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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
J . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.D.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P . D. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged. Ronald Chaney ( artist) . Jan Irvine . Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin.B. .R. United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.M. Dorothy Fryar .E.W.
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. . . .. . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . 1 . . . . 93 . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 2. . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . . . . 1 .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . .2 The NBody Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . List of References . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . 5 . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . 1. . . . 1 09 . . . . 1 01 . . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ 1 . . . . . . . . . 14 . 2. . . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . 2 . 61 . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . . . 1 . 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . 1 . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . 2 . . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . . 1 . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . 1 17 ix . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . 2 . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . 1 49 . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . 4 . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . xi 5 .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . . . 3 20 . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . . . . . . . 277 6. . 3 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . 3 85 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . . . . 3 84 . . 359 . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 . . . . Histor ical Background . . . . . . . 27 1 . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . .2 The Solar System . . . . 277 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . . . . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . . . . 8. . 321 321 3 22 . List o f Re ferences . . . . 26 5 . . . .4 7. . . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . 297 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 . . . . . 25 1 . List of Reference s . . . . . . 279 6 . . . . . . 357 . . . . . List of References . . . . 380 . . . . . . . . 8 . . .2 The EarthMoon System . .1 Historical Background . . . . . .1 9. . . . 344 352 355 . . . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 . 7 . . . 3 87 9. . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. 333 . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . 390 . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem .1 8. . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . 8 . . . . . . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . . . . . . Exerc ises . . . . .
. . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 449 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. the poor and sickly mathematician. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. Newman! . was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. the year Galileo died.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. 1 642 . he might have been put into a quart mug. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. as his mother told him in later years. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. JarnesR. the noble and aristocratic Dane. Tycho.CHAPTER 1 TWO.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. Kepler. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that.
is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. TWO. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. with the sun at a focus . Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . therefore . It fit. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. discoverer of Halley's comet. Since the time of Aris totle .BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. Finally . One day in 1 685 . The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times .1 Still.1 Kepler's Laws. not an explanation of planetary motion . Kepler's laws were only a description. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. necessarily moved in circles. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 .1. The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. 2 1.
In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. they speculated whether a force . 4 1. more simply. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. of course . Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . in ellipses." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. or . The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . 1 . Give me a few days and I shall find it for you.1.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. Dissatisfied with this explanation. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere.Sec. when he recovered from his shock. t he Principia. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. casually posed the question. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. "Why. without mentioning the b et. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries .
67Ox 1 0. has the value 6. 1 . 1 2) Fg = .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system. The universal gravitational constant.G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m.1.3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.1 . 1 . . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . 1. .4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. " Figure 1 .'�V . . Note that equation ( 1 .1 ..11 Newton's Law of Motion . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. .1 . . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.12) t o equat i.n ( 1 .1 ) (1 .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 . / . G. • . .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.
e. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body..2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. .. . . An important force.. j. .. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present.II I I I " I I I I :. a lunar or interplanetary probe.. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . At any given time in its j ourney. m2 • m3 m m.. X I .�I '. 1. I " '. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}.e. In addition.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . propellants) to pro duce thrust. etc. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies.Sec 1. I I I Figure 1. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body .. thrust and solar radiation pressure . the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. or a planet). . an earth satellite . the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i.
. Y.. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion.. These effects. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator.1 . Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. 1 equator.2' The NBody Problem Figure . Thus. • • • z FOTHER . 2. are discussed in Chapter 3 . this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. Although small.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 .���Y � X n 1. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X.
3) Obviously . The v ector sum. m'J JI 3 (rj j) . .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. etc . thrust. of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. .2 ·1 is T composed of drag. . perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself. F gn where =  Gm .Se c 1. II 3 (1.2. The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 .. (1.5 ) The other external force .2. the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn .2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . equation ( 1 . Fg. solar radiation pr essure. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r .
is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0.. (1.. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL..26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch... Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time . z coordinate system.27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.I) and all other external forces .28 would not be zero .1 + F OTHER ' (l . it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma. y ..28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 .2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.. ...F I dt TOTAL dt (1. In other words. Thus. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL.I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x .
1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. Equation (1 . differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form.11) 2.2.29) reduces to = r· 1 n . It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions.29) is a second order . 1 2 The remaining masses m3 . expelling mass or relativistic effects. nonlinear.Sec 1 . ( 1.2.. m . unpowered flight.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . vector.2. The only remaining forces then are gravitational.2. m· J (�i) . mn may be the moon. Y. mi 0). Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.2.10) ( .. Equation ( 1 .1 0) for i = 1. sun and planets . equation ( 1 .G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc .1 2) . we get j = j � *i 1 3 . Then writin g equation 1 .G And for i = 0 . r JI.. ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system .
1 4) gives.22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.1 From equation ( 1 .2. ..2.2 1 6) each bracket.1 2) into equation ( 1 . 2.G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1. .21 1 ) and ( 1 . Since r 1 2 = . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 . n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence. 2 1 7 ) .
3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 .89 6x l 0 4 2. To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite . The bodies are spherically symmetric . 1 x l 0 10 3. This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers.9x l O 8 7 .3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. 1. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. Table 1 . 1 . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . . sun and planets on a near earth satellite .2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon .3. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. mi orbit about the earth. COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 .2x l O 8 2.1 Simplifying Assump tions.6x l O lO 1 .Sec.3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies. Howe ver . Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison.
Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. remains always similar and irrnovable. . Y'. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1. 1 .3. " s However.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 .3.3. 3 2 ) . Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. Y'. Let (X. Y. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 .12 TWO.2 The Equation of Relative Motion. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. 1 2.1 . Let (X'. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . For the time being..1 ) (1 . we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. Y' . N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . Y'. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. without relation to anything external. which "in its own nature. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'.
. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. or space probes orbiting about 3 r .Sec. Y.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r.33).31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. Y. Z) with its origin in the central body. Note that since the coordinate set (X.32) from equation (1.31) we have = _ r . Y'.33) . 1. Z'). Y'. and acceleration in a nonrotating. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. velocity. ballistic missiles. GIM+ml r Equation (1.y X' Figure 1 . Y. (1 . Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. Z'). Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. Note that this is the same as equation (1.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem.
called the gravitational GM. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs.14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. If m is not much less than M. Then equation 1 . If you think ab out the model we have created. Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). 3 ·4 ) ." for another form called "potential energy . Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. M. will be much less than that of the central body .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion." That is. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. 1 some planet or the sun. It is convenient to define a parameter. m. the mass of the orbiting body ." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation .3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . 1. "kinetic .3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 .
4 frame (the large mass) does not change . then 1 . v =r and v= f. which appears in .SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . 5.Sec. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . ( 1 . The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . If the time rate of change of an expression is zero . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. Therefore. C. 1.4.!!. To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. N 0 tlcmg that . dt 1:L = O. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa .lL\I r dt JJ.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. But what about the arbitrary co nstant . 1 . 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O .r ) = � r �(r . v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. r 2. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O .1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy.
 ( 1 . do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. rX . in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy .iL (rxv) = O. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . O. In other words. The expression for � is �.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . �.2 Conservation of angular momentum. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . r. the earth. Since in general a x a= 0.4.g. therefore . 3 4) by r 2 . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. Noticing that . at what distance . If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. that the specific mechanical energy. dt .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. e . of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit .fL 3 . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. We conclude .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity .42) 1 .
" "Up" simply means away . we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v.43) v I h = r x v. we have shown that the specific angular momentum. Therefore . of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec.The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. 1 . (1 . Therefore . We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. I Figure 1 . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h.41 Flightpath angle . h. called specific angular momen tum.
So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. In an inertial coordinate system. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). I h = rv c o s ¢. r = 12. V =5.8143 r • v > 0 . " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. the zeni th angle .420 . and the specific angular momentum.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector. however. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. h. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle .0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. Ch. J and K are unit vectors.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1.4. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. ¢. 1 85 2 1 + 6.2778 J + 1 0 . 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma).899 X 107 ft. Determine the specific mechanical energy . &.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5.5936 1 + 5 . Also find the flight·path angle. = 0. • ( 1 . v.7 1 37J+O. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are .8143 = 35. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . (4. ¢.4274I+2. respectively.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . c o s ¢=Jl. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth.
times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v ..51) The left side of equation (1. (1..33) is simple. �t (B· .1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. its complete solution is not.& .. While this equation (1. we see that J!:.Sec..5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity.3 3 r r r since r • i = f .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 . h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ. Also note that J. err. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain.I.( r) r.. JJ.5.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ. (h xr) =. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. . 1 . You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4.1!y r . 1 .
. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. 5. in general.54) . v.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. +(81J. c and a . we obtain = 1 h2 /g . V." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1.54) . h2 where vector r.53) 1 . . r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B .. I r 1 + e cos V p (1.9 cos V (1. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. + r o Since. (1. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. Equation (1.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section.
the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. cp. potential and kinetic. not just ellipses. 2.5.41 and equation (1 . 3. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. 4 . As r and v change along the orbit.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. Before discussing the factors . We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 .3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. must change so as to keep h constant.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. remains constant. Although Figure 1. (See Figure 1 . the flightpath angle. however.44) 1 . The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. 1. ellipse. There is. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. parabola.Sec. an exchange of energy between the two forms. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8.51 illustrates an ellipse. 5 .
Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). the section is an ellipse.5 2 illustrates this definition . A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general.52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines . The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. or a single point. If. the section is a parabola. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Figure 1. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. 1 Figure 1 . If the plane cuts both nappes.
Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci.53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . Figure 1 .5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . The secondary or vacant focus. The prime focus. F. F and F'. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. F'. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion .Sec 1 .53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections.
a. ( 1 . for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . is c�lled the semimaj or axis. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative .55) p = a (1 .5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning.54)).5 3 ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. Thus.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics." "perihelion" or "aphelion. The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . The dimension. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. In the parabola.e2)." etc.
53). In the derivation of equation ( 1 . we encountered the vector constant of integration.58) 1 .1 0) .= a( 1 +e) .Sec . ( 1 . 1. the trajectory equation. e = BltL. 5. since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. 1 ( 1 .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 . Quite obviously. By comparing equations ( 1 . 5.53) and ( 1 .59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . . which points toward periapsis.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe. tL r ( 1 .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e).4 The Eccentricity Vector. B. 1e ( 1 . ..52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !.
v. 1. ( 1 . progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. is equivalent to increasing h.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. is zero. By comparing equation ( 1 . Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms.1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. Therefore. we get • p. e .61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). /or any orbit.5.(r .p. 1 . r  r .p. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. h. By inspection.. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum.6.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. e = V x (r x v) . p. Figure 1 . If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. of the satellite. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . th . AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. ( 1 . e = ( v v ) r .1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased.. v)v. r r p. x v.6 RELATING &. and that as h is .53) and equation ( 1 .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. equation ( 1 . v ) v .
�' " .. We can then write..F �. of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .e ) . = �. p. (1 .1 ) predicts .increased the parameter. Figure 1 .62) we obtain &.. . is zero.  .�= � . . . v. 57) p rp = a(1 . R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. 1 01) .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle. I '.44). r I . .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . as a corollary to equation ( 1 . . .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 .6.62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . .
or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in.63) misleading. of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit). the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). a. of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy .a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l .e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive.1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. 1 and from equation ( l .5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . the energy of a satellite (negative . Figure 1 . Thus. Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a.28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . &.6. Many students find equation ( 1 .56) and equation (1 . This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative .6. zero. You should study it together with Figure 1 . while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative .1 ) therefore p.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.
. if & is zero . 9 n . 2& = 3 . Determine its altitude at apogee. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. 64) Notice again that if & is negative. m i .897  e2 ) = 3.. The student should be aware of this pitfall. m i .  a=  '!:. specific mechanical energy. . Namely.5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . 6 . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008.1 and perigee altitude 200 n . 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. semilatus rectum.2 Determine its specific angular momentum.0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. 3 n .Jf5P. = 6. & = 2 . all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. e is greater than I (a hyperbola).Sec 1 . 0 . mi.7 n . R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. if & is positive . e is exactly 1 (a parabola). and semimaj or axis. r p = rES + 200 = 3643. ra = 1 � e = 4453.. For a given satellite . and specific angular momentum. m i . e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) .
An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. Since an ellipse is a closed curve.855 = 6 . the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa. 1 n. an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . I ( 1 . 2a = r a + r = 8097. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .7 . specifically r + 1 .r Ell = 1 009.7· 1 . 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. h =. the distance between the foci is ( 1 .m i .7·2) . The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.= 2. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . = 5.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. 1 .JpjJ.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses.mi. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a . We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. ( 1 .7· 1 ) B y inspection. When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that.
7 .7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll. If you refer to Figure 1 . 2 ( 1 . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 . equation ( 1 .75) which. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 . Since r + r' = 2a.74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.Sec.7.7.horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v. Using equation ( 1 . e is defined as combine to yield da. 2 b. in general.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 .1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 .2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit. when rearranged .73) ( 1 . you will see that the .72.76) .72) and ( 1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point. 1 .71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since.1 .
is given by the expression So.76) as ( 1 .73 Differential element of area .77) dt 2 = 11 dA. d v.32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. we can rewrite equation ( 1 . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. 1 Figure 1 . d A. Figure 1 .
so equation ( 1 . a.79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 .79).Sec. the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius.8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit.79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 .8 . Integrating equation ( 1 . Equation ( 1 . the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis.8. Thus. ( 1 .77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . since h = /JlP. 1 . From equations ( 1 .1 ) 1 . proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a.e2 ) = JaP and. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . incidentally. 55) and ( 1 . 1 Circular Satellite Speed.78) b =) a 2 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed.75). 1 .8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . Naturally. Of course. During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 .
2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again. the periapsis radius is just r 1 .9. 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 .1 . We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 .82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit .000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.1 Geometry of the Parabola.9. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola.000 ft/sec.9. circular speed is about 26 .1 ) .34 TWO .9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . rCS' from the energy equation. Another is that. F or a low altitude earth orbit. 1 . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know.
= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   . from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � ." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed. 1 ." 1 . first at a general point a distance . Theoretically. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory. as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . Of course.2 Escape Speed.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 .E.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .57). Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity.Sec.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. r. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back.9.92) .
407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 .1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1.92) =21 . 5 7).000 ft/sec. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. 8.400 nm above the surface it is only 26. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. b . The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : ..) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. 36 TWO . Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 .Since the specific mechanical energy. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. a. As you would expect. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. 53374 106 ft = = 36. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets.1 57.1/2a. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude . = j. the semimajor axis.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . a. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J.
m i .amr iO.Sec. 1 .9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . rb i t P 7087.53374 106 ft 2 43.8 n. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. 06748 106 ft 7087. 8n. m i . where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .
1 1 .1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located).38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . 1 .1 ) . 1 0. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . (L l O. F . b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . If. then the righthand branch represents the orbit. The parameters a. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. Obviously. A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . 1 0. The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). instead. If we consider the lefthand focus.
The turning angle .1 . If. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . 1 0.0. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. 1 0.. This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . V 00' . which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . the smaller will b e the turning angle . The angle between the asymptotes. 1 . on the other hand.for the hyperbola. 1 . 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value .but since Sec. 0. 1 02) becomes ( 1 . we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 .
1 (1 . absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. Astronomers call thi� ' ." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. 1 . In other words.3 Sphere of Influence. 1 . e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. however. the concept is convenient and is widely used. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. for all practical purposes it has escaped. a million miles) from earth. we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. 1 0. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. It is a fact. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . It is. of course . that once a space probe is a great distance (say . This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit.
In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . then the value of the gravitational parameter. 5 9362 5 . Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . 1 . 1 . 1 The Reference Orbit. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 .Sec. p. earth. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices.x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting.l." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . J. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\.1 . 1 1 . moon. For other problems where the earth. e. will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . r a' r p' . This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. or other planet. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Using canonical units determine & . or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. h. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . 1 1 .
5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. � = . 1 67 D U �/T U � = . [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 .1 . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . Alt = .42). 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 5 D U e �2 _ /J.
4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 . 25D U EB = 4.58) Find r p from equation (1. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .61) Find h from equation (1. 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 5 D U = 9. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.= 4 .5 7)  r a = 1 e p.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t. 1 . = 3.Sec.64) Find ra from equation (1. 5 D U ". = 2..
2K DU 2 /TU . 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem.000 ft/sec and 4 . in general. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. 1 . 1 .44 TW O.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . (Answer : e = 1 . 1 EXERCISES 1 . 6 J 1 . 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. Why. Find the period of the orbit. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a.000 n mi. .1 . b .. The orbit eccentricity is 0.1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . Find the specific energy of the trajectory. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft.2. c. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . Find the eccentricity of the orbit. 2J AK IJK h = AI . &= . Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. a. Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 .3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. respectively. 5 81) 1 .
1 . 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24.000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. 354 10" r 1 .000 ft) with a velocity of 25.Ch .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. D U /T U DU e. p 1.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. 91 J space. ¢ =3 = 1 . What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. (Ans.5 rpe r i gee = 1 . a a. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . mi during descent? (Ans. 1. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). r v c.6 18 = 59° 58') . p b. 4K r r v = . elliptical.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular.5 DU DU DU d. 0 1K v = l + l . &. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . r x ft ) = 3. V ft/sec. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . 2K + . 7 Prove that d.123K = 1 . Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. hyperbolic.
1 5 Starting with: m k fk = .46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points. b . p = 2. 1 .000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. p = 6.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . p = 6. e=O e = . 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. (Neglect atmo spheric drag. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. c.6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . derive values for e for circles. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0.2 e = . e. Determine the maximum altitude attained.000 ft. d .) 1 . 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. P 1 . p = 2. 1 2 Given that e = �. ellipses and a hyperbolas. p = 3.
2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. c. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans .6. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. 1 . 207 1 .1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a.V O U EB /TU EB ) . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v.Ch . * 1 . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. Show that : b. 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. rc = at +b = 0. What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 .
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section .4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system.2. Yw '+. a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. 2 . Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane .24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. 2 . Q and W respectively.Xw UK vectors. When describing a heliocentric orbit . Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit .Sec. you may use the same Figure 2.
in the plane of the satellite's orbit. p. w.the angle from to periapsis measured h. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. time of periapsis passage . measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . 2. e. 3 .the time when the satellite was at periapsis. Obviously . K I I . is substituted for a in the above list. the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. Another system. shape and orientation of an orbit . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. Similarly. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit .the angle . The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . 4 . between the ascending node and the periapsis point.1 as follows : 1 . 6. 5 .58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .3. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. Q longitude of the ascending node. a. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. 2 . T. i. in the fundamental plane . Frequently the semilatus rectum. Instead of argument of periapsis. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . if you know a and e you can compute p. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors.
31 Orbital elements . 2 .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.Sec.
From Figure 2. then both w and Uo are undefined. '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde .31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde.3. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . 1 £0 £0 + . between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . then b oth W and n are undefined.1 ) . between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 .60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch ." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . (2 . both of which are always defined ." Direct means easterly. 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n.3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. earth. w and va are all defined. then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . in the plane of the orbit. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. This is the dire ction in which the sun. n=n+w. to ' called the "epoch.
n. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . To be perpendicular to h.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . t o . 2. n and e.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product .41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. n an d e. The node vector.4. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. h. n must be perpendicular to both K and h. h. 2. 2 . To be perpendicular to K. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . n would have to lie in the orbital plane.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . vI vJ v K J (2 .4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec.42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. Therefore .
We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: .1 1 )).S . between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . An understanding of it is essential to what follows .1 . p. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 .3. Study this figure carefully . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2.46) Of course . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . ex. The vector. 2.4.1 ) (2 . The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. We are only interested in its direction.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . is obtained from (2 ." Specifically . n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements.4.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . In general. Now that we have h. h. The parameter. All three vectors. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us.4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . e. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . the cosine of the angle . 2 nodes.
48) 5 .) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° . (2 . (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .' (2.4.49) 6.) c o S Po = � er (2 . � � h.47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .4..L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .1 0) 7 . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2. Since Vo is the angle between e and f.. Since w is the angle between n and (2.) . Since i is the angle between K and h.4 3 .1 1) .:. Since n is the angle between I and n.Sec. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4. c o s U o = !!. 2. 2 . Since Uo is the angle between n and f .) e.
3 . 2 z x 8 . The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now.1 and study it until they do .4. .64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . look at the geometry of Figure 2 . Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2.1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v. The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). If they don't make sense to you.
5 DU e == . VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations. Figure 2.Sec. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 .42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1.
\ . 2 3 Figure 2 .5 e == .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .4 DU p == .
4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1. 2.Sec.
i..47) = . Using equation (2. ml .i:. Find p using equation (2 . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . 7 75 ...= 4D U = 13. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. From equation (2.68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . f. [ ( f. n.6.7 4n . Find inclination.. ) r .4.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 .1 ) p = . EEl . .45 ) Since h =. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node . using equation (2 .(r .1.l h2 . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). Find eccentricity. e.I:!:. Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 .
