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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
B. Dorothy Fryar . The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged. D. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P . . Ronald Chaney ( artist) .W. J .E.M. United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R. Jan Irvine . and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) .D.R. Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.
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14 . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . . . . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . . . . . . List of References . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . 1 09 . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . 2. . . 1 . . . . 1 . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . 1 . . . . . . 83 . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . 1 . . 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 01 . . 1 . . .5 The Trajector y Equation .2 The NBody Problem . . 1 . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . _ 1 .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . .. . Exercises . . . . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . 71 . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . 2 . .1 Historical Background . . 2. . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . . 93 . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . 2 . . . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . .
. . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . 2 . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 275 . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . 3 84 . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . 8. . . . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . 297 6. . 26 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . 3 85 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . 3 27 . . . . . . . . 380 . . . 8 . . . . . . . . List of Reference s . . . . 279 6 . . . 273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . 344 352 355 . 357 358 . . . . . Exerc ises .1 9. . . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . . 3 20 . . . . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . 379 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 87 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 . xi 5 . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 . . . . . . . . . . . 258 . . . . . . 333 . . . . . 27 1 . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . List o f Re ferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . . . . . Histor ical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . Exercises . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . 277 6. .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . .2 The EarthMoon System .2 The Solar System . . List of References . . . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . .1 8. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 9. . Vecto r Review . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . 440 449 . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
the poor and sickly mathematician. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. Kepler. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. the year Galileo died.CHAPTER 1 TWO. the noble and aristocratic Dane. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. JarnesR.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. 1 642 . Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. he might have been put into a quart mug. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. as his mother told him in later years. Newman! . unfitted by nature for accurate observations.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. Tycho.
the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. therefore . necessarily moved in circles.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . with the sun at a focus . after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. One day in 1 685 . Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . discoverer of Halley's comet. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times .1 Kepler's Laws. Finally . the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. Kepler's laws were only a description. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. It fit. is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation.1 Still. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . not an explanation of planetary motion .1. TWO. Since the time of Aris totle . 2 1.
"Why. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. without mentioning the b et. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. 4 1. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . when he recovered from his shock. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. casually posed the question. 1 .1. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. or . they speculated whether a force . of course .Sec. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. Dissatisfied with this explanation. more simply. t he Principia. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. in ellipses.
/ I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . has the value 6. . " Figure 1 .1 ) (1 .12) t o equat i.1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system.G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m.1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites.1 .1 . .n ( 1 . We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll. . / . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia.'�V . 1 2) Fg = . G.1 . 1 .1.11 Newton's Law of Motion . The universal gravitational constant. 1. . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.. .4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.67Ox 1 0. 1 . • . Note that equation ( 1 .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .
the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. m2 • m3 m m. a lunar or interplanetary probe.. At any given time in its j ourney. . To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. . f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body ..II I I I " I I I I :. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i..e.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion..2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. In addition. or a planet). .. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. . I I I Figure 1. .12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . I " '.e. X I . The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}.�I '. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag.. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. etc. propellants) to pro duce thrust. thrust and solar radiation pressure . An important force. j. 1.Sec 1.. an earth satellite .
Although small. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. Thus..1 . Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. Y. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. 1 equator. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton.���Y � X n 1. These effects. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. 2.2' The NBody Problem Figure . regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator.. are discussed in Chapter 3 . • • • z FOTHER .. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells.
II 3 (1. .2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself. perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. The v ector sum. m'J JI 3 (rj j) .2 ·1 is T composed of drag.2.I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where .Se c 1.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation .3) Obviously . equation ( 1 . of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. solar radiation pr essure. the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . (1. thrust.. Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . F gn where =  Gm . Fg.2.5 ) The other external force . . etc .
In other words. Thus. is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 .F I dt TOTAL dt (1... Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time ...26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL...1 + F OTHER ' (l .I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x . it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma. y . d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL. .28 would not be zero .27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.I) and all other external forces .2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0.. (1.. z coordinate system.
. ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system .Sec 1 .2. Equation (1 . Equation ( 1 .. we get j = j � *i 1 3 . expelling mass or relativistic effects. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .2. m .2. Then writin g equation 1 .1 2) ..29) is a second order . equation ( 1 .1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc .G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. mi 0).10) ( .11) 2. mn may be the moon.2. The only remaining forces then are gravitational. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions.29) reduces to = r· 1 n . differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present. ( 1. Y. vector.2. nonlinear. sun and planets .G And for i = 0 . r JI. m· J (�i) . unpowered flight.1 0) for i = 1.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le.
r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence.2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.2 1 6) each bracket. . 2.1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 ..2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.2.2. n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1. Since r 1 2 = .22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.1 From equation ( 1 . 2 1 7 ) .1 4) gives. Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth . .1 2) into equation ( 1 .21 1 ) and ( 1 .10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.
to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion . Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .3. 1 .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite .2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. sun and planets on a near earth satellite . 1.2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .Sec. The bodies are spherically symmetric .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies. Howe ver .2x l O 8 2. COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . Table 1 .3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 .89 6x l 0 4 2. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. mi orbit about the earth. . the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite . To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of.1 Simplifying Assump tions.6x l O lO 1 .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers.9x l O 8 7 . 1 x l 0 10 3.
Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . which "in its own nature. Y'. For the time being.12 TWO.2 The Equation of Relative Motion. " s However.3. 3 2 ) . Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. Let (X'.1 . r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. Let (X. remains always similar and irrnovable.. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest.3. N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. 1 2. Y. . Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . Y'. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . Y'.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame .3. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1. without relation to anything external.1 ) (1 . Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. 1 . Y' .
the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X.32) from equation (1.Sec. Note that since the coordinate set (X.33).31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. Y.33) . Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. Y'.. Z) with its origin in the central body. (1 .33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. Y'. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. and acceleration in a nonrotating. velocity. 1. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . Z'). Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. ballistic missiles.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r. GIM+ml r Equation (1. Y.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. Note that this is the same as equation (1. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1.31) we have = _ r .y X' Figure 1 . Y. Z'). noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X.
you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. the mass of the orbiting body . "kinetic . parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m." for another form called "potential energy . M.14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 ." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors)." That is. If m is not much less than M. If you think ab out the model we have created. will be much less than that of the central body . From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . m. 3 ·4 ) . Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. 1. called the gravitational GM. Then equation 1 .3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . It is convenient to define a parameter. 1 some planet or the sun.3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text.
1 . To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 .Sec. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. 1. dt 1:L = O. that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. then 1 . Therefore. v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 .1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. 5. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . v =r and v= f. ( 1 . which appears in .SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. But what about the arbitrary co nstant . r 2. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O .r ) = � r �(r . C.4 frame (the large mass) does not change . ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero.4. N 0 tlcmg that .!!.lL\I r dt JJ. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that .
Since in general a x a= 0. do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. rX .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. r. e . the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. �.16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch.g.iL (rxv) = O.fL 3 . dt . of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . the earth. In other words.  ( 1 . The expression for � is �. This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . We conclude . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy .42) 1 . O. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. 3 4) by r 2 . at what distance . therefore . Noticing that . that the specific mechanical energy.4. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth.2 Conservation of angular momentum.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' .
But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane .The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. we have shown that the specific angular momentum.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h.4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v.41 Flightpath angle . we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . Therefore ." "Up" simply means away . 1 . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. (1 .43) v I h = r x v. called specific angular momen tum. </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. Therefore . h. We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . I Figure 1 .
