Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . .D. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. J . The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged.R. Ronald Chaney ( artist) .B.W.M. Dorothy Fryar . Jan Irvine . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P .E. D. United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.
.
7 The Elliptical Orbit .2 The NBody Problem . . . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . 51 5L 53 58 . 1 . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . 1. . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . 1 . . 2 . . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . Exercises .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . 1 . 71 . . . .9 The Measurement of Time .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . 1 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . 11 . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . 1 . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 1 . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . 74 . . _ 1 . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . 1 . 1 09 . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 93 . . . 14 . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of References . . . . . . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . . . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . . 61 . . . . . . . 2 . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . .12 . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . 1 49 . . . . . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4.General Methods 5 . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station .1 Historical Background . Exercises . . . . . . 379 . . . . . . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 . . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . . . . . . 359 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . . . . . . 380 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 87 9. . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1 . . . . . 5 . . .1 8. . Histor ical Background . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . 5 . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . .2 The EarthMoon System . 277 6. . . . . 3 27 . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . 258 .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . 357 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1 . . 3 20 .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . 297 6. . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . . . Exerc ises . 275 . . . 277 6. .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . . 279 6 .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . 8 . . 344 352 355 . . 321 321 3 22 . . xi 5 . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 . . . . . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . 3 85 9. . . . . 3 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . List o f Re ferences . . . . . . 333 . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . 357 358 . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . List of Reference s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . List of References . . 26 5 . . . . . . . . . . . 3 06 Exercises .2 The Solar System . . . . . . .
. . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . .5 . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . .6 9. . 440 449 . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power.CHAPTER 1 TWO. the noble and aristocratic Dane. Tycho. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. Newman! . and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. Kepler. JarnesR. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. he might have been put into a quart mug.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. the year Galileo died. as his mother told him in later years. 1 642 . was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. the poor and sickly mathematician.
The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars.1 Kepler's Laws. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. necessarily moved in circles.1 Still. 2 1. Finally . Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life .1. The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. TWO. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. It fit. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. One day in 1 685 . the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . Kepler's laws were only a description. with the sun at a focus . The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. Since the time of Aris totle . who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. therefore . But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. not an explanation of planetary motion . The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . discoverer of Halley's comet.
1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. Dissatisfied with this explanation. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . in ellipses. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. more simply. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke .1. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. 1 . "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. 4 1. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. they speculated whether a force . without mentioning the b et. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . of course . casually posed the question. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. "Why. when he recovered from his shock. or . The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke .Sec. t he Principia.
8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .67Ox 1 0. 1.n ( 1 . . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia.1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system.1 . G.G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. • . . The universal gravitational constant.4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.1 .1 . .. Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them. 1 .11 Newton's Law of Motion .'�V . has the value 6. " Figure 1 . Note that equation ( 1 . . / . 1 2) Fg = .1. . 1 .1 ) (1 .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites.12) t o equat i.
a lunar or interplanetary probe.Sec 1. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. . solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. m2 • m3 m m.e. In addition.2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i.. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. . propellants) to pro duce thrust. X I . y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. or a planet). At any given time in its j ourney. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . thrust and solar radiation pressure ...e. . I " '.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(..12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . etc. j.. . the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. An important force.�I '.II I I I " I I I I :. . 1. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. I I I Figure 1. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation.. an earth satellite ..
���Y � X n 1. • • • z FOTHER . Y. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 .1 . This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's.. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. 2.. These effects. are discussed in Chapter 3 .2' The NBody Problem Figure . 1 equator. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X.. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. Thus.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Although small.
thrust.2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r.2. etc . equation ( 1 .3) Obviously .5 ) The other external force . The v ector sum.. . the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . m'J JI 3 (rj j) .2. . II 3 (1.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself. F gn where =  Gm . of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r .2 ·1 is T composed of drag. .2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . Fg. (1.Se c 1. perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . solar radiation pr essure.
r·I = F TOTAL mj 0..I) and all other external forces . In other words.28 would not be zero . y . Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time . it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma.F I dt TOTAL dt (1. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL.8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. (1. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL.. is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ...27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.. Thus.1 + F OTHER ' (l ... . z coordinate system.2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x ..26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 ..
F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc .2. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form. Equation ( 1 .. m· J (�i) . 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .G And for i = 0 . ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . r JI. Then writin g equation 1 . sun and planets . mi 0).Sec 1 .10) ( .11) 2.2. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le..1 0) for i = 1. Y.1 2) . equation ( 1 .G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. nonlinear. we get j = j � *i 1 3 .29) reduces to = r· 1 n .2. m . vector.1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1.. The only remaining forces then are gravitational. expelling mass or relativistic effects.2. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions. mn may be the moon. Equation (1 .29) is a second order . unpowered flight.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X .2. ( 1.
1 4) gives.G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth . 2. n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.21 1 ) and ( 1 ..2.1 2) into equation ( 1 . . Since r 1 2 = .2 1 6) each bracket. .r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence. Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1. 2 1 7 ) .1 From equation ( 1 .2.2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.
sun and planets on a near earth satellite . Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison.89 6x l 0 4 2.Sec. Howe ver .2x l O 8 2. To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. mi orbit about the earth. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies.2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n . 1.6x l O lO 1 . The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .1 Simplifying Assump tions. .3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. 1 . Table 1 .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 .3. to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . The bodies are spherically symmetric .9x l O 8 7 . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 . 1 x l 0 10 3. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 .
N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'.12 TWO. Y'. . Y' .3. 1 .1 ) (1 . Y.3. remains always similar and irrnovable. Y'. Y'. which "in its own nature.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 2. For the time being. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . Let (X. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively .GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space.3. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 .1 . he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. 3 2 ) . Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. Let (X'. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'.2 The Equation of Relative Motion. " s However. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. without relation to anything external.. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies.
and acceleration in a nonrotating.y X' Figure 1 .33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. Note that this is the same as equation (1. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites.32) from equation (1.31) we have = _ r . Y. velocity.33) .. 1. or space probes orbiting about 3 r .Sec. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. Z'). Y'. ballistic missiles. Z) with its origin in the central body. Note that since the coordinate set (X. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. Y. (1 . the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. GIM+ml r Equation (1. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. Y'.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. Y. Z').33).
Then equation 1 . Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . M. m. will be much less than that of the central body .14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. 1.3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) .3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text.4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. It is convenient to define a parameter. then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative ." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. "kinetic . an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy." That is. 1 some planet or the sun. If m is not much less than M. called the gravitational GM. you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 ." for another form called "potential energy . namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. the mass of the orbiting body . If you think ab out the model we have created. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. 3 ·4 ) .
To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. dt 1:L = O. C. v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(.4 frame (the large mass) does not change . r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 .4. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . But what about the arbitrary co nstant . 1 .SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. ( 1 . which appears in . If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero.Sec.!!. 5.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. 1. then 1 .' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . N 0 tlcmg that .lL\I r dt JJ. Therefore.r ) = � r �(r . that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. v =r and v= f. r 2. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O .
O. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . therefore . �.42) 1 . In other words. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O.16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . dt . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion.2 Conservation of angular momentum. e . in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass.g.iL (rxv) = O. rX . The expression for � is �. that the specific mechanical energy. do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. 3 4) by r 2 . This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. Noticing that .fL 3 .4. at what distance . We conclude . Since in general a x a= 0. r.  ( 1 . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive.1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. the earth.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . Cross multiply equation ( 1 .
" "Up" simply means away . of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal.43) v I h = r x v. (1 . 1 .The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. Therefore .41 Flightpath angle .41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. I Figure 1 . we have shown that the specific angular momentum.4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. called specific angular momen tum. h. Therefore . We shall refer to this as the orbital plane .
the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are .899 X 107 ft. • ( 1 . r = 12. v. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Ch.420 .2778 J + 1 0 . = 0.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. ¢. however.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. Determine the specific mechanical energy . V =5. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. ¢. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. In an inertial coordinate system. c o s ¢=Jl.8143 = 35.7 1 37J+O. the zeni th angle .0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. I h = rv c o s ¢. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. respectively.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical.4274I+2. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0.8143 r • v > 0 . h. 1 85 2 1 + 6.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. and the specific angular momentum. (4. Also find the flight·path angle.5936 1 + 5 .54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. J and K are unit vectors.4. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. &.
times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v . 1 .. 1 . . A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain. (h xr) =.33) is simple. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. err.. (1. its complete solution is not.. Also note that J. JJ.Sec.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.51) The left side of equation (1. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.1!y r .51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. �t (B· .( r) r. While this equation (1..3 3 r r r since r • i = f .1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. we see that J!:.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body.& .5. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity.I.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4..
I r 1 + e cos V p (1.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. v." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. . (1. 5. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. we obtain = 1 h2 /g .. +(81J.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle.53) 1 .9 cos V (1. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. Equation (1.54) . a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation. + r o Since. in general.. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. c and a . V. h2 where vector r.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B.54) .
3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. remains constant.Sec.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 .5. the flightpath angle. however. 3. Before discussing the factors . cp. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. must change so as to keep h constant. parabola. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle.51 illustrates an ellipse. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. (See Figure 1 .41 and equation (1 . potential and kinetic. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. 1.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. As r and v change along the orbit. 5 . The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. 4 . The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant.44) 1 . hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. 2. There is. ellipse. Although Figure 1. not just ellipses. an exchange of energy between the two forms. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit.
52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. or a single point. If. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone).5 2 illustrates this definition . the section is a parabola. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. If the plane cuts both nappes. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . Figure 1. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines . The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the section is an ellipse. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. 1 Figure 1 .
F'. The prime focus. F and F'. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. The secondary or vacant focus.53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . Figure 1 .Sec 1 . F. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci.53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections.
The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 .5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . Thus. a. is c�lled the semimaj or axis.54)). The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c." "perihelion" or "aphelion.55) p = a (1 . The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2." etc. for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium.5 3 . The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. In the parabola. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. The dimension. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero .e2). The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). ( 1 . for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative .
since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. the trajectory equation. 5. . 53).= a( 1 +e) .57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . ( 1 . we encountered the vector constant of integration.. 5. In the derivation of equation ( 1 . 1e ( 1 .Sec . tL r ( 1 . B.58) 1 .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). Quite obviously.52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe. .53) and ( 1 . By comparing equations ( 1 .1 0) .59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . 1 ( 1 . which points toward periapsis. e = BltL.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 .4 The Eccentricity Vector. 1.
Figure 1 . v. x v. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth.1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. v ) v . r  r . 1 .53) and equation ( 1 . Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. p.5. h.p.6 RELATING &. is equivalent to increasing h. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. e = V x (r x v) .61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). r r p. Therefore. of the satellite. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p.(r ..p. equation ( 1 .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. By inspection. v)v. and that as h is . progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. e . _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . By comparing equation ( 1 . we get • p.1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2.6. is zero.. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. 1.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. th . ( 1 .44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. ( 1 . e = ( v v ) r . If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. /or any orbit.
as a corollary to equation ( 1 . .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 .increased the parameter.6.1 ) predicts .  . (1 . �' " . v. . I '.61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle.e ) .F �.62) we obtain &. p. R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec.. = �. . . 1 01) .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . . We can then write. is zero.. .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 .�= � . 57) p rp = a(1 .. Figure 1 . of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .44). . r I .
This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. a. You should study it together with Figure 1 .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit).63) misleading. Many students find equation ( 1 .28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . 1 and from equation ( l .6. &. of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . Figure 1 . Thus.e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f .56) and equation (1 .63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.1 ) therefore p. while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive. This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative .5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . zero. the energy of a satellite (negative . while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative .6.
R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. 9 n . Determine its altitude at apogee. m i . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. e is exactly 1 (a parabola).  a=  '!:.. r p = rES + 200 = 3643.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . and specific angular momentum.. Namely. if & is zero . specific mechanical energy.1 and perigee altitude 200 n .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . 6 . 3 n . 2& = 3 . m i . e is greater than I (a hyperbola). & = 2 . the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. = 6.Sec 1 . if & is positive .. mi. 64) Notice again that if & is negative. m i . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. For a given satellite . But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM.0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. The student should be aware of this pitfall. .7 n . and semimaj or axis. ra = 1 � e = 4453.897  e2 ) = 3.Jf5P. p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. 0 . semilatus rectum.
7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa. I ( 1 . 2a = r a + r = 8097. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.7·2) . We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit.m i . When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. Since an ellipse is a closed curve.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a .r Ell = 1 009.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses. 1 .= 2.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection.30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a .7 . The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . specifically r + 1 . h =.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the distance between the foci is ( 1 .855 = 6 . ( 1 . = 5.7· 1 ) B y inspection. 1 n.JpjJ. an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . 1 35 x 1 06 ft n.7· 1 .mi. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.
72) and ( 1 .1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.7. 1 .7.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 .7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 . Since r + r' = 2a. in general.71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. 2 b. e is defined as combine to yield da. Using equation ( 1 . 2 ( 1 . when rearranged .Sec. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 . you will see that the .73) ( 1 .2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit. If you refer to Figure 1 . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 .75) which.76) .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . equation ( 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll. r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.7 .72.
32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 Figure 1 .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area.77) dt 2 = 11 dA.76) as ( 1 . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. d v. is given by the expression So. d A. Figure 1 . we can rewrite equation ( 1 .73 Differential element of area .
55) and ( 1 . 1 Circular Satellite Speed. the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. a.78) b =) a 2 . 1 .79). 1 .8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit.79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . Naturally.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed.75). Equation ( 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 .c2 =) a 2 ( 1 .e2 ) = JaP and. During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . Thus. incidentally. so equation ( 1 . Of course. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . From equations ( 1 .1 ) 1 . ( 1 .8 .8.Sec. the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius.8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 .77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. Integrating equation ( 1 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. since h = /JlP.
1 . F or a low altitude earth orbit. 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 .34 TWO .9. The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 .000 ft/sec. Another is that. rCS' from the energy equation. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.1 Geometry of the Parabola. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.9.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch .82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . circular speed is about 26 . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know.9. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a. 1 . the periapsis radius is just r 1 .1 ) .9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 .
Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . r. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.2 Escape Speed.9. Theoretically. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   .Sec.92) . Of course.E. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . first at a general point a distance ." 1 . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity.57).91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. 1 . from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � .
As you would expect. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola.1 57. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 . A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. the semimajor axis. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic.92) =21 .400 nm above the surface it is only 26. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. a. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. b . The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. 53374 106 ft = = 36. a.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude .Since the specific mechanical energy.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. 36 TWO . Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . 5 7). = j.000 ft/sec.. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . 8.1/2a.
m i . where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 . 06748 106 ft 7087.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . m i . rb i t P 7087.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21. 8n.53374 106 ft 2 43.Sec. 1 .amr iO.8 n. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn.
b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . Obviously.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. then the righthand branch represents the orbit. 1 . The parameters a. 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth.1 ) . F .1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). If we consider the lefthand focus. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). (L l O. 1 0. then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. 1 0. The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. 1 1 . If. instead. A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . Its geometry is worth a few moments of study .
" We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed.0.1 . we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity. which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . the smaller will b e the turning angle . 1 02) becomes ( 1 .for the hyperbola.. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . The angle between the asymptotes. 1 . is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. The turning angle . 0. 1 0.but since Sec. we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . 1 . If. 1 0. on the other hand. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. V 00' .
a million miles) from earth.3 Sphere of Influence. 1 0. we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. 1 . Astronomers call thi� ' . Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. that once a space probe is a great distance (say ." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. for all practical purposes it has escaped. 1 . Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. 1 (1 .B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . It is. In other words. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. however. It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. of course . the concept is convenient and is widely used. It is a fact. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 .
1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. p. earth. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit.Sec. will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . 1 . r a' r p' . 1 1 . moon. J. e.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. For other problems where the earth. 1 . Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . then the value of the gravitational parameter. Using canonical units determine & . h. 5 9362 5 .l. 1 1 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. 1 The Reference Orbit. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun.1 . We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . or other planet. In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) .
5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. Alt = . [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 1 67 D U �/T U � = . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . � = .42).I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .1 . 5 D U e �2 _ /J. 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 .
44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 .= 4 .61) Find h from equation (1..5 7)  r a = 1 e p.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft . 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1. 25D U EB = 4. 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = . 1 . = 2.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 . 5 D U ". 5 D U = 9.58) Find r p from equation (1.Sec.64) Find ra from equation (1. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. = 3.
B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . Find the period of the orbit. 5 81) 1 . Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite.3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . Find the specific energy of the trajectory. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis.. 2J AK IJK h = AI .000 ft/sec and 4 . 2K DU 2 /TU . is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. a. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. respectively.1 . . &= .1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . 6 J 1 . Find the eccentricity of the orbit. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth.000 n mi. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. c.2. 1 . 1 EXERCISES 1 . in general. The orbit eccentricity is 0. 1 . (Answer : e = 1 . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit.44 TW O. b . Why.
5 DU DU DU d. Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n.5 rpe r i gee = 1 . 1. 91 J space. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). D U /T U DU e. elliptical. p b. 354 10" r 1 . r v c.123K = 1 . 0 1K v = l + l . 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . mi during descent? (Ans. ¢ =3 = 1 . 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . (Ans.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. r x ft ) = 3. hyperbolic. 7 Prove that d. a a. &. 2K + .Ch .8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . 4K r r v = . 1 .6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. V ft/sec.6 18 = 59° 58') . p 1.9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300.000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600.
b . 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . Determine the maximum altitude attained. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = . p = 2. 1 2 Given that e = �. derive values for e for circles. P 1 . 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. e=O e = . (Neglect atmo spheric drag. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. p = 3. p = 2. ellipses and a hyperbolas. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. p = 6.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . d .) 1 . c. 1 .2 e = .000 ft.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. p = 6. e.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0.
2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. 1 . What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . c. Show that : b. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans .V O U EB /TU EB ) .Ch . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v. When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. rc = at +b = 0. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. * 1 .1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. 207 1 .6.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. 2 . The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. you may use the same Figure 2. 2 . One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit .Xw UK vectors.24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun.Sec.2. Q and W respectively. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . Yw '+. the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. When describing a heliocentric orbit .
3 . 2 . 4 . in the fundamental plane . T.the angle from to periapsis measured h. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . p. a. 6.the time when the satellite was at periapsis. Another system.the angle . 5 . semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . argumen t of periapsisthe angle .3. is substituted for a in the above list. shape and orientation of an orbit . Instead of argument of periapsis. Obviously . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. 2. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. e. It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. if you know a and e you can compute p.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size .1 as follows : 1 . between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. Q longitude of the ascending node. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. Frequently the semilatus rectum. Similarly. i. K I I . time of periapsis passage . w.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors.
2 .Sec.3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.31 Orbital elements .
in the plane of the satellite's orbit. then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . Retrograde is the oppo site of direct.3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n.3. This is the dire ction in which the sun." Direct means easterly. earth. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . 1 £0 £0 + . Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . then b oth W and n are undefined. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 .60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . w and va are all defined. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. n=n+w. (2 . both of which are always defined . to ' called the "epoch. between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis.32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . in the plane of the orbit. then both w and Uo are undefined.1 ) . From Figure 2.
We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. n an d e.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . To be perpendicular to h. 2. n must be perpendicular to both K and h.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . 2 . n. h. n and e.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time .42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. The node vector.4. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. t o .4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . Therefore . n would have to lie in the orbital plane. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . To be perpendicular to K. vI vJ v K J (2 . h. 2. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . or in their intersection which is called the "line of . n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec.
The parameter. ex.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. We are only interested in its direction. p. being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . h. is obtained from (2 . The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. An understanding of it is essential to what follows . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. In general. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . 2 nodes. All three vectors. Now that we have h." Specifically .46) Of course . The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . e. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . Study this figure carefully . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. the cosine of the angle .1 . between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . 2. The vector.S .62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .1 ) (2 . n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements.4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l .3.1 1 )). If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved .4.4.
Since n is the angle between I and n..1 1) . Since Vo is the angle between e and f.) .49) 6. Since Uo is the angle between n and f . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2. (2 ..1 0) 7 .) c o S Po = � er (2 .4.:. 2. c o s U o = !!.4 3 .4.) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° . (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .' (2.L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .) e. Since w is the angle between n and (2. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4. 2 . � � h.48) 5 .Sec. Since i is the angle between K and h.47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .
The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. . Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2.64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v.1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . 3 . look at the geometry of Figure 2 .4. 2 z x 8 . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative).1 and study it until they do . If they don't make sense to you.
42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1.Sec. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 . 5 DU e == . Figure 2. VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.
66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch . 2 3 Figure 2 .4 DU p == .\ .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .5 e == .
Sec.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1. 2.
. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 .1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.I:!:. using equation (2 .45 ) Since h =. 7 75 .47) = . Find eccentricity. .i:..l h2 .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . EEl .(r . From equation (2..= 4D U = 13.1 ) p = .48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . Find inclination. [ ( f. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system).4. ) r . n.7 4n . Find p using equation (2 . i.1.. f. Using equation (2. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node .6. ml . e.
1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 .n = COS . since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .. 2 . Find argument of periapsis. is undefined. Find true anomaily . can be determined in this case.1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis.49) W n · e W. From equation (2 . II. = cos .= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis.n. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. II..1 (. va. for this case . From equation (2. . Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .  Find longitude of periapsis.!!. 4 .:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However .41 0) v a c os.Sec.
EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .5 .E)r(r .m i ..3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .85 n .25 EB EB D U EB 7748..70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) . From equation (2.  then from equation ( 1 . v)v] =.6.45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� . 2 Find true longitude o f epoch.\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2..33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .1 ) Find e. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p . 1 [6 \ h=rxv=. = From equation (2.
I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 .43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .5 Find the inclination. From equation (2 . . Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .Sec. 2.1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2. va : From equation (2.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. From equation (2.5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .4.I Find the true anomaly .49) w: 0 W = cos.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .
5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. 2 elements are given. 8. that occurs in a given time . Let ' s assume that we know p.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 . In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. i. i .5 2) . lV.to.ffe si n V (2.5. n. .24): ro to. 2. The method. v. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . shown below.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. w and v.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . Of the se six elements. consists of two steps. w and va . 8. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. n. changes with time .
Sec.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .25 45{) (2. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 . 2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.54) r = J � [. Before equation (2. 5P DU E9 (2.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .5 i= p 2.54) from equation r (2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 . v �[.
In other words. but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . vector represents.6. such as position vectors. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). or what it represents. have a definite starting point .74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. east a!1d up. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes." 2. suppose you know the south. suppose you know the south. namely. the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. For example . A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . its fundamental (xy) plane . east. direction . For example. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame." The phrase in quotes describes what the .6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . 2 2. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. and it still represents the same thing. A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. Certain vectors. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. east .
Figure 2." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite. V and W along the x ' .61) . We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis.Sec. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. 2.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S .2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. y ����. y' and z ' axes. 2. ���________� • . expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . : r Y I ex a . Figure 2." In other words. and extending along the x. Let us imagine three unit vectors I.y Y 75 .61 illustrates the two frames.6. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.
2 From Figure 2.62) above and equating it with (2.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix. (2. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2.61 we can see that the unit vectors U.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .1 ) yields I. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch .62) Substituting these equations into equation (2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.6. 65) .
(2 . 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.64) above . 2 .67) yields the set of equations (2 .3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex . These are summarized belox:: . Rotation about the xaxis. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis.69) '" axis. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.Sec. 68) B '" (2.6.66) (2. .
1 ). We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .84 shows the angular relationship between two frames. 2 (2.7 .6. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame .61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame . The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch .78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. Figure 2. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . a. Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes.
For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . We can write equation (2. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). 2. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. denoted by D . .!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . Fortunately. The inverse of any orth.e. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates.1 . Now.6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . AB =1= SA ).Sec.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. The transpose of the matrix D . all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. (i.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. Equation (2. Hence .Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e .
80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. 6. 6. O c M ma t.sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . Perifo ca l to th e G Th . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. axes in to CO ham . anglo . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . 5 Tmn . a bl . 'o ta t. oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . n t rizing th . sh ow n in F ig u " Th .. 62.Eq to th e IJ K in at .6 .1 2) Figure 2 .n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . d th yo u will b . basis no ma t . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce .ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK .". to p' ter ho w co no. By me mo C.. 2 (2.". d wi th . th' O ugh w hi ch on . mu " in cid 'n ce b . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . d w . a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [." a ny mp licat e d . gl " n i lly .".. tluee b . th. m1 " fo..
a K and ap . aQ.. For example . 2 ..63. then Sec . from Figure 2. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . Thus if a i ' aJ .The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems..63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. ... R... Figure 2. 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit . we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I .. To .
B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. Now a.cos n sin w .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . J and K Thus R = J .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .sin n sin w cos i . ! • P. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 .6. since I and P are unit vectors. Q I ' W J · W K . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. Similarly.1 3) i. P K · P In Figure 2.63 . I • p I · Q J . 2 from their dot product .6.1 4) R23 = . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I.sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 . The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. a �. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another.
Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. . In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . 2 .5 .5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . V. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. 2. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need .Sec . In this case either n or w or both are undefined.1 ) and (2. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity.
The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . AZ . the rate at which range is changing. is measured clockwise from north . p. The azimuth angle . The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. E and Z shown in Figure 2 . It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. the elevation angle . EI. (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight .7 . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch .2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. Az.7. The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south.1 . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite.7 . can also be measured.( N o rt h ) 2. The unit vectors S. 7 . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . 2.
72 we see that r (2 .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El.73) E l (B I ). from the geometry of Figure 2. There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r.7 4) = + P (2 .7.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 . sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. = Ps PE = P cos Pz. We will express the po sition vector as (2 . E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky.7 .and EO/.75) . E I . 2.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z.1 . Sec. Thus.1 ) where .7 . p. From Figure 2. Az. /l!L.
76) . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . Unfortunately.7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. 2 J topo centric frame . For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth.
77) . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v.74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame . 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite .73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . EB x f. Figure 2. the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". 2 . v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. (2 . Therefore .Sec.73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame .
5 J .866 . 5Z (Given) [). is 2 S E + . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 . 3535 .707 o .6 1 2 .3535 .707 .1 = [. Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . 5 Z (units are DU). 300 N Lat .E + 1 .612) r = R + P = 2S .612 .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Figure 2. Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth .
.. (2. We will denote this quantity by w. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . z) system (Figure 2 .79) J. V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . I =J =K=O.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = .9 1 81 + 2.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . z). K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . v.Sec.75 ) . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . y. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. y. It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems. 2. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . 332J  .7. (2. rotating with respect to the (x.982K . w) .4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . however.. The unit vectors D.
1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA.79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . Hence . Similarly.90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame .7.1 0) reduces further to . equation (2 . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame .7. You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. . equation (2 . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . Hence . V = w x V and W = w x W . The remaining terms of equation (2. .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) .
.... . . dt R I (2 .. . 2 ..LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 .. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u. z) '... ..7.1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q. ..... v v..71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u .. .. Equation (2.. �:. . W) Figure 2.... y.y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ .7.......1 2) ...Sec..75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA... " F i xed " System ( x..
1 3) into equation (2 .7.where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame ." Ioox.7.F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .7 . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .7. Equation (2 .1 2) to the po sition vector r.) . We will now apply the operator equation (2 . Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +. The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .9!. 2 iLl F = .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration . (2 .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .7 .7.7. (2 .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .7.7 .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.
1 The Reference Ellipsoid. however . is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. ae . 2 . We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier.Sec. Therefore . The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . 2. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. It is known . If the earth were perfectly spherical. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. Sections parallel to the equator are .) 2. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components.8. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. In the model which has been adopted. circles. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame .8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. of course .
it does complicate the concept of latitude.8. the difference between L and is usually negligible . This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter . 1 45 6356.785 0. 2. The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . When you are given the latitude of a place .1 . The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight .08182 == km km L La L .94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .2 The Measurement of Latitude. 2. Consider Figure 2. The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field . The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378.3 Station Coordinates.8.8.
.8 .. the "reduced latitude . L . 4 km Figure 2.1 ) . 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � .!! o .82 . O .8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal..Sec. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude ." which is illustrated in Figure 2. 2 . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 .. It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. / (2. c. Thus. The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e .82.
b e =a e V� = b2 + d.1:  (2 . for any ellipse .82) . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . z ..96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But . c:  0) x Figure 2.. / . Ch . 0 O D. a2 .and e = da. I C.82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz.
(2 . 2 . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2. 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L .Sec:. (2. dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L .85) . Thus.
it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K.8 8) .8 7) 2. elevation above mean sea level. (2 . {1. and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . From Figure 2. it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .86) L. If the Greenwich sidereal time .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components. {1 ' is known .8. 2 ( 2 . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below. The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2.
The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . 2 .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time .89) .84 shows a spherical earth. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t. Although Figure 2.Sec . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2. is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) .8." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . L.
8 . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .1 0) .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth . From (2 . 2 j i Figure 2 . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.
This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .9 equation (2 . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . This should be made clear by F igure 2. so . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . (2 . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval.1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . a Z If a l . 2. Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. it will help to understand exactly how each is defined .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun .Sec. A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars.1 2) .1 2) and a s ' a E . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2.8. The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .9.9 .6. 2 .1 .
91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical.9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 .09054 mean solar seconds . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . In early January. Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . when the earth is near perihelion. it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . So far. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day .
Sec. This relationship is illustrated on page 99.9.3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . if it . Universal Time (UT). let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O.2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time .9. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. or Zulu (Z) time.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . Thus. The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. For example . . What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day.is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. 2. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . 2 . The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation .
9. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane .sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . . Ephemeris and 2. ° 229421 1. m i n . 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . we express time in decimal fractions of a day. 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. 8 9=8 9 0 1 . in addition. 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r .4 Precession of the Equinoxes.
the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top ... the equatorial plane is not . Due to the asphericity of the earth. However . Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . . the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 . The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. 2 ... As the earth' s axis precesses.Sec .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly.6 year s .6 years.. so the lunarcaused precession has this same period.92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars." with a perio d of 1 8 .000 year s .. on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. 6 yrs I Figure 2.9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . The period of the precession is about 2 6. 0 0 0 y rs " .
2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. 25 8=8 g + A = . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .296° H = 6 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 . 6 24 5 . Day  = Long o 57 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .74933340 = 1 .00 1 + L= 0 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 .6245 rad ians o 9 .1 . 00 1 From section 2 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. at 0600 GMT.378km = 0 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6.296 degrees west longitude .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . 5 7 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 . x= [ z= � ae + � .
4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.346E + O.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 00 1 c o s(S.4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 . Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 . 0.From equation (2.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.(0.72) PE p Pz Ps = .6245) = .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.6245 )1 + 1 . Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .2D UES = (0.6971 + .74) . 00 1 (S.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N. 2 .4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.7 1 SJ + OK Sec.
46 P =D1 .73Z D U (T U r = 0.�� lO.3.061 . 0.866 0. 46 = 0.610.5 1 .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .8 . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .0588K) From equation (2 .25 0.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.1 .346E + l .1 .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .433 .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.346J + 1 .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .46 D U /T U (0. 1 08 Ch .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .0.(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .0 1 .(0.77) v = [� ] [ J 0.46S .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2. 3.7·5 ) From equation (2 .84J .0E + 1 .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .8 .73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.Ps = .73 p + (O.1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.1 .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .
Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . 2. As Baker S points out . Figure 2. well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . Gibbs is.8J .3. may be lacking. W. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. EI . p .Sec. and the orb it is uniquely determined. 2 . Ei. 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. Ai.081 .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found .0. of course . f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). k.
1 06) Multiply (2 . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . and the definition of a dot product . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I .1 ) by (2 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p.5 4).r 3 ) = 0 . (2 . 1 08) . 1 0. 1 03) by f3 X r l .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. 1 02) gives (2 . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. 1 0. Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . Q and W. 1 04) (2 . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o .1 ) successively by fl . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. we can show that : e ' f = p .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . equation ( 1 . (2 . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . 2 fine scholar . 1 0. 1 05) (2 . then u sing (2 .r. 1 05 ) and (2 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . Dotting (2 .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 03) Cross (2. Notice that C2 may now be divided out. 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. (2 . 1 04) .
then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. 1 09) D. (2 .e .Let the right side of (2 . equation (2 . 1 0.1 4) (2 . 1 0. 2 .1 5) .1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e.1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. 1 0 pD = N . i. provided N . . Therefore . 1 0. 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. 1 0. 1 0. 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D.1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. Since P.(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . N and D have the same dire ction. (2. 1 0.1 3) : (2 . (2 . D = N P = O' N (2 .
5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. Then use (2 . 1 0. it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 1 0. (2 .1 8) N (2 . D and S ve ctors. 1 0. 1 0. (2. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . ( f  r + e) . (2 . and (2 . Before solving the problem. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2.1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 020) Thus. Therefore. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N.52) we can write i X h = p.r2 ) f3 ] (2 .1 6) . 1 02 1 ) .r t ) f2 + ( rt . 1 0. 1 0. From equation ( 1 . check N * O and D . However . P = Q X W.1 7) to find e.1 7) W Q = S S N (2 .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. N > o. since NeQ = pS.1 9) Since P. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 . 1 01 0) to find p.1 8) to find Q.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . (2 . N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . 1 0. (2 .1 9) to find W. N and S vectors. Q and W are orthogonal. 1 020) to find P. 1 0.
1 025) . ON (2 . (h xr r = + (a . 2 . 1 024) (2 . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb.h = P. 1 0. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . D X r + JJ{./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . b) c O . = p. h X (h h ) v .E. e) We can write h v v = . v) h and h . Using the identity .. v = eP. 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP.( a . so c) b .Sec .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) .(h . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 .
possible two body orbit . 2 L + LS (2 . = 0 for coplanar vectors. There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . to find any of the three velocities directly . Test: 0 10 . 4 . using the stated tests. Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. 1 02 6) Thus. Finally . Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. v2 � + L S r2 • . proceed as follows : For example . N and S vectors. Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . This is not exactly true. N=FO. appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. This method .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . find v2 : 2. By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. Form L = = 6. 1 . but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult .
If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. r1 r2 r3 = 1 . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations.0. Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). and S vectors: D= N S 1 .Sec.9000J + 0.97 . period and the velocity vector at position two .047 1 = . NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem." Thus. Since 010. r 1 and r2 . eccentricity. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth. N . This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . and the timeofflight between these po sitions. 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. the semilatus rectum.0471 O U = 0 .0774J 0.8000K = 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) .039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . 9701 = 2.5000K Find : P. Form the D . 2 .000K = 0_700J . P = 0= N  2.
Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.497 9. = .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .270J + 0.576J .0804 e = = = 0 . 2 S .4 to solve for the elements. 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 . 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type. 700J .1 . 0408 1 1 .0.270K W= N.963K N 1 .0.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .67 TU (89.960 DU/T U (4.97 o lP = a = 1 .041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . . 1r/{: 6.657K D U /T U 2 0.963J .0.
is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite .Sec.7 2). In either case . 1 1 .g . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . (2 . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. [:i:n :: :. 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. 3. 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. 1 1 2) r . r = pL [�. Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . = OJ + R j . As a result . ° 2 . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch.:S :J: JS L K .6 2 : 1 1 .1 ) (2 . L. an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . then ' . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . If we let L . 2. j = 1. 2 . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only .z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. (X1 ' < \ � .
1 1 3) (2 . \ . \' P2 i �� G ". . f f. • ' I . L.. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . however . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. ..J V I . p and r. . : '< ' . \ [L. The vectors L. . I . L. say the middle ob servatio n .[. .1 . \ Figure 2. �� I 1 " _ . r u. the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . ':. 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . (2 .. are not known . p. 0 (2 ..1  R ) r3 .' ' " ': . R and R are known at time t2 . \ •.. 2 We may differentiate equation (2 ./  L . p.1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . �J 1  . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P.r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . ' ' :. � . • 00 .
t 3 ( t 1 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.three t�es. thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t. t2 and t3 .Sec.t3 ) (2 .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t 1 . 1 1 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t 3 ) (t. t } . 2 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t 1 . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t 2 .t 1 ) (t 3 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t 1 ) ( t2 .t2 ) .t 3 ) L2 (2.t 1 ) ( t.t 2 ) + ( t 3 .t2 ) (t.t2 ) ( t} . t2 . 1 1 6) + 2t .t2 ) ( t 1 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .t2 L3 ( t 3 . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t 1 ) ( t2 .t3 ( t 2 .t 3 ) ( t } .t } ) (t 3 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t 1 ) ( t3 .t 1 ) ( t2 . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t . Since we have the value of L at.t2 ) ( t 1 .
u R Ir3 J + . p.u L 1 / r 3 L J + . that if more than three observations are available . L J I (2 . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. p. a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . p' and r.ons (2 . + ..1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . L J .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . 4 Equation (2 . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. it is evident that L Dp = . For the time being. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible .u L /r 3 . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations.. The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . in fact . 1 1 5 ) .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. 2 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns.L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . . L K + . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati.. D reduces to L D =2 L I L .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . however. let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . LI . I L . This. It should be noted. 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . L L L K K K J . .u R Ir3 I + . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . better yet . 1 1 6) and (2 .
1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 . R R I .4 Solving for Velocity .L L L J K I p .Sec . R J . 1 1 5). Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . R R . 1 1 . . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . 1 1 . J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2.1 0) and (2 . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. R . 0. 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2.1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. 1 1 . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. L K . L J L I K J!. If we do this we find that . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . . 1 1 2). is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r.1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . O O. 1 1 . Substituting equation (2 . L K L J L I K (2.. Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2.1 1) Op = . 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 .. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. 2 .1 2) . p and r. From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 2 .1 0) into (2.
This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . 1 1 . 2 . a3 . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. As a matter of fact . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. k.For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. a .2). This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . To obtain the velocity vector .1 4) p 2. 1 1 . ° 3 . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . Laplace ' s method fails . 1 1 .1 3) for p. 1 1 . P. ° . D. Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. E l . (2 . 2 (2 . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . such as P. 1 1 . El. then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p.
::"P . t4 . . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2.g. 2. 1 21) . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. p) will differ from the computed data. 1 Computing Residuals. Assuming that the residuals are small. 1 2. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . however . The question then arises. t3 . 2 The Differential Correction equations.Sec. 2. The six residuals are �1 ' . For example . Doppler rangerate. Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. . 1 2. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. of course. It may happen . The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations.::"P 3 . r K ' v " vJ . v Kl at t = to are correct.::"P 2 ' . ts and t6 ' These predictions are .::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. \ ' t2 . "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes.
VK . The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method. Nj. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. r K " ' arl D. usually 6 for orbit problems) n .1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . for example . V K ) .r l " v K )p1 ( r l . NI . 1 2. rj . . Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's.) Then. 1 2. The inversion of equations (2 . ap1 . D. equations (2 . The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. by trial and error.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns.. 1 2 . reduce the residuals to zero . it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. . NK. D. however. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. All that is required is to introduce a small variation.Vj' D. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. .:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . With the aid of a digital computer. 2. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations.e.3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. i. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. .VI .
use 0. called the root me an square (RMS) . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. 4. . a and (3 are the elements (two here . Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. 3 . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution .. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. 2 . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. zero . In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense .tb each of the elements measured.. b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. 2 . for the exactly determined case (p or b. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. since p 2 below) .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . = = n) . Solve equation (2 . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . minimum as described above . Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. for 90% confidence . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 .8 1 ) .g . This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum.
j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. ex VI.2. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . Choo se ex and for the first estimates.:. the partial derivatives are : . 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch .Assume equal confidence in all data.
= [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 . Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. 2. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 .Sec. Thus.
large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. In practice. To illustrate the method involved.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear.360 = . corresponding to the given Xi and compute . let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. yet still overspecified number of measurements. This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. we will use a simple .474 Xi 3 . 6 orbit elements) would be used. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence .474 and f3 = 3.
934 = 1 .1 05 9.934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .0 01 1 3.865 49.474 4 0 07 19. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence ..866 4 x . 2 .1.Vi 2. aa .000 50. . 969 ____  Vi . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.1 26 0.Sec.y. 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l .. 3 . 474 x 3 .828 0 0. 0 35 3.007 0.) 2 n .000 n = Vi 0.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /. ( V i Yi ) 2 4.000 1 9. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .500 8._1. E ( V 1.
1 96 = 3.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. which is larger than what we started with.062 .021 070 20.670 3.3. The second iteration yields: £::. 0 18 0. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .1. 81 30 8.474 + .(X 26 3..z 10. 1 961 0. 0..36 .l Now using (2 . 27 A WA = [12.056 ""' T .380708 A = 40.360. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) . Thus (X new = .304 = .4 1 69.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2.304 0. 1 22) we have £::. 105.0.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . {3 = {3 new .031 8.. = 3.2.039 £::.001 07 33 b = 0.733."""'" �T�� . 1 75 ] 5. so we iterate.027 12. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.
W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. 038 . the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. however.5 8 1 . This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0.4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. In practice . The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . in theory. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 .000 .5 8 2 . However.735 This time the RMS residual is 1 .Sec . 2. and finally. Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . 7 35 x 3 . 038 [3 = 3 .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . during orbital decay. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. 1 2. 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. 2 . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . 2 . The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data.00 1 . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s.
The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network .1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . At present. 1 3. 2 2.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. 1 The Spacetrack System. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). the precomputed 2. In addition. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . forming "clouds" of space debris. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. 2 . Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. the White Sands Missile Range . and midcourse ICBM inter ception.5 003. These detection radars with a range of 2.500 miles make about 1 2 . spacecraft failure diagnosis. antisatellite targeting. 1 Radar Sensors. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. 1 4 . The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS .
Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. 2. Turkey. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range.Sec. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. Figure 2. Greenland.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. One of the earlier detection radars.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. New Jersey. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. the FPS43. One FPS49 . is now on active Spacetrack alert. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. while three are located at Clear. Alaska. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. and is on active spacetrack alert.
142. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. Alaska. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. This BMEWS station at Clear. Florida. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. 2 Figure 2. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. United Kingdom. Alaska. In addition. under the 140ft radome at the left. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire.
over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan.14. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. 2. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard.143. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry.Sec. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia.2 Radio Interferometers. 2.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. When two or .
Canada . SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. and therefore . The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . is well established. SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake .1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. 1 4 . 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . Alberta. 2 . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. the semimajor axis. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. Considering the type of observational data received. two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . In addition to these . each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit.3 Optical Sensors.
Alberta. 2. it is . the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. seeing conditions must be good. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference.Sec. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. As a result. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object.400 miles. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. A separate optical system superimposes. and the lighting correct. length with a field of view 50 by 300 .145. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake.
in any case . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . Massachusett s . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . 1 4 . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data.1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . . New Mexico site. I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . is relatively accurat e . In any case .000 meters. precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . 4 Typical Sensor Errors. on the other hand . Further . Doppler rangerat e info rmation. SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . 2 . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. takes time.) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . For detection radars. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge .
14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. 2. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. nonuniform gravitational fields.Sec 2. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. lunar attraction. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) . Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated.146.7 seconds in time would remain.14.5 Future Developments.
2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . Operating in the SHF b and . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . a continuousw ave . Now.1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . of the target . In t he system under development . Theoretically . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. howeve r . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . Many improvements . p. providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . but it also record s target tracks for later playback .
respectively with a launch a zimuth . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth .. 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination .. The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth.1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination .Sec. The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . 1 5 . For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i.1 Ground trace sat ellite is. 1 5 . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . 18cP  2 . o f the orbit . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . 1 5 . 1 5 2 . 2 . i. Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . 1 5 . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . The arc CB which forms the • . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . F igure 2 . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ.
2. Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . L o?" If i is to be minimized . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . f3 ' be easterly . A direct orbit require s . i : c os i = . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . therefore . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. For a due east launch equat ion (2 . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. betwe en 00 and 1 80° . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . 1 5 . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . 0 i. The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . that the launch azimuth.e . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . 1 5 ·3 .
It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . su r face . Figure 2 . 1 5 . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day .Sec. 2 . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n .
7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U.4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. 885. = u nd ef i ned ) = . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. 2 EXERCISES 2 . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU.7071 + .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . Which takes longer . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2.89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. Englan d . i = 90° . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . Colorado ( 1 04. What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy . = (partial answers : 2.3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. J . 9 7 0 . e = .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . a solar day or sidereal day? b .
2 + b . i .) Determine p. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. 2. Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. Determine the orbital e lements. 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . c . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU.8 I J P = . (Answer [partial] e = . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 .8 2075 . 82 u a . 3<. e.Ch. W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. 1.2K DU . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . .
1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . r2 1 . a. 6464495 a.5 0 West . PST . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . b ut not nece ssary. r3 r l I J K 1 .3 5 35 3995 0 1 . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . 2. Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis.4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis .7 6) . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le .system along the unit ve ctor s P. C alifornia . LST = 63 .3 1 065 1 5 0. 1 7 1 . equatorial . 2. 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. 1 0 2. 1 0 January 1 9 70. 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . 2 . W.4 1 4202 0. U se of a computer is sugge sted .060668 8 3 1 . b . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. p = 1 . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . Q. Units are earth canonical units. (Answer : r = 1 . b .4 1 4225 1 1 1 .
1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .0 1 .5 65 6808 1 0.0 0 .707 1 1 25 5 0.0 2 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.0 0 2 .09497879 1 .20709623 0 .9 1 42 3467 2 .0 0 . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.0 0 2 .207 1 25 5 1 .2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.89497724 0 0 0 1 .707 1 0 1 0 1 0.6 0.1 .89497 879 0. fl f2 f3 3 . fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.9 1 420062 4 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .8 0 0 .7 0 0 e. 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 . fl f2 f3 d.97 0 1 . B . .97 2 .8 0 .0 2 .0 1 .6 0.62 1 34384 c. 3 6 395 5 26 1 . C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.Ch.94974 1 7 6 . 1 4  DU/TU.094964 1 8 0. DU * 2.2K with a velo city o f AI .565 6808 1 0 0 . fl f2 f3 0 .0 7 .n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .0 7 .
__ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . 2 a . d . Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. Obj ect c. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e.75 K D U /T U )  . Express the coordinates.0078 J 0. ( A ns. 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. ___ e. * 2 . has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 .1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a .620 1 I 0.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.17 p 0. Obj ect vernal equinox direction. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. b. 9 7 . Obj ect b . . Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . v = 0. east and zenith (up) component s? c. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane .
" Sky and Vol 1 6 . Inc. A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. "The A erospace Vehicle s . New York . Sons Ltd . Paul G . C . Thoma s. A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . pp 1 08 . 1 9 66. C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . 1 0 . E scobal. Thomas Nelson and 3. Robert M ." in The World of Math ematics . G . NY . Inc. 1 95 6 .1 1 1 . C leeto n . Navy Space Surveillance System. Dover Publications . Jame s R . 9 . U. Memo ires de 1 78 0 . Moulton . NY. Sky Publishing Corp . Laplace . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . Gauss. Newman . Simo n and S chuster . 1 965 . 1 9 67 . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . C ambridge . 4. Second Revised Edition . L. NY . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . K. 1 962. November 1 9 67 . S . D avis . 1 9 1 4. Pedro Ramon . Jr . Pierre Simo n . 1 95 7 . 5 . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . "Space Traffic Surveillance . New York . . The M acmillan Company. No 6 . Mass. NY . 6. 7 ." Vol 48 . Space/A ero na utics . Edmond Halley . Angus. Academic Pre ss. London . 2 . 8 . John Wiley & Sons. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Forest Ray . Henize . Armitage .Ch. E . New York and London . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. Vol 3 . New York . Telescope . Carl Friedrich. Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . Baker . New York . 1 96 3 .
Bate. 1 962. and Eller." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. Carson. NY . NY. New York .150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. 1 5 . "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control." Satellite Control Facility." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. 1 3 . Sunnyvale. p 39 . Thomas J. Davies. Robert D . No 5 . Gerald C. California. Air Force Systems Command." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Colorado. R. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. New York. Electronic ." The Vol 1 4. No 20 . . 1 967 . Inc. SepOct 1 967. 1 966. New York. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. S. USAF Academy. P. 1 2 . NY. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . 1 9 66. Journal of Oct 2. Vo1 40. Cheetham. 1 4. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. the A stronautical Sciences. Briskman. R. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 2 1 1 . 17. "Future Radar Developments. McGrawHill. 1 966. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. Roger R. New York. 1 6. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. NY. 1 962. 1 970.
the idea seems to have been forgotten. ) 00 . and the different force of gravity in different heights. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. After that . according to their different velocity. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . as of 5 . and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. 1 0. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time .000 or more miles. 1 . energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . for the next 250 years. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. Goddard. those bodies. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. or variously eccentric.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights.
His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . Rather . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. 1 . Project Orbiter. 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. still in its infancy . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . particularly if it is manned . 3 . Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors.research. since it contemplated the use of military hardware . On 4 October 1 95 7 . o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . However. The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. Manned spaceflight . 3 .
..25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" .::: 0(I) "" 20 10 ..///11// . I MONTH I .50K �.rrrj..n w . � '" ... � ee.J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl . YEAR a YEARS .. .J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E .. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 .+ :=. (I) CD � . 11 L .H O URS WEEK . .... .EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr.. 20K (..: fiD It: 0 It: <t ..rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION .. .... ....(/} � � (I) E � � .. 71.' � S' (1) 0 . VI/II � V � . mJ77/1/.. c.V'h WillI e: � . � .. I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N .
a p ogee 1 00 n . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch.1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . 1 . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft.03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. Figure 3 . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . m . Figure 3 .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . m . 1 . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . stated. 3 . m . 1 ·2 .
The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . as you can see from Figure 3 . The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. 3 . 1 3 .Sec.or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The vehicle is not allowed to coast . may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . 1 2 . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth.. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster.
If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. You . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude.1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . 1 5 . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. As a result. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . Figure 3 . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. 3 . successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. therefore. 1 .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 .
D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*. "::> Figure 3 .."� ill Q rn o I � fS .Sec.���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS ..2 . 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " ..J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�. 3 .. 1 > .�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.9 r�=r�rr.
J 5 "' C iii 0.1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch . 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 . I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: ... "' "' .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.
Q 360 ° per 90 days :. 3 . which also is due to oblateness. 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. completing one revolution every 90 days. Figure 3 .site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . a. the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63.6.6 0 .40 or greater than 1 1 6. Therefore = . What is the inclination of the orbit? b. 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days.67 0 /day From Figure 3 . With this perturbation .Sec. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits.40 and 1 1 6. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle.60 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . and oppo. The ascending node moves to the west .
Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase ." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . This. however. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). ground trace of a synchronous satellite.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. The first stage booster climbs 3 . Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS .21 shows why. This is.1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 .300 nm or about 5 .000 nm altitude . unfortunately. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. Of course.2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. 3 . 3 Figure 3 . for example . As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. On the scale of Figure 3 . 3 . not the case . There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. 1 2 this would be 2*. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious.6 earth radii above the surface . 2 . of course. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important.2. Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned.inches from the surface. 1 . Figure 3. 1 The Synchronous Satellite.
reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more. burn """ " " ..Sec.� � Figure 3 .21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. curve is \ " " . the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit. intervals . This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit.... At apogee of the ascent ellipse.. Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr... This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . 3.2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. . Dot ted grou nd trace .22 Ascent ellipse . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 . .
In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . dv. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit.31) If we solve for '..34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed.3 .32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . a? v. This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. speed. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. /:. we get (3 . and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. as they are called . if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. 3 . and flightpath angle. (3. fJ. but . 2vdv . a very precise orbit is required. = _ r 2a . 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . Usually this is not serious.da a2 = fJ. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. at appropriate points in the orbit. (3 . we get a change in .1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed.  fJ. for some other reason.v (3.33) or = da 2a2 vdv .
5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits.semimajor axis.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. whose radius is rl .V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6.h a �  da. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . 4 Jl. a 6." 3 . Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. of the orbit given by equation (3 . The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . 3 . called Hohmann transfer orbits.V v P P (3. 2 The Hohmann Transfer. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6.1 . therefore . a2 6. along the transfer ellipse. Since we know r l . Since the major axis is 2a. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit .v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da.34) for small but finite 6. We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. whose radius is r2 . 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. to the large orbit. Similarly. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit.34). 3 . For example .3. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl .v) .
36) = r i + r2 =  and.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3. since p.31 (3. its speed is .37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.31 &. &. 2at Figure 3 ./2 a .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. 3 the transfer orbit. (3.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch .
& t = � = . 3 . w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. to VI ' So .39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. For the transfer traj ectory. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU.V implies a Hohmann transfer . i n our example .� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . Minimum rp = 2 DU.Sec.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required.3. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . 3 I N. Find the minimum /::. ra = 3 DU. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. . I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3.3.V required to double the altitude of the satellite . Although. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction.1 0) (3 .
We can express this condition mathematically as r = .3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits. I t is obvious from Figure 3 .V1 = .3.3. 1 29 DU/TU = 3. I::.707 DU /TU vi r.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.313) .V2 = .VTOT == . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .068 D U/TU V cs =.061 DU/TU I::. 3 V cs 1 = (il = .32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.346 ft/sec 3 .� r 1 1 +e p p (3.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch . Figure 3.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .JfF"= .
p p p  = . in the transfer orbit. Knowing and e. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.Sec.3.1 4) (3. 3 . Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. / 2a . Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits.33) and interpret them graphically. (3.1 5) . p p (p. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3.3. and the angular momentum. we can compute the energy. ht. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. �. To satisfy both conditions.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. I &. respectively . I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits.
its speed is (3 . .33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r . __ Figure 3. we get (3.34 /::.. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit .1 is just the flightpath angle . 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 . p r2.39) The angle between v1 and va.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer. </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.
4 . The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . and obtain directly for circular orbits. b. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . (3.V. This is called a simple plane change. or it can rotate the line of apsides. as shown at the right of Figure 3 . An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. it is not surprising that equation (3 .4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".V.V.310) when the flightpath angle . which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. If.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion.V required. more simply.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above .34. We can solve for the magnitude of b.1 'I' . the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. 1 Simple Plane Change .3.Sec.41 .3. the b. b. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3.4. form an isosceles vector triangle. A velocity change . Or. assuming that we know v and e.41) 3.V using the law of cosines. b. after applying a finite b. 3 .1 7) reduces to equation (3. e. ¢l ' is zero.1 . we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . 3. (3 . together with the b.31 6) Now.
vrequired to accomplish the mission. Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . makes b.V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer.41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . 3 Figure 3 . . b . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. A plane change of 60 0 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. a. calculate the additional b.V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites.1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. DU circular orbit. for example . Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . Therefore . Determine the total b. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit.
1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .__ = . .953 DU/TU L.953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L. Therefore at = r2 . & t = = �= . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( . 3.Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' .618 = 1 . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L. I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 . 1 +� 1 .270. 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.0..Sec.1 = \1'1 . DU 2 1 Hence .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) .V l 1 .Vl = V l .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a. The given information is: h I = 0.
626) = 0 .447) 0.2 .3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :. v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.= 0 .042 ft/sec Therefore v = .4) (.(0. 447)(.387 DU/TU = 1 0.447 DU/TU 2 1 .626) = 0.253 ft/sec .V22 v.2(. + v�s2.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .626 vcs2 = V't.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch . 3 87 .4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0. 4 . 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 . 2 + 0. 6. 31 7 + .704 DU/TU 18.V2 = y'l'5= 0.317) to determine 6.V2 . 3 and we must use equation (3.447) (. 1 5 DU/TU 6.
F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .Sec. 3.078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .1 ) t:::.447 ) ( .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .4.
3 .e.5 DU/TU. 1 1 DU and e = 0.5 b.2 DU and 4 DU respectively.V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.2 Calculate the total 6. a plane change or an orbit transfer. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . c.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes. r p = 1 DU e = 0. 3. i changedall other parameters remained the same.4 Refer to Figure 3 .21 . a = 2.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans. 3 EXERCISES 3 . 0 .76.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . Ch . 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of . i.449 DU/TU) 3. a. (Ans. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b.. 0.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . What is the minimum 6.5 DU .
1 0 Note that in problem 3 . . At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. 34DU2 (fU d.9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. 9 Calculate the total l::.1 DU 8 1 = 0. 0 .V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = .7 3 .412 5 3 . 3 . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode .v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. P = 1. 95 DU 8 = 0. 5 & Design a satellite . 8 Compute the minimum I::. using Hohmann transfers. * 3 .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned.56 c. 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . C ompare this with the I::. = 0. 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. The . (Ans. parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 .Ch .
A cademic Pre'ss. New York . Missiles. Ley. Headquarters. Air Force Systems Command . NY . 1 96 1 . 5 . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. University of California Press. 1 . Vol 2. NY. The Viking Press. Walter .1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Dornberger. DC . 1 962. Washington . 1 9 60. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1 95 5 . Willy. Principia. 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . Makemson. Space Planners Guide. 1 July 1 965 . V2 . Rockets. and Maud W. New York and London . New York . Robert M . Baker. Sir Isaac. 4 . 3 . 2nd revised ed. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Newton .. The Viking Press. L. . and Space Travel.
. the solution of the second problem. . . or perhaps usurping them . including the earth . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. This was Kepler 's first great problem. or lack of circumspection. presupposed the solution of the first. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. by taking the observations under my care . who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. . . the determination of the true movement of the planets..2 1 77 . . . of the heirs.CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . I quickly took advantage of the absence. Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. Albert Einstein ! 4 .
. we not only forgive them. 1 . subterfuges. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. I + . Thus. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . trap or pitfall that he himself encountered.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . but above all to convey to him the reasons. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. "What matters to me. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. detour. ." Kepler points out in his Preface. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. whole grand entertainment would be lost. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. When Christopher Columbus.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say.
. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . prick your ears. without benefit of any preconceived notions. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . for now we are going to invade your territory. never noticing his error. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . But then without a word of transition.Sec 4. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. again incorrectly . perihelion and aphelion. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. . 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. as it were. Moreover. that. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. with the warning: "Ye physicists. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. almost with masochistic delight. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. however. His results.
a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it.. . he settled on the oval. He had . as I shall prove further down . 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. " Finally. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval.. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. .180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch .2 Finally. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . 4 Figure 4 . arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner.
That is to say. believing that this was a quite different .and chased away. Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. are one and the same . until I went nearly mad. In this chapter we will. .: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits.. mine] . We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. . whereas the two . what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end.y it should move in an orbit at all. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. and velocity and the timeofflight. .. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit.F L I G HT .. along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. but he did not know how. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits .e . The climax to this comedy of errors.Sec 4. I thought and searched. came when. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . which I had rejected . . : . Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. .!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. have persisted to this day.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. . made a mistake in geometry. You: are .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal.' " . Ah. return e d by stealth through the backdoor. disguising itself to be accepted. in a moment of despair.2 T I M EO F . 4. . hypothesis. but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. . . de rive the .
''' The only unknown i n equation (4. but more motivated. (4. In going part way around an orbit.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. 4 existed . where the true anomaly is v .21 Area swept out by r . This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use . ''"'''"'.2. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically. i.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY .2. P. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see.2.. We will pursue a lengthier. 7T a b . 4.1 ) ..e .2 .1 ) i s the area � . We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. A ' in Figure 4.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 .. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area.. say from periapsis to some general point.l . I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use .. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus.A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch .
22 Eccentric anomaly.Sec 4 . perpendicular to the major axis. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . 2 T i M EO F . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. E E Circle : . the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 .Z x2 + .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse.F L I G HT .l. From analytical geometry. A dotted line . \/2 a2 _ .
4 Hence .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . It Tollows directly from equation (4. From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . A2 .�rea PSV minus the dotted area. Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle .22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . oos E and whose (4.a E) .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) .
to its corresponding true anomaly. Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .e sin E (4.28) . cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4. v." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E .26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation ." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.Sec 4.E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .2 .1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' .e si n E (4.27) (4. and whose altitude is (a si n E ).2 T I M EO F .F L I G H T . minus the triangle . in order to use equation (4. Obviously .T = 4 ( E .e si n E ) I (4.24).27) reduces to (4.24) E .e si n Ai yields E) . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally.we get � ( E . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). whose base is (a CDS E).22. Kepler introduced the definition M = It .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly. From Figure 4. substituting into equation (4. E.
T) . when v is between o and n.24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis. 4 E E.29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v. The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane . Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4. from Figure 4. At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.28). we can say that t .to = lP (t .T o ) .T ) .[ 2kn + (E . + t . E Figure 4 . so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .( t o .(to .24 left).T) .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4.( Eo  E) (4. In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a .e Sin . In general we can say that t  to = 4.24 right.to = ( t .
7 .2.21 6) V 1 .T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .J1=82 d E (4.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .8 si n E ) V r .1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa. Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .1 3) (4.8 E ) dE (4.2.2.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .2.+ COS (4.1 1 ) easily integrable .Sec 4.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.2 T I M EO F.2. . From equation (4.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.2.1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4. From equations in section 1 .1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.82 f: ( 1 .21 2).2. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .1 2) (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.82 ( E .F L I G H T .
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. In one sense . we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign .1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .Sec 4.4. But now we have a problem.4. Equation (4 . the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. since equation (4.4 4. a trialanderror solution is indicated. 4.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. va' a and the trial value of x.47) has been used to eliminate z. (4 . Figure 4. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . a.4. Therefore .2 Solving for x When Time is Known . C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . ( 1 . If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . Fortunately .1 3) ro va v t" .1 2) is transcendental in x.
and A and B are not colinear.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y .41 9) . To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .41 6) dx x .1 = x 2 C + x . the four vectors fO ' (4.42. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 .41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 . An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.4.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . Thus A. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight. Substituting for r in equation (4. (4.4.3 The f and 9 Expressions. the iteration may be terminated.32). xn . 1 dt r (4.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. 4 . With x known.4. B and C are coplanar vectors. we must then calculate the corresponding and v.
4.where f. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities. f and 9 are not independent.1 9) gives Sec 4 . the left side of the O . We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates. Crossing equation (4. = fg. g ..420) This equation shows that f . We can isolate the scalar . in equation (4..1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h .tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w . f and g... First. g.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4... x. f. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q.. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 . The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable . if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity. however.. we will derive an interesting relationship between f.4.. g .1 8) into equation (4.4.