From equation (2 .Sec. II. = cos .41 0) v a c os. Find argument of periapsis. From equation (2. va.49) W n · e W.:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However .n = COS . since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . .= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis. 4 . 2 ..  Find longitude of periapsis.1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore . can be determined in this case.. is undefined. Find true anomaily .1 (.!!. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . for this case . Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .n. II.1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 .
. 2 Find true longitude o f epoch. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=. EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .m i . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) . = From equation (2. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .85 n .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.E)r(r . From equation (2.45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .5 . v)v] =.  then from equation ( 1 .33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch ..1 ) Find e..25 EB EB D U EB 7748.6.
5 Find the inclination. .43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 . I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 . va : From equation (2. From equation (2.I Find the true anomaly . From equation (2 .1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.Sec.5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.4.49) w: 0 W = cos.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n . 2.
n. changes with time . lV. 8. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. n. w and v.to.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 . 2. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2.24): ro to. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. . 2 elements are given. Of the se six elements. v. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time .5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 .ffe si n V (2. that occurs in a given time .5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . The method. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set.5 2) . i.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. shown below. Let ' s assume that we know p. consists of two steps. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. 8. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p.5. w and va . In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. i .72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .
54) from equation r (2.54) r = J � [.Sec.25 45{) (2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v). 5P DU E9 (2. v �[.5 i= p 2.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2. Before equation (2. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system. 2.
have a definite starting point . Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. east . and it still represents the same thing. east." 2. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing.6. Certain vectors. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . direction . east a!1d up. suppose you know the south. 2 2. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. For example." The phrase in quotes describes what the . changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . For example . or what it represents. namely. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. its fundamental (xy) plane . It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . In other words. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . the direction of the po sitive zaxis. vector represents. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components).74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . suppose you know the south. such as position vectors. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does.
61) . 2. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. y ����. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . : r Y I ex a .Sec. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. and extending along the x. ���________� • . Figure 2.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S . Let us imagine three unit vectors I. V and W along the x ' ." In other words.61 illustrates the two frames. y' and z ' axes.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. Figure 2. 2. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.6." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite.y Y 75 . Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis.
J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2. 2 From Figure 2.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch .64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .61 we can see that the unit vectors U.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix. 65) .62) above and equating it with (2.6.1 ) yields I. (2. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis.
67) yields the set of equations (2 . derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes.64) above .69) '" axis.67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2. 2 .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex . 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis. . These are summarized belox:: .6.66) (2. 68) B '" (2. (2 . Rotation about the xaxis.Sec. The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.
We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) . Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . 2 (2. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . 1 ).78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.7 .6. Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes.4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes.61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame . Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . Figure 2. a.
AB =1= SA ). all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order).!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . We can write equation (2. (i.61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. 2. Equation (2.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e .61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. Now. . The inverse of any orth. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . The transpose of the matrix D . denoted by D .6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e .cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.Sec. Fortunately. Hence . In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate.e. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors.1 .
basis no ma t . 62.."... m1 " fo. gl " n i lly . 6. 2 (2.Eq to th e IJ K in at . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce .. O c M ma t. th.6 .ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . d w . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am .". sh ow n in F ig u " Th . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 .n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a .1 2) Figure 2 . to p' ter ho w co no.". anglo . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. d wi th . th' O ugh w hi ch on . 6. P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. By me mo C. axes in to CO ham . 5 Tmn . a bl . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th .sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . d th yo u will b . n t rizing th . 'o ta t. a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. Perifo ca l to th e G Th ." a ny mp licat e d .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK . tluee b . mu " in cid 'n ce b .
Thus if a i ' aJ .. For example .. 2 .. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit . To . R..63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. then Sec .63.. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems... .The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. from Figure 2. Figure 2. aQ. a K and ap ..
P K · P In Figure 2.sin n sin w cos i R12 = R .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Similarly. the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .63 . J and K Thus R = J . B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides.sin n sin w cos i .1 3) i.cos n sin w . since I and P are unit vectors.6. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. a �. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I.1 4) R23 = . 2 from their dot product . I • p I · Q J . Q I ' W J · W K . Now a. The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. ! • P.cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .6.sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .
relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components.Sec . Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. 2 . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements.1 ) and (2.5 . Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . . V. In this case either n or w or both are undefined. 2.5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical.
2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame .7 . 7 . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south.7. If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . the rate at which range is changing. 2. The azimuth angle . The unit vectors S. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. AZ .1 .7 . It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. can also be measured.84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . E and Z shown in Figure 2 . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. Az. the elevation angle . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. EI. The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. is measured clockwise from north . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . p. (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted .( N o rt h ) 2.1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.
1 ) where . from the geometry of Figure 2.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2. Thus.75) . E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . Az. E I .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. 2.7 4) = + P (2 . From Figure 2.and EO/. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El.7 . p.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI. /l!L. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .1 . = Ps PE = P cos Pz.72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. Sec.73) E l (B I ). We will express the po sition vector as (2 .7. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r.7 .72 we see that r (2 .
72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2. For the moment we will assume that equation (2 . Unfortunately. The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . 2 J topo centric frame . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth.76) .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v.86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .
If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . EB x f. 2 .77) . It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . Figure 2. the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . Therefore . (2 . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence".Sec.74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame .73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f.
Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.707 o .1 = [. is 2 S E + . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 .6 1 2 .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 .3535 .E + 1 .866 . 3535 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.707 . 5 Z (units are DU).88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 300 N Lat . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth .5 J .612 . 5Z (Given) [). 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Figure 2.612) r = R + P = 2S .
Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. z). K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial.7.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. z) system (Figure 2 . then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . v.75 ) .7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems. The unit vectors D. Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system .9 1 81 + 2. It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. . y. y. (2. however. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . I =J =K=O.. w) . V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero .79) J. 2. rotating with respect to the (x. 332J  ..Sec.982K .4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . (2.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. We will denote this quantity by w. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u.
.1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA.7.1 0) reduces further to . Similarly. equation (2 . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U.71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . Hence . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . equation (2 . The remaining terms of equation (2. V = w x V and W = w x W . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .7. R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . . Hence . .
.... Equation (2... .. v v.75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA..71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector.. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u. .. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u . ... .. y..LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 ...... " F i xed " System ( x. .. 2 . . . �:.1 2) ...7...... z) '. . dt R I (2 .y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ ....Sec.. W) Figure 2..1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q.7.
1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .7.1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 . (2 .7.1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .7. (2 . 2 iLl F = ." Ioox.7 .) .9!.7.7 .1 3) into equation (2 . Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.1 2) to the po sition vector r.7.where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame . The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 . Equation (2 . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .7 .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +. 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .7.F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .
8. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. In the model which has been adopted. Sections parallel to the equator are . We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. ae . however . The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. 2. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. Therefore . Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. It is known .8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. If the earth were perfectly spherical.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. 2 . of course . We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid.) 2. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level.Sec. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. circles.
The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude .08182 == km km L La L . When you are given the latitude of a place . Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378.8. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) .2 The Measurement of Latitude. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude .94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Consider Figure 2." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated . The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude.1 . it does complicate the concept of latitude. 2. 1 45 6356. the difference between L and is usually negligible . 2. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior.3 Station Coordinates.8. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter .8.785 0.
!! o . Thus. c.8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . O . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 .8 .82.Sec..1 ) . 4 km Figure 2. It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude .. The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . 2 . the "reduced latitude ..82 . L . / (2." which is illustrated in Figure 2.
Ch . c:  0) x Figure 2.. for any ellipse .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz.and e = da. z . 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 .1:  (2 .96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But .. Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. / . I C.82) . a2 . 0 O D. b e =a e V� = b2 + d.
8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse .Sec:.85) . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . Thus. = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2. (2 . 2 . 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = . (2.
it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 .8 8) . If the Greenwich sidereal time . From Figure 2.98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .8.4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components.85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . elevation above mean sea level. sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude . 2 ( 2 .86) L. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . {1. {1 ' is known .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. (2 . The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point .8 7) 2. The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.
" The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . L.3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . 2 .89) .Sec . If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . Although Figure 2. the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2.8.84 shows a spherical earth. the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t.
84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth .8 .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components. For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction . 2 j i Figure 2 . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year . From (2 .1 0) .
Sec.9 equation (2 . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. so .9. 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. 2. 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 .9 . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6.00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .6. (2 . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n .1 2) .1 2) and a s ' a E .8. it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . a Z If a l .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () .1 . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. 2 . When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . This should be made clear by F igure 2. A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .
a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2.1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . when the earth is near perihelion. we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . So far.09054 mean solar seconds .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . In early January. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure .
The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. or Zulu (Z) time.Sec.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. 2.9. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) .3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known .is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . . If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . 2 . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours.9. if it . 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . For example . This relationship is illustrated on page 99. Universal Time (UT).2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . Thus. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2.
0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . we express time in decimal fractions of a day." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1. 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. Ephemeris and 2. in addition. m i n .9.4 Precession of the Equinoxes. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . 8 9=8 9 0 1 . ° 229421 1.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1.
As the earth' s axis precesses. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . 2 .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 .Sec .. the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 . the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. the equatorial plane is not . Due to the asphericity of the earth. so the lunarcaused precession has this same period. the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun.000 year s . .6 year s . Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic. 0 0 0 y rs " ..6 years. However .. The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge.92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars....z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . The period of the precession is about 2 6." with a perio d of 1 8 . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . 6 yrs I Figure 2. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation .
2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .296° H = 6 .1 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 . Day  = Long o 57 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 00 1 From section 2 . at 0600 GMT. 5 7 .74933340 = 1 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . 6 24 5 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. 25 8=8 g + A = .296 degrees west longitude .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.00 1 + L= 0 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . x= [ z= � ae + � .6245 rad ians o 9 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included.378km = 0 .
4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .6245 )1 + 1 .(0.4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 . Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .74) .2D UES = (0. 00 1 c o s(S.72) PE p Pz Ps = . 2 . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.6971 + .6245) = .From equation (2. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .7 1 SJ + OK Sec.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.346E + O. 00 1 (S.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0. 0.
3.1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2. 1 08 Ch .73 p + (O.433 .0588K) From equation (2 . 3.0E + 1 .77) v = [� ] [ J 0.46 D U /T U (0.610.73D U/TU p e = Hence 3. 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .�� lO.25 0.0 1 .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.73Z D U (T U r = 0.0.84J .346J + 1 .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.1 .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .46 P =D1 .7·5 ) From equation (2 .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .5 1 . 0.346E + l .1 .061 .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .8 .(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .Ps = .8 . 46 = 0.46S .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.866 0.(0.4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .1 .
and the orb it is uniquely determined.0. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . W. As Baker S points out .Sec. Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . Figure 2.232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. may be lacking.081 . In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. EI . Gibbs is. well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 .3. p . f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. 2 . of course . 2. k.8J . Ai. Ei.
5 4).r. Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . 1 04) . 1 05) (2 .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. Notice that C2 may now be divided out. 1 03) by f3 X r l . (2 . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. 2 fine scholar . Q and W. 1 06) Multiply (2 . Dotting (2 . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . 1 02) gives (2 . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 0.1 ) successively by fl . 1 0. 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 04) (2 .1 ) by (2 . we can show that : e ' f = p . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . equation ( 1 . (2 . (2 . 1 0.r 3 ) = 0 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . 1 03) Cross (2. 1 08) . then u sing (2 . 1 05 ) and (2 . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . and the definition of a dot product .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section.
provided N . equation (2 . (2 .1 4) (2 . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. D = N P = O' N (2 .1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . Since P.1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. 1 0. then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. i.1 3) : (2 .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . (2. N and D have the same dire ction.e .Let the right side of (2 .1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . 1 0. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. . (2 . 1 0. Therefore . 2 .1 5) . 1 09) D. 1 0. 1 0 pD = N . 1 0. 1 0.
( f  r + e) .r t ) f2 + ( rt . 1 0. 1 0. Before solving the problem.1 7) to find e. (2 . 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 . 1 020) to find P.1 6) .52) we can write i X h = p. 1 02 1 ) . 1 0. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. since NeQ = pS.1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. However . and (2 . 1 020) Thus. 1 0. Therefore. From equation ( 1 . 1 0.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 .1 9) Since P. (2 . 1 0.1 7) W Q = S S N (2 .1 9) to find W. N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . N and S vectors.1 8) N (2 .1 8) to find Q. Q and W are orthogonal. 2 Again using the relationship (2 .1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . (2 . N > o. (2 . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 1 01 0) to find p. check N * O and D .5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. D and S ve ctors. 1 0. 1 0. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. (2. Then use (2 .r2 ) f3 ] (2 . P = Q X W.
v = eP.h = P. 2 . h X (h h ) v . D X r + JJ{.E. the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . so c) b . 1 0./O S eW X P ) ( 2 .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . v) h and h . ON (2 . 1 025) . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. b) c O . e) We can write h v v = . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . 1 024) (2 . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP.Sec .. Using the identity .(h . (h xr r = + (a .( a . = p.
The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . This is not exactly true. find v2 : 2. There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. Finally . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. Test: 0 10 . Form L = = 6. using the stated tests. possible two body orbit . 1 . proceed as follows : For example . 1 02 6) Thus. shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . 2 L + LS (2 . This method . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. N and S vectors. appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. N=FO. Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . v2 � + L S r2 • . to find any of the three velocities directly . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . 4 . = 0 for coplanar vectors. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3.1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch .
1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. Since 010.97 .9000J + 0.8000K = 0. The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations." Thus. r1 r2 r3 = 1 . the semilatus rectum. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution .0774J 0. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. N . and S vectors: D= N S 1 .0.000K = 0_700J .5000K Find : P. r 1 and r2 . eccentricity. 9701 = 2. P = 0= N  2. Form the D . If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .Sec.039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . period and the velocity vector at position two .047 1 = . 2 . and the timeofflight between these po sitions.0471 O U = 0 . the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth. Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) .
7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .270J + 0.97 o lP = a = 1 . 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type. 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . .0. Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.657K D U /T U 2 0.0804 e = = = 0 . 2 S . 0408 1 1 .041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.960 DU/T U (4.4 to solve for the elements.963J .497 9.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .67 TU (89.1 . 1r/{: 6. 700J .0.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .270K W= N.963K N 1 . = .0.576J . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .
1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. = OJ + R j . L. is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . 1 1 2) r .6 2 : 1 1 . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite .1 ) (2 . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . 2 .g . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . (X1 ' < \ � . Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . ° 2 . If we let L . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. 1 1 .Sec. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . In either case . j = 1. 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. As a result . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. r = pL [�.:S :J: JS L K .7 2). [:i:n :: :. an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 .z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. (2 . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . 3. 2. These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. then ' .
1 . . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns .. 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f.1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . : '< ' . The vectors L.. say the middle ob servatio n . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . are not known . L. �� I 1 " _ . 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . . \ Figure 2./  L . • ' I .' ' " ': . (2 . L.1  R ) r3 .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . 0 (2 . . �J 1  . I . � . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P..[. . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . r u.. p..J V I . f f. \ . \ [L. ' ' :. 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . p and r. 1 1 3) (2 . • 00 . p. ':. \' P2 i �� G ". R and R are known at time t2 . \ •. however . .
t } . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t 1 ) ( t3 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 3 ) (t.t 1 ) ( t. t2 and t3 . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t 3 ) L1 + 2t . Since we have the value of L at.t2 ) ( t 1 .t2 ) (t.t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 . 1 1 6) + 2t .t2 ) .t 1 ) (t 3 .t 3 ) ( t } .t 3 ( t 1 .t2 ) ( t} .t2 L3 ( t 3 .t 2 . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t2 ) ( t 1 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t3 ( t 2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) L2 (2.t } ) (t 3 . 1 1 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t3 ) (2 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .Sec.t 1 ) ( t2 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 . t2 .t 1 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 1 . 2 .three t�es.
ons (2 .. L K + . better yet .u R Ir3 I + . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . p' and r.. L J . It should be noted. 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date .u L /r 3 . however. I L . 4 Equation (2 . that if more than three observations are available . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. it is evident that L Dp = . D reduces to L D =2 L I L . L J I (2 .L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . .u L 1 / r 3 L J + . LI .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . p. + . For the time being. 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati.u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . . 1 1 5 ) . L L L K K K J .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce ..u R Ir3 J + . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. 2 . in fact . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. This. 1 1 6) and (2 . p.
Substituting equation (2 . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 .4 Solving for Velocity . 2 . 1 1 .1 1) Op = . 1 1 2). J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2.1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. O O. 1 1 . r2 = pL RI = + p (2.. we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section.1 0) and (2 . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . R J . . . 1 1 . Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. 1 1 5). 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. 2 . 1 1 . L J L I K J!.1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 .Sec . . 1 1 . From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2.1 2) . L K L J L I K (2. R R I . 0. 1 1 . If we do this we find that . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . R .L L L J K I p .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 . R R . L K . p and r. is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r.1 0) into (2. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2..
This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . 2 (2 . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . 2 . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . k.2). a3 . 1 1 . Laplace ' s method fails . As a matter of fact . El. I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. 1 1 . (2 . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . ° 3 . To obtain the velocity vector . E l . 1 1 . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . a . ° . 1 1 .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . D. 1 1 . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p.1 3) for p.1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . P. This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. such as P. 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations.1 4) p 2.5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations.
1 2. . 1 Computing Residuals. 1 2. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . however . the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . 2 The Differential Correction equations. The six residuals are �1 ' . A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. . The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. \ ' t2 . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. t3 . r K ' v " vJ .::"P 3 .Sec. ts and t6 ' These predictions are . t4 . p) will differ from the computed data. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements.g. For example . Assuming that the residuals are small. 2. It may happen . Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates.::"P 2 ' . The question then arises. of course. we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. Doppler rangerate. 1 21) . 2. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements.::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals.::"P . v Kl at t = to are correct." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements.
. ap1 . reduce the residuals to zero . such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's.) Then. 1 2.3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. V K ) . The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method.. 1 2 . usually 6 for orbit problems) n .1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. by trial and error. Nj. 2. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. NI .:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . The inversion of equations (2 . D.e. 1 2. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. .VI .VK . .1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. i. NK. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. for example . Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . With the aid of a digital computer. however. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. . D. r K " ' arl D. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations.r l " v K )p1 ( r l .1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . equations (2 . Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times.Vj' D. rj .
called the root me an square (RMS) . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . zero . for 90% confidence . . V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). for the exactly determined case (p or b. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . 4. Solve equation (2 . Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. use 0. 2 .g . 3 . minimum as described above .8 1 ) . = = n) . 2 . In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec.. This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements.W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e .tb each of the elements measured. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. since p 2 below) . a and (3 are the elements (two here ..
2. ex VI.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch .:.Assume equal confidence in all data. == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . Choo se ex and for the first estimates. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. the partial derivatives are : .
1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . Thus. 2. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 .Sec. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 .
474 Xi 3 .1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. In practice. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points.474 and f3 = 3. we will use a simple .360 = . 6 orbit elements) would be used. yet still overspecified number of measurements. To illustrate the method involved. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l .1 05 9. ( V i Yi ) 2 4.1 26 0.865 49. 3 . 2 . E ( V 1.474 4 0 07 19.y. 474 x 3 .Sec.866 4 x . 934 = 1 ..1. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .500 8. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 . .0 01 1 3._1.000 50. 969 ____  Vi .828 0 0. 0 35 3.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.) 2 n .000 1 9.. aa .007 0.000 n = Vi 0.Vi 2. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .
304 0. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.304 = . = 3. 0 18 0. 1 22) we have £::. 1 75 ] 5. 0.3.. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .474 + . 1 961 0.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .360.4 1 69.021 070 20. The second iteration yields: £::.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0."""'" �T�� .(X 26 3.056 ""' T . 81 30 8. so we iterate.z 10..031 8.062 ..001 07 33 b = 0.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2.733.380708 A = 40.0.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 27 A WA = [12. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .l Now using (2 .670 3.36 . Thus (X new = .2. which is larger than what we started with. 105.039 £::.027 12. {3 = {3 new . 1 96 = 3.1.
This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. and finally.Sec . 1 2. the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s.735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . 7 35 x 3 . Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. 038 [3 = 3 . however.000 . 2. the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . during orbital decay.500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . in theory. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . However. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 . 2 .00 1 . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion .5 8 2 . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. 2 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . In practice . . 038 . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry.5 8 1 . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. The next value s of the parame ter are : a = .