¢.7 1 37J+O. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r.899 X 107 ft.4.420 . &. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . and the specific angular momentum. v. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.8143 r • v > 0 . J and K are unit vectors. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . (4.2778 J + 1 0 . therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v.5936 1 + 5 . however. 1 85 2 1 + 6. h. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). c o s ¢=Jl. Ch. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. Determine the specific mechanical energy .8143 = 35.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . ¢. respectively. r = 12. Also find the flight·path angle.4274I+2.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. In an inertial coordinate system. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y.0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. = 0. I h = rv c o s ¢. V =5. the zeni th angle . • ( 1 .
& . You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v ... r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1.. Also note that J. JJ. (1.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. err.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. While this equation (1..5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 . we see that J!:. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. 1 .I.Sec. its complete solution is not.33) is simple. (h xr) =.51) The left side of equation (1. .( r) r.3 3 r r r since r • i = f . �t (B· .1!y r . 1 .5.
52) Where B is the vector constant of integration." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. I r 1 + e cos V p (1.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B... To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . (1. v.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. 5. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. we obtain = 1 h2 /g . If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !. + r o Since.54) . V.53) 1 . Equation (1. h2 where vector r. in general.9 cos V (1.54) . . c and a . which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation. +(81J.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle.
1. remains constant. Although Figure 1. an exchange of energy between the two forms. 5 .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. not just ellipses.5.44) 1 . hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. must change so as to keep h constant. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . As r and v change along the orbit. parabola. the flightpath angle. 3. There is.Sec.41 and equation (1 . ellipse. Before discussing the factors .51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. cp.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space.51 illustrates an ellipse. potential and kinetic. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. (See Figure 1 . 4 . 2. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. however.
The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. or a single point. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). the section is a parabola. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . If. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general.5 2 illustrates this definition . There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines . The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone.52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. 1 Figure 1 . these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. the section is an ellipse. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . If the plane cuts both nappes. Figure 1.
F and F'. The prime focus. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. F'.Sec 1 . has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. F. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion .5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) .53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. Figure 1 .53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . The secondary or vacant focus. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci.
which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. In the parabola.55) p = a (1 . The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . is c�lled the semimaj or axis." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . The dimension. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero ." etc." "perihelion" or "aphelion. The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2.e2). a.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . ( 1 . for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F .5 3 . Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning.54)). Thus.
. 1e ( 1 . we encountered the vector constant of integration.4 The Eccentricity Vector.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . 5. tL r ( 1 . the trajectory equation. 5. 53). e = BltL.52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !.= a( 1 +e) .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e).1 0) . In the derivation of equation ( 1 . Quite obviously.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 .53) and ( 1 .Sec . B.58) 1 . ( 1 . By comparing equations ( 1 . which points toward periapsis. since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis.59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . . 1. . 1 ( 1 . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe.
is zero. Figure 1 .p.(r . AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. r  r .1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. 1 . p.p. is equivalent to increasing h. r r p. th .. e = ( v v ) r . v)v. Therefore. 1. If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. e . e = V x (r x v) .61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. v. ( 1 . v ) v . we get • p.6.5. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum.53) and equation ( 1 . By comparing equation ( 1 .1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased.26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle.. h. of the satellite.6 RELATING &. /or any orbit. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . and that as h is . equation ( 1 . Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth. x v. ( 1 . By inspection.
e ) .1 ) predicts . v. R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. . . . . I '. (1 .. Figure 1 . = �. .  .44). r I . 1 01) .6. as a corollary to equation ( 1 .. p.. .increased the parameter.F �. of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . is zero. .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 .62) we obtain &. �' " .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle.�= � . 57) p rp = a(1 . We can then write.
while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . zero.6.a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l .63) misleading. You should study it together with Figure 1 .56) and equation (1 . Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. &.1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit).28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . a. This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 .e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f .1 ) therefore p. This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . Thus.6.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis. of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit). the energy of a satellite (negative . 1 and from equation ( l . Many students find equation ( 1 . Figure 1 .5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive.
7 n . But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. Determine its altitude at apogee.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. mi. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) .0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. 3 n . e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) .Jf5P. m i .1 and perigee altitude 200 n . & = 2 . all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. = 6.  a=  '!:. ra = 1 � e = 4453. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 64) Notice again that if & is negative. p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. e is exactly 1 (a parabola). e is greater than I (a hyperbola). r p = rES + 200 = 3643. . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. m i . Namely. if & is positive ... 2& = 3 . and semimaj or axis. specific mechanical energy.. The student should be aware of this pitfall. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. m i .897  e2 ) = 3.Sec 1 . and specific angular momentum. 0 .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . 9 n . 6 . if & is zero . For a given satellite . semilatus rectum. A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0.
the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.7 . 1 .855 = 6 .7· 1 ) B y inspection. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a .8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n.m i . 1 n.7·2) .7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over .r Ell = 1 009. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period. the distance between the foci is ( 1 . h =. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a . specifically r + 1 . We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. Since an ellipse is a closed curve.JpjJ.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa. 2a = r a + r = 8097. When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. I ( 1 .7· 1 .= 2.mi. = 5. ( 1 . An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses.
equation ( 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll.76) .1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v. 2 b.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . If you refer to Figure 1 . 2 ( 1 . Since r + r' = 2a.Sec.73) ( 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.72.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.7.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . e is defined as combine to yield da.71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 . when rearranged . you will see that the .75) which. 1 .72) and ( 1 . in general. Using equation ( 1 . Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .7 .7.
76) as ( 1 . is given by the expression So. we can rewrite equation ( 1 . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. 1 Figure 1 .73 Differential element of area .77) dt 2 = 11 dA. Figure 1 .32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . d A.72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. d v.
8 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii.e2 ) = JaP and. 1 . The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. From equations ( 1 . Of course. 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . since h = /JlP. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired .1 ) 1 . proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis.79). incidentally. 55) and ( 1 .c2 =) a 2 ( 1 . Thus.8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit. During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse .78) b =) a 2 . the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius.77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. a. 1 Circular Satellite Speed. ( 1 .Sec. so equation ( 1 .8. Equation ( 1 .8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . Naturally.79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 .79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . Integrating equation ( 1 .75).77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit.
9. 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.000 ft/sec. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . Another is that.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . 1 .B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 .1 Geometry of the Parabola.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . F or a low altitude earth orbit. the periapsis radius is just r 1 . We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius. The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 .1 . rCS' from the energy equation.1 ) . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.34 TWO .9. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a.9. circular speed is about 26 . The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction.
92) . A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 .E.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   ." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.57).91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . r.2 Escape Speed.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 . Theoretically." 1 .9. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. Of course. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. first at a general point a distance .Sec. 1 . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity. from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � .
400 nm above the surface it is only 26. = j. 5 7). 8. As you would expect. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.000 ft/sec. 53374 106 ft = = 36. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.1/2a.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . 36 TWO . Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 .Since the specific mechanical energy. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . a.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude . the semimajor axis. a. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth.1 57.92) =21 .) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . b ..
m i . 06748 106 ft 7087. m i . rb i t P 7087.8 n.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .53374 106 ft 2 43. 1 . 8n. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn.Sec.amr iO.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21.
Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . 1 0. Obviously. 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. The parameters a.1 ) . (L l O. If we consider the lefthand focus. If. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . 1 . 1 0. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). instead. F . 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth.1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes).38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. then the righthand branch represents the orbit. 1 1 .
1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 .0. the smaller will b e the turning angle . 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. The turning angle . If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. The angle between the asymptotes.1 . 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity. on the other hand. 1 0.. If. 0.for the hyperbola. This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed.but since Sec. 1 02) becomes ( 1 . it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . 1 . 1 0.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . V 00' . is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . 1 . we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value ." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed.
Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. It is. of course . a million miles) from earth. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . the concept is convenient and is widely used. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. however." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. 1 0. In other words. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. 1 (1 . for all practical purposes it has escaped. 1 . This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. 1 . Astronomers call thi� ' .3 Sphere of Influence.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. It is a fact.
Using canonical units determine & . The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\.l.1 . If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. 1 . Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. or other planet. moon. 1 1 . We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . r a' r p' . Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. e.Sec. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . 1 . earth. p. h." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. 1 1 . will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . For other problems where the earth. 5 9362 5 . then the value of the gravitational parameter. In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . J. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. 1 The Reference Orbit.
42).1 . [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . 1 67 D U �/T U � = . Alt = .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . � = . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. 5 D U e �2 _ /J. 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units.
5 D U "..64) Find ra from equation (1.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t. 25D U EB = 4.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. = 2. 1 . 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8.58) Find r p from equation (1.Sec. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .= 4 . 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 . 5 D U = 9.61) Find h from equation (1.5 7)  r a = 1 e p. = 3.
Find the eccentricity of the orbit. 2J AK IJK h = AI .2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. 6 J 1 . c. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. b . + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI .44 TW O. 2K DU 2 /TU . 1 . is 30 x 1 0 6 ft.3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth.. &= .000 ft/sec and 4 . Why. (Answer : e = 1 .B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . Find the specific energy of the trajectory. 1 .2. 1 EXERCISES 1 . 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. in general. Find the period of the orbit. respectively.1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . The orbit eccentricity is 0. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. 5 81) 1 . .1 .4 Six constants of integration (or effectively.000 n mi. a.
or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). 2K + . 354 10" r 1 . p 1. elliptical. V ft/sec. 1. 1 . (Ans.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. hyperbolic. r v c.6 18 = 59° 58') . D U 2 /T U 2 = + . 7 Prove that d. 91 J space.5 DU DU DU d. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. 0 1K v = l + l . Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. ¢ =3 = 1 . r x ft ) = 3. a a. mi during descent? (Ans.123K = 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . &.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular.5 rpe r i gee = 1 .Ch .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300.000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. D U /T U DU e. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . p b. 4K r r v = .
Determine the maximum altitude attained. c. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. p = 2.2 e = . p = 6. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. e=O e = . derive values for e for circles.6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . p = 6. d .) 1 . 1 . sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = .000 ft.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . ellipses and a hyperbolas. e. p = 2. (Neglect atmo spheric drag. 1 2 Given that e = �. b . 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . p = 3. P 1 .
* 1 .Ch . rc = at +b = 0. Show that : b.6. c. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v. 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . 207 1 . What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans .V O U EB /TU EB ) . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. 2 .4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun.Sec. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . Q and W respectively. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . 2 . Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . you may use the same Figure 2. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. When describing a heliocentric orbit . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. Yw '+. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation.Xw UK vectors.2.24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P.
measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. is substituted for a in the above list. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. 4 . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . Similarly. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. shape and orientation of an orbit . if you know a and e you can compute p. time of periapsis passage . The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 .the angle from to periapsis measured h. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. i. 2 . e. the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis.the angle . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. p.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . argumen t of periapsisthe angle . T. in the fundamental plane . Obviously . Q longitude of the ascending node. 3 . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. 2. K I I . w. Instead of argument of periapsis. Another system. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. a. 5 . semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different.3.the time when the satellite was at periapsis. 6. Frequently the semilatus rectum.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time .1 as follows : 1 .
Sec.3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2. 2 .31 Orbital elements .
then both w and Uo are undefined. w and va are all defined.1 ) .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit).60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . in the plane of the orbit. Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . From Figure 2.31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. to ' called the "epoch. Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . (2 . n=n+w. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde ." Direct means easterly. 1 £0 £0 + . This is the dire ction in which the sun. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. both of which are always defined . earth." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . then b oth W and n are undefined. '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis.3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o .3.
n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . n would have to lie in the orbital plane.42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. n. n and e. h. To be perpendicular to K. Therefore . The node vector. 2 . vI vJ v K J (2 . We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. 2. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. n must be perpendicular to both K and h. or in their intersection which is called the "line of .4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 .4.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . t o .4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. h.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK .Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . n an d e. To be perpendicular to h. 2.
4. An understanding of it is essential to what follows . between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: .1 ) (2 . h. The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. e.1 1 )). n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. All three vectors. The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. the cosine of the angle . is obtained from (2 .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l .1 .3. being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . p. Now that we have h." Specifically .4.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements.46) Of course . In general. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . 2. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A .S . The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . We are only interested in its direction. 2 nodes. The parameter. n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. The vector. Study this figure carefully . B cos a AB (see Figure (2 .62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . ex.
Since n is the angle between I and n.) e. (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.) .4.1 0) 7 .4.L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° . 2. (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° . Since Vo is the angle between e and f.. Since i is the angle between K and h.48) 5 .:.49) 6.. 2 . c o s U o = !!. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .4 3 .Sec. Since w is the angle between n and (2. � � h. Since Uo is the angle between n and f .1 1) .) c o S Po = � er (2 .' (2. (2 .
64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .1 and study it until they do .4. 3 . look at the geometry of Figure 2 . Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2. The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). . If they don't make sense to you. 2 z x 8 . With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v.1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense .
2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 . 5 DU e == . Figure 2. VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.Sec.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1.
4 DU p == .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch . 2 3 Figure 2 .5 e == .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .\ .
Sec.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 . 2.44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .
Find inclination. . From equation (2. Find p using equation (2 .= 4D U = 13.l h2 . e. ) r . using equation (2 .1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 .l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 .4. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. Using equation (2.. 7 75 .7 4n . ml . [ ( f..48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.6.. n.1 ) p = .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node .(r . f. A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). EEl . i.47) = .. Find eccentricity.I:!:.45 ) Since h =.1.i:.
. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore ..n = COS . is undefined. Find true anomaily . 2 . Find argument of periapsis. II. II. 4 . From equation (2.1 (. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. for this case .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis.1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 . = cos .49) W n · e W. From equation (2 .Sec.!!. va. can be determined in this case.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .  Find longitude of periapsis. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined .41 0) v a c os. .n.:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again .
2 Find true longitude o f epoch... EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .5 . = From equation (2.E)r(r . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� . v)v] =.1 ) Find e.70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .m i .\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=..  then from equation ( 1 . From equation (2. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .85 n .6.3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .25 EB EB D U EB 7748.
From equation (2. I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 . va : From equation (2.4.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis.5 Find the inclination. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r . .11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .I Find the true anomaly .1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch. From equation (2 .49) w: 0 W = cos.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .Sec. 2.
5 2) . shown below. 8. In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. w and v. i.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . lV. n. Let ' s assume that we know p. 8. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. . consists of two steps. w and va . Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. Of the se six elements.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. that occurs in a given time .ffe si n V (2.to.5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . n. i .5. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. 2 elements are given.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . 2. The method. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly .72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 . changes with time . v.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =.24): ro to.
Sec.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).54) r = J � [.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 . A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 . 2.5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.54) from equation r (2.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 5P DU E9 (2.25 45{) (2.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = . Before equation (2.5 i= p 2. v �[.
A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. Certain vectors. the direction of the po sitive zaxis.6. For example. the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. For example . and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. its fundamental (xy) plane . A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . direction ." 2. suppose you know the south. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . east a!1d up. east. east .6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. or what it represents. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. 2 2. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. In other words. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. have a definite starting point . vector represents. and it still represents the same thing." The phrase in quotes describes what the . namely. suppose you know the south. such as position vectors. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components).
