. This will aid you in verifying your solution . Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . b . Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . To make your program flexible . Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. the desired increment size for reaction time . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 .
338 **** **** **** 10 8 . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 . 844 **** **** **** 35 7 .92 deg/sec 1 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No. The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9. When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .1 .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.038 .0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .74. of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .5 p = 1 86. You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .6 1 3 km EI = 56.0. 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.
LATL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL.
INDEX .
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4 1 . 296 geometry. 1 09 Angular momentum. B urnout. 4 gravitational h armonics. 6. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 24 height adjustment. 1 00. 5 8 Aristotle. 84. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 297299 451 . 2427 Apogee. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 74 BMEWS. 429 Astronomical Unit. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 1 8 3 mean. 2 1 . 3 9 0 station. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 423 Azimuth. 102 Apoapsis. 3 4 Collision cross section. 28 1 B arker's equation. 429 flattening. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 422 gravitational parameter. 3 5 8 . 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 9 3 . 3 6 1 miscellaneous.9 8 gravitational constant. 2 3 4. 94. 60 and universal v ariables. 84. 1 5 . 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 3 2 5 . 109 B akerNunn camera. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 3 3 period of. 1 09. 56 Celestial sphere. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 349 Angle of elevation. 9498 transformations. 203 Aphelion. 429 lunar distance. 1 8 5 true. 54 orbit plane. 74 geocentricequatorial. 1 8 8 . 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 1 4. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 5 3 . 74 right ascensiondeclination. 54 fundamental plane. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 4 3 0 Conversions. 84 ecliptic. 5 3 . 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 5358. Tycho. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 2 1 2 B asis. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 3 8 9 . 374 Computer projects. 3 2 3 masses. 24 Apparent solar time. 8 4 Copernicus.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 20.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 1 22.1 3 1 G auss problem. 277320 computation chart. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 7483 Coordinate systems. 5 5 heliocentric. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 4043 Celestial equator. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 60 Argument of periapsis. 5 7 principal direction. 1 620. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 57 perifocal. 246 Brahe. 279 C anonical units.
3 3 0 Ephemeris. 3 5 0 Epoch. 1 0 9 . 1 22. 2 9 . 2 3 0 f and g series method. 3 22 trajectories. 2 3 0 . 306 EarthMoon system. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 1 8 8 . 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 1 0 6 mean. 25 1 . 5 5 true anomaly a t . 2 1 ff. apparent. 26.3 0 6 numerical integration. 423 424 Earth oblate. 4 G ravitational parameter. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 3 6 8 local. 227 418 ( y ) . 4 1 9. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies.452 Declination.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 62 vector. 5 8 . 62 Ecliptic. function o f true anomaIles. 1 0 6 precession.3 3 pe. 2 1 2. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 1 8 1 . 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 3 90 . 4 Newton's law of. 56. 4 G alileo. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 8 7 . 25 1 258. 264 eccentric anomalies. 25. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. Elliptical orbits. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. Carl Fredrich. 58 from position a n d velocity. 1 8 2. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 1 8 8. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 7 G ravitational constant.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations.1 5 5 Direct motion. 1 1 7. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 60 Dot product. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 1 0 twobody. 8 0 f and g expressions. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time.2 1 2 parabolic. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian.3 9 6 Energy. 84. 2 9 7 . 3 1 . 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 1 4 0 . 54 Elements of orbit. 6 1 Elevation angle.1 4 3 . 1 60 low altitude. 3 5 . 2 1 2. 4 3 3 Drag. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 3 0 . 20 1 202 f and g series. 221 hyperbolic. 26 ff. 1 04 Escape speed. 22827 1 . 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 2 0 .93 . 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 1 7 equations. 2 4 . 9. 2 8 2 time.1 90. G auss problem. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables.riod o f . 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 2 3 3 . 9 4 Geoid. 40. 94 . 1 42. 60 true longitude at. 3 89 nbody. 2 1 . 1 0 3 G round track. 444 algorithm.1 1 6 Gravitation.1 3 1 Direct ascent. zenith angle. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 3 5 . 3 00 launching. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 1 54.