1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. These detection radars with a range of 2.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance ." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. 2 2. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. In addition. spacecraft failure diagnosis. 2 . the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network .500 miles make about 1 2 . and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. At present. 1 Radar Sensors.5 003. antisatellite targeting. and midcourse ICBM inter ception. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. 1 The Spacetrack System. forming "clouds" of space debris. the precomputed 2. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. the White Sands Missile Range . The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. 1 4 . 1 3. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere .
Figure 2. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. is now on active Spacetrack alert. 2. while three are located at Clear. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. New Jersey. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. Turkey. Greenland. One FPS49 . At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. Alaska. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. the FPS43.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. One of the earlier detection radars.Sec. and is on active spacetrack alert.
gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. Florida. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. In addition. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. Alaska. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. 2 Figure 2. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. Alaska. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. under the 140ft radome at the left.142. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. This BMEWS station at Clear. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. United Kingdom. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is .
Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. When two or .14. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. 2. 2. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe.Sec.143. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering.2 Radio Interferometers. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site.
and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . the semimajor axis. SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. and therefore . 2 . two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. 1 4 . but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. Considering the type of observational data received. is well established. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . In addition to these . Alberta. each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system.3 Optical Sensors. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. Canada . 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 .
and the lighting correct. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . 2. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight.145. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. Alberta. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. As a result.Sec. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. A separate optical system superimposes. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. seeing conditions must be good. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features.400 miles. it is .
Massachusett s . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . in any case . For detection radars. Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . is relatively accurat e . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. In any case . Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . takes time. while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . Further . 1 4 .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . 4 Typical Sensor Errors.1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2 .000 meters. . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . New Mexico site. I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . Doppler rangerat e info rmation. on the other hand . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics.
The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .5 Future Developments.7 seconds in time would remain.Sec 2. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. lunar attraction. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0.14. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. 2. nonuniform gravitational fields.146.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2.
it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . of the target .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . Many improvements . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. but it also record s target tracks for later playback . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . howeve r . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . Now. Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . In t he system under development . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . Operating in the SHF b and . a continuousw ave . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . p. the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . Theoretically .
The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . 1 5 . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . 1 5 . For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. o f the orbit . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . 1 5 . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination .1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n .Sec. F igure 2 . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 .. As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . respectively with a launch a zimuth .. 18cP  2 . 1 5 . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . The arc CB which forms the • . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. i. 2 . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. 1 5 2 .
For a due east launch equat ion (2 . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . therefore . i : c os i = .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . L o?" If i is to be minimized . 1 5 ·3 . A direct orbit require s . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . that the launch azimuth.e . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . f3 ' be easterly . 2. The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . betwe en 00 and 1 80° . . 0 i. f3 ' should 0 be 90° .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . 1 5 . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter .
It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . su r face . 1 5 .Sec.2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . 2 . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . Figure 2 . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 .
7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. 2 EXERCISES 2 .7071 + . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. a solar day or sidereal day? b . 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. = (partial answers : 2. = u nd ef i ned ) = . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU.1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . Which takes longer .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . 9 7 0 . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c.5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . 885. i = 90° .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . Englan d . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. e = . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. J . Colorado ( 1 04.
Determine the orbital e lements. 2 + b . W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. . 3<. 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. i . 82 u a . 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU.8 I J P = .) Determine p. (Answer [partial] e = . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 .Ch. 2. e. Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU.2K DU . (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . c .7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . 1.J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 .8 2075 .
b ut not nece ssary. 2 . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. equatorial .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 .060668 8 3 1 . 1 7 1 . a.7 6) . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours.4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. r2 1 . Q. b . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis .4 1 4225 1 1 1 . r3 r l I J K 1 . LST = 63 . b . 2. the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . Units are earth canonical units. 6464495 a. Site longitude is 1 2 1 . p = 1 . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis .3 5 35 3995 0 1 . PST . 1 0 2.4 1 4202 0.3 1 065 1 5 0. 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale .system along the unit ve ctor s P. 2.8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . U se of a computer is sugge sted . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. W. the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis .5 0 West . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . (Answer : r = 1 . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . C alifornia . 1 0 January 1 9 70.
0 2 . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1. 1 4  DU/TU.0 1 .62 1 34384 c. B .89497 879 0.2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b. fl f2 f3 0 .6 0.0 2 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .6 0.7 0 0 e. 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .0 0 .0 1 .094964 1 8 0.97 2 .97 0 1 .0 7 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .8 0 0 .9 1 420062 4 .n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .89497724 0 0 0 1 . DU * 2. fl f2 f3 3 .1 .707 1 0 1 0 1 0.8 0 . fl f2 f3 d.5 65 6808 1 0. 3 6 395 5 26 1 .9 1 42 3467 2 .207 1 25 5 1 . fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.2K with a velo city o f AI .20709623 0 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .94974 1 7 6 . C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2. .09497879 1 .0 7 .565 6808 1 0 0 .Ch.0 0 .0 0 2 .707 1 1 25 5 0.0 0 2 .
What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. * 2 . Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type .75 K D U /T U )  . 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. . Obj ect vernal equinox direction. Obj ect c. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane .1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. ___ e. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.17 p 0. east and zenith (up) component s? c. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 .1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates.0078 J 0.620 1 I 0. 2 a . Express the coordinates. b. d . Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. Obj ect b . ( A ns. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . v = 0. vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. 9 7 . A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N .
Pedro Ramon . C leeto n . Jr . Navy Space Surveillance System. New York . Sons Ltd . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . Sky Publishing Corp . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. NY . Vol 3 . C ambridge . Forest Ray . Inc. No 6 . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . 6. 2 . Armitage . 5 . Institute of the Aero space S cience s ." in The World of Math ematics ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . "The A erospace Vehicle s . E scobal. G . Newman . New York .1 1 1 . NY . Jame s R . Edmond Halley . Laplace . Henize . U. C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . D avis ." Vol 48 . E . . Thomas Nelson and 3. Moulton . 9 . Inc. 1 9 67 . pp 1 08 . 4. Baker . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. 1 0 . 1 95 7 . Second Revised Edition . Mass. C . "Space Traffic Surveillance . November 1 9 67 . Paul G . Dover Publications . Gauss. New York . Space/A ero na utics . 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . 1 96 3 . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. NY. Thoma s. Angus. New York and London . John Wiley & Sons. Pierre Simo n . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . New York ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . Carl Friedrich. 1 962. NY . 8 . S .Ch. 1 9 1 4. London . Academic Pre ss. 7 . 1 9 66. The M acmillan Company. 1 95 6 . 1 965 . K. Simo n and S chuster . L. Telescope . Robert M .
P. Gerald C. 1 5 . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Briskman. No 20 . New York. New York. California. 1 966. the A stronautical Sciences. Electronic . McGrawHill." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Journal of Oct 2. Robert D . "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. Cheetham. 1 3 . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Roger R. 1 2 . Inc." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. 2 1 1 . American Society of Mechanical Engineers. R. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. USAF Academy. Bate. NY. NY." The Vol 1 4. Carson. 1 6. 1 967 . "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. 17. R." Satellite Control Facility. NY . Sunnyvale. S. New York . Air Force Systems Command. Thomas J. p 39 ." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. 1 962. Davies. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. 1 966. 1 9 66. "Future Radar Developments. SepOct 1 967. . "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . Vo1 40. 1 4. Colorado. 1 970. New York. No 5 . NY. and Eller.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 962.
or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. the idea seems to have been forgotten. 1 . for the next 250 years. 1 0. those bodies.000 or more miles. and the different force of gravity in different heights. After that . Goddard. and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . or variously eccentric. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . according to their different velocity. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. ) 00 . will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. as of 5 .
However. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. On 4 October 1 95 7 . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. particularly if it is manned . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. Rather . since it contemplated the use of military hardware . The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. 1 . Project Orbiter. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . 3 .research. still in its infancy . 3 ." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. Manned spaceflight .
..(/} � � (I) E � � . ... � '" ..J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr. AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 .rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION .. .V'h WillI e: � ..+ :=.J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E ..H O URS WEEK .. c. I MONTH I . . c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .' � S' (1) 0 ..: fiD It: 0 It: <t ......///11// ...25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" . YEAR a YEARS .. � ee.rrrj.50K �. 11 L . . � . .::: 0(I) "" 20 10 . mJ77/1/.. 71.n w .. VI/II � V � . 20K (. (I) CD � . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N ...J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl ...
03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . 3 . m . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . 1 ·2 . a p ogee 1 00 n . Figure 3 . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . 1 . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . stated. 1 . m .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . m .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit.1 shows the limits imposed by drag . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . Figure 3 .
!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. 1 3 . The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f.or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . as you can see from Figure 3 . there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . The vehicle is not allowed to coast . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude.Sec. Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad.. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. 1 2 . 3 .
its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. 3 . Figure 3 . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . 1 . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis).3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . You . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. As a result. 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . therefore. 1 5 . This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 .
1 > ."� ill Q rn o I � fS . "::> Figure 3 ..:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�.Sec.D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9. 3 . 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.9 r�=r�rr..�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .2 ..J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*..
I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: ..J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch .J 5 "' C iii 0. 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .. 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0. "' "' .
40 and 1 1 6. which also is due to oblateness. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . a.6 0 . Therefore = . With this perturbation .Q 360 ° per 90 days :. The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes.6. and oppo. 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63.67 0 /day From Figure 3 . It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. completing one revolution every 90 days. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude .40 or greater than 1 1 6. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits.Sec.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 .N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. 3 . The ascending node moves to the west .60 . Figure 3 . What is the inclination of the orbit? b. 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days.
300 nm or about 5 . 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . unfortunately.21 shows why. of course. Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. The first stage booster climbs 3 . If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. 2 .2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse.inches from the surface. not the case .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. 1 2 this would be 2*. On the scale of Figure 3 .2. Figure 3. 1 . Of course. There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the .000 nm altitude . for example . 1 The Synchronous Satellite. Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . 3 . The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 ." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. This is.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 3 . is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . 3 Figure 3 .6 earth radii above the surface . As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. This. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. however. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. ground trace of a synchronous satellite.
\ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 . At apogee of the ascent ellipse.Sec. . the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit.21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically... curve is \ " " .. 3. intervals .. Dot ted grou nd trace .. Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more.. This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit.22 Ascent ellipse . This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm .2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s.. . burn """ " " .� � Figure 3 .
and flightpath angle. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 .34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. (3 . 2vdv . a very precise orbit is required. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . speed. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size.3 .da a2 = fJ.31) If we solve for '.33) or = da 2a2 vdv .32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . as they are called . 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. Usually this is not serious. = _ r 2a . /:. for some other reason.. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . (3. This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . we get a change in . but . fJ. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed.v (3. at appropriate points in the orbit. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:.  fJ. 3 . dv. a? v. we get (3 . at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if.
whose radius is r2 .h a �  da.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. to the large orbit. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit .V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6.34). Similarly. 3 . We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. called Hohmann transfer orbits. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . a 6. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. For example .V v P P (3.34) for small but finite 6. of the orbit given by equation (3 ." 3 . 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. a2 6.1 . suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. along the transfer ellipse.v) . whose radius is rl . The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are .3. therefore . 4 Jl. Since the major axis is 2a. 3 . 2 The Hohmann Transfer. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. Since we know r l . 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec .semimajor axis. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse.
&.31 (3./2 a .t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch . its speed is .36) = r i + r2 =  and. 3 the transfer orbit. since p.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. 2at Figure 3 . (3.37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.31 &.
The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU.1 0) (3 . i n our example . . The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion .3. Minimum rp = 2 DU. & t = � = . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . to VI ' So . Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . For the transfer traj ectory. ra = 3 DU.Sec. 3 .V required to double the altitude of the satellite .39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. 3 I N.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section .V implies a Hohmann transfer .� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3.3. Find the minimum /::. the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. Although. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit .
3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.� r 1 1 +e p p (3. I t is obvious from Figure 3 . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.313) .V1 = .1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .068 D U/TU V cs =.061 DU/TU I::.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .VTOT == .32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.JfF"= . 3 V cs 1 = (il = .707 DU /TU vi r.V2 = .32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible . Figure 3.3.3. We can express this condition mathematically as r = .577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.346 ft/sec 3 . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits. I::.
We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. ht. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.3. / 2a . p p (p. we can compute the energy.33) and interpret them graphically. (3. 3 . Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. Knowing and e. in the transfer orbit. I &. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits.1 4) (3. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits.3. and the angular momentum.I' l l  e ' )l2 p.1 5) . To satisfy both conditions. p p p  = .32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. respectively .Sec. �.
.39) The angle between v1 and va. . its speed is (3 . we get (3.34 /::. __ Figure 3. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit .1 is just the flightpath angle .1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r . p r2.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 .
4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. 4 . it is not surprising that equation (3 .V using the law of cosines. This is called a simple plane change.31 6) Now. ¢l ' is zero. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. 1 Simple Plane Change . If.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. (3 .V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.V.34. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . after applying a finite b.41) 3.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . (3. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape .1 . Or. We can solve for the magnitude of b. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b.V. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . as shown at the right of Figure 3 . e. 3. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above .Sec.V.310) when the flightpath angle .1 7) reduces to equation (3. more simply.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".3.1 'I' . A velocity change . since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged.41 . b.4. and obtain directly for circular orbits. assuming that we know v and e. together with the b. or it can rotate the line of apsides. form an isosceles vector triangle. the b.V required. b. b.3. 3 . An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3.
Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . Therefore . it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 .vrequired to accomplish the mission. calculate the additional b. The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). for example .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. 3 Figure 3 . b . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . A plane change of 60 0 .V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . a. Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized.1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. DU circular orbit. Determine the total b. makes b.
Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . 3. 1 +� 1 . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L..0.V l 1 . The given information is: h I = 0. Therefore at = r2 . I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.Sec.__ = . DU 2 1 Hence .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU . & t = = �= .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) .1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 . .1 = \1'1 .270.Vl = V l . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .953 DU/TU L.618 = 1 . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.
4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.704 DU/TU 18. 6.626) = 0. 4 .626) = 0 . 2 + 0.V2 .4) (.317) to determine 6.(0. 3 and we must use equation (3. 1 5 DU/TU 6.447 DU/TU 2 1 .2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.387 DU/TU = 1 0.447) (.= 0 .042 ft/sec Therefore v = .V22 v.V2 = y'l'5= 0.2 . 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 . + v�s2. 3 87 .447) 0.2(. v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0. 447)(.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .253 ft/sec .626 vcs2 = V't. 31 7 + .
F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .447 ) ( .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .Sec.1 ) t:::. 3.4.
2 Calculate the total 6. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time .21 .5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU.2 DU and 4 DU respectively. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b.5 DU .5 b. 0 .76. r p = 1 DU e = 0. i. c. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. 3 . 1 1 DU and e = 0.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. (Ans.449 DU/TU) 3. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. 0.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . 3 EXERCISES 3 .6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . a = 2.5 DU/TU.4 Refer to Figure 3 . What is the minimum 6. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.e. i changedall other parameters remained the same. Ch . 3.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.. a. a plane change or an orbit transfer.
8 Compute the minimum I::.412 5 3 . 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. P = 1.9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . The . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . = 0. C ompare this with the I::.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . using Hohmann transfers. * 3 .1 DU 8 1 = 0. 5 & Design a satellite .56 c. 9 Calculate the total l::. orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . 3 .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. 34DU2 (fU d.Ch . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation.7 3 . This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. . 0 . (Ans. 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . 95 DU 8 = 0.v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU.
NY . The Viking Press. 1 962. University of California Press. DC . Air Force Systems Command .. and Space Travel. and Maud W. Makemson. 5 . Missiles. New York . Newton . 3 . 2nd revised ed. Principia. Willy. The Viking Press. V2 . Robert M . Headquarters. Walter . Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1 95 5 . Dornberger. New York . 1 9 60. 1 July 1 965 . . 4 . A cademic Pre'ss. 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . Space Planners Guide. Washington . L. Sir Isaac. Rockets. Ley. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Baker.1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 1 . New York and London . 1 96 1 . Vol 2. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. NY.
was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. .2 1 77 .. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. of the heirs. I quickly took advantage of the absence. . or lack of circumspection. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . . Albert Einstein ! 4 . the determination of the true movement of the planets. This was Kepler 's first great problem. including the earth . Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. . The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. . . by taking the observations under my care . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. the solution of the second problem. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. or perhaps usurping them .CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . . presupposed the solution of the first.
He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. I + ." Kepler points out in his Preface. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. . but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . subterfuges. but above all to convey to him the reasons. . "What matters to me. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. we not only forgive them. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. When Christopher Columbus. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . 1 . detour. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. Thus. whole grand entertainment would be lost.
This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. Moreover. with the warning: "Ye physicists. again incorrectly . perihelion and aphelion. never noticing his error. for now we are going to invade your territory. . almost with masochistic delight. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. that. His results. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. as it were. But then without a word of transition. however. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. without benefit of any preconceived notions. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . . yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . prick your ears.Sec 4. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets.
.. .180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . he settled on the oval. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. as I shall prove further down .2 Finally. 4 Figure 4 . He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it.. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. He had . with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. " Finally. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work.
time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. . Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. That is to say. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. made a mistake in geometry. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position .. You: are . came when. but he did not know how. believing that this was a quite different . . .. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to .!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'.: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits.y it should move in an orbit at all. . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did.' " .2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . hypothesis. mine] . but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. are one and the same . de rive the . which I had rejected . Ah. whereas the two . disguising itself to be accepted. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end.Sec 4. . Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. until I went nearly mad. . in a moment of despair. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. have persisted to this day.and chased away. . witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton.. 4.2 T I M EO F .F L I G HT . . : . and velocity and the timeofflight. In this chapter we will. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. I thought and searched. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. return e d by stealth through the backdoor. The climax to this comedy of errors.e . .
''"'''"'. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . A ' in Figure 4. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. In going part way around an orbit.2.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY .1 ) . ''' The only unknown i n equation (4.l .2 . where the true anomaly is v .21 Area swept out by r .. but more motivated. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. We will pursue a lengthier. 4.. 7T a b . derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus.2.. i. say from periapsis to some general point.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. 4 existed . This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use .e .2.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 .1 ) i s the area � .. P.A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . (4..
22 Eccentric anomaly. \/2 a2 _ .l. the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . 2 T i M EO F . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. perpendicular to the major axis. The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. A dotted line . E E Circle : .Z x2 + .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle .Sec 4 . From analytical geometry.F L I G HT .
A2 . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . It Tollows directly from equation (4. From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons.23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V .�rea PSV minus the dotted area.22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . oos E and whose (4. Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle .a E) . 4 Hence . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 .
2 T I M EO F .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.22. E. v. Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .e si n Ai yields E) .24)." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). and whose altitude is (a si n E ).27) (4. minus the triangle .we get � ( E . to its corresponding true anomaly.2 . substituting into equation (4.T = 4 ( E . in order to use equation (4.F L I G H T .24) E .26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.e si n E ) I (4.E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .27) reduces to (4. cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v ." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E . Kepler introduced the definition M = It . Obviously . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally. From Figure 4.e sin E (4.e si n E (4.Sec 4.28) . whose base is (a CDS E).
T) .24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.T o ) .29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.T ) .28). so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . when v is between o and n.24 left).( t o . from Figure 4.24 right.T) .to = ( t . we can say that t .(to . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically. If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then . + t . Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4. 4 E E.( Eo  E) (4.e Sin .to = lP (t . E Figure 4 .[ 2kn + (E . In general we can say that t  to = 4. The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane . In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4.
1 3) (4. From equation (4.Sec 4.21 2).82 ( E .E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.8 si n E ) V r .2 T I M EO F. From equations in section 1 .F L I G H T .1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.82 f: ( 1 .2.7 .2.J1=82 d E (4.1 2) (4.1 1 ) easily integrable . we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .2.2.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .21 6) V 1 . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.+ COS (4.2.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .2.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a. .2.8 E ) dE (4.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
(4 .1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. since equation (4.2 Solving for x When Time is Known . Figure 4.4. va' a and the trial value of x.4. In one sense . a. C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . 4. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) .1 3) ro va v t" .1 2) is transcendental in x. Equation (4 .4. ( 1 . Therefore . we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. But now we have a problem. From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. Fortunately .47) has been used to eliminate z.4 4. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known .Sec 4. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. a trialanderror solution is indicated.
we must then calculate the corresponding and v.4. and A and B are not colinear. With x known. 4 .42.41 6) dx x . An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .41 9) .4. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .1 = x 2 C + x . it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight. xn .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible. 1 dt r (4. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) .3 The f and 9 Expressions. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q. Substituting for r in equation (4. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. Thus A. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. (4. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. the four vectors fO ' (4.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y .32). B and C are coplanar vectors.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.4. the iteration may be terminated.
however.where f.. Crossing equation (4.1 8) into equation (4. f and 9 are not independent. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities.. g . We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates. f and g...4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4.4..4... g . First. in equation (4. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity.420) This equation shows that f . We can isolate the scalar . g.1 9) gives Sec 4 . f. we will derive an interesting relationship between f.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w .1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h . The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable . = fg. the left side of the O . equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 .. x..4.