61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . y' and z ' axes. y ����. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . Figure 2. 2. 2. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods.61) . y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices." In other words. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.61 illustrates the two frames. ���________� • . Let us imagine three unit vectors I. Figure 2. and extending along the x. V and W along the x ' . We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite.6. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .Sec. : r Y I ex a .y Y 75 .6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S .
65) .6. We will use subscripts to identify the basis.1 ) yields I.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch . V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.61 we can see that the unit vectors U. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2. 2 From Figure 2.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).62) above and equating it with (2. (2.
2 . (2 .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .6. 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.67) yields the set of equations (2 .3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame .66) (2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis. These are summarized belox:: . .64) above .Sec. 68) B '" (2.67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2.69) '" axis. Rotation about the xaxis. The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.
4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.6. So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. 1 ). Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector.61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame .si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . 2 (2.78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.7 . in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) . a.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames. Figure 2.
For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . Now.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . The transpose of the matrix D .e. Equation (2. (i.1 .cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. 2. .Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e . In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. Hence .6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant.Sec. AB =1= SA ). We can write equation (2. The inverse of any orth.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). denoted by D . Fortunately. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.
to p' ter ho w co no. 'o ta t. d wi th .1 2) Figure 2 .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK . 62. By me mo C.sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch .".n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . d w . mu " in cid 'n ce b . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce . sh ow n in F ig u " Th . d th yo u will b . 6." a ny mp licat e d . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc.".. basis no ma t .". oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am ... a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. gl " n i lly . th' O ugh w hi ch on . Perifo ca l to th e G Th . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . 2 (2. 5 Tmn . m1 " fo. d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . axes in to CO ham . tluee b . n t rizing th .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. 6.ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . a bl . O c M ma t.6 .Eq to th e IJ K in at . th. anglo ..
. aQ.The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit .. For example . then Sec . aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems.. Figure 2.. Thus if a i ' aJ .. To . R..63.63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. . it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . a K and ap .. from Figure 2. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . 2 ..
the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . J and K Thus R = J . B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. P K · P In Figure 2. since I and P are unit vectors. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 .sin n sin w cos i . The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. I • p I · Q J . Q I ' W J · W K . ! • P. 2 from their dot product .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .1 4) R23 = . a �.cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. Now a.6. Similarly.6. R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w .cos n sin w .1 3) i. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I.sin n sin w cos i R12 = R .63 .
1 ) and (2. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need .5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . 2. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements.Sec . Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site .5 . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. In this case either n or w or both are undefined. . 2 . V. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both .
E and Z shown in Figure 2 . the rate at which range is changing. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located.( N o rt h ) 2. The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . can also be measured.7 . AZ . The unit vectors S. p. If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . 2.71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. is measured clockwise from north . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. The azimuth angle . The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. 7 . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. Az. the elevation angle .7 .1 .84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . EI.7.
1 . Az.7 . Sec. 2. Thus.7 4) = + P (2 .75) . p. We will express the po sition vector as (2 . we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. /l!L.7.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2. E I . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z.73) E l (B I ).and EO/. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2.3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame.1 ) where .1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . from the geometry of Figure 2. From Figure 2.7 .72 we see that r (2 . = Ps PE = P cos Pz. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky.
If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 2 J topo centric frame . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 .72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . Unfortunately. things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth. For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .76) .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .
73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 .77) . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence".73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . (2 . 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in . EB x f. movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. Therefore . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. 2 . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth.74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame .Sec. Figure 2. It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v.
5 J . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 .E + 1 . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . 5Z (Given) [). The angle to Greenwich is 3040 . is 2 S E + . 3535 .1 = [.612 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.707 o .707 . 5 Z (units are DU).6 1 2 . 300 N Lat .3535 .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Figure 2.612) r = R + P = 2S .866 .
We will denote this quantity by w.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. z) system (Figure 2 . (2. z)..79) J. y.7. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . . w) . y. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial.. I =J =K=O. It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time .982K . however. Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . (2. V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . 2.75 ) . if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system .9 1 81 + 2. v. rotating with respect to the (x. 332J  .78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I.4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame .Sec. The unit vectors D.
R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . equation (2 . Hence .1 0) reduces further to .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . .7. dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . equation (2 . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U.1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . Hence . V = w x V and W = w x W . .7. Similarly. . The remaining terms of equation (2.71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 .
.. W) Figure 2.. v v.. " F i xed " System ( x.. 2 . .. .. z) '. .7... .1 2) .y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ . dt R I (2 . .. ..LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 . ... .1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q. y............ Equation (2.71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u....75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA..7.. �:.. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u ...Sec.
(2 ." Ioox.7 .7. 2 iLl F = .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.7.7. Equation (2 . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .) .7.1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .1 3) into equation (2 .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 . (2 .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 . The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .7.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .1 2) to the po sition vector r.7.1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame . Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .7 . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.7 .9!.
Sec. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. of course . ae . 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. however . "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame .8. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. 2 . circles. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . In the model which has been adopted. It is known . ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. Sections parallel to the equator are .8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . 2. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis.) 2. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. If the earth were perfectly spherical. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . Therefore . be' is just the polar radius of the earth. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier.
8." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight .08182 == km km L La L . The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter . This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . the difference between L and is usually negligible .2 The Measurement of Latitude. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level.3 Station Coordinates. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated . The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. When you are given the latitude of a place . 2. 1 45 6356." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field . Consider Figure 2. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . it does complicate the concept of latitude.94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . 2.785 0.1 . Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude .8.8.
. / (2.82 .Sec. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3.1 ) .. O . 2 . c. The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e .8 ." which is illustrated in Figure 2. Thus. 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � .82..!! o .8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 . L . 4 km Figure 2. It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal. the "reduced latitude ..
I C.1:  (2 . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. b e =a e V� = b2 + d..82) . z . / . Ch .and e = da.. a2 .96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. c:  0) x Figure 2. 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . for any ellipse . 0 O D.
(2. d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2. dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . (2 . 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .85) .Sec:.8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . 2 . Thus.
From Figure 2. it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time . {1 ' is known . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.8 8) . 2 ( 2 .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . (2 . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . elevation above mean sea level. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . If the Greenwich sidereal time . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2.86) L.8 7) 2.98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components.8. {1. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .
" If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time .Sec .89) . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time .8. L. the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . 2 . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t. 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 ." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame .84 shows a spherical earth. Although Figure 2.
1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . From (2 .1 0) .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components. For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .8 . 2 j i Figure 2 .
A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . 2 . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .9.1 .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 . When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day . (2 .Sec.1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6.9 .1 2) . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2.6. The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . This should be made clear by F igure 2.8. so .9 equation (2 . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . 2. a Z If a l . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . This is the time kept by ordinary clocks.1 2) and a s ' a E .
09054 mean solar seconds . when the earth is near perihelion. we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion.1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . In early January. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. So far.91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 .
Thus. For example . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 .Sec.9.9. or Zulu (Z) time. The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time .3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. if it . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. Universal Time (UT). This relationship is illustrated on page 99.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) .2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . 2 . Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours.is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. 2. .
Ephemeris and 2. 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent .9. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . . ° 229421 1. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. m i n .4 Precession of the Equinoxes. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. we express time in decimal fractions of a day. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . in addition. 8 9=8 9 0 1 .
the equatorial plane is not .000 year s .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic. However .. 6 yrs I Figure 2.Sec . The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge..." with a perio d of 1 8 . As the earth' s axis precesses. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 .6 year s . Due to the asphericity of the earth..6 years. the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly.z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 .. The period of the precession is about 2 6. 2 . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 .92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars.. . so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period. 0 0 0 y rs " .