) . yw x .1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.425) Combining equations (4. x + Co cos v = .1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4. . x wYw .425).e2 )  r . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.a l e + Sln Y.34) and (4.423) (4.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . (4.4.4.r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw . o . .E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f . Xw .426) .4. 4 h (4.42 1 ) We can isolate (4. (4.w o Yw h (4. From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .
(e sin � + cos � ).Sec 4 . Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4... e quation (4.32)..42 1 ) c /Ii.a  mitions of z.42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C .426) through (4 . \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin . ro ro . e quation (4...426) and (4. x + co h = .a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum..43 0) f (4.429) Substituting equations (4.. (4.. ro .43 1 ) ....sin r  � (4..a Va 2 = 1 9.4. 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4. r.428) yw ...427) and using the definition of the universal variable . x = 0 at t = o .Va • W .43 0) 0 1 f C a = .429) into equation (4. x =� cos x + c r .1 ) .
4. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.4. r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .1 ) and (4 .435) (4. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY ..] � a .A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .32) (4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.4·3) � r o .. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l . � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4..1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .433) (4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.4.436) .
1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit . la .1 ) Va = _ E .34) (4. but we have not said what and z represent.5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. 3 . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . 4 . Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. 2 . 4 .Sec 4.4.420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. can be used. Si n va = Va =  c o s . its definition.434) . in any of the equations where z appears.43 5) and (4. 5 .[ i + x + c 0 ] Va .4. then compute r and r from equation (4 .x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 .43 1 ) and (4. x + Co cos [ � . then compute v from equation (4.4 . Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4.4. Obviously .5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation.43 6) . 5 . 1 .1 9) . From and determine r and a.1 8). The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. Also. Va x (4. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero). Note also that if were not zero .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem.e E). note that equation (4. solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . the expression (t would replace 4 . to 4. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4. if we are going to use equation (4. 1 The Physical Significance of and z.
(4 .53) Subtracting equation (4.4.52) whenever is negative .56) la. we can conclude that = V'ii I F . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .3 4) and (4. (4 .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.1 3) .204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ . a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.5 4) (4. (4 .57) .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .53) from (4 .E o l . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x . 5 ·1) at time x = 0.Do . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4. therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �). 1 (4. we get x= D .F 0 1  Va I E .
I z = I F . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem.5. 5 . a.F a ) '· z is zero.5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero .when z is positive .8) Figure 4 . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4. If imaginary.1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t .to 4 . Therefore . In computing the semimaj or axis. 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. 5 . so Sec 4.5 9) . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.
. ( t a to) ..All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a.5.fZi3 = q .cosh .a � eFz ± 2x 3 . Furthermore . / ( .. wherever it occu rs.. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. is large. since X = foE. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 . C = 1 . so S � V0r eFz 2 . if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number.v y� ( . Use this for a first guess .a vG ) .:z.z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .. a = ± x 3 .e . convergence will be extremely rapid.ji11. and . we get for elliptical orbits. so s i n h fi . . with £X. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. then Z will be a large negative number . can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. In the case of elliptical orbits.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp.5 .6F. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4..P)/ 2.
t o ) sign (t .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.5. n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .t o ) Fa . recognizing that X will be positive when (t .r:z . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term. where appropriate .tJ is positive . .1 1 ) .£.The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.sign (t . 5 .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before. 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) . 4 .t o ) � ( 1 . vice versa .t o ) x ::::: sign (t .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .to is positive.r� ) ] J The use of these approximations. Therefore. if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the .Q) eV La 2J.t o ) #a ( 1 ] .. so Sec 4 . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t .tohATci ( l . 5 . Anytime t . we get � S .a eFz sign ( t .sign in the above expression .a .L ( t . X will be positive and . Thu s . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.t o ) 2x 3 � + t . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.
so an equivalent expression for S is S � s ..y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .1 0) as C where = i C = .4.4.7! + . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive.Ji . Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .1 3) COS . if z is negative .4. s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz.4.1 3).4. = Similarly.1 2) and (4 . .0 6 + .4. 1 .". (4.5. use equations (4. Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S . the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.5. 4 (4 . use equations (4.1 0) (4.5.1 1 ) as But i v:z . w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch . If z is near zero .1 0) and (4.s i n i V} = i si n i B . we can write equation (4. .1 1 ) .5.cosh . z cos i � .B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.(1  ..1 1 ) We can write equation (4.51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .
.52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .. . .+ .Ji! + Ji!.... Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . 0 .5. 0 'j (4.5.Sec 4. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity ..1 4) ·· 1 . (4Ir) 2 . The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 . (611)2 etc.5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4..
I dS = _ ( C . 39 5 .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . 4 functions . 1 K . 1 . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x.266  . va > � a= :l = 1 .[i) z ] (4 .s i n z dz 2z [ 0.( 1 .5 . Differentiating the definition of C. Given ra = I D U va = 1 . we get I � = fz. we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . dC /d z and dS /d z . 2& .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM.3S ) .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . r a . it is not surprising that the derivatives.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s . va = Therefore & = 1.zS . t=2 T U9 ra = I. 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin .5.c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. and v at = t=2 T U .)] P (4.2C ) . Find r.
xn tn fit After three iterations.000 1 .8 1 6 x n+1 .705 2 .t....t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit. 1 .277 dXn 1 .12.1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 . X l Zl y"""a6E or x .1 . 58+ . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary. solving for t .8 2 1 1 .t o x_ 21Tya lP :.58 1 . we can make a 2 __ = 1 . 58+.8 1 6 1 . y'ii"(t . using a slide rule .1 .8 1 6 1 . 705 .821 1 .4..222 = 1 . we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .Since x = and .4.222 1 .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4..58 1 .82 1 1 .266 ( 1 .58) 2 1 . we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.973 a Using equation (4.1 4) and (4. 2 2 x 3 ' etc.. tn toward t = ZTU.279 1 .222 Repeating the process. 24 1 = 1 .007 2.5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.
8801 Ch .32 1 1 + 1 .. since e = 1 .0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . D. for the parabola.0. 4 4.JPt::.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0... we will derive expressions for xw .2) .1 we can see that X w = r cos v ._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. g = 1 . f = 0. 4. E and F. Finally. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit.1 7). f. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. v. f = 0. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D.2. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly .6.6 .321 . 880 1 1 . yw and r in terms of D. E or F. r = _.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies.Then from the definitions of f. But first some useful identities will be presented.1 ) From Figure 4. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola.6. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. and 9 = 0. (4. E and F. g. 1 24. as D = v'P tan � 2 . 236K g. But .6. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D..
64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system.6.61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.65) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . (4.1 ) .1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos . yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .Sec 4 . the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.
r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . (4.J7!. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .66) v . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown.1 ) . For the eccentric anomaly . r • v.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. Using r • r = and equation (2.6. in Figure 4 .s i n p v = ffp ta n v . 4 rr.62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known.62 Perifocal components of r .
24) . 69) I e C OS E = 1 r . we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. I Substituting from equations (4.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4.6. (4.1 0) e sin E also. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . e illS E we get another useful  �.67) (a si n E ) a But . 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4.8) and simplifying.Sec 4 . yw Just as we did for the parabola. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .6. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) .62. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . (4.67) and (4 . we can say that I yw = Q. M  (4.
6. when F is a real number . v.1 3) . e cos E from equation (4.:. F is imaginary. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4. is given by e si n rr = r = $a .216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .!. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E ..e Si n r E Finally .28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4.1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation.. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.1 0) . we obtain E = .6. The .. E is imaginary ..6.6. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4..22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words. when E is a real number. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4. solving this equation for • v .
 But i si n iF = si n h F.1).6. From equation (4. r.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v .el = a (cos i F .1 4) Xw = a(rosh F .6. 6. In Figure 4 .2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E . Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF.1 8) .Il a •v (4.e) . so (4.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. 6. The rectangular components of a general position vector.61 6) r e cosh F = 1.6 . 4. so Yw = a � sinh F. But l cos i F = cosh F .67) we can write Sec 4 .range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. Similarly.e ) .63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic. may be written as (4. 6.a r  (4.
.: o s /:. 62 1) (4. where tv = v .6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4.625) (4.. so 1 � L (I . V. we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = ._ c��V P IW (4. ..p .:. (4.vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf ..624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . r0 · = 1 .1 ..ji! sin v p (4..c o s tv ) (4.I M E Ch .. 626) .. are yw = r sin v (4. . 4 +.c os I 9 ' = v'f.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) ... 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.x".. ( .218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y . and note that h = .V.JiLP.A F U N CT I O N O F T.P ( 1 . 623) .V _ 2 1 . Figure 4...42 1 ) . tan p /:. the rectangular components of the velocity vector .
63 0) (4. o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.Ji!.e2 ). From equations (4.to ) .1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.68) .� ( 1 .I Jlla sin E.e2 ) = 1.6. r (4. Similarly.4.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .63 1 ) (4.1 0).E ) . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .e2 ) v.( L'!. E rr . = . (4.!Ji8 sin L'!. 627) But.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .cos L'!. yw 9 and (t . 629) f = 1 . we get f = a( cos E . Thus Xw Sec 4.e 2 ) cos E .E) 9 r _ 0 j.67) and (4.1 (4.a ( 1 . (4.a E sin E .6.6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .cos L'!.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .e) v! fJa( l . the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.e cos E o ) .6.E ) f = . using equation (4..63 2) .sin L'!.E .
(4.6.63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . Kepler himself realized this.. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .  E.to) .63 6) 4.t o ) . In classical terms. M can be obtained from = (4. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it. A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some . cosh 6F ) .(1 E . 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4.629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E. ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.2k7T + M o . (4. from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm.634) (4. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F . and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .26) Even though equation (4.6F ) .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch . � V a3 ( t .63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .2 6) is one equation in one unknown . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E . of course . ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself.
2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. but this is not very accurate. 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem.Sec 4 . E It would. ' (4.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . select a new trial value. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. E n+ l E + M . compute the mean anomaly. M n . that results from this trial value . � Figure 4.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. of course .64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y .638) n dM/d E I E=E n .63 7) Now. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method.
636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 .5 + . The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola.t ' are given.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .5 cos V DU . dE Therefore.  .e cos En (4. Determine f and V from equations (4. equation (4. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . t . The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation.2.4.1 8) and (4.1 2) . r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). e.1 9). Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. Solve for V if needed. It can be used for LW or�E .4. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits.4 0) EXERCISES 4.when e is nearly 1 .6. 1 . d M = 1 e cos E . the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. 2. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value. where d M / d E l E = En En. even when e is nearly 1 . From fa and va determine r 0' a. va and the timeofflight. Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. 5. e. 3 . 4 . however. Once E i s determined by any method. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. p and va· 2 .
5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee.348J +  1 . 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting.85 TU) 4. find the universal variable. TOF = 5. f = 4 . corresponding to l:J) of 600• .e. glven fO' vO' and t. (Ans.3 Given l:J) = ffP. how should the area of search for x be limited.4 If.. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. V = 3481 . to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. x. Explain why this must be so . 625) . one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 .Ch . a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. i.3. 4. Find the values of f.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse.6 For the data given in problem 4. find r and v for . Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. (partial Ans.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead.
e = . 4 4 . e = . 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. ra == 2. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 .224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. Va and w and will solve for f. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. in equations (4.5 DU. Develop.10 rp 4 .73 TV) 4. Do the same for problem 4. Va and t . 7 The text. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . and give your analytic reasoning behind. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. 1 0. f and g. 5. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. 1 1 For problem 4. TOF = 2. 5 DU.to and solve for f and v.5 . 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa.51 0) and (4. if X == x (t ) . 4 . 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. 2. then . with a perigee above the north pole.99). gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. 4 . g. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 .. 4 . == 1 . 9 At burnout. Le. (Ans.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit.9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods.1 1).
2. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company.( t . Company. . 4.43 6). f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. Koestler.1 8). 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. The Macmillan 3 .E. See equations (4. Robert. 4 .I:!:. Battin. New York. Guidance . New York. r. Arthur. 1 7 Derive the expression for g .r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. Stahlman. 1 95 9 . Philosophical Library. LIST OF REFERENCES 1 .and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . = . Small.2 . o 4 . 63 2). Richard H.630) through (4.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � .16 * 4. equation (4. 4. Albert. f and 9 in terms of (t . 1 963 . Madison.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. NY..0 + ..43 5) and (4. 1 964. Einstein. 2. Wise.. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters.. g. The Sleepwalkers. r3 fJ. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t .to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. L'. NY. Kepler. The University of Wisconsin Press. NY. 1 95 1 .6 TU) .. A New York.
. J. Sundrnan. K. W. Roger R. F . H. Mathmatica." A str.1 92. "Universal Variables. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. 1 965. S. United States Air Force Academy . Redondo Beach.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 4 5 . 1 0. Vol 275 . Vol 70. Herrick. A n Introduction York. J. pp 1 08. Sperling." ARS 1. H. K. Forest Ray. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. 8." A stron.ach. 1 965 . to Celestial Mechanics. Stumpff. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. New 6. 1 1 . Goodyear. 1 2. 1 9 1 4. and 1. pp 1 05 ." A stron. Bate. pp 66066 1 . 1 9 1 2 . pp 1 89.1 28 . H . N. W. 1 96 1 . W . Moulton. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. pp 3093 1 5. . California. Vol 70. E. Vol 3 1 . Brooks. 1 947. Lemmon. 7." A cta Vol 36.1 79. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. The MacMillan Company. 9. Unpublished notes. 1 965.
Uranus.. 227 5. But. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. a 24yearold German mathematician. in the first year of the 1 9th century. in 1 7 8 1 . so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas.
I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. Hegel asserted. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. The object turned out to be Ceres. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. 5. but for a different reason. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. and the direction of ."the Gauss problem. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. no less. Because of its importance. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. and for convenience in referring to it later. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo .2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . exactly 1 year later. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. If they paid some attention to philosophy . This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . no more .
The relationship between the four vectors f l .21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M ." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians.. or the "long way. that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. / I I I I I Figure 5 .".SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ ... the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. therefore." through an angular change greater than 7r. . It is not surprising. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible.. Obviously . Sec . 5 ... . If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r).motion. If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion.. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way.1 . the orbit is a degenerate conic. appears in the denominator of any expression. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. particularly if the parameter. 2. / . p.. .
2. a 9 = 1 . g. 2.y'ii8 . Consider equations (5 .27) and (5 .24) Si n �E (5 .1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f. bv ..22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f. a or �E. r2 P p rI . (5 . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . There are seven variablesf1 .. We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. Test the result by solving equation (5 .24) arid (5 .cos �E ) f = 1 .cos �V . a and �E. r . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. so 2 . 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. 2. so a trialanderror solution is necessary .( 1 . Use equations (5. this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. what we have is three equations in three unknowns.22) r2 a ( 1 . (5 . p.sin �E ) � JJ.1 ) (5 .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si.25).cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 .. f and g.. f.25 ) (5 . g.23).cos �E ) .230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .cos �v) = 1 . t.( 1 . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . the solut �on to . 27) .23) Actually. 23) and (5 . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . From equation (5 . (5 .26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 .( 1 . but the first four are known. 3. 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . (5 .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . p. Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns.
A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable.3 2) .. = 1 . let's write the expressions for f. r1 (5 . This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. however. g . Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. x and z. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. 3 .1 ) (5 . adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns.( 1 . A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. a and L'£ or 6F. In each case . p. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem.c x2 y.Sec. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. introduced in Chapter 4. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. and would enable us to use the universal variables. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work.:t x3 S. 5 . This last step is perhaps the most important of all. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . n 6V r2 = t  = 1 .
.jE: .33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.37) I y = r 1 + r2 . rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.i n b.39) . p r1 j . we obtain A.232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .v y.1I 1 � . 1 .v) • 9 = = IE.v (5 .j A equation (5 .( c o s b.viI x ( 1 zS) \ .. we get r 1 r 2 (1 . as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant. such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.31 )...33)  (5. P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b.34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange...35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .36) may be written (5 .( 1 c o s b. yields X C.A .c o s b. A y= . ( 1 c o s b.v) (5 . ( 1 .v ) 1 c o s b. 5 X2 (5 ..38) y.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch ..v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 .
32).1 4) 1 The velocity.1 0) (5 .ff.on simplllw.31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . 3.34).LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. 3.Sec. and the auxiliary variable .=1' Ig =r2 =.3.31 5) (5 .31 7) . From equations (5 .38). the last term of this expression may be simplified. we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But. v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 .1 ).". rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 . 5 .r I (5 .35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 . +. . so that (5 .420). 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .3.. A. (5 . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant . y. by using equations (5 . thi 't "p. 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .qr::oo .3.32) and (5 .37 ) and (5 . I" � \ ·1 fr .1 6) (5 .: r I .31 3) (5 . can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.
31 8) ( ) (5 . The derivative. A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. dt / dz. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.37). this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .0.P . from equation (5 .31 7). 7 .234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . If it is not nearly the same . Although any iterative scheme .0.4. Determine the auxiliary variable.4. 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. 2 . may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . 3.1 4) and (5 . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 . 5. (5 .31 5).31 6) and (5 . evaluate t.3 . When the method has converged to a solution.31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. 4. a Newton iteration. 6.3.1 0) and (4.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 .S + X 3 _ + .1 1). 3.= 3 x 2 . which converges more rapidly. From f ' f and the "direction of motion. A. y.E2 and z = . 5.39).dz dz dz 2yy dz . Determine x from equation (5 . such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation.31 9) ." evaluate the I 2 constant. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.1 0) . 9 and 9 from equations (5 .1 2) (5 . using equation (5 . 5 1 .3. Since z = . Pick a trial value for z.31 3). 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z.
we showed that y.320) (5 . we get ( 1 . 5 . .=  dS (C .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 . 5 .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C .Sec.z S) dS _ .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .39) for dy = dz  But.3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS . 3 .32 1 )  . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 . i n section 4 . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 .
319) and (5 . 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = ." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.OK DU.236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .41 1 ).318). 5 so. There is only one path for a given direction of motion.326) . Using universal variables. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.320) and (5 .32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit).322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.+ 5! 7 ! _ _ . the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z.7K DU. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM. D M � si g n (1T L'>.6J + 0. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .1 0) and (4.01 + + O. 51 r2 = 1.324) _  (5 . determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two . equations (4.322) into equation (5 . At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0. Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S.323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . ill rl . These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 . "direction of motion": rl =0.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 .4. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.v) .  (5 . we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 .
28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = .321 radians Using (5 .39). 5 .1 4) and (4. Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = . 0488088482 + 1 . 327) r1 = 1 . A A l ong way =1 .6V short way = 5.327).1 5) .962 radians LW long way = 21T . 23287446 yT12 vm . from equations (4. 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . 28406 ( __ = 3 . 0000 1 .Sec.28406 ( __ ) = 0 .37) does when . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . 0488088482 + 1 ..1 .6V > 1T).0488008482 OU r2 = 1 . For ease of numerical solutions.3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = . OM = +1 we have "short way " (.6V is small. 86474323 = 1 .0. 5 .28406 = 1 .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T). 0000 + 1 . a convenient form of equation (5 .5.
1 3 min = 0445 z . from the given data..05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.444689 m 0.23287446 0. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.28406 y'3. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 .3. the desired time o f flight is : ...86474323 2. Step 5: Using equation (5 .1 0).780 1 9540 1 /2 0.672625 1 6 TU + through 6...23287446 t l o ng = 0.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration.86474323 = 1 .. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : . 0432z = 1 3.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off. 1 ..3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 ... (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way. Y l o ng = 3.0 we do not normalize.28406 y'0. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.489482706 (6") .3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.
0.1 6) and (5 . 1 7866539741 + 1 .94746230 A = 1 .662242 1 3 A = · 1 . (5.3 .02234 1 8 1 1 . (5 .4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.5288 97 1 4 = 2.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .314).58 1 43981 VI = 0. 1 1 39209665J  0.3.250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.96670788 z = x 0.36 1 677491 + 0.83236253 Using equations (5 . (5 .3.76973587J .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0. W e have : � 104 (within 0.6 1 856634 = 0.t .28406 Y = 4.Sec.554824 D U /T U f = 3.50634848K v2 = 0.60 1 874421 .1 5). 5 .t solved .31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 . 7499473 9 t = 0.79852734 v2 = 1 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.28406 Y = 0.5544 1 39777J 0.0.0. 74994739 VI = 0. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.1 3).035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.8826885334K v2 = 0.63049 1 80961 1 .83073807 v 2 = 1 .6009 1 852 .989794 D U/TU 0.