.425) Combining equations (4.4.r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .w o Yw h (4. 4 h (4. . x + Co cos v = .4. From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x. Xw . ) .423) (4.4.42 1 ) We can isolate (4. o .e2 )  r .425).1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.34) and (4. x wYw .1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.a l e + Sln Y. yw x .1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw .426) .424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x. (4.E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f . (4.
a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum.32).42 1 ) c /Ii.43 0) 0 1 f C a = .1 ) . Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4.Sec 4 .426) through (4 .... (4.43 0) f (4. x = 0 at t = o .428) yw .a  mitions of z. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4. x =� cos x + c r . r. x + co h = .426) and (4.. 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4..... ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C .a Va 2 = 1 9. e quation (4. e quation (4.43 1 ) .. ro . ro ro .429) Substituting equations (4....4.Va • W ..429) into equation (4.42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .sin r  � (4.427) and using the definition of the universal variable ..(e sin � + cos � ).
� a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r..4. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .1 ) and (4 .435) (4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.32) (4.1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .] � a .433) (4. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .4. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .4...202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .4·3) � r o . r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .436) .
4 .420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. note that equation (4. to 4. but we have not said what and z represent.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation.Sec 4.4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. Obviously .34) (4. 1 The Physical Significance of and z. its definition.1 9) . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme .x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 .43 5) and (4. x + Co cos [ � .e E). then compute r and r from equation (4 . 5 . la . Va x (4. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4. Also. 4 .4. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. 3 . can be used.1 ) Va = _ E . Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4.4 . The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. Note also that if were not zero .1 8). 2 .43 6) . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos .1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit . Si n va = Va =  c o s . the expression (t would replace 4 . if we are going to use equation (4. then compute v from equation (4.[ i + x + c 0 ] Va .4.5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation.434) . 1 . Given (usually is assumed to b e zero). in any of the equations where z appears.43 1 ) and (4.4. 5 . From and determine r and a.
204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . 5 ·1) at time x = 0.53) from (4 . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.56) la.55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �). therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.1 3) .Do . (4 .5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f.F 0 1  Va I E . a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . 1 (4. since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 . (4 . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .5 4) (4.52) whenever is negative . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x . we get x= D .53) Subtracting equation (4.57) . we can conclude that = V'ii I F .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.4.7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.3 4) and (4. (4 .E o l .
I z = I F . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4. so Sec 4.5 9) . Therefore . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. In computing the semimaj or axis.to 4 . If imaginary.8) Figure 4 . 5 . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4. 5 . from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer.1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t .when z is positive . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem.5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero .F a ) '· z is zero.5. a.
. with £X. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n.. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. C = 1 .1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. a = ± x 3 .cosh . / ( . ( t a to) .:z.ji11. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. and . When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period.. we get for elliptical orbits. wherever it occu rs..5 .a � eFz ± 2x 3 . can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. is large. convergence will be extremely rapid.6F. Furthermore .v y� ( . so S � V0r eFz 2 .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .a vG ) . then Z will be a large negative number . If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly.5.fZi3 = q . Use this for a first guess . since X = foE.P)/ 2.e .. so s i n h fi . .. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value.. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 . In the case of elliptical orbits.
r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J. 5 . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .£.1 1 ) . .t o ) Fa . Therefore.L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before. for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t .t o ) � ( 1 .5. 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .t o ) sign (t . 4 . vice versa .sign (t .tJ is positive .to is positive.L ( t .a .t o ) x ::::: sign (t . Thu s . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4. X will be positive and .Q) eV La 2J.5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.a eFz sign ( t .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations. so Sec 4 . we get � S . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z. if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the ..tohATci ( l . 5 . Anytime t .t o ) 2x 3 � + t .sign in the above expression .t o ) #a ( 1 ] .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r . recognizing that X will be positive when (t . where appropriate .r:z . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence .
1 1 ) .5.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive.4. (4. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .Ji . s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 .1 1 ) as But i v:z .1 3) COS .4. = Similarly.1 0) (4.5.". Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S . .4. .0 6 + .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz.51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .(1  .4.5.1 2) and (4 .7! + .4.s i n i V} = i si n i B .5.s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .1 0) and (4. If z is near zero .1 1 ) We can write equation (4. 4 (4 . z cos i � . use equations (4. use equations (4. 1 . if z is negative .. so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .1 0) as C where = i C = . we can write equation (4.1 3). the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.4.cosh ..
.Ji! + Ji!.. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity . The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 .. (611)2 etc.. (4Ir) 2 .5...1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity .� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4. .5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .5. 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .1 4) ·· 1 .+ . . 0 . . 0 'j (4.Sec 4. Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 .
266  . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . Given ra = I D U va = 1 . va = Therefore & = 1.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch .s i n z dz 2z [ 0. t=2 T U9 ra = I. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. va > � a= :l = 1 .( 1 . it is not surprising that the derivatives.zS .5 . 39 5 . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . 1 K .2C ) . 2& .5. we get I � = fz.[i) z ] (4 . 1 .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x. I dS = _ ( C .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM. r a .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. 4 functions .3S ) .)] P (4. Differentiating the definition of C. and v at = t=2 T U . dC /d z and dS /d z . Find r.
.. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.58 1 .266 ( 1 .. using a slide rule . 705 .t o x_ 21Tya lP :.4.222 Repeating the process.000 1 . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary. 24 1 = 1 . 58+.222 1 .279 1 . 1 .58) 2 1 . xn tn fit After three iterations.5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ . 2 2 x 3 ' etc.973 a Using equation (4. y'ii"(t .12.1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 .007 2. we can make a 2 __ = 1 .277 dXn 1 .222 = 1 ..8 1 6 x n+1 . X l Zl y"""a6E or x ..82 1 1 . 58+ .t.8 1 6 1 .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.1 .58 1 .8 2 1 1 .t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.8 1 6 1 .Since x = and .821 1 .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.. tn toward t = ZTU.1 . solving for t .4. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .1 4) and (4.705 2 .
0. r = _.8801 Ch . yw and r in terms of D. E or F.6.1 ) From Figure 4.32 1 1 + 1 .1 7).. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D. E and F. But ._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. as D = v'P tan � 2 . for the parabola.. we will derive expressions for xw .321 ..031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0.6 .JPt::.6.6. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum.2) . 880 1 1 . We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. f = 0. E and F. 4. f.2. g.. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . since e = 1 . (4. But first some useful identities will be presented. 236K g.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. Finally. and 9 = 0. g = 1 .6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies.Then from the definitions of f. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. 4 4. v. 1 24. D. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly .1 we can see that X w = r cos v . f = 0. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit.
61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 .1 ) . yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.65) .6. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) . the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4. (4.Sec 4 .1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .
62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. 4 rr.s i n p v = ffp ta n v .1 ) . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known. Using r • r = and equation (2.J7!. r • v.6. in Figure 4 . r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. For the eccentric anomaly .66) v . 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .62 Perifocal components of r . (4. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .
24) . I Substituting from equations (4. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4.Sec 4 . we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle . (4. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) .1 0) e sin E also. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .67) (a si n E ) a But . yw Just as we did for the parabola.8) and simplifying. M  (4.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .67) and (4 . we can say that I yw = Q.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E .6.62. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. e illS E we get another useful  �.6. (4.
solving this equation for • v .6.:.. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4. is given by e si n rr = r = $a . 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4. The .1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation..1 3) . v. E is imaginary .1 0) ..6. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E..Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.6. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E .22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words. we obtain E = .28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4. e cos E from equation (4.e Si n r E Finally .6. when E is a real number.. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly.!. when F is a real number . F is imaginary.
 But i si n iF = si n h F.Il a •v (4.el = a (cos i F . 6. The rectangular components of a general position vector. so Yw = a � sinh F. From equation (4. may be written as (4. 6.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':. 6.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. But l cos i F = cosh F .a r  (4. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.e ) .6. Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF.6 . so (4.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F .61 6) r e cosh F = 1.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.1).e) . The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning. r. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.6.67) we can write Sec 4 . 4. Similarly.range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity.1 8) .1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. In Figure 4 .
c os I 9 ' = v'f. 62 1) (4. 626) ...625) (4.V _ 2 1 .1 .vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf . 623) .A F U N CT I O N O F T. 4 +.... ( .P ( 1 ...JiLP.x"..V.624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.: o s /:.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) . Figure 4.:.. (4.. are yw = r sin v (4.ji! sin v p (4.c o s tv ) (4. the rectangular components of the velocity vector . r0 · = 1 . where tv = v ... V.p . so 1 � L (I .42 1 ) . we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = . tan p /:.I M E Ch . ._ c��V P IW (4.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y ..6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4. . and note that h = .
e 2 ) cos E .63 2) . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .6.6.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .4.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .cos L'!. r (4.E ) f = . E rr .I Jlla sin E. 629) f = 1 .6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .� ( 1 .E ) . yw 9 and (t . From equations (4.e2 ) = 1. we get f = a( cos E .e cos E o ) . 627) But.68) .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.a ( 1 . o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .e2 ). Thus Xw Sec 4.( L'!.!Ji8 sin L'!.sin L'!.e2 ) v.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .67) and (4.e) v! fJa( l . = .1 (4.E) 9 r _ 0 j.to ) . (4.Ji!.E . the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .63 1 ) (4.6. (4.1 0).cos L'!. using equation (4..63 0) (4. Similarly.a E sin E .
2 6) is one equation in one unknown . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E . � V a3 ( t . and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it. . A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .6F ) . Kepler himself realized this.63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 .63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t . 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4.t o ) .to) . and Sma1l4 tells us: " But.634) (4.26) Even though equation (4.2k7T + M o .. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch .629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E. of course .(1 E . In classical terms. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .  E. (4. ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) .j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F . M can be obtained from = (4. (4.63 6) 4. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true.[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself.6. cosh 6F ) . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .
that results from this trial value . � Figure 4.638) n dM/d E I E=E n . we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next .63 7) Now.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. compute the mean anomaly. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. of course . 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. E n+ l E + M . select a new trial value.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M.Sec 4 . be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. ' (4. but this is not very accurate. E It would.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. M n .
however. 2. 5.  .4.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . e. 4 .t ' are given.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y .1 9). e. 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value. The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation. p and va· 2 . where d M / d E l E = En En. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem.5 + . d M = 1 e cos E .1 8) and (4. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r.4.5 cos V DU . 3 . va and the timeofflight. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. t . The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. From fa and va determine r 0' a. even when e is nearly 1 .6. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. Once E i s determined by any method.1 2) .4 0) EXERCISES 4.2. equation (4. Determine f and V from equations (4.when e is nearly 1 . dE Therefore. It can be used for LW or�E . 1 .e cos En (4.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. Solve for V if needed. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4.
find r and v for . (partial Ans. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P. (Ans.5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. 4.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. i. find the universal variable. 625) .e.6 For the data given in problem 4. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans.3 Given l:J) = ffP.85 TU) 4. Find the values of f. x. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee.. glven fO' vO' and t. V = 3481 .4 If. how should the area of search for x be limited. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. Explain why this must be so . in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. f = 4 . 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. TOF = 5.348J +  1 .Ch . corresponding to l:J) of 600• .3.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse.
g. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . in equations (4. Le. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . 1 1 For problem 4. f and g. 9 At burnout. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans.99). 4 4 .73 TV) 4. 5.5 . 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. 4 . with a perigee above the north pole. e = . e = . if X == x (t ) . 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. Do the same for problem 4. Va and w and will solve for f. and give your analytic reasoning behind. TOF = 2.10 rp 4 . 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. 4 .. 7 The text.51 0) and (4. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. 4 . 1 0. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0.1 1). Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. 2.5 DU. (Ans.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. then .9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 .to and solve for f and v. ra == 2. == 1 . Va and t . Develop. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. 5 DU.
The Macmillan 3 . A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. Wise. Small.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . Albert. A New York. r. Koestler. r3 fJ. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9.630) through (4. The University of Wisconsin Press. g.. New York. 1 7 Derive the expression for g .to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . Kepler.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � .tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. Madison.2 . The Sleepwalkers. L'. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly.43 5) and (4. 1 95 1 . 1 964. 1 963 . 4.6 TU) .I:!:.. 1 95 9 . = .0 + .r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. Arthur. equation (4.( t . LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Robert. Guidance .E.. 63 2). Richard H. Company. 2.. Philosophical Library. Stahlman. Einstein. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. f and 9 in terms of (t . 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . New York.43 6). 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f. 4.. 4 . See equations (4. NY. Battin.16 * 4.1 8). o 4 . 2. NY. . NY.
Bate. 1 0." A stron. A n Introduction York.ach. Vol 275 . Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. 8. H. Sperling. pp 66066 1 . . "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. W ." ARS 1." A cta Vol 36. F . 1 965. K. pp 3093 1 5. Sundrnan. Brooks. 4 5 . Moulton. Unpublished notes. 1 96 1 . W. W. J. pp 1 08." A stron. United States Air Force Academy . S. . Mathmatica. pp 1 89. Vol 3 1 . New 6. California. 1 2. E. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. 1 9 1 4.1 28 . H . 1 965 . Redondo Beach. N. pp 1 05 . 1 947. Goodyear. H. Vol 70.1 79.1 92. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung." A str. 1 9 1 2 . The MacMillan Company. Lemmon. to Celestial Mechanics." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. "Universal Variables. 9. Vol 70. Roger R.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 1 1 . Stumpff. K. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. Herrick. 1 965. Forest Ray. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. 7. and 1. J.
Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 227 5. in 1 7 8 1 . A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas.. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. But. Uranus. in the first year of the 1 9th century. a 24yearold German mathematician. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace .
the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. Hegel asserted. but for a different reason. If they paid some attention to philosophy ." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. exactly 1 year later. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. and for convenience in referring to it later. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . no more . they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. 5. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. Because of its importance. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky."the Gauss problem. Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. and the direction of . precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. no less. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. The object turned out to be Ceres. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres.
/ I I I I I Figure 5 . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. the orbit is a degenerate conic. 5 . 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . Sec . the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. therefore. particularly if the parameter. If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). It is not surprising. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way.motion. . that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations... / . .SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ ..".21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . p.. . The relationship between the four vectors f l .1 ." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. Obviously ... the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 .." through an angular change greater than 7r. 2. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. appears in the denominator of any expression. or the "long way. If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r)..
From equation (5 . g. a or �E.cos �v) = 1 . (5 .cos �E ) f = 1 . p. Use equations (5.y'ii8 . what we have is three equations in three unknowns.r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 .23).22) r2 a ( 1 . but the first four are known.1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f. bv .24) Si n �E (5 .( 1 . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . p. f and g. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns.22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f. this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent.26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . 23) and (5 .( 1 . g. the solut �on to . a 9 = 1 . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p.( 1 . (5 ..cos �V .25). so 2 . (5 . r . so a trialanderror solution is necessary . Test the result by solving equation (5 . Consider equations (5 .cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . 2. r2 P p rI .24) arid (5 .23) Actually. 27) . There are seven variablesf1 . We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . (5 .27) and (5 . a and �E. 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . f. The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature.1 ) (5 .cos �E ) . t.25 ) (5 ... Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns.= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . 3.sin �E ) � JJ. 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight .2. 2.230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ..
c x2 y. and would enable us to use the universal variables. g . n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. = 1 . A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. a and L'£ or 6F. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter.Sec. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. however.. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. let's write the expressions for f. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. introduced in Chapter 4. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution.:t x3 S. p. r1 (5 . If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value.1 ) (5 .3 2) . This last step is perhaps the most important of all. 5 .cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who .( 1 . 3 . x and z. In each case . What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work.
as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant. 5 X2 (5 . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable. A y= . we get r 1 r 2 (1 .v (5 .33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.37) I y = r 1 + r2 .v ) 1 c o s b.1I 1 � .v y. yields X C. rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange...v) (5 .jE: .232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 . ( 1 c o s b.viI x ( 1 zS) \ . p r1 j .. ( 1 .31 ).38) y.c o s b..A .( 1 c o s b. 1 .35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 . we obtain A.39) .... P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b..( c o s b.36) may be written (5 .v) • 9 = = IE.i n b.33)  (5.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch .j A equation (5 .
3.LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. the last term of this expression may be simplified. +. 5 .1 4) 1 The velocity. From equations (5 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .1 6) (5 . we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But. y.31 7) .3.31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . so that (5 .37 ) and (5 . .420).31 3) (5 . 32). thi 't "p.r I (5 .34). 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .on simplllw. and the auxiliary variable . by using equations (5 . rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 . (5 .Sec. to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: . 3.: r I . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 .1 ). I" � \ ·1 fr . A.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .32) and (5 ..3.35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .ff.=1' Ig =r2 =. can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.qr::oo .38). we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 .1 0) (5 .3.".31 5) (5 .
A. Although any iterative scheme .S + X 3 _ + .31 3).1 0) . 9 and 9 from equations (5 . Determine x from equation (5 . When the method has converged to a solution.31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. 7 . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z.0. 6.1 4) and (5 . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 ." evaluate the I 2 constant. using equation (5 .39). The derivative.3. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. y.31 6) and (5 .P . 3. Since z = . If it is not nearly the same . 4.31 8) ( ) (5 .37). 3.dz dz dz 2yy dz .31 5).1 0) and (4. evaluate t. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation.= 3 x 2 . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . Determine the auxiliary variable.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i .4.4. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . From f ' f and the "direction of motion.E2 and z = .1 1).31 7).0. 5. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. 2 . 5 1 .3 . Pick a trial value for z.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 . which converges more rapidly. from equation (5 . this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .3.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . dt / dz. a Newton iteration. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4. (5 .1 2) (5 . 5.31 9) . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5.
=  dS (C . 3 .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .z S) dS _ . i n section 4 .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . 5 .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .32 1 )  .39) for dy = dz  But. 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . 5 .320) (5 .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .Sec. . we get ( 1 . we showed that y.
ill rl .  (5 .41 1 ). From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0. Using universal variables. 5 so.6J + 0.318).324) _  (5 .319) and (5 .+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .326) . D M � si g n (1T L'>. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = . the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z.01 + + O. we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.OK DU. There is only one path for a given direction of motion." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.322) into equation (5 .+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 .323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . equations (4.7K DU. "direction of motion": rl =0. 51 r2 = 1. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM.320) and (5 .236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit). These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .4.+ 5! 7 ! _ _ . Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .v) .322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .1 0) and (4. At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S.
A A l ong way =1 . 5 .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = . 327) r1 = 1 . 28406 ( __ = 3 . 0488088482 + 1 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .1 .5.Sec.28406 = 1 .37) does when .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).321 radians Using (5 . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . 23287446 yT12 vm ..28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = .962 radians LW long way = 21T .6V short way = 5.6V > 1T). I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 .0. 0488088482 + 1 . 0000 1 . a convenient form of equation (5 .1 4) and (4.6V is small. 5 .39). For ease of numerical solutions.3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . from equations (4. Now following the algorithm of section 5 .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (.1 5) .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .327). 86474323 = 1 . 0000 + 1 .
05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.23287446 t l o ng = 0.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration..780 1 9540 1 /2 0.0 we do not normalize.3.28406 y'3.28406 y'0. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 ..... Y l o ng = 3.444689 m 0.23287446 0.1 0).. (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .672625 1 6 TU + through 6. from the given data..86474323 2..238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .86474323 = 1 . 0432z = 1 3.489482706 (6") . Step 5: Using equation (5 . 1 .9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : . Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 . 1 3 min = 0445 z . the desired time o f flight is : .. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.
t .035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.989794 D U/TU 0.83236253 Using equations (5 .3. W e have : � 104 (within 0.5288 97 1 4 = 2.6009 1 852 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.662242 1 3 A = · 1 . 7499473 9 t = 0.94746230 A = 1 .250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0. (5 .3 .83073807 v 2 = 1 .28406 Y = 0.36 1 677491 + 0.1 6) and (5 . 1 1 39209665J  0. 5 .6 1 856634 = 0.28406 Y = 4.3.1 5).4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.79852734 v2 = 1 . (5.314).554824 D U /T U f = 3.31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .63049 1 80961 1 . 74994739 VI = 0.58 1 43981 VI = 0.8826885334K v2 = 0.0.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .50634848K v2 = 0.60 1 874421 .76973587J . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.0. 1 7866539741 + 1 .1 3).9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.96670788 z = x 0.5544 1 39777J 0. (5 .Sec.t solved .0.02234 1 8 1 1 . 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.