296° H = 6 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown .378km = 0 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included.0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 .74933340 = 1 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. x= [ z= � ae + � .00 1 + L= 0 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 . 25 8=8 g + A = .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . at 0600 GMT. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 . 6 24 5 . Day  = Long o 57 .296 degrees west longitude . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6.378 km above mean sea level on the equator. 5 7 .6245 rad ians o 9 . 00 1 From section 2 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .1 .
74) .6245) = .7 1 SJ + OK Sec.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .(0.72) PE p Pz Ps = . 00 1 c o s(S. At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 2 .2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.From equation (2. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .6971 + .6245 )1 + 1 .4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.2D UES = (0. 0. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .346E + O. 00 1 (S.4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 .
(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .8 .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.1 .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2. 0.232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .46S .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .�� lO.4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.0.061 . 1 08 Ch .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .866 0.1 .73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.8 .610.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.5 1 .1 .7·5 ) From equation (2 .346E + l .84J .46 D U /T U (0.25 0. 3.77) v = [� ] [ J 0. 46 = 0.(0.73 p + (O.433 .346J + 1 .Ps = .46 P =D1 .4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.3.0588K) From equation (2 . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .73Z D U (T U r = 0.04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .0E + 1 .0 1 .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .
EI . f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar).0. p . In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . and the orb it is uniquely determined. 2 . EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p .081 . Figure 2.232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . k. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p .8J . Ei. 2. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . Ai. well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 .Sec. 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . Gibbs is. may be lacking.3. Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . As Baker S points out . W. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. of course .
r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. 1 04) . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . 1 05) (2 . 1 0. there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o .5 4). Notice that C2 may now be divided out. 1 03) by f3 X r l . 1 0. Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 .1 ) successively by fl . we can show that : e ' f = p . Dotting (2 . 1 02) gives (2 . (2 . 1 0. (2 . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. equation ( 1 . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered .1 ) by (2 . Q and W. (2 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . then u sing (2 . 2 fine scholar .r 3 ) = 0 . 1 04) (2 .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .r. who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. 1 05 ) and (2 . 1 03) Cross (2. 1 06) Multiply (2 . 1 08) . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. and the definition of a dot product .
1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. 1 0. 1 0 pD = N . N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. equation (2 . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. (2 .1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . (2 . 1 0. then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec.1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . 1 0. D = N P = O' N (2 . Since P.1 3) : (2 . 1 0.e . 1 0. N and D have the same dire ction. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . 1 09) D.1 4) (2 . Therefore . 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . (2. i.1 5) . Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. 2 .Let the right side of (2 .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . provided N . 1 0. . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system.
1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .52) we can write i X h = p. P = Q X W. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 . 1 0.1 7) to find e. 1 0. 1 020) to find P. (2 . Therefore. D and S ve ctors.1 9) to find W. (2. (2 . Then use (2 . From equation ( 1 .r2 ) f3 ] (2 . 1 02 1 ) .r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . 1 0.1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. (2 . Before solving the problem.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. 1 0.1 9) Since P. 1 020) Thus.1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . ( f  r + e) . to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. (2 . 1 0. check N * O and D .r t ) f2 + ( rt . N and S vectors. 1 0. Q and W are orthogonal. N > o.1 6) . and (2 .1 8) to find Q. since NeQ = pS. 1 0. it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 1 01 0) to find p. However . The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2.1 8) N (2 . N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . 1 0.
1 0.(h . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . Using the identity . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np.2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . = p. e) We can write h v v = .Sec . h X (h h ) v .E. S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . v = eP. (h xr r = + (a .h = P. so c) b .( a . 2 . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . v) h and h . b) c O . D X r + JJ{. 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. 1 025) . ON (2 . 1 024) (2 ..
Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. 4 . using the stated tests. appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . This is not exactly true. 2 L + LS (2 . to find any of the three velocities directly . find v2 : 2. The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s.1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. possible two body orbit . v2 � + L S r2 • . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . N=FO. = 0 for coplanar vectors. Form L = = 6. Finally . proceed as follows : For example . 1 . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. Test: 0 10 . 1 02 6) Thus. N and S vectors. shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . This method . Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size .
02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar.000K = 0_700J .0471 O U = 0 . and the timeofflight between these po sitions. the semilatus rectum. N .Sec. r1 r2 r3 = 1 . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations.039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.047 1 = . Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . Since 010." Thus. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution .0774J 0. eccentricity. period and the velocity vector at position two .8000K = 0.5000K Find : P. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. r 1 and r2 .0. 2 . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). 9701 = 2. Form the D . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem.9000J + 0. P = 0= N  2.97 . and S vectors: D= N S 1 .
0804 e = = = 0 .0.0.270K W= N. 700J . = . 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.963K N 1 . .270J + 0.960 DU/T U (4.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .657K D U /T U 2 0.67 TU (89.497 9.1 .963J .4 to solve for the elements. Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.576J . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 . 2 S .97 o lP = a = 1 .0. 0408 1 1 . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . 1r/{: 6.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .
1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 .1 ) (2 . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. 1 1 2) r . (X1 ' < \ � . ° 2 . 3. (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . j = 1. and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 .Sec. As a result . [:i:n :: :. Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . (2 . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. 2. = OJ + R j . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s .:S :J: JS L K . 2 .g . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . then ' . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera.z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times.6 2 : 1 1 . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . If we let L . L.7 2). 1 1 . 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. In either case . r = pL [�. optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e .
\ •. .1  R ) r3 .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . p and r... \ Figure 2. \' P2 i �� G ". �� I 1 " _ . ' ' :. R and R are known at time t2 . \ [L. . f f.' ' " ': . The vectors L. \ .1 .. . 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . L.. say the middle ob servatio n . : '< ' . � .[. . .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . however .J V I . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. ':. • 00 . L. 0 (2 . p. 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . 1 1 3) (2 . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . • ' I .. I . �J 1  ./  L . p. are not known . (2 . r u. the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns .
t 2 ) + ( t 3 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t2 L3 ( t 3 . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t 2 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t 1 .t 3 ) (t.t 1 ) ( t3 .t2 ) . 2 .t3 ( t 2 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t } ) (t 3 .t 1 .t 1 ) ( t.t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.three t�es. 1 1 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t 3 ( t 1 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector . Since we have the value of L at.t 1 ) (t 3 .Sec.t 1 ) ( t2 . t } . t2 .t2 ) (t.t 1 ) ( t2 . t2 and t3 .t2 ) ( t} . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t 3 ) ( t } . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t3 ) (2 . 1 1 6) + 2t .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t 3 ) L2 (2. 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .
p.u R Ir3 I + . For the time being. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or ..L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . + . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 .ons (2 . LI .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. 2 . however. let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . I L . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. L L L K K K J . It should be noted. L K + . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . in fact . 4 Equation (2 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns.u L 1 / r 3 L J + . 1 1 6) and (2 . it is evident that L Dp = . . L J I (2 . 1 1 5 ) . L J . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. that if more than three observations are available .u R Ir3 J + .. 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. p.u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce .u L /r 3 . p' and r. D reduces to L D =2 L I L .. better yet . This.
The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. R J . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2.1 1) Op = . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . R . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. R R . is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r.1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. 1 1 2). 1 1 .1 0) and (2 . O O. Provided that the determinant of the coefficients.1 0) into (2.1 2) . . 1 1 . 1 1 . L K L J L I K (2. 1 1 5).L L L J K I p . . 0. 1 1 . R R I . r2 = pL RI = + p (2..4 Solving for Velocity . From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 2 . Substituting equation (2 . 2 . 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. L K .. 1 1 . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. p and r. . 1 1 . L J L I K J!.Sec . 1 1 .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. If we do this we find that .
k. E l . 1 1 .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . Laplace ' s method fails . 1 1 . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . such as P. A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . (2 . 2 (2 .2). 1 1 . P. ° 3 . 1 1 . 2 . 1 1 . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite .1 3) for p. I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . As a matter of fact . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . a .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . D. Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . To obtain the velocity vector . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations.1 4) p 2. El. a3 . ° .