For "short way" trajectories.9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions.52). From equation (5 .39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 . where f::1) is less than 7T. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on.1 O} VC .076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.38) and (5 .31 . and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position). This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 . there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell .= 0. The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 . In other words. yet equation (5 . Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive.zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation . This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4.39). the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths.
v.25).6V COS .4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. This check is only necessary when is positive.4. hence.cos !:::.cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) .j1 . we get  . for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .4. 5. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity.cos ""V ( 1 . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve . we can solve for a and get 1 . 5.Sec.. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.?S.4. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.va si .23).4 TH E p. (sin xl i .c o s x =. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive .V ) a (5 .6V V 1 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.. we obtain 5. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.c o s ""E si n ""E ./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity . and 2 solving for p. From equation (5 .6V p � .)2 cos .. a and ""E. 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 .1 ) and si n  COS . The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.42) into equation (5.
5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.45) and simplify.c o s bJ)) (5 .Q p ) 2 (5 . a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.43) 5.45) ± Using these same definitions. The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.E CO � = ± p= k = .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.E Q ± y'2ni C O S .. we get Ll.E ( k . E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .2 Expressing a as a Function of p.E .242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .E) •  k = k Ll. 2 Ll.48) k .Qp y'2ni p . We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 . and noting that � c os '2 .v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .43) as Ll.44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch . (5 .E Solving for cos2. we obtain m p a= (5 .46) Ll. (5 .4.
however. Sec. Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 .4 . we need to determine � (or . Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 .4 T H E p.6..4. Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses)..where k. am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . 5. 5.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 .!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr.3 Checking the Trial Value of p. First . Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. 5 . a may not be smaller than some minimum value . 2.F in case a is negative). Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . .
F .6. 9 and f from equations (5 .4.Tar (si n h .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .F is positive.E .23) and (5 . In Figure 5.1 0) = = 1 . we can compute f. although t approaches infInity for this orbit.24) and (5 . If a is positive.25).4 The t vs P Curve . let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like .6.6.1 3) . we can determine .a r1 (1  f) (5 .4.6.f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 . let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 . we see that the limiting case of . there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length. p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .6.49) Since we always assume . the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving . As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that. If (.24) or the corresponding equation involving ..( 1 . The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.F: (5 . Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p.41 2) (5 .23).6.E a If yield is negative.6." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 . To get a feeling for the problem. This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.From the trial value of P and the known information. (5 .6. 5 c o s . If we look at "long way" trajectories.41 1) c o sh .s i n .6.E from equations (5 .6.E ) (5 . F 1 .4.. F ) .F (5 .vi.
we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 . 5 .zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. lie within the prescribed limits... P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case . we should first compute P j or P j j . Since it is important thar the first trial value. In Figure 5 . t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j . as well as all subsequent guesses for p.. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 ...I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse .4 T H E p. for t:sv greater than IT. For l'J) less than IT.... As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight.... P must lie between P j and infinity.43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories... From the discussion above.42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 . Sec. P must lie between o and P j j .
1 4) Q . '" E 0> '" . from equation (5 .1 5) 5 . one that gives too small a value for t.� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. . The solution is then bracketed and. we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value.. p )0 p" .4. The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution. 5 1 :co . 0 Q + y2in k  (5 .yLri1 (5 . and one that gives too large a value..46). . such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). b . Several simple methods may be used successfully. ell . .. .246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . I .4. In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p. • . � " .4. by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two .43 k p a rameter . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5.5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p.
.. then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t .Sec.... . . ..1 6) This scheme can be repeated. .. .. ... tn t . 5 ..1 6)... then a better estimate of p may be obtained from ... .. . . .. . . .44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration .. .. .. . . ..1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p...4.1 ) (t n .. . . If tn.4. .I Figure 5 .. ..... If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. .. . O��_4o P n. ..1 ) (5. .. 4 T H E p. always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5.t n . .t n ) ( P n .. but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn.. It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer.P n .. .1 and Pn .
41 8) (S . 41 9) . fl3  fJ. (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .4. From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. We must now obtain an expression for the derivative .24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . � ( S .41 7). we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g .iri equati �n (S.248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.si n L'> E l . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S . ( � .4.
2mk2 Qp 2kQp .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m . from equation (5 .4 T H E p.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .420) From equation (5 .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .( k .47).E / dp and noting.2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .Sec.2 dp k ( k .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 . that ( k . bE d�E .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.4 8) . we obtain . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .Qp ) Q. 5 .
and (5 .42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 ..4..Qp) si n 6E JJ.6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 . (5 .250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch . p(k h JJ. which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.4. 5 (5 .1 9).1 8) from (5 .� (6E .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .423) .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .= .. (5 .6E JJ. _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .
4.423). If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. should be used in equation (5 . The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a.To evaluate the slope at Pn . Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.F. Q and m from r] . a. the values of g.4.1 5).4.2·3). 2.22). r and Ll. 9 and f from equations (5 .1 2) or (5 . 6.4.1 1 ) . (5 . we will develop and use the f and 9 series. We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .8). 4 .27) and (5 .6E or Ll. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. t and . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear.4. Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. 8 . 7 .24) and (5 .49) and (5 . Using the trial value.1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. 25). 9 .1 4) and (5 . solve for a from equation (5 4 . As stated earlier . Solve for Ll. Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . 5 251 .1 0) or equation (5 . Pn .II using 2 . Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola. as appropriate . the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector.E or Ll. Solve for t from equation (5 .4. using equations (5 . Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . 5 . 3 .422) or (5 . 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . equations (5 .44). Evaluate the constants k.F obtained from the trial value. 2 . Solve for f. 5 . of p. Sec. 5 .
5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion. we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v.54) we have the following recursion (5 . 5 9) .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 5) r r (5 .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . 5 . 5 4) for n = O. 5 2) (5 .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . we write equation (5 .57) (5 . Therefore. (5 .
as we shall u .51 6) (5 .51 3) rr and the definition of p. p. 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .5 11 ) (5 .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 . v are known .51 2) u .and the equation of motion f  (5 .1 7) . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. u L. 5 . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 . 5 . From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. p and q which will be useful later .5. 5 . this can be (5 .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .5W)  (r .515) =  ur. We define them as follows : O. 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .5. q.
u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . 5.p (u + 2q ) . d q = d t .(v) 2 . ) _ 24 (r . v) _ 1 u. 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . ) .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . Summarizing: (5 .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .3u p (5 . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r . = .57) and (5 . . r) (v) 2 . 1 1 1 1 . .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly.23 r· (V) r   u.r . 5. 5 .U . 5 20) (5 .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . . 522) q = . r r (5 . _ [1 1  2 (v .1 8) Using the definition of P.p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 . (5 .
3 u p ( u . F3 = F . = .6 u 2 p = .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .u r = .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. = .t!:. p and q.6 u 2 p = .3p ( u + 2q ) .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .30p p + 3 q ) . 5..Sec. 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = . Fs = F4 . = r 0.5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .54) for n = 1 . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.u G = .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.1 5u p ( u . = F 1 r + G 1 .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u . Writing equation (5 .u G 4 = u ( u .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .
tao Comparing with equation (5 . therefore.4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Referring to equations (5 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t.t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .1 .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .52) and (5 .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .526) .523) . Vo (5 .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 . 5 = U (u .524) (5 . .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .Gn n. ) . .5.2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .
5 . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .3q . F 1 = 0.30q . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) . G 1 = 1 .2 1 q .6q .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 . G = 30up(1 4p2 .Sec.51 . F 2 = 'U. G = u.94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 . G = O.7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .28q .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) . F = 3up 3 F = u(.20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .90q .
5·27) + ' (5 . p.5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . 7) (5 .24) and (5 . 7) r I g (r I .2·3). From equation (5 . The f and 9 series may be used .2 Solution of the Gauss Problem.6. We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large .51) + 9= 7  1 .0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . (5 .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. 5. 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. 5.6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . r I . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . 2·5).f (r I . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u . 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . 5 .5·29) . f I .
5.61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. This . becomes dt (1 . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6.6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA. . thus Figure 5 .Sec.77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y.61 Sector and triangle area (5 . As. L£ . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude .
5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 . E ) . If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3.2E ) 2 .c o s b.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown. but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one. 4 � c o s b.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss.43) and using the identity. x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �.6.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.62) (5 . .2 The First Equation of Gauss." + l( 1 . The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. 5.2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b.' l'2 2 2 (5 . A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 .6.
From the first of these equations. Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 . si n l:v cos � .£Q. so .1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .. 3 The Second Equation of G auss.. (5 .s i n l:>E ) ..61 ) becomes si n l:v . n l:> E ) .65).Sec.L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J..67) 1 cos l:>v =. L ( l:>E .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 .6 .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.= .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . Si.(5 . .61). t/y. 5 . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 ..65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J. equation .2 ( 1 r1 r .24) and (5 .s i n l:>E ) . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .L . Using the identity.cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 . ( .2 2 L (5 ..
(5 . 22) completes the solution.from (5 . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 .1 0) .4 Solution of the Equations . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical.262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . y 2 ( y . The first step is to evaluate the constants. the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . and so on.64) and solving for y.1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E.1 ) = W (LE . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. Unfortunately.43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated.2(� ." 5 . p. a good first guess is y � 1 . n = 2 si n 3 LE . using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . (5 . from r I ' r2 .25). S + 1 . recall that we started with three equations. When convergence has occurred. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation.69) cos f = 1 . 24) and (5 . pick a trial value for y.6. (5 . The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . (5 . in three unknowns. so a trialanderror solution is necessary. 6.64) and (5 .s) . 23).6. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE .69) are transcendental. and one more unknown.si n LE ) we may write. equations (5 . To review what we have done so far. 27) and (5 .cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . y. !:JJ and t. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . which is known as "the second equation of Gauss. s and w. a and LE.1 ) . We then added another independent equation. more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. Next.6.Si. By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. y and LE .
the righthand side of equation (5 .E . as y2 = W S + x .c:. then .6. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . F = si nh .cosh 2 .F .E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.0.s i n .c:. S. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs. indicating that�. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables. If the given timeofflight is short.c:. i sin i.F = rush . Since we already know that when .F will be zero and both equations (5 .E and . 6. equation (5 .c:..6.E is imaginary.F is real. 5 . 6.1 0) may also b e written as Sec. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 . F s i n h 3 "2 . )� s + 1 . Using the identity. E or .c:.c:.6.1 2) = X = .69) and · (5 .F whenever the right side is greater than one .69) and to determine y.c:.Since the equations above involve .F .c:. difficulties may be anticipated any time .1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 . they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.E s i n 3 . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.F are close to zero.c:.1 2) become indeterminate.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.c:.c:.F 2 ) · (5 .c:.69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .cE. .6.c:. equation (5 .F and COS i .1 0) may become greater than one.c:. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section.S ) y (5 .c:.c:.1 1 ) s i n h .c:.c:.c:.c:. Noting that . For this reason.E is imaginary.F . E = i . F.
g . .27) and (5 . The result. parabola. f. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. 4.. and then expressing 6.1 1).1 4) Now. r2 .26). or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. E as a power series in x.1 3). Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . or negative. 3 . 7 .43).23).24).. is . which is developed by Moulton.63).6 .22).6. 2. The type of conic orbit is determined at this point.1 4). 2 6. (s + x ) · 1 (5 . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 .61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . Determine p from equation (5 .62) and (5 . Compute the constants. it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . determine 6. 5 .2 Ch . s and w. 1� = 2 3 1. ) .6. Depending on the type of conic. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . Determine X from equation (5 .]) and t using equations (5 .25) and (5 . and 9 from equations (5 .E or 6.F from equation (5 . .Y:i. 6 . zero.1 (5 . ( 1 + §.6. (5 .6.1 0) or (5 ..6. Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. /:. . the orbit being an ellipse. replacing CDs 6. the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. Evaluate f. (5 . from rl .264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 .6.1 5) 1 . E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. . 2 .
Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific.Sec. To make the problem even more specific. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . and ballistic missile interception. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. Usually. 5 . we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 .INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. To avoid generalities." In all but the simplest cases. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. The £:. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. �atellite intercept and rendezvous. 72. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. ballistic missile targeting." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8.
5 i nterceptor . ��y V \" _ . �/ �/ ".1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .�: :.. \ •• • • • • • . 7 .7.' ':.� ' ... ) / ot t. . I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 ..."..1 ." \ t a rg e t / \ ..\.. I n .. "....266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .. fI }/ \ \ . r.. ".. e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.f. at t.� .. .
The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between .Sec. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island.7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. 5 .7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. which is when the intercept will occur. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 .
. . 5 them. the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . . . we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired.238 km/sec.268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . " . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . . . \ \ \ Figure 5 . . . . �v? �v . . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . launch vel. Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out.
A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site .7 . the better . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. the launch site will have moved eastward . In summary . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. the closer the intercept point is to the launch site .7 .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . 5 . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . 5 . Because of earth rotation. One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V.5 . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . In Figure 5 . Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . From Figure 5 . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability.2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur.
4 /':.O F ..7.J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .V plot for example intercept problem .) z :J « .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .
5 . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5. Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. P3 · .84) (5 .e. now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. 82) t2 so (5 .86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . i. v2 • P I ' P2 .85) (5 . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. P3 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . another method will be develope d . Although we have examined a very specific example . the three components of r2 .8 . (5 . t2 .Sec. L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 .8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L.
Estimate the magnitude of f2 . Rz .8) (5 . in fact only six of the equations are independent. Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . the components of Vz be X.8·7) (5 . ' r2 .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.8. Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. y and z . y and Z .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . the components of f2 and V2 .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . and eliminating the K components. L2 .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. y.8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. 5 to (5 . i. 8. L3 .e. f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . b . 526) and (5 .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x .8. R1 . � into equations (5 .
Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 . (5. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04. Usirlg specific numbers.522). Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. 5 Z. .423) for hyperbolic orbits.2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. Z. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . I I I I  x.527). but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 .t2 and t2 t } are not too large. c. which are the components of f2 and v2 . =: =: 5 . Y. and (5.4 Verify the development of equation (5 048).41 . Limitations.31 3) through (5 . b.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location.39).526) and (5 .Ch . 5 .31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.31 ). Accuracy. f. EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter.3 Verify equations (5 .6 Derive equation (5 . Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. f2 I + J DU).1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. 5. Ease of computation.32).1 5. 5. e .V required for intercept? 5.
1 1 For the following data sets for r I . 5 .t l determine v2 using a. b. r2 'and the distance between them. 5. The universal variable method . Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value.9 Repeat problem 5 . 5 . t2 . as a function of rI r2 . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5.009 (. d. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. which will contain both position vectors. 5 Given two position vectors rI . (Ans. although a few iterations can be made by hand. rl r2 p. c.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . vI = 0.00256 (J + K» .06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 . h = 1 . = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . (Ans.0922 TU. Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. The original Gauss method.7 . r2 . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 .tl = 1 . The piteration technique.274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch .J + K). d.8 using the universal variable.
Inc. Methods of Orbit Determination. Inc. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence .0. Escobal. New York. Forest Ray. 3.66986 9921+0 .t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. McGrawHill Book Company.4804847 1 1 2 +0.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . (Answer : v = 0.Ch . Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . 4. Mathematics. NY. S. 1 964. f 1 = 1 . (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. Gauss.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 .t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . f l = 0 . NY. r 1 = 41 t 2 . New York. r 1 = I t 2 . 1 963. 51 + 0. 1 965. 1 9 59.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. Liu. 1 956. A n Introduction York. a.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory.7K D U t 2 . to Celestial Mechanics. NY." in The World of 1 .6J + 0. . d . Herrick. Battin. Eric Temple . Davis. Vol 5 . Moulton. 2 . New York. John Wiley & Sons. and A. Bell. New York. Simon and Schuster. Pedro Ramon. "The Prince of Mathematicians. Dover Publications. 1 9 1 4. r 1 = 2I t2 . 1 .J D U Use "long way" trajectory. New 6. the MacMillan Company. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. 2I D U t2 . c . Carl Friedrich. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. Richard H.t 1 = 0. A stronautical Guidance. NY. Appendix A.
.
begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . Napoleon I 6. World War II as "too late . By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . The result is well known. 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. longrange ballistic missiles. 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in .CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. Efforts. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. which concern us in this chapter. have a very short history . . During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . ironically .000 V2's had been fired in anger . It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 .
6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. 4 Accordingly. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . In July 1 95 4. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. in June 1 9 53 . convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee .278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. Trevor Gardner . In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers.000 pounds thrust. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. After all. According to Dr. Brigadier General 3 . At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. California. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded.
we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. Otherwise. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. 6 . When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . 6. Progress was rapid. by mid· 1 95 9 .Sec. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . After three unsuccessful attempts. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. Atlas was a reality. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. the program had. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. Blasingame . While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant.000 people participating directly.
. Q ." etc.2. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . 6 from launch to burnout. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. however.2. =.2. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here .1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics." "height of apogee. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions. Figure 6.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .22) . 1 Geometry of the Trajectory . We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. need not be redefined.." "flightpath angle at burnout.2 The Nondimensional Parameter. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. (6 . 1 defines these new quantities.ji1Tr. such terms as "height at burnout.2. There are.. It will not be discussed in this text. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . 6 . 6 . Since Va:.
2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 . 6.Sec .21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .
This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed. When Q is equal to 1 .26) .the expression p. 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit.2.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 . (6. 24) 6 .1 ) . the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit.2. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit.25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 .23) or IQ=2�·1 p . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.3 The FreeFlight Range Equation .O/r from equation (6. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. and substitute for V. If Q is greater than 2 .
co s v b o . and co s � = . be written as (6. therefore. lies on each side of the major axis. 6 . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 . 'l'. half the freeflight range angle .26) above can.27) .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) .f6.Sec. 2 Equation.
29) and (6. . and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. also becomes known.28) p. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 .e2 ). since p = a( 1 .T. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6./.29) Now. (6. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1. what should the flightpath angle. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation.284 . the total range angle.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6.2. e.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6. = r Q C O S2 cp . .1 1) into equation (6. ¢ro. A. .2.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter.2. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. h = rv cos cp. the required freeflight range angle.
23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . Now.23 Ellipse geometry 6 . F'. the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. with a little algebra. Sec 6 .In other words. Instead . In Figure 6 . ¢bo.2. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent .4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. is called r bo . Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. We could . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo .
F' and the burnout point.x) = sin (6.2. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal. This is.000 ) from equation (6. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . d. Qb o 2 2 (6.1 3) (6. in fact." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800.2. that. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. for example.I n 2 and also as rb (6. It means. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . shown in Figure 6. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse .1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .2. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror .2.Qb o sin � . � + 'lr) = .24. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery.1 6) .
1 6) gives us .Sec.9. . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .866. 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .2. sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . 6.
6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . Figure 6 .1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . Provided that 'l' is attainable. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. Nevertheless. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. equation (6 . there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. 2. . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible .1 6) does not exceed 1 . Table 6. Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. If Q bo is exactly 1 . so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . 2. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. Because a = . With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected.P/2&.25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . If Q bo is greater than 1 . This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 .288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .
6 . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.Sec.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories .
6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max.5 DU. vbo = 2/3 DU/TU.11 5 18 1 . hits earth 000 > 1 high only . hits earth Table 6 . skims earth high only .low traj .1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . During the test firing of a ballistic missile. cos ¢ b o == 0. the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU.low traj . ha p og ee 0.625 . 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :.21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
025 DU respectively.2.1 . 2<P b o + 64°20. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . 08 1 7 ( 1 . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36. We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2.08 1 7 DU/TU and . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . 6 2 1 .1 2) . 'IT. ) (60 n m i ) =2.5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . 600 E. Notice or <P b o = :.Sec.2.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. 6. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle .025) = 1 . 6 . 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. c os � = + N . 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . :. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . 36° . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry..4Deg. 26. versus the flightpath angle . 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 60 0W .
7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight ..pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 . � 80 .1 7) I (6. then.Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 .. (2<P bO � ) 2 ..292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell .26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' . be the maximum range condition. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .� 90 Figure 6.2... If the right side of equation (6.2. 2. s 0> Q) 0 � c .. 0> <1> <1> � IJ. :. en EO I . . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .1 6) equals exactly 1 ..1 8) L__________________� .s. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target..'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6.
2.'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . From the symmetry of Figure 6. The value of E can be computed from equation (4 .8) .7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2).cos 2 .Qbo Qb o (6 . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory . 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only.Sec:.6 Time of FreeFlight./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6.222) . the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.2. 6 .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. noting that l .. VI 1 800 . 2. sin �= 2 2 .1 7 ). 6 . By inspection. but . due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. 220) for maximum range conditions. 'JI .e cos 2 (6.1 9) for maximum range conditions. We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6. 2 . If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .2. This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle .
27 Time of freeflight (6. e. 2. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 6 The semimajor axis.1 1). 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . since five variables have been plotted on the figure. a. 23) and (6. In fact . 28. Figure 6 . can be obtained from equ ations (6.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? .294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . and the eccentricity. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 .