The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. For "short way" trajectories. yet equation (5 . 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . In other words. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .52). there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths.31 .1 O} VC .9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 .076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 .38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative. From equation (5 . This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics.39). Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.= 0. where f::1) is less than 7T.38) and (5 . and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position).
c o s ""E si n ""E .1 ) and si n  COS .4. 5. 5.6V COS .6V V 1 . It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 .4. a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .6V p � .cos !:::.4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. we obtain 5. a and ""E.42) into equation (5.4 TH E p./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity . we can solve for a and get 1 . F or "long way" trajectories y is positive . A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x. From equation (5 .cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . hence.Sec.v. This check is only necessary when is positive.j1 .. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.va si . (sin xl i .?S.4.cos ""V ( 1 . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.)2 cos . for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve . we get  ... and 2 solving for p.c o s x =.25). The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.V ) a (5 .23).
2 Ll.. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .46) Ll. we obtain m p a= (5 . and noting that � c os '2 .Qp y'2ni p .E ( k .E CO � = ± p= k = .Q p ) 2 (5 .48) k .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5. (5 .c o s bJ)) (5 .v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .43) as Ll.J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.E Q ± y'2ni C O S .2 Expressing a as a Function of p. we get Ll.E) •  k = k Ll.43) 5. (5 . E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .E Solving for cos2.E . The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .45) ± Using these same definitions.45) and simplify.44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.4. 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.
we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight .where k. Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . 5. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048).3 Checking the Trial Value of p. Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses).F in case a is negative). however. 5.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . 2.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . a may not be smaller than some minimum value . am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 ..6. 5 . Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined.4 . Sec. we need to determine � (or .4 T H E p. . First .4..1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr.!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic.
6.41 1) c o sh .vi. 9 and f from equations (5 .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .6.4.1 3) .4.4.F: (5 . F .From the trial value of P and the known information.42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length. the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .s i n . As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.E ) (5 .6. p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .4 The t vs P Curve .a r1 (1  f) (5 .6. To get a feeling for the problem.( 1 .E a If yield is negative.6.f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 . The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .6. F ) . The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.23). If (..E from equations (5 . there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation..24) and (5 .49) Since we always assume . Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 . we can compute f. This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.25).E . In Figure 5.F is positive.F (5 .6. we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like .Tar (si n h . let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way.41 2) (5 .6.6.6. we can determine . If a is positive.24) or the corresponding equation involving ." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 . 5 c o s . If we look at "long way" trajectories. although t approaches infInity for this orbit. (5 .1 0) = = 1 .23) and (5 . we see that the limiting case of . F 1 .
for t:sv greater than IT. P must lie between o and P j j . we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 ....43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. we should first compute P j or P j j . P must lie between P j and infinity. lie within the prescribed limits... In Figure 5 . Since it is important thar the first trial value. Sec..... P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case . as well as all subsequent guesses for p.. For l'J) less than IT..4 T H E p.. t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j .zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero.42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 . From the discussion above. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 . 5 .I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse . As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight..
'" E 0> '" . 0 Q + y2in k  (5 . The solution is then bracketed and. and one that gives too large a value. Several simple methods may be used successfully. from equation (5 .46). ell .1 4) Q . � " .43 k p a rameter . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. I .. In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p.1 5) 5 . . • . such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi).yLri1 (5 . b ..4. 5 1 :co . The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution. p )0 p" .4.. . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5. one that gives too small a value for t.5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. .4.246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. . by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two .
. . . O��_4o P n.1 ) (5.. . ... .. .Sec. . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5.44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration .4..1 ) (t n .. If tn. .P n . . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. .4.......1 6). tn t ..... . . .1 and Pn . .I Figure 5 ... 5 . .1 6) This scheme can be repeated. .. then a better estimate of p may be obtained from . then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t ... .. . .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p... . .. 4 T H E p....t n ) ( P n .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn.. ... .. . . It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer. . ..t n . ..
41 8) (S . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .4.iri equati �n (S.41 7).248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative . � ( S . fl3  fJ.4.si n L'> E l . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point. 41 9) .24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  .r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S . ( � . we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g .
Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .Qp ) Q.2 dp k ( k .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 . from equation (5 .k2 ] 2 [ (2m . we obtain .4 T H E p.2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.E / dp and noting.Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .2mk2 Qp 2kQp .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .4 8) . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .( k .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE . that ( k .47).Sec. bE d�E . 5 .420) From equation (5 .
423) . 5 (5 . (5 .4.COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .Qp) si n 6E JJ. _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2..250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch . p(k h JJ.1 8) from (5 .. which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.= ..� (6E .6E JJ. By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .4. (5 .42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 . and (5 .1 9).Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .
Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.44). Solve for t from equation (5 .E or Ll. 5 . 4 .1 0) or equation (5 . 9 and f from equations (5 .6E or Ll. Q and m from r] . should be used in equation (5 .4.1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.27) and (5 . 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES .24) and (5 .22). Sec. Evaluate the constants k. Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. 2 . (5 . Solve for f. 5 251 . The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a.6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .F obtained from the trial value. the values of g. Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. solve for a from equation (5 4 . t and .4.8). This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. as appropriate .2·3). equations (5 . of p.F. We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .4. 8 . we will develop and use the f and 9 series.49) and (5 . Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits.1 5).4. Using the trial value.422) or (5 . r and Ll. a.4. Solve for Ll.II using 2 . 25).To evaluate the slope at Pn . As stated earlier . 5 .1 1 ) . Pn . 5 . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear.1 4) and (5 . 2. 7 . 9 .423).1 2) or (5 . Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . 6. 3 . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . using equations (5 . G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem.4.
1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . Therefore.252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . we write equation (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v.u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn .54) we have the following recursion (5 . 5 5) r r (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 2) (5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . 5 9) .57) (5 . (5 . 5 4) for n = O. r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . (5 . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion. 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 .
51 6) (5 . 5 . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .5 11 ) (5 . q.51 3) rr and the definition of p. 1 Development of the Series Coefficients . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. v are known . as we shall u .51 2) u . this can be (5 .5. u L. 5 . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .515) =  ur.5. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. p and q which will be useful later .and the equation of motion f  (5 . We define them as follows : O.1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . 5 .5W)  (r . p. v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .1 7) .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .
58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . ) . d q = d t .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly.1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . r r (5 . 1 1 1 1 . 5.u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . 5 20) (5 . r) (v) 2 .23 r· (V) r   u.57) and (5 . .U .p (u + 2q ) . v) _ 1 u.r . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . .3u p (5 . = . Summarizing: (5 . _ [1 1  2 (v . 522) q = . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .1 8) Using the definition of P. 5 . . 5.(v) 2 . ) _ 24 (r . (5 .
7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ . = . Writing equation (5 .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing. = r 0.1 5u p ( u . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .Sec.54) for n = 1 . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue. 2 we have : ) r( 1 = .3p ( u + 2q ) .30p p + 3 q ) .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense . F3 = F .u G = .u G 4 = u ( u .6 u 2 p = .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 . Fs = F4 . = . p and q. = F 1 r + G 1 .u r = ..3 u p ( u . 5.u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \.t!:.1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .6 u 2 p = .
256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .1 .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 . ) .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .tao Comparing with equation (5 .5.523) .526) . Referring to equations (5 . . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 . 5 = U (u .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious. . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. Vo (5 . therefore.52) and (5 .524) (5 .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .Gn n.1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .
G = u.30q .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) . 5 .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) . F 1 = 0.1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .Sec.3q .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) . F = 3up 3 F = u(. G = 30up(1 4p2 . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).28q .6q . G 1 = 1 .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 . G = O. F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).2 1 q . F 2 = 'U.94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .90q .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .51 .
1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle .24) and (5 . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . 7) r I g (r I .2·3). p.6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . f I .0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch .f (r I . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . 2·5). Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions.258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u .5·29) . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. From equation (5 . 5.5·27) + ' (5 . This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. r I . the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. (5 .51) + 9= 7  1 . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only.5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . The f and 9 series may be used . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . 5 .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy.2 Solution of the Gauss Problem.6. 5. 7) (5 . In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 .
A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. becomes dt (1 . .61 Sector and triangle area (5 .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA.77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6. h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. This .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. 5. thus Figure 5 .Sec. As. L£ . The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude .6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .
62) (5 .260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 .2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b.2E ) 2 ." + l( 1 . If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio. . we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 .1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.2 The First Equation of Gauss.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3. but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large. E ) . The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �.' l'2 2 2 (5 .43) and using the identity.6.6.c o s b. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss. 4 � c o s b. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one. 5. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.
.68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.s i n l:>E ) .61 ) becomes si n l:v .1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .24) and (5 .. so . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .s i n l:>E ) .65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .2 ( 1 r1 r .6 .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.= . L ( l:>E .65). (5 . n l:> E ) .Sec.(5 ..cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 ..67) 1 cos l:>v =..23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 ..L . .2 2 L (5 .£Q. 3 The Second Equation of G auss. Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 . t/y. Using the identity. Si. 5 . si n l:v cos � . equation . ( . From the first of these equations. we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.61).jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.
The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 .64) and solving for y. so a trialanderror solution is necessary.25). more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. pick a trial value for y. 27) and (5 . we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = .1 0) .43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated.6. Next." 5 . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 .69) are transcendental.Si.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. When convergence has occurred.si n LE ) we may write. The first step is to evaluate the constants. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns.from (5 . the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . !:JJ and t.64) and (5 . (5 . Unfortunately. S + 1 . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. from r I ' r2 . y. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . p. We then added another independent equation. 6. a good first guess is y � 1 . recall that we started with three equations.2(� . 23).6.s) . (5 . (5 . This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . a and LE. and so on. in three unknowns. using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. which is known as "the second equation of Gauss. equations (5 . s and w. To review what we have done so far.1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E.1 ) . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical.69) cos f = 1 . and one more unknown.1 ) = W (LE . y 2 ( y . n = 2 si n 3 LE . 22) completes the solution. 24) and (5 . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. y and LE .262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .4 Solution of the Equations . (5 .6.
s i n .F .c:.c:.c:.6.c:.F .c:.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .6. Noting that .c:.1 2) = X = .1 0) may become greater than one. E or .c:. F s i n h 3 "2 . Since we already know that when . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.c:.69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 . difficulties may be anticipated any time .F .E s i n 3 . )� s + 1 .c:.c:.Since the equations above involve .F and COS i . as y2 = W S + x . they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.69) and to determine y. For this reason.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit. the righthand side of equation (5 .F are close to zero.c:. indicating that�.F whenever the right side is greater than one .E is imaginary. i sin i. E = i .c:.c:. 6.E and . Using the identity.F is real. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.. then . .cE. equation (5 .E . The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section. 6.c:.F = rush .1 2) become indeterminate.1 1 ) s i n h .69) and · (5 .c:. equation (5 .S ) y (5 .c:.c:.c:.6. F. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y .E is imaginary.c:.1 0) may also b e written as Sec. If the given timeofflight is short.F will be zero and both equations (5 .c:. F = si nh .0. S. 5 . we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.F 2 ) · (5 .cosh 2 .6.
Determine p from equation (5 . 1� = 2 3 1.264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . Compute the constants. parabola. The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. r2 .6.. ( 1 + §.43). (s + x ) · 1 (5 .6.63). 5 . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s.6 . 3 . it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. is .2 Ch . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution.6.25) and (5 .6. or hyperbola according to whether x is positive.6.24). which is developed by Moulton. the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. . and 9 from equations (5 .E or 6.61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . 6 . Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . the orbit being an ellipse. 7 . (5 . E as a power series in x. . Determine X from equation (5 .1 0) or (5 . and then expressing 6.62) and (5 .1 3). Evaluate f. 2 . 2 6.26). g . 2.22). (5 . problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . /:. The result. Depending on the type of conic. 4.]) and t using equations (5 .23)..1 5) 1 . from rl .1 4) Now.1 1). . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. s and w. determine 6. zero.6. or negative. replacing CDs 6. ) .1 4).27) and (5 .Y:i..F from equation (5 . f.1 (5 . The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. .
" In all but the simplest cases. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. To avoid generalities. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . Usually. 72. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. 5 . To make the problem even more specific. and ballistic missile interception. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . The £:. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . ballistic missile targeting. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . �atellite intercept and rendezvous.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite.Sec. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning.
.266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . fI }/ \ \ .. ��y V \" _ . I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 ." \ t a rg e t / \ . "..� .. . ) / ot t..�: :. e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.1 .� ' . 7 ...' ':. I n .. �/ �/ ". 5 i nterceptor .f. ". \ •• • • • • • .."...1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .. r..\. .7... at t..
Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. which is when the intercept will occur.Sec. The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 .7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . 5 . We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor.
we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. " . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . . . . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out.238 km/sec. Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. 5 them. �v? �v . \ \ \ Figure 5 . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. . launch vel. 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. . . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired.
72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. Because of earth rotation. One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site .7 . 5 . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t .5 . In summary . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. the better . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . 5 . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . the launch site will have moved eastward . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short .7 .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . In Figure 5 . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. From Figure 5 . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability.
270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .7.) z :J « .J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.V plot for example intercept problem .4 /':. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .O F ...
8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 . another method will be develope d . P3 · . the three components of r2 . P3 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.8 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . Although we have examined a very specific example .86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . 82) t2 so (5 .Sec.85) (5 .84) (5 . (5 . 5 . i.1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. t2 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry.e. Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. v2 • P I ' P2 .
R1 .8. f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c.R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . i. Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . ' r2 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . 8.e. Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . the components of f2 and V2 .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns.1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x. the components of Vz be X. Estimate the magnitude of f2 . 5 to (5 . y. L3 .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch . � into equations (5 . in fact only six of the equations are independent. L2 . b . y and Z . 526) and (5 .8. y and z .8) (5 .8·7) (5 . and eliminating the K components.1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a.L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . Rz .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & .
32).Ch . Y. Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 . Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. I I I I  x. Z. Usirlg specific numbers.1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l.41 .V required for intercept? 5.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. f2 I + J DU). but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. =: =: 5 . Limitations. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . c. f. .6 Derive equation (5 .39). 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04.526) and (5 . 5. EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 .423) for hyperbolic orbits.31 ).31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 .527). e .t2 and t2 t } are not too large.522). 5.2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. Ease of computation.31 3) through (5 .4 Verify the development of equation (5 048).1 5. b. The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer. (5.3 Verify equations (5 . and (5. 5 Z. 5 . Accuracy. which are the components of f2 and v2 . What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy.
The piteration technique. which will contain both position vectors. d. 5 Given two position vectors rI .06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 . t2 . (Ans. The universal variable method . 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. 5. p 1 + J + K DU DU 5.9 Repeat problem 5 . r2 'and the distance between them. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. 5 . although a few iterations can be made by hand. c.t l determine v2 using a. as a function of rI r2 . h = 1 .8 using the universal variable.009 (. 5 .t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5.274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . r2 . Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use.J + K). Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse.tl = 1 . vI = 0.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 .00256 (J + K» . rl r2 p. d. (Ans.0922 TU. b.7 . The original Gauss method.
t 1 = 0.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . New York.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. Vol 5 . and A. Carl Friedrich. New York. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . Liu. f 1 = 1 . 1 956. 1 9 59. NY.Ch . 1 963. 1 . 1 9 1 4. McGrawHill Book Company. New York. 51 + 0. to Celestial Mechanics." in The World of 1 .4804847 1 1 2 +0. "The Prince of Mathematicians. (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . S. a. NY.0. Pedro Ramon. Richard H. Inc. 2I D U t2 .t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . Methods of Orbit Determination. the MacMillan Company. Bell. (Answer : v = 0.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. . Mathematics.66986 9921+0 . a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. 4. 1 965. f l = 0 . 3. Escobal. NY. r 1 = 41 t 2 . r 1 = I t 2 . A n Introduction York.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. NY. Moulton. John Wiley & Sons.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. Davis. Inc. New York.6J + 0. 1 964.J D U Use "long way" trajectory.7K D U t 2 . Dover Publications. c . A stronautical Guidance. Forest Ray. Simon and Schuster. r 1 = 2I t2 . Herrick. Battin. Eric Temple . Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. 2 . Appendix A. New 6. d . Gauss.
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. ironically . The result is well known. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. Napoleon I 6. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger .CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. longrange ballistic missiles. Efforts. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . which concern us in this chapter. have a very short history .000 V2's had been fired in anger . World War II as "too late . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in .
The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. After all. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. In July 1 95 4. in June 1 9 53 . Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . California. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . According to Dr. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. Trevor Gardner . The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun.000 pounds thrust. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . 4 Accordingly. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. Brigadier General 3 .000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle.
2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. 6 . Atlas was a reality. 6. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon.000 people participating directly. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. the program had. After three unsuccessful attempts. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . Otherwise. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. by mid· 1 95 9 . Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . Blasingame . While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy.Sec. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . Progress was rapid. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know.
This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here .2. (6 . we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory." "height of apogee. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . 6 .ji1Tr..2 The Nondimensional Parameter.2. Figure 6. There are.2. It will not be discussed in this text.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . 1 defines these new quantities. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 .2. =. 6 from launch to burnout. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system." etc." "flightpath angle at burnout. 6 . Since Va:. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. however. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics. such terms as "height at burnout. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. need not be redefined. Q .22) .. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory . This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch ..
21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory . 6.2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .Sec .
If Q is greater than 2 .3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . 24) 6 . It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit.26) . This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6. This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section.2. the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit.1 ) . We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 .O/r from equation (6. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. (6.the expression p. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 .2.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . When Q is equal to 1 . and substitute for V. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.23) or IQ=2�·1 p .
lies on each side of the major axis. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .co s v b o .27) . 2 Equation. 6 . 'l'.Sec. be written as (6.26) above can. and co s � = . therefore. half the freeflight range angle .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) .f6.
the total range angle. the required freeflight range angle. e. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. . can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2.1 1) into equation (6.284 . h = rv cos cp.2. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . .e2 ). rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. since p = a( 1 .1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions.2.28) p.29) and (6. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. (6.T.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6./. also becomes known.29) Now. . A. what should the flightpath angle. = r Q C O S2 cp . ¢ro. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile.2. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.
23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. Instead . with a little algebra.23 Ellipse geometry 6 . it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. In Figure 6 .4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . We could . F'. ¢bo.2. Sec 6 . is called r bo .In other words. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . Now.
23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . d. we can express d as 'i' d = o S .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. Qb o 2 2 (6. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering.1 6) .1 3) (6. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. F' and the burnout point.x) = sin (6. for example. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. This is.24. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.2.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . shown in Figure 6.I n 2 and also as rb (6.2.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . � + 'lr) = . This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse .2.2. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal. that. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . It means. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .Qb o sin � . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. in fact.000 ) from equation (6.
1 6) gives us . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory . 6.2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 . sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .9.866.2. .Sec.
Provided that 'l' is attainable. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . equation (6 . the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. Because a = .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. Table 6. 2. Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. If Q bo is greater than 1 . This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . If Q bo is exactly 1 . A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. .1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . 2. The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible .1 6) does not exceed 1 . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . Nevertheless.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target.P/2&. An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . Figure 6 . If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'.
Sec.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6. 6 .
Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. ha p og ee 0. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. hits earth Table 6 . cos ¢ b o == 0. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM.11 5 18 1 .low traj . vbo = 2/3 DU/TU. the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. skims earth high only .21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'.5 DU.625 . During the test firing of a ballistic missile.low traj .290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . hits earth 000 > 1 high only . 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj .
6 2 1 . ) (60 n m i ) =2. What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.1 2) . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . 2<P b o + 64°20.. 60 0W . Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. 08 1 7 ( 1 . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. 6. c os � = + N . Notice or <P b o = :.025 DU respectively. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N.025) = 1 . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 600 E.2.4Deg.Sec.1 . 36° .08 1 7 DU/TU and . 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. 26. :. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 .2. 'IT. 6 .5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. versus the flightpath angle . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2.
pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 . be the maximum range condition..s..1 7) I (6..292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell .7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight .2..1 6) equals exactly 1 . :.1 8) L__________________� ...2. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution . s 0> Q) 0 � c . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6. . en EO I .� 90 Figure 6.:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' . If the right side of equation (6.Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 . One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero. 0> <1> <1> � IJ. then. 2. � 80 .26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.. (2<P bO � ) 2 ..
/2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6. 220) for maximum range conditions. VI 1 800 . noting that l . but . the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 .2.1 7 ). 6 . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e .Qbo Qb o (6 .222) .7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2).1 9) for maximum range conditions. 2. 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. 6 . We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6.Sec:.2. From the symmetry of Figure 6.22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4.cos 2 . sin �= 2 2 . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 .8) .6 Time of FreeFlight. This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o . By inspection. 'JI . 2.e cos 2 (6. 2 . due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified..