::"P . \ ' t2 . The six residuals are �1 ' ." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements.Sec.::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2.::"P 3 . . t4 . 2. t3 . based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. Doppler rangerate. ts and t6 ' These predictions are . r K ' v " vJ . 2 The Differential Correction equations. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. For example . the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times.::"P 2 ' . A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. 1 2. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. It may happen . of course. p) will differ from the computed data. 1 2. 2. v Kl at t = to are correct. we can write the following six firstorder equations (2.g. The question then arises. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. Assuming that the residuals are small. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. . 1 Computing Residuals. however . 1 21) .
1 2. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient.e. i. reduce the residuals to zero . NK.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. usually 6 for orbit problems) n . Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. for example . ap1 . ..:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . . All that is required is to introduce a small variation. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. 1 2 .VI . . Nj. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. The inversion of equations (2 . NI . r K " ' arl D. 1 2. D. rj . Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . D.r l " v K )p1 ( r l . such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. equations (2 .VK . 2.Vj' D. With the aid of a digital computer. however.3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. . In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method.) Then. V K ) . by trial and error.
2 . a and (3 are the elements (two here . 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. 3 . Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . use 0.W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect.. b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements.g . minimum as described above . This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. since p 2 below) . zero . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. 2 . In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense .. If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . called the root me an square (RMS) . . V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). Solve equation (2 . Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. for 90% confidence . Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. 4.8 1 ) . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2.tb each of the elements measured. This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. = = n) . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . for the exactly determined case (p or b.
j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . the partial derivatives are : . Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and .:.Assume equal confidence in all data. 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . Choo se ex and for the first estimates. ex VI.2.
{3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 2. Thus. Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 .Sec. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT.
This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. we will use a simple . 6 orbit elements) would be used. yet still overspecified number of measurements. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence .474 and f3 = 3.474 Xi 3 . large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. In practice.360 = . This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. To illustrate the method involved.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch .
000 n = Vi 0.000 1 9.1 05 9. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .1. 969 ____  Vi . aa . E ( V 1.500 8. 474 x 3 ._1.) 2 n .1 26 0.474 4 0 07 19. 3 .0 01 1 3.y.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .828 0 0.000 50.866 4 x .. ( V i Yi ) 2 4. 2 .. . 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l . 0 35 3.007 0. 934 = 1 .865 49. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.Vi 2.Sec.934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .
039 £::.474 + .304 = .3. 81 30 8. Thus (X new = . 0. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .2..056 ""' T . 0 18 0. 1 961 0.027 12.380708 A = 40.(X 26 3. The second iteration yields: £::.36 .0.. so we iterate.304 0.670 3. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.l Now using (2 .021 070 20. 1 22) we have £::.. 105.z 10.062 . 1 75 ] 5. which is larger than what we started with.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1. 27 A WA = [12.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2.360. 1 96 = 3."""'" �T�� .031 8.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0.001 07 33 b = 0. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 . {3 = {3 new .4 1 69.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .733. = 3.
5 8 1 . This i s not yet the case so we iterate again .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. 2 . However. 1 2. 2 . the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. however. 7 35 x 3 . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . 038 [3 = 3 . .Sec . 2. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how .000 .5 8 2 . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. In practice . in theory. 038 . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion .735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. during orbital decay. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 .00 1 . The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . and finally.4 Unequally Weigh ted Data.
the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). spacecraft failure diagnosis. Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). antisatellite targeting. the precomputed 2. 1 Radar Sensors. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. At present. 1 3. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. 2 2.500 miles make about 1 2 . The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. 1 The Spacetrack System. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. 1 4 . The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . 2 . and midcourse ICBM inter ception. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . In addition.5 003. the White Sands Missile Range .000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . These detection radars with a range of 2. forming "clouds" of space debris.
Greenland. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. One of the earlier detection radars. One FPS49 . Turkey. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians.Sec. Alaska. the FPS43. while three are located at Clear. and is on active spacetrack alert. New Jersey.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. is now on active Spacetrack alert. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. 2. Figure 2.
This BMEWS station at Clear.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. In addition. Alaska. Florida. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker.142. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. under the 140ft radome at the left. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. Alaska. 2 Figure 2. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. United Kingdom. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is .
High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy.2 Radio Interferometers. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2.14. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan.143. When two or .Sec. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. 2. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. 2. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB.
but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. Alberta. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. is well established. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. and therefore . two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific.3 Optical Sensors. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. Canada . In addition to these . 1 4 . but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. 2 . the semimajor axis. 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . Considering the type of observational data received. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period.
400 miles. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. As a result. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. A separate optical system superimposes.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. Alberta. seeing conditions must be good. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable.Sec. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background.145. and the lighting correct. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. it is . on the same strip of Cinemascope film. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. 2. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. 1 0 Under favorable conditions.
Doppler rangerat e info rmation. Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . 1 4 . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . is relatively accurat e . 2 . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . on the other hand .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. Massachusett s . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression.000 meters. I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds.1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . . New Mexico site. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . In any case . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . For detection radars. takes time. Further . in any case . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. 4 Typical Sensor Errors. (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate .
2.7 seconds in time would remain. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag.14. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein.5 Future Developments. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. lunar attraction.Sec 2. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects.146.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. nonuniform gravitational fields. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .
The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . Theoretically . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. a continuousw ave . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . Many improvements .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . of the target . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . but it also record s target tracks for later playback . Now. the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . In t he system under development . Operating in the SHF b and . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . p. which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . howeve r .
One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . 1 5 2 . i. o f the orbit . F igure 2 . respectively with a launch a zimuth . 18cP  2 . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . The arc CB which forms the • . For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . 1 5 . 1 5 . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . 1 5 .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle .Sec.. 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An.1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. 2 . 1 5 .. 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 .
2.c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . A direct orbit require s . For a due east launch equat ion (2 . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . 1 5 ·3 . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. . f3 ' be easterly . L o?" If i is to be minimized .e . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . 0 i. Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . i : c os i = . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . that the launch azimuth. 1 5 . therefore . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . betwe en 00 and 1 80° . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere .
2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . su r face .Sec. A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . 2 . Figure 2 . 1 5 . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 .
J . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2.7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U.2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. 885.1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch .89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. = u nd ef i ned ) = . Which takes longer . 2 EXERCISES 2 . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . Englan d . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. 9 7 0 .7071 + . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . i = 90° . Colorado ( 1 04. = (partial answers : 2. a solar day or sidereal day? b . e = .
Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . 2.2K DU . e.) Determine p. . i . 82 u a .8 2075 . 1. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 .8 I J P = . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. 3<. Determine the orbital e lements. W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU.J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system.Ch.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. (Answer [partial] e = . c . 2 + b .
8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . 1 0 2. 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . 2 . a. 6464495 a. the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. (Answer : r = 1 . U se of a computer is sugge sted .7 6) . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW.4 1 4202 0.5 0 West . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . 1 0 January 1 9 70. 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . r2 1 . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis .system along the unit ve ctor s P. 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . b ut not nece ssary. b . b . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. Site longitude is 1 2 1 . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans.4 1 4225 1 1 1 . W. PST .3 5 35 3995 0 1 .060668 8 3 1 . equatorial . Q.3 1 065 1 5 0. 2. C alifornia . LST = 63 . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . p = 1 . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . Units are earth canonical units. Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . 1 7 1 . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. 2. the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . r3 r l I J K 1 .