22. 1 52 Mass of planets. 3 59374. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 1 56 vector. 1 7 7. 3 1 6 Injection. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem.1 6 6.I N D EX H alley.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 3 69 . 3 7 0 Integration. 2 8 8 . true at epoch. 1 02 Mean solar time. 1 1 7 Latitude. J ohann. 2 7 7 . 3 24 . 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 3 64. 1 6 3 . 3 9 6 M otion.8 9 derivatives i n . 4. 234. 3 5 0 free return. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 2. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 1 8 8 .3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 8 Node ascending. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 3 9 6 constraints. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 1 25 Librations of Moon.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 8 9 . 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 58 regression. 3 1 Manned flight. 1 1 7 derivatives. 3 44 . 60 Latus rectum. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 1 0 2 Meridian. 3 7 9 . 3 80 Kepler. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 8 6 . 220 Mean motion. 3 26 orbital elements of. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. limitations. 1 03 Minor axis. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 20 Least squares solution. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 2 second. 1 0 1 . Edmund. 22 1 . 2 H alley's comet. 3 24326. 3 89 trajectories. 1 0 twobody. 2.3 05. 94 reduced.3 8 4 general coplanar. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 1 8 5 . 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 6. 1 57 Line of nodes. 5 1 . 1 4 1 . 3 8 . 2 6 5 27 1 . 1 5 6. 3 62 . 2 1 . 94 geodetic. 238. 5 8 Longitude. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 1 9 8 . 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. equations o f nbody. 207 I nclination. 62 . 1 . 5 Newton. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 1 7 Local sidereal time. 1 Kepler's equation. 3 69. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 3 9. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 2. 1 5 6. Isaac. 3. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. argument of at epoch. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 2 Heliocentric constants. 3 27. 60 Lunar trajectories. 6 rotation of. 62 longitude of ascending. numerical rotation of. gravitational parameter.1 8 1 first. 9 9 . 7. 3 65 noncoplanar. 3 0 3 . 6 . 247 Newton's laws. Greenwich. 3 1 Moon. 2. 1 5 1 .9 3 Mu ( � ) . 1 80 third. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 1 4 1 . 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 3 57 .
1 90 Numerical integration.3 44 Periapsis. 22727 1 Orbit plane. 1 62 O rbit. 443 algorithm. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 6 1 from sighting directions. 58 Perifocal coordinate system.454 Nu (v ) . 440448 Q parameter. 83 from optical sightings. 2 4 Periselenium.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 3 6 1 shape of. 424 R ange and rangerate data.3 9 6 variation of parameters method.1 50. two body.1 22 from position and velocity. 1 3 Rendezvous. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. true anomaly. 1 5 1 . 3 44 .3 7 9 lunar. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 20. 3 24 . flightpath angle. 2 1 2 computer solution. 9 3 . 4 1 2425 errors. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 1 1 7 . 3 24 . 34. 4 1 9 .3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 3 3 Perturbations. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 1 5 6 .1 22. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 20 Polar radius. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 60 Right ascension. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 2 0 . 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 58 determination from position and velocity. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 2 1 . 1 0 9 Rectification. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 1 69 Orbit determination. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 423 due to the moon. 3 1 . 1 09 . 203. 56. 4 1 4 sum squared. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 26527 1 Residuals. 3 9 0 Parabola. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 5 1 . 3 8 6 general. 420 c riteria for choosing. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 3 4 1 Period. 1 9 3 . 2 1 .1 59 examples. 57 Perigee. 2 4 . 3 3 3 . 1 1 7. 3 8 7 .3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 24 height adjustment. 3 9 0 Relative motion. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 1 0 3 P rojects. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 1 1 7 .9 8 Optical sensors. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 424 thrust. 3 90 . 3 60 physical characteristics. 1 62 . 6 1 o f moon. 1 1 Retrograde motion. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on.3 9 0 Encke's method. 94 Potential energy reference. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 1 6 Potential function. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 425 Phi ( � ) . 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter.1 76 inplane changes. 220 classical formul ations. 2427 argument of. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 5 symbols. 3 59 . 27 1 273 from three position vectors.
1 8 (see Nbody . 20. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 9 3 . 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 1 03 local sidereal. 425 Time. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 2062 1 0 use of.1 0 9 apparent solar. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 1 9 1 225. 2 1 at epoch. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 1 3 2. 1 02.1 8 8 .1 69 Hohmann. 9. 1 52 Station coordinates. 5 radio interferometers. 30.1 6 6 True anomaly. 85 Traj ectory equation. 1 0 3 universal.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters.1 40 errors. 1 8 1 . 9 9 . definition of. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 1 6. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 2 8 8 . 23. 6. 8 6 . 43 1 4 3 9 cross product.1 4 assumptions. 4 3 3 triple product. 3 1 Sensors. 9 Sidereal time.1 0 4 Solar system.4 3 9 d o t product. 1 0 1 . 1 0 3 Universal variables. 40 Unit vectors. 9 9 . 1 3 8 optical. 1 5. 3 60 physical characteristics. 7 Universal time. 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 44 1 mean solar. 4 3 7 . 58 Semi minor axis. 99.1 9 0 if. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 1 6 Sputnik. 2 8 7 maximum range. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 99. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 1 6 6. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 1 6 3 .8 9 derivatives in. 287 low. 1 0 1 . 4 3 1 Velocity.9 8 of planets. 1 9 1 . canonical. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 1 1 .4 3 9 Velocity components. 3 5 8 . 2 1 7 parabola.3 59 orbital elements. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 4 3 7 . 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 1 8 1 . 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 5 8 Time zones. 40. 1 9 1 development of. 4 3 7 unit. 4. 1 60 Synodic period.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 1 3 6 radar.1 40 Selenocentric. 1 9 high. 1 3 1 . 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 3 6 1 Solar time. 425 Thrust perturbation. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 1 8 8 universal variables. 8 4 . 1 1 Units. 3 27. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 20 Semimajor axis. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 1 8 8 . 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 23. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 1 3 1 . 1 3 5 ellipse. Universal gravitation. 1 7 5 general coplanar.
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