29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. can be obtained from equ ations (6. a. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch .27 Time of freeflight (6. e. 6 The semimajor axis.1 1). since five variables have been plotted on the figure. and the eccentricity. 2.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. 23) and (6. In fact . What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . Figure 6 . 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. 28. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
884) ( 1 .000 nm. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.8 period vs. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM.750 n m .Sec. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0. 6 . altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6.075) == 0.95 From Figure 6.25 D U == 7 .
:: :"/ N . . : :/ . :: : J: : : . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: . : : . ' .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . . : : .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. : ' . hi. : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C.CI�rie� v X I .9h Ir..I ' : ' : : : : : : .. .aje. . . .� '" �� :.f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 .. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free .
 Vbo 6. . 2 00 ft/sec . For brevity .6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors.77 0 = 0 .6C represents the cro ssrange error. The arc length . For a fixed burnout altitude . 6 . payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.2. position.933 D Urr U � 24.6X and . F or purposes of this example. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount.220) . and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors.OOO nm max = 3. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.3 .6X.6C. impacting at B.6C may be / 9 57 1. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. 957 Hsi 66. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian.444 n m = 2. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point. suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. In Figure 6 . the crossrange error.Sec.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . . It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit.3 ° From equation (6. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . 6 . and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point.1 � 0. 8.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. . 3 . 'l' From equation (6.32 r ads = 1 33.
3 . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6."2 to simplify equation (6 .31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . .thought of as angles.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation.1 . for example. if the intended target had been the north pole . 3. Equation (6. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center. I 1 . If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .32) 2 X Figure 6. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. if they are in degrees.1 ) to (6.3. cos . we get (6.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. In Figure 6 . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr.
'l1. 299 Figure 6.2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. P. Figure 6 . 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. a crossrange error. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C.32 Azimuth error 6 . Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. are as planned.33) . If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. will result. before . Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . 6 . 'l1.32 is the crossrange error . 6(3. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error.Sec. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown .3 . �C. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range .
34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r. This . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.� I a q.oo a "'00 Fl ight .21 about the center of the Earth. 6.. In other words.\]I. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 . <Pbo' In Figure 6.300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch .path angle .0. \]I..3.\]I will represent a downrange .4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. cos X � 1 ..D.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 .0. are shown by a solid line in the figure . it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it .C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. (6. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.y I  : : i.0.3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount . it will hit the target anyway . 6 If we assume that both 43 and .3 .33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 . the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn . The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6. if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.x ' to simplify equation (6..
37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 . The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.8) (6.2. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.Sec. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.1 2) of this chapter . The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o . 6 .3.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x. We could get an approximate value for .1 0) Qbo I i .36) (6.3 . then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 . The diagram at the right of Figure 6 . If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory.cot <P b o (6.6.
Vb Substituting from equation (6. acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .3.1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = . _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .3. 3.1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .3. a'l1 .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants. Let us first express equation (6.3.c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .
1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. A plot of range versus burnout radius. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. particular burnout error . Figure 6.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . equation .33. 6 .Sec. While we need equation (6. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. If this seems strange.33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. In fact. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) .000 nm range. angle errors. Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case.1 3) This partial derivative . the actual range error on a 3 . Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . 3 .3 . when used in the manner described above. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot).3. Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative .
3.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .3.3.3.. b o 'fJ ' (6 . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . differentiating the range equation (6 .304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . . the missile falls short of the target in every case .1 4) for small values of . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ. Again.3.31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6. The magnitude of the error is (6.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = .1 1) implicitly.6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 .3.000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory . too slow and the missile falls short.1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation . if burnout occurs too low. 6. the missile overshoots . 6 however. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 .
9 0 5 D U !TU . 1 ) 2 .4 rad ians.905) 2 ( 1 . Total downrange error : . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = .5 x 1 05 D U/TU . ub o = 5 x 1 0 . We will need Q bo (. ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error .1 8) would reveal that.4 D U .6V b o + a 'lr . 3. 735 rad DU r b o ( .Sec. LW b o = .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . 1 D U . There is no crossrange error.6¢ b o = .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 . r bo = 1 .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range . 6 .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . . 649 r ad U D U/T . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . An analysis of equation (6 .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . like the other two influence coefficients.1 0.3.735 = 6 .
2 1 (. {3. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation.56x 1 0. In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation. 6. ove rshoot 6.2sin 1 60 o 2 = .1 . We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. 0. The rotation is from west to east. That is. If we know the timeofflight of the missile .649 (5x 1 O .5 24 ft/sec.S ) .4 ) (3444) � 4 n . If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar. The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. and its azimuth angle.4 )+6.1 0. its flightpath angle. both the launch point and the target are in motion.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . then all three . That is. v. for example).4. 56x 1 0 . 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives.735 ( 5x 1.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating.4 ) TOT =1 1 . we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 .1 . 6 =2. m i . <p.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .
000 ft/sec. of train l \\�. An observer at rest would not agree ." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . and a speed of. we will refer to measurements of burnout .41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. �. of 45 0 ..1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . say 1 . A simple example should clarify this point. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . direction in this frame as 1>e and �e.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 .4.4. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 .5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. of 900 (east). the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 .Sec.I ·=<� • .1 ) . an azimuth. Hereafter. 1>. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. 6 . . (6. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . we make our measurements in a moving reference frame .000 ft/sec. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. Like the observer on the moving train. Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction.
flightpath angle . It is. first. and up components of the true velocity.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . this will not be difficult.42) The true speed.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . lies. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. We can obtain the south. Vs (6 .43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. of course. v.44) �. Thus. break up V into its components. Once you have the components of ve. finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . �. v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . east . (6 .
This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . 6.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . Rather . The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . so the arc length OA in Figure 6. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch.43 is just 90 0 L o. Hopefully. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . In Figure 6 .Sec.4. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. The term. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . the target will be there also. when the missile arrives at point B. Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. If the coordinates of the target are ( 4.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 .43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched.
43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A .46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 . {3. (6 . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. tA .0. .triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. (6 .48) Again. we can solve for the required launch azimuth. then a value of . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.N + wffitA' where .0. A. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. and if.N + w ffitA ) . by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.0. we get c o s {3 = sin L t . The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 .N. {3.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.47) Solving for cos {3.0. Once we know the total range angle.0. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. (6 . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .0. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target. The longitude difference. .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target.
tA But . Needless to say. By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. 6 . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. A. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . (3. In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff .43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . and launch azimuth.Sec.
80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of .5022 ta . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .4 5) : v= .. Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ .. 9 s i n 300= .. 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . 8° v n /3 = v = . 79 . 29 . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . v = . 33° ¢bo = v E = .3 ° W burns out at 30o N. 5 1 1 95 v . using Q bo = .j( .. 45 ) 2 = . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N. flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . 1 ) 1 .42) through (6 . 1 DU. 87 9 30.0 58 8cos290 = . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 339 ) 2 + ( .9 DU/TU. Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. 339 ) =.675 s (J=333 . ..( . 6 .. 85 From Figure 6 . 9cos3 00cos 3300= . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 ..
770 N re = 156. 334)=135° . 6. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 2 5 TU :. using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0.4 . 77° = .7 8 0 . 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . 3709 �GG (3.13 = 7. w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . 334 TU boN = 135° . 6 70) =.3. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1.we(3.Sec.123 . tff=3. 334TU ) =123. 29 .85 and ¢bo = 3 0.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � .203. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again.80° . . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = .
4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 . v = 1 6 .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0.2. what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N. 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . m i .926 D U /TU . .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans.' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n . r b o = 1 . and a spherical Earth. 4> b o p Vb o = 6 .840.6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 .6 ft/sec) 6 . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6.5 D U!TU 1 . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. 6 EXERCISES 6 . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . = .05 D U = 1 0° . m i .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal .1 9)? Why? 6 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude. R = 6 0 n .
1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. (Ans. 7 I n general. .400 n mi.6. 6 .0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 . how large can .6. in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. Using the equations si n iL. A lateral displacement .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans.000 run) 6 . 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 .2 1 2 run) 6. 1 0 During a test flight.Ch.'lr ).06 DU.02. an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + .98 to 1 . .)(. What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . Rtf = 5 . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 .x and L¥3 be? .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. Do not use charts. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of . Rtf = 4 .02.
. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . (Ans.936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . Is this a high. 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .642 DU/TU) .V = 25 .0 DU for a ballistic missile.346 n mi long) b.6888 n mi L:. ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi.r = 0. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . vbo = 0. a.800 nautical miles? (Ans. 6 6 . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. c . 7 ..31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 6 . low. b . or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 .
1 2 00 W.700 n mi using a high trajectory.. 6 . R t of 4. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range .22 The range error equation could be written as: b. 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . Ch .600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi.ri. Q bo + . b. �bo and analyze the result . What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans.4 min) = 6. 3 0 0 E. at an altitude of 2. i.530 ft/sec.. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 . Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . 6. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. 5 DU and whose perigee is . what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 . What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum.QL. determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. 5 DU. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. 1 5 00 E. tff 40.23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ).6 ..e . Do not use charts.. 6 . at the same altitude . If the velocity at burnout was 28.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of .where e is the 6 .'I' = � b. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory .092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N.
3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 .1 0 . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . b. or maximum range trajectory? 6 . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 .500 ft/sec=O.318 V bo =23.0057 ° = .48966 = 3 1 5 .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of . How far will the missile miss the target? 4. 1 200W . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.1 045 . low.4 rad ian s a. elevation . c.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high.5 0 . (Ans. v bo = .25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.66E+20784. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O. It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 . 92S1 0608. 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 . (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed .
N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6.1 2 ' . 5 7 min) == * 6 . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . (Ans. tff 3 2 . What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d .400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . site located 319 During the actual firing. atmosphereless Earth. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. . rotating. 1. the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' .Ch . Assuming a symmetric orbit. and r bo � r(fl.73 n mi. == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . What was the freeflight range. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory .649 n mi . L t 54 0 3 1 '.8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . 43e . 1 20 OW . downrange displacement of burnout point . in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical.6 1 8 . ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. 0 (Ans. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans.28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 .
S. The MacMillan Company. Los Angeles. Doubleday & Company. R ff ::: 1 0. NY. Albert D. 3 . 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . NY.3 .1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . and truncate all terms third degree and higher).1 2) .6Vb o . Vol 2. "Free Flight . Burgess." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles.3 1 The approximation : * 6. NY.2.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . Lt Col Kenneth. A History of the U. 4. 1 95 5 . Garden City. 6 * 6. How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . Schwiebert. Publishers. Inc. Dornberger . New York. Inc. (Hin t : See section 6. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. 2. Space Technology Laboratories. Ernest G . 1958. Praeger. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. 5 . * 6. altitude at bo ::: . NY. V2 .4) . Walter. New York. Gantz . 1 960. Frederick A.2. New York .800 n mi. . Calif. 1 965 .30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. Eric. Wheelon . LIST OF REFERENCE S 1.02 DU.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The Viking Press. ed . 1 962.
the Moon. have been discovered. and is. . drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. and moving round it. Proctor.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. does. The Moon is the more useful. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . . whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. the 32 1 . though principally attracted by the Earth. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. the Sun or the Moon? .. when it is dark. of all which. about which she moves. when it is light anyway. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. since it gives us light during the night. together with the Earth. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . move round the Sun once a year.
Lagrange and Laplace . 7. Even interplanetary trajectories. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. W.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .in this case the Sun. 7 Author in this book. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . D'Alembert. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. .2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . Clairaut ." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. with no less subtility than industry. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. Brown . Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . but because it comes close to being a double planet. W. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. has given a full account. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction.
son of the great biologist Charles Darwin.Sec. 7 . The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. Darwin. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). H.: =j Figure 7. the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. :. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 .:. in fact. . .21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. .3 04 of the mass of the Earth. According to one theory advanced by G.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . ... The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. . .3 days. . As a result . . . the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. This puts the center of the system 4. ��===c==Q. .400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. . 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward .
When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements.22 Lunar orbital elements 7.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon.2. the orbital elements are constantly . The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. 7 Figure 7. In the case of the Moon's orbit .
" was discovered more than 2 . called "evection.000 years ago by Hipparchus.Sec. c. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . This effect .400 km. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a.3 1 66 1 days.054900489 . The line of nodes. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 .8 days. b. Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. 7 . 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' .
If the Moon's orbit were = . in l S72. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . for only then can Sun.000 years. making one complete revolution in l S . Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference .6 years.6 years. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. its mean value is 5 0 S ' . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. d . rotates westward." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse .2. When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction.23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. 23 ° 27' . the other .326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . but more than a century later . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary.2 Lunar Librations. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . is the descending node . Thus. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. where the Moon crosses from north to south. When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . From Figure 7. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. e . Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum.5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory .9 years. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node .
Because of the complex motions of the Moon. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. the computer time required could become prohibitive . at one time or another. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration.Sec.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. we would see exactly half of its surface . If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . among other things. This permits us to see about 7 . daybyday.75 0 around each limb of the moon. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. solar pressure . Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . and 7. Actually we see . As a result. solar perturbations. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. monthbymonth basis.3 . 7 . The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit.
we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ. 2& e = y'1  pia . In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. semimaj or axis... 7 . a = :l:!:.400 km. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch ..Q. With this thought in mind.3. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions.6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit .3 . We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.0549 . It is not important that the analytical method be precise. this will not introduce significant errors. 7. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe.
60 \ \ I njection . F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH ..31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly..g' . we get c o s V = 2.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed . 7 .  I. E i= . if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit.. j 80 . . We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4. In Figure 7. II.c C/) .:. k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression..9 I njection 1 1.3 ..i..Sec.2 10.. 1 r1 1 .r1 1.c " 0 .. we can solve for va . e r Figure 7.0 S pe e d .
. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \.: / :1 .. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP.')'. 7 .32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape .. For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite .. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed ..3 ... 7 an injection altitude of . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours. to parabolic. .. In Figure 7..32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. .. As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 .J! . to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. Actually.330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point. : .... 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection. . the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero. \ 0 �� ' earth " .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 .
32 we see that. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . as the injection speed is decreased. Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity .4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . Assuming no lunar gravity . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. 7 . In general the sweep angle . Assuming an inj ection altitude of .966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . In such a case . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . 3 . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . . 7 .Sec.32. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. which we can call 1/1. we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. if we try to take longer by going slower. Eventually . is a function of . if we keep reducing the injection speed . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. 1 8 8 km/sec. 82 km/sec. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. Moon from our assumed inj ection point .we will never reach the Moon at all. The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. due to errors in guidance or other factors. this minimum injection speed is 1 0. The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. From Figure 7 .32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . If we are trying to minimize injection speed.
. But. so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. This may be seen from Figure 7 . for example . Neglecting lunar gravity. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj.33 .332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t.. the initial velocity is too high. and wrrft. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . that is. If. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted.
we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. however. 5 However. 7. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the .0 km/sec. In effect.1 ) . 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 .4.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . for all practical purposes. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance .p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. 7 . evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. R s' given by the expression Sec.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace .arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . only are interested in determining ap. There is.3 00 km. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius.
4.4. A full derivation of equation (7 .4 . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame. 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.1 ) can be found in Battin . Figure 7 . 7 ." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .) Then. a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon. 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin.4.300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure .1 ) yields the value Rs = 66.
1 .43) From the law of cosines. at lunar arrival is (7 . r 1 . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 .42) (7 .Sec. The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. from geometry . the radius.45) COS <P I .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . r 1 .44) . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. Finally.r h V 1 I (7 . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables.
4. Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. 7 Figure 7. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .49) (7 . JJ. t l .to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined. p=� (7 .48) (7 .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.47) 2& e = ".1 0) . 1 p ia  a = :l!.
1 3) (7 .4.3 rad/TUEIl (7 .1 2) Next.Sec. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .4.to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .4.6 rad/sec 1 0 . timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .e 1 r1 __ (7 .4. .1 5) 2.1 6) The phase angle at departure. Wm = = t 1 . 7 .649 2. 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually. the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .4.1 1 ) (7 .1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.4. 1 37 X X 1 0. we can determine the eccentric anomalies. Eo and E1 from Finally.
is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center.1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. (7 . the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 .1 6) above .4.4. We will do this in the sections that follow.42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.42 : V m = 1 .4. Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . r 1 .4. v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . at arrival is completely determined by \ . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . 7 .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO . 7 .0 1 8 k m/sec. it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . then the selena centric radius.48) through (7 . r2 . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body.which we chose arbitrarily .1 9) . In Figure 7 . (7 . The geocentric radius.45).2 Conditions at the Patch Point .4. It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory.1 8) (7 .
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
30 .348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.50 � � c 0 i e 1.54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 . «>  0.40 .20 .
Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 .si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . 54. From Figure 7 . 7 . There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct .52) and Figure 7 . The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. If lighting conditions are important. 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.5 0 . b oth of which are undesirable. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. sir! 0 1 . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . if we add a coasting arc. It should be obvious from equation (7 .5 0 and 28 .52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. If lunar declination at intercept is specified.5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. However.5. Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28.5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. 5 4 worth noticing.Sec. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .5 3) . As a result .54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . Figure 7 . 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 .3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date .
1 44.254 1 67 . 8 0 1 36.020 1 8 1 6 49. 86 28 26 29 .84 60. 5 7 1 1 66 . 1 90 1 67 . 624 1 7 3 5 00.963 1 8 27 5 5 .3 1 9 3 . 1 3 . 1 0 1 6. . 24 .737 18 1 9 36 .3 3 3 1 67 . 7 . 973 FIgure 1 65 .242 1 66 .05 8 1 65 .78 1 3 1 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.424 1 67 .56 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .449 1 67 .695 1 8 02 54 . 1 0 28 27 29 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .435 1 65 .9 8 9 8 .766 1 7 43 23 .97 28 3 1 47 .32 1 1 67 .45 8 0. 8 1 28 32 47 .27 3 5 .05 28 33 1 1 . 7 1 7 1 66 .58 73.376 1 67 . 267 1 67 .23 1 23 .97 28 34 3 9 .3 1 28 29 48 . 1 7 2 1 67 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .445 1 67 .44 22.998 17 5 7 20. 5 8 67.38 + 9 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .76 28 3 1 09 . 1 969 .97 29. 078 1 66 .4 1 3 1 66 .85 4 1 .862 1 65 . 24 28 23 34 .3 1 8 5 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .374 1 8 00 07 .89 28 24 29 .308 1 8 22 22. 1 6 +1 6 1 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8. 2 1 28 34 42 .970 1 66 .63 1 1 1 .3 1 + 1 48 .39 28 3 0 34.41 7 1 67 .7 1 54. 5 9 28 34 33 .97 1 1 9.90 28 33 5 3 .88 28 33 3 5 .385 1 67 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 . 1 4 1 06.87 28 34 22.883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 .00 28 28 1 5 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . .34 28 32 1 7 .46 1 1 67 .3 .07 47.460 1 67 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.35 28 1 6 08 .85 1 1 66 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.95 7 1 7 37 48.08 28 29 08 .949 1 8 05 42.350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .47 28 25 3 8 .72 1 1 8 25 08. 1 67 1 7 29 26 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .203 28 1 8 49 . 1 5 28 34 1 0. 1 9 173.44 28 2 1 1 8 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.
54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. at the launch point (see Figure 2.ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . the total time . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . �.89) : (7 56) .5 .53 . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 .9 . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . 5 3 . and may be obtained from equation (2.3 . !::lX . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . which may be computed from the injection conditions. ao' at this launch time . is the same as the "local sidereal time .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. The difference i n right ascension . c o s 1/1 t . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints." 8. Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . 84).Sec. 7 . slightly (7 . 1/1 c ' Thus. 5 4). To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . The launch time. tt ' is (7 . we get cos 6a. = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. it is possible to adjustt l .
and recompute to and Qb until (Xl .3 224 .2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth.t I ES Ch . 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer.54) agree.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . � .3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. 000 k m 33 . 7 . The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth.300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. What additional 6. . determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . and the exact We now know the injection conditions.426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 7. 7.
9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth.6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. a .I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . . 7 . On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. b. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions.Ch . What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .400 k m : a .. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. Determine the /:. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 .
Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. requirement. Specifically. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. select ro ' vo ' to meet this . Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. Use h bo l OO n mi .) * 7 . There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. 7 7 . 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . . 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . <1>0 = = = * 7 .
Berkeley and Los Angeles. London and New York. Fisher. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. George . NY. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Garden City. Robert M. 2. NY. McGrawHill Book Company. University of California Press. 1 943 . 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Principia . 3 . Baker. 5. . an d Maud W." ARMA Document DR 220. 6. Academic Press. A stronautical Guidance. Doran and Company. 1 967. NY. Richard H . Second Edition.1 6. Newton. The Moon .Ch. 1 964. Battin. Makemson. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Isaac . New York. 4. Doubleday. Abelard Schuman. 1 962. 1 9 5 9 . Gamow. The Story of the Moon . New York. L. Clyde . Inc. November 1 95 9 .