0 7 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f. fl f2 f3 d.09497879 1 . fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .0 0 2 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .94974 1 7 6 .0 0 2 .0 1 .094964 1 8 0.707 1 1 25 5 0.5 35 5 28 1 3 0 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 . B .0 2 .Ch. fl f2 f3 3 .6 0.62 1 34384 c.2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.20709623 0 .0 7 .9 1 42 3467 2 .565 6808 1 0 0 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .9 1 420062 4 . C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2. fl f2 f3 0 .2K with a velo city o f AI .97 2 .0 2 . .1 .89497724 0 0 0 1 .0 0 .7 0 0 e.5 65 6808 1 0.8 0 0 .97 0 1 . DU * 2.707 1 0 1 0 1 0.207 1 25 5 1 .89497 879 0.8 0 .0 1 . 1 4  DU/TU.n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .0 0 .6 0. A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.
5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. east and zenith (up) component s? c. Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. 9 7 . . ___ e.75 K D U /T U )  . ( A ns. Obj ect c. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . Express the coordinates. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0.620 1 I 0. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . 2 a . d . has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . v = 0. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . b.0078 J 0. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates.1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . * 2 . Obj ect b . A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. Obj ect vernal equinox direction.17 p 0. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates.
Dover Publications ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . Baker . Telescope ." in The World of Math ematics .1 1 1 . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. Vol 3 . 2 . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . New York and London . "Space Traffic Surveillance . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . John Wiley & Sons. NY . S . New York . 1 96 3 . E scobal. 1 95 7 . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . Pierre Simo n . 1 95 6 . New York . Academic Pre ss. 1 0 . London . Paul G . 4. No 6 . Laplace . Gauss. Jame s R . L. Jr . Sky Publishing Corp . C ambridge ." Vol 48 . New York . November 1 9 67 . Navy Space Surveillance System. Newman . Sons Ltd ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . C . Pedro Ramon . "The A erospace Vehicle s . Inc. Henize . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . 1 9 66. Thomas Nelson and 3. G . 1 9 67 . Moulton . 1 965 . Space/A ero na utics . 1 962. Simo n and S chuster . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. 6. and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . Carl Friedrich. NY. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Angus. New York . Forest Ray . Armitage . NY . K. A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. 7 . Second Revised Edition . 8 . NY . Inc. Mass. Institute of the Aero space S cience s . The M acmillan Company. E . C leeto n . . 9 . pp 1 08 . Thoma s. U. 5 . Robert M .Ch. D avis . Edmond Halley . 1 9 1 4.
Inc. Robert D ." The Vol 1 4. New York . Electronic . Colorado. No 20 . California. 17." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. Bate." Satellite Control Facility. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. S. USAF Academy. Sunnyvale. 1 962. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. New York. Gerald C.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Cheetham. No 5 . 1 966. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. 1 970. . Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. 1 6. SepOct 1 967. R. 2 1 1 . R." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Thomas J. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. NY. 1 3 . Air Force Systems Command. McGrawHill. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . 1 9 66. p 39 . and Eller. the A stronautical Sciences. 1 967 . 1 2 . Davies. 1 5 . Carson. Roger R. Briskman. NY . 1 966. Journal of Oct 2. NY. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. New York. NY. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. 1 962." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. P. "Future Radar Developments. Vo1 40. New York. 1 4.
or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . Goddard. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. 1 0.000 or more miles. ) 00 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. or variously eccentric. as of 5 . for the next 250 years. 1 . Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. the idea seems to have been forgotten. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 .CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. After that . those bodies. according to their different velocity. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. and the different force of gravity in different heights. and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits.
The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . 1 . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 .research. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. Rather . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . particularly if it is manned . 3 . His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . Project Orbiter. In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. However. still in its infancy . For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . On 4 October 1 95 7 . has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. since it contemplated the use of military hardware . Manned spaceflight . 3 . o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later.
H O URS WEEK .50K �.. VI/II � V � .rrrj.. � '" .n w . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N . ..+ :=.25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" . ..J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E ... 20K (.J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION . 71. . c. mJ77/1/. ..EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr.J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl . � ee.. (I) CD � ...::: 0(I) "" 20 10 . YEAR a YEARS .. .///11// .: fiD It: 0 It: <t . 11 L . � ... .' � S' (1) 0 ...... I MONTH I ..(/} � � (I) E � � . c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 ...V'h WillI e: � .rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION ...
It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . m . Figure 3 . m . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch.03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . 3 . stated. 1 . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. m . Figure 3 . 1 . a p ogee 1 00 n . 1 ·2 .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 .
or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude.Sec. The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. The vehicle is not allowed to coast .. 1 3 . The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. as you can see from Figure 3 . The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . 3 . The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. 1 2 . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 .
Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . 3 . You . Figure 3 . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . 1 . As a result. 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . 1 5 . therefore. The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone.1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .
3 .. 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " . "::> Figure 3 .9 r�=r�rr.:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�..J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.2 .J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*. 1 > ..�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+."� ill Q rn o I � fS ..5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .Sec.
J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 .. 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0. "' "' . 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .. I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch .J 5 "' C iii 0.
3 .60 . What is the inclination of the orbit? b. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits.67 0 /day From Figure 3 .site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. completing one revolution every 90 days.Q 360 ° per 90 days :.Sec.40 or greater than 1 1 6.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits.6 0 . 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude .40 and 1 1 6. With this perturbation . 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . which also is due to oblateness. The ascending node moves to the west . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Figure 3 . the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63. 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. Therefore = . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. a. and oppo.6.
3 . If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. ground trace of a synchronous satellite. 1 2 this would be 2*. of course. There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . On the scale of Figure 3 . The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. unfortunately." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). This.6 earth radii above the surface . Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious.300 nm or about 5 . unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. Of course. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . 3 . This is.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . however. 3 Figure 3 .inches from the surface. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable.2. 1 . 1 The Synchronous Satellite. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases.2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse.1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . not the case . Figure 3.21 shows why. for example .000 nm altitude . It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. The first stage booster climbs 3 . 2 . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite.
.21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 . curve is \ " " .. burn """ " " . This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit...22 Ascent ellipse . At apogee of the ascent ellipse. 3... Dot ted grou nd trace . the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more.Sec. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm .2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. . .. intervals .� � Figure 3 . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr.
3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. /:.34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed.da a2 = fJ. (3 .31) If we solve for '. fJ. we get a change in .32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . 3 .  fJ. and flightpath angle. at appropriate points in the orbit. (3.v (3. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 .33) or = da 2a2 vdv . if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:.3 . we get (3 . speed. Usually this is not serious.. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. as they are called . = _ r 2a . a very precise orbit is required. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . a? v. but . dv. 2vdv .1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . for some other reason. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved.
We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. whose radius is rl .3. 3 . a2 6. Since the major axis is 2a." 3 . 4 Jl. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits.1 .35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. 2 The Hohmann Transfer. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. a 6.h a �  da. 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. to the large orbit. therefore .34) for small but finite 6.semimajor axis. Since we know r l .v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . whose radius is r2 . the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . Similarly.34). called Hohmann transfer orbits. along the transfer ellipse. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl .V v P P (3. For example . 3 . The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are .v) . we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. of the orbit given by equation (3 .
37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3. 3 the transfer orbit.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch .36) = r i + r2 =  and. since p. its speed is . &.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. (3.31 (3.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3./2 a .31 &. 2at Figure 3 .