95 From Figure 6.750 n m . It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.075) == 0.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6. 6 . The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.25 D U == 7 . altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6.Sec.8 period vs.884) ( 1 .000 nm.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.
!:: 7:�i� I� : : : .� '" �� :.CI�rie� v X I . . � ren I ("') !XI r » Free . .9h Ir. : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. :: : J: : : .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. .aje. ' . :: :"/ N . : : . . .. hi. : : .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . .I ' : ' : : : : : : . : ' . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: .. : :/ ..
2. 957 Hsi 66. 3 .933 D Urr U � 24.1 � 0. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry.3 ° From equation (6. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa. impacting at B.444 n m = 2. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal. For a fixed burnout altitude . It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . . 6 . 'l' From equation (6.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. For brevity . .32 r ads = 1 33.6X and . and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point.Sec. the crossrange error. 2 00 ft/sec .6X. position. 6 . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A.  Vbo 6.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north. The arc length . . If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount.6C. In Figure 6 . As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian.220) . 8.3 . These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first.6C represents the cro ssrange error. F or purposes of this example. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.77 0 = 0 . The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance .OOO nm max = 3.6C may be / 9 57 1.
6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation. I 1 . Equation (6.thought of as angles.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . . X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch . you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center.3 . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. In Figure 6 .1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. for example. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. cos . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. if they are in degrees. 3.1 . we get (6.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . if the intended target had been the north pole . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn.32) 2 X Figure 6.3."2 to simplify equation (6 .1 ) to (6. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 .
we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section.2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. are as planned. 6(3. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. 'l1. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. 6 .32 is the crossrange error .33) . The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . 299 Figure 6.'l1. P. Figure 6 . a crossrange error.3 . will result.32 Azimuth error 6 .Sec. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . before . 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . �C. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 .
\]I.21 about the center of the Earth.D.0.. \]I.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. 6 If we assume that both 43 and .� I a q.. are shown by a solid line in the figure .C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. (6. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it . <Pb o IM� Figure 6 . <Pbo' In Figure 6.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range. cos X � 1 .y I  : : i. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount ..3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point..\]I will represent a downrange .0.3 .oo a "'00 Fl ight . An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch .path angle . 6.x ' to simplify equation (6.33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .3. if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . In other words. This . The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6. If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended. it will hit the target anyway . the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn .34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.0.
The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation.3 . We could get an approximate value for . 6 . The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .36) (6.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.Sec. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .1 0) Qbo I i .8) (6.2.6. The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .3.cot <P b o (6. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.1 2) of this chapter .39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.
3.3. Let us first express equation (6.c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) . Vb Substituting from equation (6.3. _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6. 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 . a'l1 .3.1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants. 3. acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.
an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a.3. A plot of range versus burnout radius.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) .000 nm range. 3 . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6.3 . In fact. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . equation . 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. While we need equation (6. particular burnout error .Sec. If this seems strange. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. the actual range error on a 3 . angle errors. 6 .1 3) This partial derivative . Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative .33. Figure 6.1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient.33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. when used in the manner described above. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way .
3.3.3.3. The magnitude of the error is (6.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = . too slow and the missile falls short.000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory . Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6. is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended. . 6 however.3.3.1 4) for small values of .6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 .6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .. the missile falls short of the target in every case .1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6. differentiating the range equation (6 . if burnout occurs too low.1 1) implicitly. the missile overshoots . Again. b o 'fJ ' (6 . 6.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots .
There is no crossrange error.1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range .905) 2 ( 1 . Total downrange error : .6¢ b o = .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . We will need Q bo (.735 = 6 . 735 rad DU r b o ( . ub o = 5 x 1 0 .4 D U .3. .4 rad ians.6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] . r bo = 1 .5 x 1 05 D U/TU .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . LW b o = . 1 D U . Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better. A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = .6V b o + a 'lr .9 0 5 D U !TU . 649 r ad U D U/T . 3. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 0. 6 . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .Sec. 1 ) 2 . like the other two influence coefficients.9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high.1 8) would reveal that.6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . An analysis of equation (6 . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error .
2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . v. 6. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . 56x 1 0 . In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another.1 . We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. its flightpath angle. for example). 6 =2.4 ) TOT =1 1 .4 )+6. both the launch point and the target are in motion. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 . ove rshoot 6.649 (5x 1 O . We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed.1 0. <p.2 1 (.4 ) (3444) � 4 n . The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. {3. and its azimuth angle. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation.4.1 . The rotation is from west to east. 0.S ) . m i . That is.5 24 ft/sec. then all three .306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .735 ( 5x 1. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating.2sin 1 60 o 2 = . 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation.56x 1 0.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . That is. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives.
A simple example should clarify this point. and a speed of. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . of 45 0 . and the azimuth considerably less than 900 .4. say 1 . we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. (6. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle.4. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system.1 ) . �. An observer at rest would not agree . . direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. an azimuth. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. Like the observer on the moving train.000 ft/sec. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 .I ·=<� • .000 ft/sec. 1>. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . we will refer to measurements of burnout .Sec.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. of 900 (east). of train l \\�. 6 .:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 ..5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. Hereafter.
and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 .44) �. lies.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . break up V into its components.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. of course. It is. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. (6 . flightpath angle . We can obtain the south. first. Once you have the components of ve. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . Vs (6 . v. Thus. v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . and up components of the true velocity. �. east . The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad.42) The true speed. this will not be difficult.
Sec.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. Rather . so the arc length OA in Figure 6. Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. the target will be there also. Hopefully. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. In Figure 6 . The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. when the missile arrives at point B. then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. The term. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively .42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 .43 is just 90 0 L o. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . 6. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched .4. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate .
43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target.N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. {3.0. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 .0. Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.0. we can solve for the required launch azimuth.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth.N.0.47) Solving for cos {3.0. then a value of .46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 . The longitude difference. (6 . we get c o s {3 = sin L t . A. {3. .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3.0. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . tA . The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. . 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions. (6 . If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.N + wffitA' where . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . (6 . Once we know the total range angle.N + w ffitA ) .48) Again. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . and if.
4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . tA But . By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . 6 . " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value .Sec. (3. and launch azimuth. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. A. Needless to say. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range.
6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 79 . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed.. 1 ) 1 . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 .42) through (6 . 87 9 30. Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 .3 ° W burns out at 30o N. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . using Q bo = . 45 ) 2 = . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N. v = .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .4 5) : v= .0 58 8cos290 = ... 29 .j( . 339 ) 2 + ( .. 33° ¢bo = v E = . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = .5022 ta . 8° v n /3 = v = .. 1 DU. 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 ... flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . 9 s i n 300= . 9cos3 00cos 3300= .( . 6 .9 DU/TU. 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( .675 s (J=333 . 5 1 1 95 v . . 85 From Figure 6 . 339 ) =.
7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . 6. 770 N re = 156. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again.203. 334 TU boN = 135° . .123 . 6 70) =. 29 . 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1. 334TU ) =123. tff=3. 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = . 334)=135° .Sec. 77° = .85 and ¢bo = 3 0. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 .80° .13 = 7.we(3. 3709 �GG (3. using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = .3.4 .7 8 0 . 2 5 TU :.
2. 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . R = 6 0 n .1 9)? Why? 6 .05 D U = 1 0° .926 D U /TU .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 .5 D U!TU 1 .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. = . r b o = 1 . 6 EXERCISES 6 . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6.6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . v = 1 6 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude.1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 . m i . and a spherical Earth. Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse .840.6 ft/sec) 6 . m i .
02. an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . 6 . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 .x and L¥3 be? . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . Rtf = 5 . .02.83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. Using the equations si n iL.98 to 1 . In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . .6. Rtf = 4 . 7 I n general.Ch.'lr ). 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . how large can . 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N .06 DU. 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0.2 1 2 run) 6. Do not use charts.000 run) 6 . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 . 1 0 During a test flight. A lateral displacement . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o .400 n mi.0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .)(.j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans.6. he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. (Ans. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of .
1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 .31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . c . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . 7 . vbo = 0. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . low. (Ans. a. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a.. 6 6 .0 DU for a ballistic missile.346 n mi long) b.V = 25 . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 . 6 . or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 . ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. b .r = 0.642 DU/TU) .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 ..800 nautical miles? (Ans.6888 n mi L:. Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. Is this a high.
determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi.23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . R t of 4. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . i.e ..6 .4 min) = 6. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 .QL.700 n mi using a high trajectory.. If the velocity at burnout was 28. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . Do not use charts. 6 .where e is the 6 .'I' = � b. 3 0 0 E. What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). 5 DU.ri. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . �bo and analyze the result .20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 . at the same altitude . Q bo + .¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. 5 DU and whose perigee is .22 The range error equation could be written as: b. Ch . 6 .. 1 5 00 E. 1 2 00 W. 6. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. tff 40.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N.. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . at an altitude of 2. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. b.530 ft/sec.
Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. (Ans. low.1 0 . v bo = .4 rad ian s a. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of .318 V bo =23. 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 . (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 . elevation .500 ft/sec=O.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 .3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . 92S1 0608.66E+20784.5 0 . 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O. c. How far will the missile miss the target? 4. 1 200W .1 045 .6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N.48966 = 3 1 5 . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . b.0057 ° = . or maximum range trajectory? 6 .
rotating. downrange displacement of burnout point . 43e . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . 5 7 min) == * 6 . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . . 1 20 OW .649 n mi . What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. 1. (Ans. in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. Assuming a symmetric orbit.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. atmosphereless Earth. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . L t 54 0 3 1 '.8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a.73 n mi. 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . 0 (Ans. the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 .Ch .6 1 8 . What was the freeflight range.1 2 ' . site located 319 During the actual firing. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . tff 3 2 . 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. and r bo � r(fl. What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d .
altitude at bo ::: . Calif.800 n mi.3 .2. (Hin t : See section 6. Garden City. NY. Vol 2.2. A History of the U. Space Technology Laboratories. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. Wheelon .3 1 The approximation : * 6. 5 . R ff ::: 1 0. New York. The Viking Press. Publishers. Burgess.02 DU. V2 . 1 965 . Gantz . NY. . New York. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Dornberger . 1 962. Doubleday & Company.S. Eric. 4. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). * 6. NY. The MacMillan Company. New York ." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . "Free Flight . 6 * 6.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . NY. 1 95 5 . Frederick A. 2. Inc. Lt Col Kenneth. 1958. Los Angeles. 1 960. Praeger. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . Walter. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile.6Vb o . What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 .1 2) . Ernest G . A ir Force Ballistic Missiles.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 .4) . ed . 3 . Albert D. Inc. Schwiebert.
Proctor. of all which. the Sun or the Moon? .. . does. The Moon is the more useful. and is. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . and moving round it. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. when it is light anyway.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. together with the Earth. move round the Sun once a year.the Moon. since it gives us light during the night. . have been discovered. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . when it is dark. about which she moves. the 32 1 . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. though principally attracted by the Earth.
not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . . D'Alembert. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea ." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. 7. Even interplanetary trajectories.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. but because it comes close to being a double planet. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. Brown . 7 Author in this book. Lagrange and Laplace . it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . has given a full account. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. W.in this case the Sun. Clairaut . Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. with no less subtility than industry. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. W.
. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. .Sec. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . According to one theory advanced by G.3 days. . .400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . in fact. Darwin. ��===c==Q.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . . The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). 7 . . . .. . :. . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . This puts the center of the system 4. . As a result . son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. H.3 04 of the mass of the Earth. the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . These periodic fluctuations in longitude were.:.: =j Figure 7.. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation.
2.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .22 Lunar orbital elements 7. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. the orbital elements are constantly . for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements. 7 Figure 7. In the case of the Moon's orbit .
054900489 . The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . b. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . c.400 km. This effect ." was discovered more than 2 . 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time .3 1 66 1 days. The line of nodes. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a.8 days.Sec. Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. 7 . 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27.000 years ago by Hipparchus. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. called "evection. The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0.
Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation.2 Lunar Librations. When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis.9 years.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . d . In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . the other . and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. e .6 years. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth .2. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum.6 years." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S.000 years. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . 23 ° 27' . rotates westward. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. is the descending node . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. If the Moon's orbit were = . Thus. From Figure 7. for only then can Sun. but more than a century later . making one complete revolution in l S . the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7.23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . where the Moon crosses from north to south. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. its mean value is 5 0 S ' . The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . in l S72. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' .
5 0 to the plane of its orbit. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. and 7. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. solar perturbations." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. Actually we see . Because of the complex motions of the Moon. 7 . we would see exactly half of its surface . The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. solar pressure . taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . at one time or another. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. monthbymonth basis. As a result. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. among other things. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date .75 0 around each limb of the moon. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory.3 . lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour .Sec. SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. daybyday. the computer time required could become prohibitive . This permits us to see about 7 .
400 km. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. semimaj or axis..6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions.. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . It is not important that the analytical method be precise.Q. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. With this thought in mind. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about .328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter.3 . and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ. a = :l:!:.0549 .. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit. this will not introduce significant errors. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . 2& e = y'1  pia . 7 .2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. 7.
c " 0 .g' . 1 r1 1 .i.0 S pe e d .31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed . e r Figure 7.9 I njection 1 1. we get c o s V = 2. .. E i= . F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10...c C/) . 7 . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression. 60 \ \ I njection ...3 . II. In Figure 7. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH ..31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly.Sec..:....2 10. We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.r1 1. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .  I. we can solve for va . j 80 .
the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection.. to parabolic. For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . ..32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. In Figure 7. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point. : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 . \ 0 �� ' earth " . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.3 .. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero.: / :1 . then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit.. ..330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 an injection altitude of ... As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic .. Actually... 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . .32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP.05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . . 7 .')'.. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . : ..J! . We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed .
due to errors in guidance or other factors.966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. From Figure 7 . Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission .32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon .32 we see that. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . is a function of .32. In such a case . Assuming an inj ection altitude of . Moon from our assumed inj ection point . if we keep reducing the injection speed . as the injection speed is decreased. The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . 7 . injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point.Sec. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. this minimum injection speed is 1 0. 7 . 3 . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . Assuming no lunar gravity . which we can call 1/1. we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. if we try to take longer by going slower. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon.we will never reach the Moon at all. the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. In general the sweep angle . 82 km/sec. Eventually . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . 1 8 8 km/sec.
If. and wrrft. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. that is. the initial velocity is too high. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. This may be seen from Figure 7 .332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . But. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. for example . where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft.33 . the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted .. Neglecting lunar gravity. .33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted.
encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. .0 km/sec. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite ." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. 5 However. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . 7. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace .4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . R s' given by the expression Sec.1 ) . only are interested in determining ap. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. however. In effect. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon.3 00 km. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation.4.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. There is. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . 7 . 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 .arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . for all practical purposes. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 .
The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . 7 .4 .4. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.) Then. consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.4.1 ) yields the value Rs = 66.4.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n .334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth. 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit. the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.1 ) can be found in Battin . A full derivation of equation (7 .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit. 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h ." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent . Figure 7 .
Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables.Sec. r 1 .45) COS <P I . 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit.44) . 1 . A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. the radius. Finally.r h V 1 I (7 . at lunar arrival is (7 . from geometry .42) (7 . r 1 .43) From the law of cosines. The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee .
Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. p=� (7 .47) 2& e = ". JJ.336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 . t l .4. 1 p ia  a = :l!. 7 Figure 7.1 0) .49) (7 .48) (7 .to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.
we can determine the eccentric anomalies. Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.1 5) 2.e 1 r1 __ (7 .4. Eo and E1 from Finally.1 3) (7 . Wm = = t 1 .1 1 ) (7 . 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .3 rad/TUEIl (7 . timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .4. . 7 .1 6) The phase angle at departure.1 2) Next.4.to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .Sec.4.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .4. where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.649 2.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually. 1 37 X X 1 0.4. the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .6 rad/sec 1 0 .
We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails.4. The geocentric radius. 7 . r 1 . In Figure 7 .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth.48) through (7 . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact .which we chose arbitrarily . is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . 7 . Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 .2 Conditions at the Patch Point . (7 . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center.42 : V m = 1 .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.0 1 8 k m/sec. We will do this in the sections that follow.4.4.45). It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body.1 8) (7 . then the selena centric radius.1 9) . it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory.4. r2 .4. a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . at arrival is completely determined by \ . The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. (7 .1 6) above .
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .50 � � c 0 i e 1.30 .348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch . «>  0.40 .20 .
From Figure 7 .52) and Figure 7 . 54. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . If lighting conditions are important.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 .si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 .5 0 and 28 . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 .5.5 3) . If lunar declination at intercept is specified. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon.5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris.5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 .Sec.5 0 . However. Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. As a result . sir! 0 1 . those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. It should be obvious from equation (7 . 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. Figure 7 . b oth of which are undesirable. 5 4 worth noticing. we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. if we add a coasting arc. Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . 7 . once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely.
02 1 1 8 3 0 40.89 28 24 29 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26. 1 0 1 6. 1 3 .020 1 8 1 6 49.6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 . 1 5 28 34 1 0.445 1 67 .90 28 33 5 3 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0. 1 4 1 06.963 1 8 27 5 5 .08 28 29 08 . 1 90 1 67 .3 1 8 5 . 1 0 28 27 29 .3 1 9 3 .58 73.766 1 7 43 23 . .44 28 2 1 1 8 . 2 1 28 34 42 . 078 1 66 .374 1 8 00 07 .34 28 32 1 7 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39. 973 FIgure 1 65 .4 1 3 1 66 .998 17 5 7 20. 5 8 67.45 8 0.3 3 3 1 67 .78 1 3 1 .35 28 1 6 08 . 5 7 1 1 66 .97 28 3 1 47 .449 1 67 .460 1 67 .3 . 8 0 1 36.85 1 1 66 . 24 . 5 9 28 34 33 .242 1 66 .308 1 8 22 22. 624 1 7 3 5 00. 267 1 67 .87 28 34 22.56 .97 29.97 28 34 3 9 .970 1 66 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .88 28 33 3 5 .63 1 1 1 .3 1 28 29 48 .72 1 1 8 25 08. 1 9 173.39 28 3 0 34.350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .95 7 1 7 37 48. 86 28 26 29 .85 4 1 .84 60.23 1 23 . 1 969 .76 28 3 1 09 . 8 1 28 32 47 .46 1 1 67 .00 28 28 1 5 .1 44.32 1 1 67 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .41 7 1 67 .7 1 54.44 22.376 1 67 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 . 7 1 7 1 66 .38 + 9 . . 24 28 23 34 .695 1 8 02 54 . 7 .47 28 25 3 8 .27 3 5 . 1 7 2 1 67 .07 47.862 1 65 .949 1 8 05 42.203 28 1 8 49 .424 1 67 .3 1 + 1 48 .9 8 9 8 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8. 1 1 28 22 1 7 .254 1 67 .435 1 65 .737 18 1 9 36 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .05 28 33 1 1 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch .05 8 1 65 .385 1 67 .97 1 1 9. 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .
7 .3 . we get cos 6a.53 . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . c o s 1/1 t .89) : (7 56) . and may be obtained from equation (2. slightly (7 . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . the total time .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . 5 3 .54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. ao' at this launch time . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE." 8. = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . 5 4). between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . 1/1 c ' Thus. 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day .Sec. it is possible to adjustt l .9 . The difference i n right ascension .5 . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . at the launch point (see Figure 2. tt ' is (7 . !::lX .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. is the same as the "local sidereal time . which may be computed from the injection conditions. 84). to' and the right ascension of the launch site . �. plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. The launch time.ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 .
000 k m 33 .54) agree. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 .3 224 . 7. .V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon.3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. and the exact We now know the injection conditions. What additional 6.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7. 7 .426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I.300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune .and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . � .t I ES Ch . r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. 7.
a . b. S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. . The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. Determine the /:..400 k m : a .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A.Ch . 7 . On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 .6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars.
There are several orbits that may meet the criteria.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . requirement. Specifically. 7 7 . 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . select ro ' vo ' to meet this . <1>0 = = = * 7 . You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 .) * 7 . Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. Use h bo l OO n mi .Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. . (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. 1 2 cannot really be used in practice.
November 1 95 9 . 1 962. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. an d Maud W. . Doran and Company. The Moon . NY. A stronautical Guidance. Isaac . New York. NY. Inc. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. 2. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Newton. Baker. George . Abelard Schuman. Garden City. 1 967.1 6. Gamow. New York. 6. 3 . NY. L.Ch. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Makemson. McGrawHill Book Company. The Story of the Moon . 1 9 5 9 . Doubleday. University of California Press. Principia . Battin. Second Edition." ARMA Document DR 220. Academic Press. 1 964. Fisher. Robert M. 4. London and New York. Richard H . 5. Clyde . 1 943 . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori.
.
Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . two unpropitious. two nostrils. and a mouth . and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent ." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. By 1 507 he was 357 . compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe .CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. At first it was not understood . The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . C opernicus. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. such as the seven metals. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. two eyes. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . which it were tedious to enumerate .. two ears. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. etc. indeed. But the tide of opinion ebbed. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. two luminaries.
and Pluto . Neptune. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. If we write down the series 0. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. Uranus.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury.1 . Saturn. some of which pass near the Sun. 3. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. . After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. at the age of 70. Mars. . In addition. Earth. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. comets. Jupiter ." as may be seen in Table 8 . are spread much more widely throughout the system. . 1 2 . predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. 6. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. 8. The "law. 8. diameter. the members of the solar system. . Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false ." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. Venus.2. indeed.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .2. nevertheless. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. 1 Bode's Law. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept .
0 is presented in Table 8 .4 0.22.2 Table 8.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants. 1 7 39.21 Actual Distance 0. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune .00 1 . which defines the position of the planet in its orbit. The sixth orbital element. compared with the total mission duration. 8. The size.20 9.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.39 0.8 77.0 1 9 .52 1 9. Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune . is its path . changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.6 2. Table 8 . Only for brief periods.7 1 .23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.6 3 8 .2 1 0.Sec. Except for Mercury and Pluto . the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. 8. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 .65 5.2.28 3 0. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 . 8.8 5 .72 1 .3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun.52 2.0 1.
0934 .441 73 ° .. m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .203 9. 0 1 67 .684 93 ° .497 1 3 ° .322 1 00 ° .. 1 3 6 47 ° .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.405 undefined 49 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° .394 0° ..306 2 ° . 7 73 1 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 074 1 83 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° . 1 7 3 9 .970 7 6 ° .5 24 5 . 1 1 1 326 ° .0539 .5 1 9 1 9 .400 276 ° . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .096 1 88 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a .. 38 7 1 .275 222 ° . 000 1 °. 3 97 1 09 ° .004 3 ° .005 0 .000 1 .773 1 7° . 76 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° .. 2056 .2583 7 ° . 1 42 1 02 ° .) 00 . 0068 .489 0° .76 .870 L.4 1 6 3 3 5 ° . 8 94 341 ° . 5 73 1 75 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.850 1 ° .828 1 7 1 °.225 237 ° .7233 1 .28 3 0. 05 1 4 . 0482 .
6 1 7 .9? 1 .8 6 29. 1 4 1 3 .2 1 4.80 5 .06 9 .04 29.820x 1 0 6 6 ." . 0 1 1 64.05 6 .74 2 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 . 1 08 3 1 8 .8 247 .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .9 1 08 .257x l O s 3 ..896x 1 0 6 3 .268x 1 0 B 3 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.8 1 7 1 .79 24.l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .65 6.49 4." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .232x l 0 4 3 .3 .000 1 .795x 1 0 7 5 .3 05x 1 04 1 ..5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .46 84.8 8 1 1 1 .0 95.000 . 1 1 49 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .87 3 5 .7 5 7 .24 1 .6 1 5 1 . 5 227.986x l O s 4.
it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit.3l . The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet.3 . The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit.v required. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. this consideration is important. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. was the Hohmann transfer. if continued past the destination planet . the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. The Hohmann transfer. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. however. Just as in lunar trajectories. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. For transfers to mo st of the planets.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 8. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . from the standpoint of /:.
8. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::.. Therefore .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / ." . Nevertheless. . either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit.u o_____+.v required for an interplanetary mission..V.Sec. \ _.' .d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit.
1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .where f. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time.3 . r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. then. the difference between the heliocentric speed.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.33) In Table 8 . VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .3 and should be reviewed . The heliocentric speed.1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.78 kIn/sec. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. B (8 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. for the Hohmann transfer.l 0 (8 . • . 3 . VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 .3.32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. From Table 8. In any case .
9  2 . 8. 1 2 5 8 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun.9 1 6 1 . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars. From Table 8 .748 .Sec.397 22.42 4 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight .07 4 1 .28 27.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .05 4 1 .5 1 46 .379 1 . r d = 1 . rE9> are respectively : .099 1 .73 38.524 A U From equation (8 .78 46. Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits. 40. Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .60 Table 8.31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence.31 1 05 .3 9 1 1 . 1 6 30. rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.345 1 .\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .28 32. t2 .74 6. In other words .57 .295 1 . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.04 1 6.
3. The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . 8 From equation (8 .t 1 = 1T = 4.35) wt (t2 . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure. v .3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 .32) the heliocentric speed . The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. and is illustrated in Figure 8 . the phase angle at departure . where is the angular velocity of the target planet.34) __ (8 .t1 ) wt . vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .9 d ays 8. From equation (8 .3.2 Phase Angle at Departure. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.099A U/TU 0 = 32.73Km/sec .366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.7088 years = 258.32 for a Mars trajectory. Thus.
and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct.. If we miss a particular launch opportunity. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place .32 Phase angle at departure. 'Yl (8 . Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. pp 1 60. 8.. . .. Figure 8.. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet.. . .1 76 . .Sec. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun.. ...3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . . . 367 .
Thus. 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. so W EfJ7 s .03 8 .01 1 .v 1 determined.530 . Mars and Venus. 8. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .07 1 1 0. rad/yr 26 .0 1 1 . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again.07 5 .37) (8.3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. 1 3 1 . 3 ·2.32 1 . yrs 0. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.3.32 In a time .60 2.368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .38) .W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 .w t I (8 . then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated.2 1 7 3 . we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.09 1 .025 Synodic Period. Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::. 340 . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.00 Table 8.213 .04 1 . the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth.
..310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . '?. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . .. . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. �. .33 / . � _ i t_ r b_ . . . . . .. 8 . '\ .Sec... . .:V.r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. (8 . ... . . � Figure 8. we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. .39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . ".
1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. For transfer to one of the outer planets. 3. is given by cos fI =  §. This may be seen by solving equation (8 .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola. so equation (8 . km/sec. we may write .1 1 ) becomes = 2 .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . fI. Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola.the injection speed .2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 .6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . the angle .3. From Figure 8.34 we see that the angie .33 . C but since e = da for any conic. fI. the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.
1 2) e.3.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = . is obtained directly from the injection (8 .3.1 e where the eccentricity .34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola . 3 T H E PATC H E D.1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. conditions : = (8 . 3. 8 .Sec.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .
the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 .3. cfJ as shown in Figure 8. At arrival.3. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . 8. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.3. Generally. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.35 Interplanetary launch (8 . however.4 Arrival at the Target Planet.36.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 .
3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 . 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 . sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 . 3.1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines.3.Sec.1 8) . 8 .1 6) (8.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. 3 . (8 .
the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet.The angle .s i n if> 2 v (8 . In Figure 8. . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . 3 7 . then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. It also means that the relative velocity vector. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. From Figure 8 .36). v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . will be directed toward the center of the planet.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet .3 . 3. e. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. 8 . 'Yl should be selected from equation (8.320) y = x si n e (8. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . 3 7 we see that  (8 . in Figure 8.
(8 .lt/ 2 X _ .322) .37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8. X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .Sec.38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f. 8 .
(8.376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet . 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . y. 324) (8.326) Because angular momentum is conserved.327) for y Yields (8 .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . Solving equation (8 . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . the speed at periapsis is simply . we obtain . 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance.328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence.
only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b .39.329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. The given information is .3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . then a much smaller target must be considered. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size.329). rt This particular offset distance is called b . This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. 8.05 DU. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . V2 + 2fJ.t 3  rt (8 . The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision . Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun .launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0.328) we 'get (8 . " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . b. the "inwact parameter. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. The.Sec.
05 D U 1 . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .1 VI = 1 . 6V 1 = 1 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.099 A U/TU 0.378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .099 A U/TU = :.373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.1 :: 0. 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .099 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 . 3 .
07 6 ft/sec 2 . This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .4. 1 39 + 1 . departure Figure 8 .v (8 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. 8 .1 .43 DU/TU . From Table 8 .1 ) .v = 2v si n L 2 /::. 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 . t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.905 = = 379 37 .4. the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept.044 8 .Sec.
8.3. 8.380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . _  /' .3 . EXERCISES 8 .. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8.. 8.8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer. 8 as derived in equation (3 .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun .4. 7.1 ) .32.1 )) ..6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units. 8 . (Ans.62 DUJTU� 8. 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel. 8.5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 . " . 5 for the planet Jupiter.. 8.7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years.
It can be shown that .000 ft/sec.v ? (Ans.. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the . What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the . P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. 1 DUE[) radius.l:.�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i.v = 1 5 . vesc = 1 . e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit .35) ITbo no . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .l:.V = 0. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . If c = 9 . h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. a.l:. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence .l:.V required? (Ans.V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. 1 00 ft/sec) c. . & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit. M = 5.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj .900 ft/sec. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years.348 DUe/TUE9> .Ch. where 8.l:. v = 39 .394 DUe/TU� b .
V is applied at perigee. (Ans.? (Ans.Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units. 0. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans. Find the hyperbolic excess speed. a. 0.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units.0..0.which results if the same 6. a.V at apogee or perigee? 8.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. 1 DUe/TUEl1.. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 . The mission will begin in a 1 .046 DU� /TU � b .. Find the 6.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars..9 00 ft/sec) 8 .9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . 09 DUe/TU$) = .5 DUEI1 circular orbit. � = 0.V of . Is it more efficient to apply a 6. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. so work carefully and follow any suggestions. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a.254 AU/TU� . 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 . 3 . What is the 6. 0. v=' (Ans.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. = 0. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long.73 1 DU8TU� b . What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans... What is the 6. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. v= 0.0. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . (Ans. 6. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . 8.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit.28 AU2 /TU2 . What is the 6.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .. 8 8 ..
1 . O o) 8. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. 'Y1 .5 AU.Ch. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp .3 9 DU oITU& 2 .050 ft/sec) 8 . called the turning angle .5 AU? (Ans. For a given planet. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. Vrrw = 0.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. 0. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. for the above transfer. c. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. 1 4 a. 1 .87 TU� b .What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. 8 .2 AU/TU� d. <P2 and vll1II in that order.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . then find h.373 AU/TU � f. P. Compute the phase angle at departure. (Ans. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. (Ans.) (Ans. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. 0. it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0.867 AU/TU� e . 3 . Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 .
1 963. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. 4 . Simon and Schuster. 1 969. Newman. pp 430434. 1 . Assume circular. 8 8. 1 967. NY. U S Government Printing Office ." AIAA Journal. .V! Give the answer in lan/sec" .V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. The World of Mathematics. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. No 2 .where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. New York. W . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . Vol 1 . 3 . James R. What would be an estimate of the return b. * Ch . American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 1 95 6 . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. 1 96 1 . R. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. and the angular rates of the planets. London. Vol 2. D C . coplanar planet orbits. transfer time. Washington. Fimple . Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.
one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). There is always some variation 385 . but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. it is found that there seem to be distinct. irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. Macroscopically . " Webster 9 . After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. and at times unexplainable . Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm .
It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. solar radiation effects.from the norm. Brown 's papers of 1 897. and relativistic effects. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. which had not been treated by Newton . the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. except the motion of the perigee. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. The wind gust was a perturbation. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. Fortunately. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . 9 . the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . magnetic. about a century later. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. meteoroid collisions. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. In fact. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. M. Then. etc. 6 . atmo spheric drag and lift. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. E.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis.
There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text .2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses .2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. In particular. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. 9 . Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. H. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. See section 1 .Sec. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . the Cowell. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. It was developed by P. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . a section discussing methods and errors is included . With the capability for orbital flight . Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. 9. Encke. This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another.
2.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. For the twobody problem with perturb ations. F or numerical integration equation (9 .1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. r=Y �r (9 . the equations would be .388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied.22) would be further broken down into the vector components.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . Sun and planets. y = vy (9. including all the perturbations. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. the equation would be (9 .
Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. When motion is near a large attracting body . The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method.24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. There are some disadvantages of the method . Intuitively. ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2.25) . one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 .'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 . 9 . and he would be correct . In spherical coordinates (r. 8 . This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error .22). Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon.Sec. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic .23). Even in double precision computer arithmetic.Il m ( 3 . Classically.
Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field .'l. Presumably .390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . In the Encke method . one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. The term connotes the sense of contact. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. 9 (9 . 9. in our case . and . reference or b i t Figure 9.25) As a reminder.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed .g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations.31 The osculatil. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere .
This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path.32)  Sr.33) we obtain .3 .1 ) and (9 . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. or epoch.  (9 .33) Sub stituting equations (9 .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit ..1 ) . neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 . Now w e will consider th. r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. be defined as (see Figure and . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 . respectively .3. The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits.. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration.to ) ' p (9 . 9.1 ) . 3 . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. 9 . The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). = p ( tb ) p p to = 0. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. Note that at the epoch. the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit. r + � r3 r = a t .3 2) into (9 . Let r and p be the radius vectors to . At that time .1 ) and for the osculating orbit.3.Sec. the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 .
However. p is a known function of time . So .6r ) .. 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .37) . For a given set of initial conditions. == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .6r] r3 r (9 .3 6) Equation (9 .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . theoretically. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .34) then becomes (9. A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:. 6r. 6r (to + . one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method..392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .6.3 / 2 (9 .was to obtain more accuracy.t) can be calculated numerically.35) 3 3 r _ (9 .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object ..lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . so r can be obtained from 6r and p.
however. 9 . we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. o y . R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / .Sec. In terms of its components Figure 9./  Our problem is not yet solved . Now some ways of calculating q must be found. Expanding.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. OZ are the cartesian components o f or. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit .
( 1 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9. (9 . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .(1 .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates. . /) y2 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q.38) and (9 .37). It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . 9 From equation (9 .31 2) .2q So q =  Now.37) becomes (9 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 . There are two methods of solution at this point . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .38)  1 .1 0) (9 .3.2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . 3. .
1 0). If. If equation (9 .3. c.t). rectify and go to step a .Sec.t) calculate 1 . Go to step c with t:. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. f(to + t:.t . a. q( to + t:. p(to + t:. r (to ) . f. Calculate r = p + (jr. p 229).is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid.t to get (jr{ to + kt:. v = p + (jr.t where k is the step number.1 2) is used.39) is recommended for use with the computer. b. calculate (jr (to + t:.3 8) 3. Vol 2.> a specified constant. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. Integrate another t:. e .3. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r.t) from equation (9 . although the use of equation (9 .t replaced by kt:.nowing p (to ) .1 2) may be slightly faster. Otherwise (jr p . 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . The method using equation (9 . d . = = = = = p continue. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker .does not remain quite small. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .t) . so larger step sizes can be taken.3. k. In (jr p v as described earlier. Knowing 5r(to + t:. For an integration step.t) 2 . (jr 0. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit .01 ). t:. and 5r 0 at this point. g. but of the order of magnitude of 0.t ) from equation (9 . q (to ) O. Rectification should be initiated when . 9 . Then the tables could be u sed to find f . Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body.
if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time .1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. In the absence of perturbations.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small./l m {m s . Similarly. A similar check could be made on i . they would remain constant. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. e eccentricity. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories.6. Then e � .6.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . at the outset. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . etc .3. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration .t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces .r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. For instance. from the Encke method 9. 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. = . Though. One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs.cSr ) (9 . Thus. See equation (9 . A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . this method may seem more difficult to implement. a .
variations (e. � . The axis S is . This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. w and.n (t . It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. i. Therefore .and dM ?.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. for a table of parameter sets). The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature .. Vol 2 .. along the instantaneous radius vector.4 . 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations .T (or M) will be used.Sec. The standard orbital elements a. . These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . R (unit vector R). In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. 9 . . 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. p 246.I OOS . 9 . r. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. e. 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. Eventually . 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M .g. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. n.
W. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .43) . The third axis. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.4.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt . = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .
o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .� 2& ' = 399 (9 . Differentiating the conic equation Qr.44).45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .4. 9.1:!:.44) (9.43).1 0) .4 and ..!I=8!" nr from (9 . (9 . the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.45) To express this in known terms.46) and F S (9 . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 . expressions for found.49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 . dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.Sec. (9 .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.48) Substituting in equation (9.48) we find da dt = (9.
2 )% a = (1 ..1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.�) % J.1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0). Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04. 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .4.la _ (9 04.lae dt h $) a dt .) Since h = hW.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 . r hW + h da S dt (9 .
1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .4.h cos i rF s h2 . 9 . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.1 6) we obtain .n di dt (9 . 4 .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .Sec.1 8) .4.si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .4. K .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.4.4.4.sin QL = dt . K) � (9 .. 1 e2 (9 .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
J. 9 . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation.5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . .2p.2p. Since p. the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 .450) and solving for e we find (9 .. .v 2p. ] (9 . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.2p.vat a+v a .. c = ve 2 p.4. .e . is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.5 1 ) correct to first order in J.v {at + c ) c (9 . but more practically we would consider � = v .vt .v = . . From equation (9 .45 1 ) . so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 .4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v. and V are small.45 0) should be small.v which can be easily solved for c. .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 . VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.4.45 1 ).Sec. {at + c) + 3p. • . allowing c to vary with time .454) + 2p.4. For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence .vt 2p. Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion . 4 where c will be the parameter.45 2) The righthand side of equation (9.vc .2 (at + C)2  . C. The constant of integration.2 p.
The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. 9 . or has not carefully selected. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. d. c. In theory. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. at best. not expediency. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. storage and complexity. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. his integration method. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. b .41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . 9 in detail. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. allow as large a stepsize as possible. economical in computing time. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. Unfortunately. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or.e. such as the disturbing function. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. 5 . Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a.. should be the criteria. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. accuracy. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . highly questionable. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. efficiency. 9 . . the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth.
it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. For instance . but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . Baker (v 2. Obviously . 9 . In fact. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s .388.5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations.476.5 (9. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic.57 = 7 . 9 . 5 . i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit.567 = 7. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.476. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e .accumulated roundoff error . 2 Integration Errors. In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits.28 + 3. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (.388. 4.864. They are roundoff and truncation errors. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree.Sec.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2.843. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. The larger the . p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . and f. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the .276 + 3 . It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors.
in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. 9 . Thus. Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. EulerCauchy and Bowie . The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. Gill. h.1 ) . A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. 6 . 1 RungeKutta Method. 9. the larger the truncation error.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. 9 stepsize. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth.6. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. Of course . so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes .6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors.= f(t.63) dx dt (9. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. In general. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . We will treat the first order equation . Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. AdamsMoulton.62) (9.
yV:.h ) k3 +. x n . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. and stepsize is easily changed .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . They are relatively simple .% ] + k 2 [ 1 . It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.Sec.2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. have a relatively small truncation error.k +.k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .64) 1 1 + .( 1 + y. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .. 9 . x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. x n + k 3 ) (9.] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .yry. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .( 1 . X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + .63) and n is the increment number. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .6. 9 . easy to implement . In general. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: . they are faster than the singlestep methods.) k2 6 3 l2 (9. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.
\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods.beginning and after each stepsize change.66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell .1 f . . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0. 25 1 /720. In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor .67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart.6. . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 5 / 1 2 .\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. 1 /2 . .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. 3 9. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. 3 /8 .
The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .69). Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula. 9 .Sec.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first.x n + (5 5 f ri .h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . for instance.x n+1I I (P 270 (9. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. In equation (9. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. the error terms are not generally known. This method.59 f n . 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.6.1 + 37 f n2 .68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. . It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.
n + � 84 "x.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . though. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations. 9. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter.h ) .1 .418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .8 k . requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. .6. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods.1 ' etc.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect.1 f(t n h) 2 2   . 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". x. 9 like other multistep methods.2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt.6 . and most used. n + 1 2 n i \.1 f(t n + h). It is. though it also includes a corrector. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods.° n 60480 (9. "x. The GaussJackson method is one of the best.° n + . numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ".f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n .
but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works.6. ¢. according to Vinti.I n=2 r (9. Table 9.e presented in this section. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods.l 005). Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. the accelerations can be found from (9. p/r.5 Numerical Integration Summary . If the potential function.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. Some of them become quite complex. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. 2 and NASA C R.72) . is known. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth.7. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. 2 . 9.7.6. V.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec.Bashforth) methods are preferred. but only the simpler forms will be treated. 9 . the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams.1 ) One such potential function. 9 . However. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b.1 The Nonspherical Earth . is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. 9. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. is ¢ = � [1 . They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion .
* * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. it could be very fast. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � . 9 CI) . Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. very difficult to determine proper size. Vol t .
r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .where J. = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .] (9 .945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r ..7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .J s � ( � ) (35� .J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) ..�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�. if> = I!:.  I..2..e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .74) .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .L = gravitational parameter Sec. 9.7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .
(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 . y.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 . l )x 1 0.6 J = (0.6 .1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J ..75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 . 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J . 1 5 ± O. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. . Vol 1 . 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.l ( �) 3 ( 3 .44 ± O.57 ± O.3003 ""6 ) + .70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).5)x 1 0. The first term in x.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2.03)x 1 0.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9. which are slightly in variance .5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 . l )x 1 0.6 J4 = (1 . . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. I )x 1 0. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.6 ± O. Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.64 ± O.6 6 (0.5 ± O.
A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2.2 Atmospheric Drag. 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). Therefore . equatorial coordinate system..Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . To do this. but will not be presented here.s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . p 147). Vol 1 . care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . Thus. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere .. 9 .7. s 9. the drag coefficient.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. However. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . The equations are formulated in the geocentric . simply use r3 r= where . 7 Drag. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . and other parameters. There are a few ctmtiol). A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33).Sec. by definition. term) to the RSW sy stem..
lli. equatorial coordinate system.ie. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo). . z refer to the geocentric. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9.7 . atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . y .424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. In the geocentric.3 Radiation Pressure.ilc coffc. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. altitude above an oblate Earth.t b ae ==ic.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. 9 . Equation (9 . though small. but the reader can find this in other documents. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. 9 m p C O A . Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. etc. Radiation pressure. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x.7 .n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y .78) z .
9. 1 Verify the development of equation (9 .4349 0 x .2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} .4. . m = mass of vehicle (grams) . EXERCISES 9. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . but a major force . the variation of eccentricity. 9 . Prove this assertion .1 5) . 9 . 9 where A = cross section f = 4. 7 .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm). y. Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming.4 Thrust. . 9 . Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . See equation (9.25).3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. m (9.79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters.Ch. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. z directions.
G. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office..426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . F . Vol VI. L. Planetary Coordinates for the. 4. 6. R. 3 . John Wiley and Sons. 1 960.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . LIST OF REFERENCES 2. M. 1 967. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. and Wilf. Ralston . 9 9 ." NASA CR. 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. A. M. Allione . Jr . 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. M. S . * 9 . Feb 1 968. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. J . New York. New York. D. 1 . New York. Baker. * 9. A. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. and Wl). New York. Years 1 9601 980. 9 . 1 9 1 4. L. and Clemence. Robert M . . Mendez. DC. . Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers.000 n mi. Washington. Guidance. * 9 .445). C . 5 . Moulton . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. M.l 005 . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. The Macmillan Co . Brouwer.ittouck. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . Academic Press. Inc. Academic Press. 1 96 1 . A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. London . Blackford.
Townsend. . 1 95 3 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Herget. The Macmillan Co. Battin. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). NASA SP33 . 1 963. R. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . M . New York. Academic Press. New York. DC . John Wiley and Sons. McGrawHill. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. 1 5 . Th e Determination of Orbits. Jr. Maud W. 1 4 . Michigan. Methods of A strodynamics. Escobal. Inc. The Computation of Orbits. 1 2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. . 1 6. Methods of Orbit Determination. G. P. Cambridge University Press. New York. 1 3 . Smart. 1 964. 1 95 6 . A . 8 . Robert M. W . 1 967. 1 96 1 . Celestial Mechanics. New Yark. Published privately by the Author. M. L. Hildebrand.Ch . R. Jr and Makemson. Vol 1 .. Longmans. Inc. Escobal. P . 2nd ed. Orbital Flight Handbook. New York. 1 968 . New York. John Wiley and Sons. Dubyago . A stronautical Guidance . E . Baker. B . Paul. H. R . New York. 1 948 . F . 1 0. 9 . 1 1 . Part 1 . Ann Arbor. Dynamical A stronomy . D. New York. Plumber. Washington. C. 1 96 5 . McGrawHill.
.
1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter. 'Derived from those values of Il . 1 Center. Ile Angular Rotation. 2506844773 deg min 7.77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . Each of the two sets is consistent within itself. r.24764 11sec 806 . 2593 6. English Units Metric Units 2.9053682 8 km' .922786 NM 1 3 .05883 36565 � TV.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .. 44686457 min 6378. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4. r. I DU� TUi. ..908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4.68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 .407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. 1 328 2 1 days 9. 1 97 5 .9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .. we 0. 3. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 .092567257 x 107 ft 3963 . Speed Unit I� TU.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 . 1 .. Canonical Units I DU.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29.
8 9.01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .4 3 .07 1 0 1 50424 4 .08 1 52366 0 . 1 2 64963205 0 . .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 . foot = 0. there is no roundoff or truncation.903665 5 64 x 1 0 . i. 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.2342709 5 .e .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 . 1f = 3 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .3 14 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown.8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .239446309 x 1 0.
A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. force and acceleration. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . 43 1 . (Example : 3 or A). A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. Thus. time or any real signed number. K) and (p. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . Examples are mass. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. not a null or zero vector. Scalar. If A i s a vector . In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. speed. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. I DEFINITIONS Vector. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. temperature . Examples are displacement.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . length of a vector . An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. velocity . C. J. W). Unit Vector. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . Q.relationships involving vector quantities.
Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors.. 1 Similarly. . B and C are coplanar vectors. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. If A. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. and A and B are not collinear. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. Coplanar Vectors. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . regardless of the position of their origins. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA.
C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.l ) C.1 ) I AI cos B .2.2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . denoted by A • B. e I I l (C . is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. Scalar or Dot Product.C.. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .B which is the same as A + (B). The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. l . The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .
The cross product of two vectors A and B. sma l lest ang le ( L e . J . then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . < 180° ) AxB =C . if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible . That is.8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . 23 ) (C.24) (C. A o A = Aft..B + A . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. .J = J o K=K o I = O where I . B and C form a right handed system.J =K . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them.434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . K are unit orthogonal vectors.22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A .1=J .K= 1 I . denoted by A x B .(B + C) = A .
27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where .(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. e < In fact A x B = . Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. J. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. K are unit orthogonal vectors. then A X B = O. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C.C.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel.
A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C. from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .29) Scalar Triple Product. Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then. BI C1 .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .
3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .2. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.2.2.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.C.B3 C) + A ( B3 C .B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.21 4) C. Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 . The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .1 2) (C. The vector triple produce. 2. denoted b y A x (B x C) .(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .l 3) (C.
... thus . " ......438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o . then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + .YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of ... . dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ........ v C P K y . K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P.. x J Then the velocity relative to the (I........ . ...9...with itself. .
v = wT . This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .= . The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector.C.. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. dr v = .= . from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P.3 b. In this special case then. VE LOCITY 439 which.
longitude. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . elevation rate . Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. elevation. Its geodetic latitude. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site .APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . The radar determines p. latitude of the launch site. The input to TRACK should be range. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. range rate . AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. and of the satellite (R and V). Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). p. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . The input to SITE should be latitude. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . EI. positive to the east) of the launch site. EI. D . radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . azimuth. Az. From the 440 . azimuth rate.
LST. 6 8 2.07 1 05 .27907 599. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). 0) = (. LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . y.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . LST and LONG are in radians.D. 040075. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . GST. UT.01 2035 7 5 . GST _ 1 .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT . 007 N 1 04 .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 .74933340.7 . .48 201.62624920) = (.74933340. DAY.8 S 1 7 5. . UT.7 5. 6 . . : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 .75 1 003 9 1 . LST) . PI. E 7 2 .775 1 80 1 9. 9 W 0 1 9 05.57 76. 22 1 0.5 . 5 7 5 for data set 3). 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . .. Input UT as a decimal (i.7 .5 90 .08 30. Following are five sample sets of data for site location. observation time and radar tracking data. . INTEGER DAY.2045 72 1 6 . e . . 2 2 29.044 1 8440. 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 .05 1 9 5238) . 1 4923608.8 N 7 8 .75 components are : (. GST. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4.63745829) z = . 8 0. = (.5 3 4 ON 4 5. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . . BEGIN REAL D. An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. 5. 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. PI . Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .0027379093®2®PI®D .5 3 0 . . 3 315 .05 1 37. END OF LSTIME .3 . . If the above program is used.5 1 35 . REAL LONG.26347 1 9 8 . .
2 VI .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . 49 0 0 2. b .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. rectilinear.8 .703 . elliptical..998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29.4 1 4 2. Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). 0) (. parabolic. 1 0 0 2 . . 01 .49 0 . Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . hyperbolic).9 1 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach. . 05 . 0 1 7 45 .293 .4 1 4 0 0 65 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. 00001 . 48 4 0 2. 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth. 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (.001 1 0 .707 .01 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D.9 0 2 0 . 1 29579 1 9 . c.85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . d. . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity.5 0 . From this information you are required to fmd : a. The type of trajectory (circular.4 1 722472 .9 1 046 1 80.6 0 .001 5 30 0 . 6 2 . 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 .1 . 7 0 3 VK . 5 .1 0 22.1 .
You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z).3 D. 61. To determine when convergence has occurred.0.025 9 1 7 . b. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. and dt/dx for each iteration. If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. c.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. Also for an ellipse. 61 (calculated) . RJ 61 . x should never be greater than 2m. a .5 0 0 . use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram.7 . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. 1 38878 .8 . Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. If your iteration process is efficient. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered.5 . you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 .5 .4 of the text for guidance .jiL d.3 1 0 . 1 5 0689 1 .
002 1 7 7 1 .4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later.. For instance note that y can never be negative . t :::.70655823. 1 06 1 0. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points. It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text... One of the data sets tests this situation.00006057 . .999 o 1 03 D. I t . Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 .. For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. 1 8 1 . Given r l ' r2 . You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives.5 1 . Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 .6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. I�I :::.444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.. 00 1 074 ..1 .01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 .. R2 V2 = (0.t c l :::.9 20 . 0 . 1 65 08 . 3. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem.. 1 0.. bt..1 .w). 0003 6 1 . 1 362596) = (0. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. 0..6 for 1 :::. and sign (7T .. In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z.
t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration. . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. x.5 .4 . Also print t:J) and a for each data set . and the location of an interceptor launch site . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT. 1 . See section 5 .5 . 7 for further discussion o f this project .4804847 1 .1 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z .4 .7 0 1 0 20 1 .4 1 .2 .3 .6 .0 .1 specifies the long way.6 .66986992. 1 2298 1 44. so a check should be made for that condi tion.66993 1 97 ..0001 +1 .4 . time of radar observation. This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM .6 .2 .S = (0. The following data i s i n canonical units.9378 1 789) = 4. location of the tracking site .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .7 0 1 0 1 .6 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.3 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.2 . print out a message and go to the next data set . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .1 . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.201 . Check for this case . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. .8 5 +1 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 .2 1 . . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. y. The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .7 .6 .3 .
Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . This will aid you in verifying your solution . Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. b . TRACK. c. Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. the desired increment size for reaction time .45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 .3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . KEPLER and GAUSS. f. The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . Make some provision to print out all of your input data.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs.45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. e . the starting value of timeofflight increment size. d. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. g. When you point out your arrays. the number of reaction times desired . Times should be read in as minutes. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. To make your program flexible . and the number of timeofflight increments desired .
09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No . 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .0.74.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .92 deg/sec 1 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .1 .6 1 3 km EI = 56. 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . 844 **** **** **** 35 7 . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9. of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No. When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .338 **** **** **** 10 8 .5 p = 1 86.038 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4. of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.
LATL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL.
INDEX .
.
440448 Computer solution differential correction. 1 09 Angular momentum. 3 2 3 masses. 3 2 5 . 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 5 7 principal direction. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 102 Apoapsis. 277320 computation chart.9 8 gravitational constant. 1 620. 7483 Coordinate systems. 5358.1 3 1 G auss problem. 94. 429 lunar distance. 6. 429 Astronomical Unit. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 5 5 heliocentric. 2427 Apogee. 203 Aphelion. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 2 3 4. 9498 transformations. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 423 Azimuth. 1 09. 1 8 5 true. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 3 3 period of. 20. 74 BMEWS. 4 1 . 3 4 Collision cross section. 1 00. 246 Brahe. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 296 geometry. B urnout. 279 C anonical units. 5 3 . 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 84 ecliptic. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 349 Angle of elevation. 2 1 2 B asis. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 1 4. 1 8 8 . Tycho. 4043 Celestial equator. 28 1 B arker's equation. 84.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 4 gravitational h armonics. 3 5 8 . 109 B akerNunn camera. 60 Argument of periapsis. 60 and universal v ariables. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 297299 451 . 1 3 3 B inomial series. 54 orbit plane. 1 8 3 mean. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 8 4 Copernicus. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 422 gravitational parameter.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 84. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 56 Celestial sphere. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 5 3 . 28 Constants astrodynamic. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 4 3 0 Conversions. 74 geocentricequatorial. 374 Computer projects. 54 fundamental plane. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 3 9 0 station. 9 3 . 56 Circular satellite orbit. 24 Apparent solar time. 24 height adjustment. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 1 22. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 5 8 Aristotle. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 1 5 . 429 flattening. 2 1 . 1 62 Argument of latitude. 3 8 9 . 57 perifocal.
9. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 25 1 258. 22827 1 . G auss problem. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 25. 1 22. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 4 G ravitational parameter. 2 1 ff. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 1 7 equations. 25 1 . 1 0 9 . 1 60 low altitude. 2 9 7 . 3 5 . 1 42. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 444 algorithm. 4 3 3 Drag. 84. Carl Fredrich. 1 8 8. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 3 5 . 3 22 trajectories. 62 vector. 1 4 0 . 94 . 2 3 3 . 3 6 8 local. 26 ff. 1 0 twobody. 3 1 . function o f true anomaIles. 3 5 0 Epoch. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 2 3 0 . 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly.452 Declination. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 227 418 ( y ) . 8 7 . 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 8 0 f and g expressions. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 54 Elements of orbit. 5 8 .3 3 pe. 2 0 . 6 1 Elevation angle. 1 04 Escape speed. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 4 Newton's law of. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 1 0 6 mean. 3 89 nbody. 1 54.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 2 1 . 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 2 1 2. 2 4 . 2 1 2.riod o f . 40.3 0 6 numerical integration. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables.1 4 3 . 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 2 9 . 221 hyperbolic. 9 4 Geoid. 264 eccentric anomalies. 4 1 9. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 9 3 98 effect of rotation.93 . 1 8 8 . 60 true longitude at. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 1 0 6 precession. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections.1 1 6 Gravitation. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. apparent. Elliptical orbits. zenith angle. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 1 8 2.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 3 0 . 3 00 launching.1 3 1 Direct ascent. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 20 1 202 f and g series. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 56. 306 EarthMoon system.1 5 5 Direct motion. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 1 1 7. 62 Ecliptic.1 90.3 9 6 Energy. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 1 8 1 . 1 0 3 G round track. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 7 G ravitational constant. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 3 90 . 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 60 Dot product. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 4 G alileo. 58 from position a n d velocity. 423 424 Earth oblate. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 2 8 2 time. 26.2 1 2 parabolic.
1 Kepler's equation. 3 9 6 constraints. equations o f nbody. 238. 2. 1 3 Moving reference frame.9 3 Mu ( � ) . 8 6 . argument of at epoch. 22 1 . 20 Least squares solution. 60 Latus rectum. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 3 27. 1 52 Mass of planets. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 60 Lunar trajectories. 9 9 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 3 1 6 Injection. 2 7 7 . 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 7. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 3 0 3 . 1 5 6. 2 Heliocentric constants. 3 69. Greenwich. 234. 1 5 6. 22. 1 1 7 Latitude. 1 8 8 . 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 3 1 Manned flight. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 1 0 twobody. 3 1 Moon. 6 . 94 reduced. 94 geodetic. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 2 1 . 5 Newton. 1 02 Mean solar time. 1 03 Minor axis. 1 1 7 derivatives. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 2 8 8 . 3 44 . 6. 5 1 . 2. 247 Newton's laws. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 3 7 0 Integration. 3 623 65 Hyperbola.I N D EX H alley. 1 57 Line of nodes. 1 8 5 . 3 59374. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 2.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 58 regression. 3 62 . 1 4 1 . 8 9 . numerical rotation of. 3 64.1 6 6. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem.3 05. 2 second. 3 24 . 3 5 0 free return. Edmund. 1 6 3 . 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 5 8 Longitude.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 3 5 8 Newton iteration.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 2. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 1 0 2 Meridian. 3 24326.1 8 1 first. limitations. 220 Mean motion. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 3 9 6 M otion. gravitational parameter. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 1 5 1 . 3 4 5 ephemeris. 3 7 9 . 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. J ohann. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 62 . 3 89 trajectories.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 1 4 1 . 1 7 7. 3 80 Kepler. 3 69 . 1 56 vector. 1 9 8 .8 9 derivatives i n . 3. 1 0 1 . 3 9. 1 80 third. 3 65 noncoplanar. true at epoch. 3 57 . 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 207 I nclination. 2 6 5 27 1 . 4.3 8 4 general coplanar. Isaac. 6 rotation of. 62 longitude of ascending. 1 . 2 H alley's comet. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 8 Node ascending. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 3 8 . 3 26 orbital elements of.
24 height adjustment. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation.3 9 0 Encke's method. 4 1 9 .1 22.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 60 Right ascension. 1 09 .3 7 9 lunar. 425 Phi ( � ) . 5 symbols. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 1 3 Rendezvous. 26527 1 Residuals. 57 Perigee. flightpath angle. 3 6 1 shape of. 1 62 O rbit. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination.1 59 examples.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 2427 argument of.3 44 Periapsis. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 2 8 0 Radar sensors.1 76 inplane changes. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 424 thrust. 3 8 7 . 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 5 1 . 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 1 1 7 . 1 5 6 . 34. 3 59 . 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 3 3 Perturbations. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 3 4 1 Period. 1 90 Numerical integration. 1 1 7. 1 62 . 3 1 . 1 69 Orbit determination. 2 4 .454 Nu (v ) . 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 4 1 2425 errors. 1 9 3 . 2 4 Periselenium. 3 60 physical characteristics.9 8 Optical sensors. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 2 0 . 20. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 443 algorithm. 9 3 . 3 24 . 2 1 Osculating orbit. 3 9 0 Parabola. 6 1 o f moon. 203. true anomaly. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 3 90 . 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 420 c riteria for choosing. 3 9 0 Relative motion. 20 Polar radius. 2 1 . 1 5 1 . 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 56. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 1 1 7 . 220 classical formul ations. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 6 1 from sighting directions. 423 due to the moon. 3 24 . two body. 58 determination from position and velocity. 58 Perifocal coordinate system.1 50. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 3 8 6 general. 2 1 2 computer solution. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 22727 1 Orbit plane. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 1 0 3 P rojects. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 1 0 9 Rectification. 94 Potential energy reference. 3 3 3 . 4 1 4 sum squared. 2 1 . 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 1 6 Potential function.1 22 from position and velocity. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 440448 Q parameter. 3 44 .3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) .3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 83 from optical sightings.
1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 2 8 7 maximum range. 2062 1 0 use of. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 3 27. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 5.1 0 4 Solar system. 1 1 . 1 0 1 . 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 6. 4 3 1 Velocity. 4 3 7 . 23. 1 3 1 . 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 20. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 1 3 1 . 1 8 1 . 44 1 mean solar. 99. 3 5 8 . 9 Sidereal time. 1 9 1 . 1 3 2 Shape of Earth.1 40 Selenocentric. 1 8 8 . 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 1 6. 4 1 8 Surveillance.1 9 0 if. 1 3 5 ellipse. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day.1 40 errors. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 9 3 . 4 3 7 . 1 8 1 . 1 3 6 radar. 1 9 high. 5 radio interferometers. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 1 52 Station coordinates. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence.9 8 of planets. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 3 6 1 Solar time. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 425 Thrust perturbation. 1 0 1 . 1 02. 30. 2 1 7 parabola. 7 Universal time. 20 Semimajor axis. 8 4 . 40 Unit vectors. 40. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 1 6 6. 1 8 (see Nbody . 287 low. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 4 3 3 triple product.1 8 8 . 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 9498 Sum square d numerical method.1 69 Hohmann. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 4 1 9 Zenith angle.3 59 orbital elements. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 1 8 8 universal variables. 3 60 physical characteristics. 1 9 1 development of. 1 3 8 optical. 1 3 2. 2 1 at epoch.8 9 derivatives in.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 8 6 . 4 3 4 derivative o f . 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 4 3 7 unit. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 9. 60 True longitude at epoch. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 425 Time. 9 9 .4 3 9 d o t product.1 0 9 apparent solar. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 23. definition of.1 6 6 True anomaly. 99. 5 8 Time zones. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 3 1 Sensors.4 3 9 Velocity components. 4. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 1 6 Sputnik. 1 1 Units. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. canonical. 9 9 .1 4 assumptions. 85 Traj ectory equation. 1 0 3 universal. 2 8 8 . 1 52 Satellite tracking. Universal gravitation. 1 9 1 225. 58 Semi minor axis. 1 03 local sidereal. 1 6 3 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?