.
The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . two eyes." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. indeed. By 1 507 he was 357 . But the tide of opinion ebbed. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. two unpropitious. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. etc. two nostrils.. and a mouth . C opernicus. which it were tedious to enumerate . At first it was not understood . such as the seven metals. two luminaries. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. two ears.
are spread much more widely throughout the system. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. and Pluto .2. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . In addition. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing.2. Uranus. 8. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. . indeed.1 . add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. 8. at the age of 70. Neptune. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. Saturn. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. 1 2 . Earth. . the members of the solar system. 1 Bode's Law. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . If we write down the series 0. Mars. nevertheless." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. diameter." as may be seen in Table 8 . 3. Jupiter . Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false .2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Venus. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . 6." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. some of which pass near the Sun. . With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. . The "law. comets.
8. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 .72 1 .0 1 9 . 8.6 3 8 . The sixth orbital element.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.Sec.7 1 . 1 7 39. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.2.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.2 1 0.4 0.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic.6 2. Except for Mercury and Pluto .21 Actual Distance 0.00 1 . compared with the total mission duration. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .39 0.52 1 9. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.8 5 .65 5. The size.8 77. 8. is its path .52 2. 0 is presented in Table 8 .0 1. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune .20 9.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets. Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .2 Table 8.22. Only for brief periods.28 3 0. Table 8 .
394 0° ..441 73 ° . 074 1 83 ° .28 3 0. 7 73 1 ° .970 7 6 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 1 1 7 265 ° .004 3 ° .2583 7 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 . 0068 . 5 73 1 75 ° .850 1 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° . 05 1 4 . 0934 . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° .497 1 3 ° .773 1 7° .400 276 ° .5 24 5 .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .. 5 1 3 5 2 ° . 2056 .828 1 7 1 °. 0 1 67 .203 9.684 93 ° .005 0 .096 1 88 ° . 38 7 1 .) 00 . 8 94 341 ° .7233 1 . 1 42 1 02 ° .870 L..000 1 .0539 .306 2 ° . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (..0 Planet Semimaj or axis a .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.489 0° . 1 7 3 9 .76 .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° . 000 1 °. 1 1 1 326 ° . 0482 . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .5 1 9 1 9 . 1 3 6 47 ° ..322 1 00 ° .225 237 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° .275 222 ° . 76 ° .405 undefined 49 ° .
87 3 5 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.268x 1 0 B 3 .49 4.8 8 1 1 1 .74 2 .65 6.820x 1 0 6 6 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > ..000 .0 95.l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .000 1 .8 6 29." . 1 1 49 .46 84.896x 1 0 6 3 .795x 1 0 7 5 .04 29.05 6 .9? 1 .232x l 0 4 3 .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 . 1 08 3 1 8 .7 5 7 .80 5 .8 1 7 1 .3 05x 1 04 1 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .2 1 4. 0 1 1 64.257x l O s 3 . 1 4 1 3 .6 1 5 1 . 5 227.24 1 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .3 .8 247 .06 9 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .6 1 7 .986x l O s 4..79 24.9 1 08 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .
The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). was the Hohmann transfer. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. however. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . if continued past the destination planet . it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. 8. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar.v required. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. from the standpoint of /:. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . this consideration is important. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. For transfers to mo st of the planets. Just as in lunar trajectories.3l . S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. The Hohmann transfer. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3 .
v required for an interplanetary mission. . The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .V. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::. \ _.u o_____+.Sec.d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / ." . 8.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit. Therefore . Nevertheless.' . Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip...
and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. the difference between the heliocentric speed. B (8 .1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The heliocentric speed. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity. From Table 8.3 and should be reviewed .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29. for the Hohmann transfer.where f. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .33) In Table 8 . then. t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . • . 3 .1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time.l 0 (8 . In any case .78 kIn/sec.3 .3.
28 32.22 the radius to Mars from the Sun.31 1 05 .Sec.78 46. Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .379 1 .74 6.3 9 1 1 .\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . rE9> are respectively : . VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight .748 .60 Table 8. Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.345 1 . t2 .099 1 .524 A U From equation (8 . 1 2 5 8 . 8.295 1 . 1 6 30.9  2 .9 1 6 1 .07 4 1 .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 40. rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.73 38.5 1 46 .28 27.57 . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.397 22.42 4 1 . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars. In other words .04 1 6. r d = 1 . From Table 8 .05 4 1 .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .
VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 .32 for a Mars trajectory. 8 From equation (8 .099A U/TU 0 = 32.32) the heliocentric speed . vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 . the phase angle at departure .t 1 = 1T = 4.9 d ays 8.3.73Km/sec . The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. and is illustrated in Figure 8 . The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight. The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 .3. where is the angular velocity of the target planet.4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .t1 ) wt .34) __ (8 . v . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.2 Phase Angle at Departure.7088 years = 258.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .35) wt (t2 . Thus. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8. From equation (8 . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.
8.36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place .32 Phase angle at departure... . .. Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. 367 .Sec. . If we miss a particular launch opportunity. . 'Yl (8 .3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " ... pp 1 60. . .. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet..1 76 . . Figure 8.. . and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun.
09 1 .W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 .32 1 .3.04 1 . 1 3 1 . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .0 1 1 . then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated.38) . so W EfJ7 s . yrs 0. 8. Thus.2 1 7 3 . the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.530 .37) (8. rad/yr 26 .00 Table 8.32 In a time .03 8 .01 1 .3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.w t I (8 .025 Synodic Period.213 . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth. 340 . Mars and Venus. 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period.07 5 .v 1 determined. 3 ·2. Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.07 1 1 0. 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .60 2.
.:V. .. . . . (8 .r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. �. . . '?. . 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola..310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . . . 8 . � Figure 8.33 / . . '\ . .39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 .. ". .. we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . . . � _ i t_ r b_ .Sec...
Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. From Figure 8. 3.the injection speed .6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 .1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola.2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. fI. we may write .33 . is given by cos fI =  §. For transfer to one of the outer planets. the angle .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . C but since e = da for any conic.3. the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . km/sec.1 1 ) becomes = 2 . This may be seen by solving equation (8 . so equation (8 . 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 .34 we see that the angie . fI.
34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .1 2) e.1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. conditions : = (8 .CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 . 3. is obtained directly from the injection (8 .1 e where the eccentricity . 3 T H E PATC H E D.3.3.Sec. 8 .
3. Generally.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . however.4 Arrival at the Target Planet. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. At arrival. 8. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle .3. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.36. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 . cfJ as shown in Figure 8. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector .3.35 Interplanetary launch (8 . the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity.
3 . 8 . sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .3. 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.1 6) (8. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 .2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet.1 8) .Sec. 3.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 .1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. (8 .
From Figure 8 .320) y = x si n e (8. .3 . will be directed toward the center of the planet. 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance .36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed.36). In Figure 8. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola.s i n if> 2 v (8 . S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. It also means that the relative velocity vector. 3 7 . 3 7 we see that  (8 . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . e.The angle . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . in Figure 8. 3. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. 8 .1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if.
Sec. X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.lt/ 2 X _ .322) .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f. (8 . 8 .
328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = . the speed at periapsis is simply .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 .(8. we obtain . 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 .327) for y Yields (8 .326) Because angular momentum is conserved. 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . y. 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance. 324) (8. Solving equation (8 .
V2 + 2fJ. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size.Sec.05 DU.329).39.328) we 'get (8 . only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission. The. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . The given information is . rt This particular offset distance is called b .t 3  rt (8 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. b. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 .launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. the "inwact parameter. 8. then a much smaller target must be considered.329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet.
373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.1 VI = 1 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl. 6V 1 = 1 . 3 .099 .099 A U/TU 0. 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .1 :: 0.05 D U 1 . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .099 A U/TU = :.099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .
departure Figure 8 .1 ) . t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .v = 2v si n L 2 /::.07 6 ft/sec 2 . This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.43 DU/TU .905 = = 379 37 .Sec. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept.41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic.1 .4.v (8 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.4.044 8 . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 . From Table 8 . the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude. 8 . 1 39 + 1 .
" .5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 . 8..7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years. 7. 8.3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 ...380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .32.3.. (Ans. _  /' . 5 for the planet Jupiter.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units. 8 as derived in equation (3 .1 )) .1 ) . 8 . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.62 DUJTU� 8. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. EXERCISES 8 . 8. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .4. 8.2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun .8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer. 8..3 .
Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence .v ? (Ans.V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =. a.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit.35) ITbo no . e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit . What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .V = 0.. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. where 8. M = 5.Ch. 1 00 ft/sec) c. r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .l:. v = 39 .348 DUe/TUE9> . Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 .000 ft/sec. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.l:. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . If c = 9 .900 ft/sec. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.V required? (Ans.394 DUe/TU� b .l:. vesc = 1 .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the . The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 .9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. .v = 1 5 . It can be shown that . 1 DUE[) radius. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i.l:. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years.l:.
(Ans. � = 0. so work carefully and follow any suggestions. Find the 6.0. v=' (Ans. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans. 8. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. The mission will begin in a 1 .73 1 DU8TU� b . 6. 09 DUe/TU$) = .9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . Is it more efficient to apply a 6.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 . = 0.5 DUEI1 circular orbit.0. 3 .. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 ..458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. (Ans.254 AU/TU� .9 00 ft/sec) 8 . 0.. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans. 8 8 .V of .. a.046 DU� /TU � b ..0. 0. 1 DUe/TUEl1. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a.? (Ans.which results if the same 6.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. What is the 6. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . What is the 6.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long. v= 0. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 . a.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.. 0. Find the hyperbolic excess speed.V at apogee or perigee? 8.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6.28 AU2 /TU2 .Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units...V is applied at perigee. What is the 6.
1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. 'Y1 .050 ft/sec) 8 . 0. it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0.5 AU.867 AU/TU� e .What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0.373 AU/TU � f. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans.87 TU� b . (Ans. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . Vrrw = 0. 0.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . Compute the phase angle at departure. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. 1 4 a. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines.2 AU/TU� d. P. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . <P2 and vll1II in that order. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. called the turning angle . (Ans.Ch. for the above transfer. O o) 8. 1 . 3 . then find h. 1 .3 9 DU oITU& 2 . 8 .5 AU? (Ans. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. For a given planet. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 .) (Ans. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. c. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount.
V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . D C . Assume circular. Simon and Schuster. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . * Ch . W . 1 95 6 . 1 963. Fimple .V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. Vol 1 . and the angular rates of the planets. Vol 2. London. What would be an estimate of the return b. No 2 . 8 8.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. Newman. 3 . . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. 1 96 1 . 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . Washington." AIAA Journal. coplanar planet orbits. 1 . The World of Mathematics. transfer time. R. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. New York. pp 430434. U S Government Printing Office . American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. James R. NY. 1 967. 4 . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. 1 969.
Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. Macroscopically . " Webster 9 . but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . and at times unexplainable . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. it is found that there seem to be distinct. There is always some variation 385 . The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion.
etc.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets.from the norm. Brown 's papers of 1 897. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. and relativistic effects. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. about a century later. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. 9 . It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. which had not been treated by Newton . atmo spheric drag and lift. meteoroid collisions. Fortunately. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. magnetic. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 6 . solar radiation effects. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . E. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. except the motion of the perigee. The wind gust was a perturbation. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . Then. M. In fact. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values.
With the capability for orbital flight . knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. the Cowell.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. See section 1 . The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0.Sec. a section discussing methods and errors is included . In particular. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . Encke. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. 9. Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . 9 . H. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . It was developed by P.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations.
9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. including all the perturbations. y = vy (9. F or numerical integration equation (9 .2.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body .1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. the equation would be (9 . ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. the equations would be .22) would be further broken down into the vector components. For the twobody problem with perturb ations. Sun and planets. r=Y �r (9 .
8 . Classically. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . In spherical coordinates (r. ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2.Sec.24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . Even in double precision computer arithmetic.'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 . The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small.Il m ( 3 . Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. 9 . one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. Intuitively. Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates.23).22). the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. When motion is near a large attracting body . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . There are some disadvantages of the method . and he would be correct . It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories.25) .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9.
and .g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations.31 The osculatil. contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. Presumably . 9. reference or b i t Figure 9. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. 9 (9 .'l. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. in our case . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known .390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch .3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . In the Encke method . The term connotes the sense of contact.25) As a reminder.
1 ) . = p ( tb ) p p to = 0. and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 . 9.1 ) . Let r and p be the radius vectors to . Now w e will consider th.3 .to ) ' p (9 .32)  Sr.1 ) and (9 .3 2) into (9 .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit . or epoch.1 ) and for the osculating orbit. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . be defined as (see Figure and .Sec. Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. At that time . the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit. Note that at the epoch.. 3 .. respectively .3. r + � r3 r = a t . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit.e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. 9 .33) Sub stituting equations (9 . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors.33) we obtain . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits.  (9 .3. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 .
.t) can be calculated numerically..35) 3 3 r _ (9 . However. A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:..34) then becomes (9.6r] r3 r (9 .6r ) .37) .lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . For a given set of initial conditions.3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout . so r can be obtained from 6r and p.392 6r == a ) p + IlL p . theoretically. one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method. So . p is a known function of time .6. we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .3 / 2 (9 .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .was to obtain more accuracy.3 6) Equation (9 . 6r (to + . 6r.
Now some ways of calculating q must be found. In terms of its components Figure 9.Sec. since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. 9 . R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . o y ./  Our problem is not yet solved . Expanding.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. OZ are the cartesian components o f or. however. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] .
1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .3. It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 .(1 . /) y2 .38) and (9 .38)  1 .37).2q So q =  Now. 9 From equation (9 . 3.31 2) .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ .37) becomes (9 . .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. (9 .( 1 .1 0) (9 . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 . There are two methods of solution at this point . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9. .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .
q (to ) O. but of the order of magnitude of 0. c. Vol 2. so larger step sizes can be taken.3 8) 3. d . Go to step c with t:. f(to + t:. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . 9 . For an integration step. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated . q( to + t:.t . It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits.01 ). (jr 0. v = p + (jr. = = = = = p continue. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. k. The method using equation (9 .t) . a.does not remain quite small. p(to + t:. Knowing 5r(to + t:. p 229). g.3. although the use of equation (9 . care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid.t replaced by kt:.1 2) may be slightly faster.t).3. b. calculate (jr (to + t:.t to get (jr{ to + kt:. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. rectify and go to step a . Otherwise (jr p .1 0). Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. e . Integrate another t:.> a specified constant.3. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . and 5r 0 at this point.39) is recommended for use with the computer.1 2) is used. Calculate r = p + (jr. t:.t) calculate 1 .is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used.Sec.t) from equation (9 . Then the tables could be u sed to find f . If.t where k is the step number. In (jr p v as described earlier.t) 2 . but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker .nowing p (to ) .t ) from equation (9 . Rectification should be initiated when . If equation (9 . r (to ) . f.
One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time .t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . Though. A similar check could be made on i . = .cSr ) (9 . this method may seem more difficult to implement.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. Similarly. at the outset. The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . a . In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. they would remain constant. In the absence of perturbations. Thus. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. For instance.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v.6.6. e eccentricity. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . See equation (9 .3. Then e � . one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . from the Encke method 9. etc .396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) ./l m {m s .4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small.
n. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary.g. for a table of parameter sets). The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements.and dM ?. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . Therefore .4 . . e.Sec. 9 . Eventually . . along the instantaneous radius vector. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . The standard orbital elements a. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. Vol 2 . 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations.variations (e. 9 . but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. The axis S is .T (or M) will be used. p 246. � . w and.. R (unit vector R). This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. r.I OOS . where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . i..n (t .
1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt . 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9. The third axis.rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly . The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.43) .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.4. = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 . W.
1:!:. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.45) To express this in known terms. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 . Differentiating the conic equation Qr. expressions for found.44). (9 .48) we find da dt = (9.45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .43). (9 .!I=8!" nr from (9 .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .44) (9.1 0) .46) and F S (9 .4 and . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.� 2& ' = 399 (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system. 9..48) Substituting in equation (9.Sec. dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .4.
r hW + h da S dt (9 .1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0). Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04..) Since h = hW.la _ (9 04.1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .�) % J.4.lae dt h $) a dt .2 )% a = (1 . so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation. 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.
so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 .4. 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'. but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .1 6) we obtain .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).4.h cos i rF s h2 .4.1 8) .4.1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .Sec. 1 e2 (9 .sin QL = dt .1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h ../I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 . 4 . K . 9 .n di dt (9 .4. K) � (9 .4.
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
.v which can be easily solved for c.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p.45 1 ) .4. C. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.45 0) should be small. and V are small.e . 4 where c will be the parameter.5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l .vt 2p.2p.2p.2 (at + C)2  . • .vt . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation.2p..v = . . .454) + 2p.J.v 2p. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.2 p..v {at + c ) c (9 .450) and solving for e we find (9 .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9.45 1 ). . so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . Since p.vat a+v a . Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion . c = ve 2 p. The constant of integration.vc . {at + c) + 3p.5 1 ) correct to first order in J.4.Sec.at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 . ] (9 . 9 .4. From equation (9 . allowing c to vary with time . . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9. but more practically we would consider � = v . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 .
d. economical in computing time. . 5 . 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. 9 . at best. In theory. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. 9 . b . not expediency. his integration method. allow as large a stepsize as possible. should be the criteria. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. highly questionable. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience.. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. accuracy. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. such as the disturbing function. storage and complexity. c. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. Unfortunately. or has not carefully selected. 9 in detail.e. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. efficiency. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed.
the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits.843.864.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. They are roundoff and truncation errors. 4.276 + 3 . Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved .476. The larger the . 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. and f.57 = 7 . suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. Obviously . 9 . but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as .5 (9. Baker (v 2.Sec.5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error.388.476.567 = 7. 5 . 9 .accumulated roundoff error . Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. In fact. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors.28 + 3.388. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. 2 Integration Errors. For instance .51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2.
There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. 6 . The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. 1 RungeKutta Method. We will treat the first order equation . Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). Gill. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems.1 ) . The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation .63) dx dt (9. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. 9. the larger the truncation error. Thus. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. 9 stepsize. in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes . The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 .= f(t.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. In general.6. Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. Of course . AdamsMoulton. EulerCauchy and Bowie . any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors.62) (9. h. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. 9 .
__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .yV:.k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n . easy to implement . This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .yry. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula. they are faster than the singlestep methods.2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9.( 1 + y. 9 . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated.65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .) k2 6 3 l2 (9. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure.64) 1 1 + . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .( 1 .Sec. 9 . though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . and stepsize is easily changed . In general. x n + k 3 ) (9. x n . It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.h ) k3 +. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . They are relatively simple .% ] + k 2 [ 1 . x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .6.63) and n is the increment number. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error.k +. have a relatively small truncation error.
The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 3 /8 . The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 . Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas).3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas.67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 25 1 /720. . . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. 5 / 1 2 .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + .\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor .\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k.6. 3 9. . 1 /2 .beginning and after each stepsize change.1 f . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0.
The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.Sec.6.69). .x n+1I I (P 270 (9. This method. the error terms are not generally known. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. for instance. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations. In equation (9. 9 .68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term.59 f n .1 + 37 f n2 .x n + (5 5 f ri . Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).
n + � 84 "x.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n .2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n. It is. "x.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method.1 f(t n + h). numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. The GaussJackson method is one of the best.° n + .2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k. .° n 60480 (9.h ) . though it also includes a corrector. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. 9 like other multistep methods.6. 9.1 f(t n h) 2 2   . It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect.1 ' etc. n + 1 2 n i \. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. though.8 k .6 . It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 . x. and most used.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x.
2 and NASA C R. p/r. but only the simpler forms will be treated. is known. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. If the potential function.7. 2 .7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. V. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. 9 . They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . 9. including some which were not discussed in this chapter.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. 9. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth.6.1 The Nonspherical Earth . Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques.7. according to Vinti.6.1 ) One such potential function.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works.I n=2 r (9. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. ¢. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b.Bashforth) methods are preferred. the accelerations can be found from (9.l 005). Table 9.e presented in this section.72) . However.5 Numerical Integration Summary . the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. Some of them become quite complex. is ¢ = � [1 . flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. 9 . Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize.
z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required.' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . Vol t . very difficult to determine proper size. it could be very fast. 9 CI) .
� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .J s � ( � ) (35� .74) .�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .L = gravitational parameter Sec..7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r . if> = I!:..2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 . 9.. = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S ..2.( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .where J.e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�. r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .  I.] (9 .
6 . which are slightly in variance .6 J4 = (1 .5)x 1 0.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 . 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 .5 ± O.44 ± O. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J .5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity . These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. Vol 1 .(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .6 ± O.3003 ""6 ) + .57 ± O. I )x 1 0. l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .6 J = (0. . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � .64 ± O. l )x 1 0.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2.l ( �) 3 ( 3 . y. 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J . 1 5 ± O. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients. l )x 1 0.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9. The first term in x.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 ..6 6 (0.422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . .03)x 1 0. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.
Sec..7. There are a few ctmtiol). To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. and other parameters. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered.. simply use r3 r= where . 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . To do this. A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. Vol 1 . 9 . but will not be presented here. s 9. term) to the RSW sy stem. by definition. the drag coefficient. care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33).2 Atmospheric Drag.. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. equatorial coordinate system. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point .s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . 7 Drag. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . Therefore . However. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). Thus. p 147). The equations are formulated in the geocentric .Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 .
etc.ie. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. Radiation pressure. altitude above an oblate Earth. In the geocentric. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. but the reader can find this in other documents. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. 9 m p C O A .7 .lli. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).t b ae ==ic. 9 .424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. y .7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. z refer to the geocentric.ilc coffc. equatorial coordinate system. .78) z .3 Radiation Pressure. though small. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude .n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y .7 . Equation (9 . This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density.
.4349 0 x .4.4 Thrust. 7 . 9.Ch. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation.25). but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. m = mass of vehicle (grams) . . Prove this assertion . z directions.1 5) . y. 9 . but a major force . 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . 9 where A = cross section f = 4. 9 .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates.3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. m (9.2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . the variation of eccentricity. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . 9 . EXERCISES 9.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. See equation (9.
9 . 1 96 1 . Brouwer. S . Ralston . Planetary Coordinates for the.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . L.ittouck. M. Vol VI. A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. Jr . Robert M . 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . John Wiley and Sons. A. * 9. L. DC. Academic Press. and Wilf. J .000 n mi.l 005 . Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. . 1 967. Academic Press. G." NASA CR.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . The Macmillan Co . Washington.. D. and Wl). 1 9 1 4. Baker. 4. LIST OF REFERENCES 2. New York. 3 . New York. Guidance. R. and Clemence. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. Years 1 9601 980. New York. C . * 9 . New York. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. Methods of Celestial Mechanics. M. . Allione . "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. M. London . 6. 9 9 . 1 960. F . 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. 5 .445). 1 . Moulton . Blackford. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Inc. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. * 9 . M. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. Mendez. A. . Feb 1 968.
. Published privately by the Author. Baker. 2nd ed. DC .Ch . New York. R . A stronautical Guidance . NASA SP33 . 1 3 . Th e Determination of Orbits. 1 964. A . 1 5 . Dubyago . Escobal. G. L. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1 4 . C. Part 1 . 1 1 . Jr and Makemson. 9 . Methods of A strodynamics. M . 1 968 . Washington. P . Michigan. Inc. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). Methods of Orbit Determination. Academic Press. Plumber. Maud W. McGrawHill. New Yark. B . 1 0. New York. McGrawHill. Townsend. Paul. R. P. New York. W . Ann Arbor. New York. Smart. 1 6. E . D. Cambridge University Press. The Computation of Orbits. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . John Wiley and Sons. 1 96 5 . Dynamical A stronomy . 1 2. Robert M. New York. Longmans. Orbital Flight Handbook. Hildebrand. R. H. M. 1 95 6 . 8 . 1 967. New York. . Inc. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. The Macmillan Co. Herget. Vol 1 . 1 963. F . . 1 96 1 . Battin. Jr. John Wiley and Sons. Escobal. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. Celestial Mechanics. New York. 1 948 . 1 95 3 .
.
.. 2593 6.05883 36565 � TV.77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 . 44686457 min 6378.922786 NM 1 3 .0226757 x 1 06 sec 29... 2506844773 deg min 7.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 ..9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec . 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . 1 Center. Speed Unit I� TU. 1 97 5 . 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. Ile Angular Rotation. 1 .327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. 1 328 2 1 days 9. 'Derived from those values of Il . 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. r..68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . . English Units Metric Units 2. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4.092567257 x 107 ft 3963 .908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 . Each of the two sets is consistent within itself. I DU� TUi. r. 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 .APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius.24764 11sec 806 . Canonical Units I DU. 3. we 0.9053682 8 km' .
i. there is no roundoff or truncation.8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .07 1 0 1 50424 4 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .3 14 .239446309 x 1 0. 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0. _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.8 9.APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.08 1 52366 0 .4 3 . foot = 0.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .2342709 5 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 . . 1 2 64963205 0 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. 1f = 3 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .e .
Examples are mass. velocity . 43 1 . A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . W). I DEFINITIONS Vector. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. Q.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . If A i s a vector . C. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. Scalar. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. J.relationships involving vector quantities. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. not a null or zero vector. Thus. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. speed. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . temperature . Unit Vector. Examples are displacement. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. time or any real signed number. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . force and acceleration. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. K) and (p. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. length of a vector . (Example : 3 or A).
and A and B are not collinear. 1 Similarly.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. If A. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel.. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. . such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. B and C are coplanar vectors. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. regardless of the position of their origins. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . Coplanar Vectors.
l . Scalar or Dot Product.B which is the same as A + (B).1 ) I AI cos B .. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin.C. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C . Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A . e I I l (C .2.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : .l ) C. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B. denoted by A • B. C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors.2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.
B + A .J = J o K=K o I = O where I . That is.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . 23 ) (C.434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . denoted by A x B . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them.C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A .K= 1 I .8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . sma l lest ang le ( L e .. if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible . A o A = Aft.J =K . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A.(B + C) = A . The cross product of two vectors A and B. K are unit orthogonal vectors.24) (C. B and C form a right handed system. . J . < 180° ) AxB =C .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.1=J . then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + .
(Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . then A X B = O. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. J. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. e < In fact A x B = . K are unit orthogonal vectors.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C.C.
Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .29) Scalar Triple Product.A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C. BI C1 .
The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B . The vector triple produce. The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .1 2) (C.C.B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity. 2.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 . denoted b y A x (B x C) . is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.2.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .2.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .21 4) C. Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.B3 C) + A ( B3 C .l 3) (C.2.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.
....9. " .438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o .. .. then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + ...YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of ......... dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 . v C P K y . x J Then the velocity relative to the (I...with itself. .. thus ....... . K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P. .....
Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) . the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path.= . from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. VE LOCITY 439 which. In this special case then. dr v = . v = wT .3 b.C.T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector..= .
Az. It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . From the 440 . latitude of the launch site.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . EI. The input to SITE should be latitude. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). The radar determines p. azimuth rate. D . range rate . Use standard unit conversions given in the text. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . p. Its geodetic latitude. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. elevation rate . In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. positive to the east) of the launch site. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). EI. longitude. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . The input to TRACK should be range. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. azimuth. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . and of the satellite (R and V). elevation.
5.01 2035 7 5 .57 76.62624920) = (. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). 0) = (. .7 . : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .5 3 4 ON 4 5. LST) .1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . GST. . .05 1 37.26347 1 9 8 .5 . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4.8 N 7 8 . .75 1 003 9 1 .0027379093®2®PI®D . W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . . 040075.05 1 9 5238) . 6 8 2. DAY. 6 .5 1 35 . 1 4923608. GST. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . .74933340. y. Input UT as a decimal (i.775 1 80 1 9.7 5. UT. PI.3 . 5 7 5 for data set 3).044 1 8440. UT. REAL LONG. 2 2 29. .74933340. 3 315 . LST.. .63745829) z = . 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . 8 0. E 7 2 . If the above program is used. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. Following are five sample sets of data for site location.07 1 05 . LST and LONG are in radians.8 S 1 7 5.27907 599.D. = (. 22 1 0. . D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . 9 W 0 1 9 05.7 .08 30. INTEGER DAY.2045 72 1 6 . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . .75 components are : (.48 201. PI . 007 N 1 04 . GST _ 1 .5 90 .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . e . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. observation time and radar tracking data. END OF LSTIME .5 3 0 . An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. BEGIN REAL D. Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 . 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 .
703 .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29. 6 2 .4 1 722472 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. 00001 .9 0 2 0 . . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 . parabolic. From this information you are required to fmd : a. 48 4 0 2. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). . d. 0 1 7 45 . 0) (. 7 0 3 VK .49 0 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D.5 0 .1 0 22. hyperbolic).01 .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . 1 0 0 2 . .. c.293 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.1 . elliptical.6 0 .001 1 0 .9 1 .9 1 046 1 80. Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 .707 .85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . rectilinear.8 . The type of trajectory (circular. 49 0 0 2.001 5 30 0 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.4 1 4 2.1 .2 VI . 01 . b . 5 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach.4 1 4 0 0 65 . 1 29579 1 9 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. 05 . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth.
If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). and dt/dx for each iteration.8 . 61 (calculated) . x should never be greater than 2m. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. Also for an ellipse. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. If your iteration process is efficient. you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. RJ 61 . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. a .3 1 0 . Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 .025 9 1 7 . Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. c. To determine when convergence has occurred.5 0 0 .jiL d. 1 38878 . Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used.5 . b.7 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.3 D. 1 5 0689 1 .3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time .0.5 . use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time .4 of the text for guidance . 61. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61.
1 8 1 .6 for 1 :::. I�I :::. and sign (7T .. I t . 1 06 1 0.1 ... It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. 00 1 074 . If there is no convergence in 50 iterations. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 .1 .70655823.4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. 0 ...999 o 1 03 D.9 20 .. For instance note that y can never be negative . . 1 362596) = (0.. 1 0. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points. 3... Given r l ' r2 .w).. t :::.. One of the data sets tests this situation. 0. For ellipses limit z to (211')2 .444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.t c l :::. In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z. bt. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. 1 65 08 . 0003 6 1 .00006057 . R2 V2 = (0.5 1 .01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 .002 1 7 7 1 .. Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 .
a message printed and you should go to the next data set .7 0 1 0 1 . 1 2298 1 44. The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.6 .6 . Also print t:J) and a for each data set .7 .1 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .0001 +1 .3 . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM .3 . .8 5 +1 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z .4 .4 .S = (0. t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration. 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (. See section 5 .4804847 1 .66986992.201 . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. print out a message and go to the next data set .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite.2 1 .1 . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. 1 .6 .2 . The following data i s i n canonical units. 1 92 1 62 1 2 .2 .5 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D. location of the tracking site .4 1 . .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .6 .1 specifies the long way. Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target.3 . so a check should be made for that condi tion..2 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT.5 . .0 . time of radar observation. The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .6 . x.7 0 1 0 20 1 .4 .66993 1 97 . Check for this case .9378 1 789) = 4. y. 7 for further discussion o f this project . and the location of an interceptor launch site .
Make some provision to print out all of your input data. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. Times should be read in as minutes. Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. f. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. This will aid you in verifying your solution . Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER.45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . KEPLER and GAUSS. b . To make your program flexible .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . the desired increment size for reaction time . The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . d. g. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units.3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . TRACK. list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time .45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . and the number of timeofflight increments desired . Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . the number of reaction times desired . Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . e . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. When you point out your arrays. c.
868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.5 p = 1 86. of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .038 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .0. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs. 844 **** **** **** 35 7 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.74.92 deg/sec 1 .338 **** **** **** 10 8 .6 1 3 km EI = 56.1 .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4. 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .
LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site . LATL.448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL.
INDEX .
.
1 00. 1 09. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 2 3 4. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 429 lunar distance. 3 3 period of. 423 Azimuth. 429 flattening. 4 3 0 Conversions. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 3 9 0 station. 422 gravitational parameter. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 297299 451 . 2 1 2 B asis. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 54 fundamental plane. 3 2 5 . 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 203 Aphelion. 349 Angle of elevation. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 20. 5 7 principal direction. 24 height adjustment. 60 Argument of periapsis. 3 5 8 . 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 279 C anonical units.1 3 1 G auss problem. 2427 Apogee. 1 09 Angular momentum. 2 1 . 84 ecliptic. 4 gravitational h armonics. 277320 computation chart. 56 Celestial sphere.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 1 22. 3 2 3 masses. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 1 5 .1 1 6 Kepler problem. 429 Astronomical Unit. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 57 perifocal. 74 geocentricequatorial. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 109 B akerNunn camera. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 296 geometry. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 94. 4 1 . 246 Brahe. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 5 8 Aristotle. 24 Apparent solar time. 102 Apoapsis. Tycho. 3 4 Collision cross section. 5 3 . 5358. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation.9 8 gravitational constant. 374 Computer projects. 1 8 8 . 3 9 4 Bode's law. 6. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 1 8 3 mean. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 8 4 Copernicus. 9 3 . 74 BMEWS. 4043 Celestial equator. 3 8 9 . 1 4. 5 5 heliocentric. 9498 transformations. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 84. 1 620. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 7483 Coordinate systems. 5 3 . 28 1 B arker's equation. 60 and universal v ariables. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 54 orbit plane. B urnout. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 1 8 5 true. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 84.
Elliptical orbits. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 1 0 9 . 94 . 20 1 202 f and g series. 444 algorithm. 1 8 2. 4 G alileo. 62 vector. 2 9 7 . 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 2 3 0 . 2 1 .1 3 1 Direct ascent. 84. 4 G ravitational parameter.riod o f . 1 60 low altitude. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 62 Ecliptic. zenith angle.1 4 3 . 9. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 1 42. 2 1 2. 2 0 . function o f true anomaIles. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 3 5 0 Epoch. 1 0 twobody. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 264 eccentric anomalies. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 22827 1 . 3 00 launching. 1 8 8. 3 5 . 2 9 . 54 Elements of orbit. 1 4 G ravitational potential.3 3 pe. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 1 54. 8 0 f and g expressions.3 0 6 numerical integration. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 3 22 trajectories. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 60 true longitude at. 3 5 . 227 418 ( y ) .1 90. 60 Dot product. 8 7 . 25. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 2 4 .2 1 4 Eccentricity.1 5 5 Direct motion. 3 5 Escape trajectory.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 26. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 423 424 Earth oblate.3 9 6 Energy. 1 7 equations. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 2 1 ff.1 1 6 Gravitation. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. Carl Fredrich. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. G auss problem. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 3 1 . 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 1 4 0 . 3 0 . 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 3 89 nbody. 1 8 8 . 2 8 2 time.93 . 1 0 6 precession. 2 3 3 .2 1 2 parabolic. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 1 0 3 G round track. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 1 0 6 mean. 40. 4 1 9. 56. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 1 8 1 . 26 ff. 1 04 Escape speed. 25 1 . 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 58 from position a n d velocity. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 1 22. 2 1 2. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 2 6527 1 original G auss method.452 Declination. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 1 1 7. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 3 6 8 local. 4 Newton's law of. 221 hyperbolic. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 9 4 Geoid. 25 1 258. 5 8 . apparent. 6 1 Elevation angle. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 306 EarthMoon system. 4 3 3 Drag. 3 90 . 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 7 G ravitational constant.
3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 1 03 Minor axis.3 05. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 1 4 1 . 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 1 8 5 . 62 . 3 1 Manned flight. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 94 geodetic. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 2 second. 2 1 . 2 8 8 . 1 9 8 . 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 60 Latus rectum. 2. 207 I nclination. 1 52 Mass of planets. 2 H alley's comet.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. Greenwich. 5 Newton. 1 02 Mean solar time. 3 69 . 9 9 . 3 80 Kepler. 8 6 . 60 Lunar trajectories. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 1 0 twobody. 3 44 . 22. 3 24326. 5 8 Longitude. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 1 0 1 . 2. 1 1 7 Latitude. 58 regression. 3 69. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 3 57 . 2. 3 1 Moon. 3 9.8 9 derivatives i n .3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 1 1 7 derivatives. 247 Newton's laws. 1 5 6. 1 4 1 . 4.1 8 1 first.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 8 9 . 3 9 6 M otion. Isaac. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 3 5 0 free return. 220 Mean motion. 1 7 7. Edmund. J ohann. 2 Heliocentric constants. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 22 1 . 3 0 3 . 1 80 third. 1 25 Librations of Moon. true at epoch.3 8 4 general coplanar. limitations. 2 6 5 27 1 . 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 94 reduced. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 3 7 9 . 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 3 27. 1 5 6. 234. 3 64. 3 24 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 3 1 6 Injection. 3 7 0 Integration. 1 3 Moving reference frame. gravitational parameter. 1 57 Line of nodes. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 3. 5 1 . 3 9 6 constraints. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 6. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 1 0 2 Meridian.I N D EX H alley. 6 . 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 1 6 3 . 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. equations o f nbody. 2. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 2 7 7 . 3 4 5 ephemeris. 3 59374. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 7. 8 Node ascending. 3 26 orbital elements of. 1 Kepler's equation. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 20 Least squares solution. 1 5 1 . 238. 1 8 8 . 1 . 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 3 89 trajectories.9 3 Mu ( � ) . argument of at epoch. 1 56 vector. 6 rotation of. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 3 8 .3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 62 longitude of ascending.1 6 6. 3 62 . numerical rotation of. 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 3 65 noncoplanar.
3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 24 height adjustment. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 443 algorithm.1 76 inplane changes.9 8 Optical sensors.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 6 1 from sighting directions. 3 3 3 . 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) .3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 60 Right ascension.3 7 9 lunar. 3 9 0 Parabola.3 9 0 Encke's method. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 420 c riteria for choosing. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 3 1 . 22727 1 Orbit plane. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 440448 Q parameter. 1 62 . 5 symbols. 34. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 5 1 . 83 from optical sightings.3 44 Periapsis. 1 90 Numerical integration.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 2 1 2 computer solution. 2 1 . 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 220 classical formul ations. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 2 4 . 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 3 24 . two body. 4 1 2425 errors. 1 0 9 Rectification.1 22 from position and velocity. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 56. 57 Perigee. true anomaly. 3 24 . 1 5 6 . 1 1 Retrograde motion. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 26527 1 Residuals. 424 thrust.454 Nu (v ) .3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 1 3 Rendezvous. 4 1 4 sum squared. 423 due to the moon. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 3 90 . 424 R ange and rangerate data. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 1 5 1 . 1 1 7 . 1 9 3 .1 22.1 59 examples. 1 69 Orbit determination. 1 6 Potential function. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 3 6 1 shape of. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 94 Potential energy reference. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 2427 argument of. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 20 Polar radius. 3 8 7 . 9 3 . 20. 1 1 7. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 3 60 physical characteristics. 4 1 9 . 6 1 o f moon. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 203. 1 09 . 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 3 8 6 general. 3 9 0 Relative motion. 1 1 7 . 425 Phi ( � ) . 2 1 . 2 0 . 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 1 62 O rbit.1 50. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 3 44 . 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 1 0 3 P rojects. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 3 3 Perturbations. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 58 determination from position and velocity. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 3 4 1 Period. flightpath angle. 2 4 Periselenium. 3 59 .
3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 1 3 5 ellipse. 85 Traj ectory equation. 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 1 52 Station coordinates.1 6 6 True anomaly. 9 9 . 4 3 7 .1 0 4 Solar system. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 1 0 3 universal. 99.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 1 1 Units.1 0 9 apparent solar. 20 Semimajor axis. 1 5. 3 27. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 6 Sputnik. 2 1 at epoch. 1 8 8 universal variables. 1 9 1 . 4 3 1 Velocity. 44 1 mean solar. 4 1 9 Zenith angle.1 8 8 . 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 1 6. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 1 9 1 225. 4. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 1 02. 23. 20. 1 03 local sidereal.1 40 errors. 287 low. 8 4 . definition of. 2 1 7 parabola. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 9 Sidereal time. 2 3 5 evaluations of.1 9 0 if. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 1 3 1 .1 4 assumptions. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 6.1 40 Selenocentric. 5 8 Time zones. 9 3 . 1 3 6 radar. 23. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 1 3 2.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 0 1 Solar pressure.8 9 derivatives in. 4 3 4 derivative o f .1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 3 5 8 . 1 8 1 . 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 1 8 (see Nbody . 99. 1 6 6. 8 6 . 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. Universal gravitation. 2 8 8 . 3 60 physical characteristics.9 8 of planets. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method.1 69 Hohmann. 40 Unit vectors.4 3 9 Velocity components. 30.3 59 orbital elements. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 7 Universal time. 5 radio interferometers.4 3 9 d o t product. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 2 8 7 maximum range. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 9. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 4 3 7 . 4 3 7 unit. 3 1 Sensors. 1 1 . canonical. 4 3 3 triple product. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 1 9 high. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 40. 1 6 3 . 9 9 . 1 3 1 . 1 0 1 . 425 Time. 58 Semi minor axis. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 1 0 1 . 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 1 8 8 . 1 3 8 optical. 3 6 1 Solar time. 1 9 1 development of. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 425 Thrust perturbation. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 2062 1 0 use of. 1 8 1 . 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters.
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