For the transfer traj ectory. 3 I N. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . ra = 3 DU.1 0) (3 . . & t = � = . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .Sec. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one .39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . to VI ' So .� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. i n our example . The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion .V required to double the altitude of the satellite .1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases.3.V implies a Hohmann transfer . Find the minimum /::. 3 .3. Minimum rp = 2 DU. Although.
1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .3. Figure 3.068 D U/TU V cs =.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::. 1 29 DU/TU = 3.32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .� r 1 1 +e p p (3.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .346 ft/sec 3 .32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.707 DU /TU vi r.313) .VTOT == . I::.JfF"= .3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits. I t is obvious from Figure 3 . We can express this condition mathematically as r = . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.V2 = .061 DU/TU I::.V1 = .3. 3 V cs 1 = (il = .
ht. we can compute the energy.3. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . / 2a . To satisfy both conditions. respectively .1 5) . �. p p (p. Knowing and e.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. and the angular momentum. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. I &. (3.1 4) (3.Sec. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. p p p  = . and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area. 3 . Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits.I' l l  e ' )l2 p.3. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p.33) and interpret them graphically. in the transfer orbit.
33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r .1 is just the flightpath angle . its speed is (3 . Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit . __ Figure 3. .v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.39) The angle between v1 and va.. we get (3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.34 /::. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . p r2.
¢l ' is zero.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. This is called a simple plane change. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. Or. after applying a finite b. and obtain directly for circular orbits. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles.V. b. e.V. or it can rotate the line of apsides. 1 Simple Plane Change . (3 . The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and.V. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3. 3. 4 . it is not surprising that equation (3 .3. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side .34.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. more simply. b.Sec. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . together with the b.1 'I' . the b.V required.V using the law of cosines.31 6) Now. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle .310) when the flightpath angle .41) 3.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ". (3.1 . Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . A velocity change . We can solve for the magnitude of b. as shown at the right of Figure 3 . If. form an isosceles vector triangle. 3 .41 .4.3. b.1 7) reduces to equation (3. assuming that we know v and e.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the .
makes b. Determine the total b. b . 3 Figure 3 . A plane change of 60 0 . DU circular orbit.41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. Therefore . The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. . calculate the additional b. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required .vrequired to accomplish the mission. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N .V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. a.170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . for example .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit.
1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU . I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.953 DU/TU L.V l 1 .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a. 1 +� 1 . .1 = \1'1 .Vl = V l . The given information is: h I = 0. & t = = �= . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .__ = .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) ..270. 3. 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.0. 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0. DU 2 1 Hence .Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . Therefore at = r2 .618 = 1 .Sec.
317) to determine 6.387 DU/TU = 1 0.626) = 0 . 31 7 + .447 DU/TU 2 1 . 1 5 DU/TU 6.447) 0. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .626 vcs2 = V't.253 ft/sec .V2 .(0. 3 and we must use equation (3.V2 = y'l'5= 0.704 DU/TU 18.4) (. 447)(.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.2 .042 ft/sec Therefore v = . 3 87 . v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.2(. 6.626) = 0.= 0 .V22 v. 2 + 0. + v�s2.447) (.3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch . 4 .2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .
1 ) t:::. 3.4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( . F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .Sec.447 ) ( .4.
8 97 DU/TU) 3 .3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. (Ans.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 .76.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . 3. Ch . a.5 b.4 Refer to Figure 3 .V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. 3 . = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. 0 . c. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.5 DU . i changedall other parameters remained the same..449 DU/TU) 3. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . a plane change or an orbit transfer. r p = 1 DU e = 0.2 Calculate the total 6. 3 EXERCISES 3 . a = 2. i.2 DU and 4 DU respectively. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.21 .5 DU/TU. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of .e. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3. 1 1 DU and e = 0. What is the minimum 6. 0.
1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . P = 1. C ompare this with the I::. parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. 34DU2 (fU d. * 3 . At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation.1 DU 8 1 = 0.Ch . This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer.7 3 . 8 Compute the minimum I::.56 c. The .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . 0 . using Hohmann transfers. = 0. (Ans.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit .9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . 3 . 1 0 Note that in problem 3 .v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. 5 & Design a satellite . 95 DU 8 = 0. Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . 9 Calculate the total l::.412 5 3 . .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0.
A cademic Pre'ss. 1 95 5 . Robert M . 3 . Air Force Systems Command . 2nd revised ed. Ley. Walter . Rockets. and Maud W. Makemson. 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . New York .1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. 1 9 60. New York . L. . Missiles. Sir Isaac. 4 . Dornberger. The Viking Press. Newton . Vol 2. Space Planners Guide. V2 . Principia. Headquarters. 5 . 1 96 1 . The Viking Press. Willy. Baker. New York and London . NY . 1 . 1 962. DC . Washington . 1 July 1 965 .. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles. NY. and Space Travel. A n Introduction to A strodynamics.
was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. . of the heirs. or lack of circumspection. . presupposed the solution of the first. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. Albert Einstein ! 4 . including the earth . The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. . or perhaps usurping them . Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. by taking the observations under my care . . the solution of the second problem.2 1 77 . if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . This was Kepler 's first great problem. I quickly took advantage of the absence. ..CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . the determination of the true movement of the planets. . who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death.
It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. I + . Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . whole grand entertainment would be lost. we not only forgive them. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . Thus. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. but above all to convey to him the reasons. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. detour. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. When Christopher Columbus. "What matters to me. subterfuges." Kepler points out in his Preface. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . . "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. .1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. 1 .
He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. however. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. without benefit of any preconceived notions. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. His results. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. never noticing his error. . At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. as it were. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. . at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. prick your ears. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . with the warning: "Ye physicists. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. almost with masochistic delight. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. that. perihelion and aphelion. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. But then without a word of transition. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun.Sec 4. for now we are going to invade your territory. again incorrectly . Moreover.
he settled on the oval. . 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . .. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. but analytical geometry came after Kepler.2 Finally. He had . But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. " Finally. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately .. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. 4 Figure 4 . as I shall prove further down . a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it.
.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. are one and the same . . what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end. in a moment of despair. along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . That is to say. but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. hypothesis. . until I went nearly mad. .y it should move in an orbit at all. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. The climax to this comedy of errors. which I had rejected . .Sec 4. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. . and velocity and the timeofflight. You: are . In this chapter we will. disguising itself to be accepted. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. .and chased away.F L I G HT . Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th.2 T I M EO F . came when. whereas the two .2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . . I thought and searched. made a mistake in geometry. mine] . and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. : .e .: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on.' " . but he did not know how. have persisted to this day. time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. ... 4. de rive the . return e d by stealth through the backdoor. Ah. believing that this was a quite different . an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. . I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did.
A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . P.21 Area swept out by r .22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . say from periapsis to some general point. 4 existed . i. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse.1 ) i s the area � .. but more motivated.e . The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . 4. ''"'''"'. In going part way around an orbit. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. A ' in Figure 4.l . where the true anomaly is v ..2 .1 ) .2.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY .2... ''' The only unknown i n equation (4. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use . 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . (4. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. 7T a b ..2.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. We will pursue a lengthier. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.
l.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse.F L I G HT . 2 T i M EO F . A dotted line . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q.Z x2 + . E E Circle : .Sec 4 . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. \/2 a2 _ . the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . 22 Eccentric anomaly. perpendicular to the major axis. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . From analytical geometry.
it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 .22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is .�rea PSV minus the dotted area.22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . It Tollows directly from equation (4. Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . 4 Hence . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V .a E) . . A2 . oos E and whose (4.
which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.e si n E ) I (4. From Figure 4. cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .2 .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.e si n E (4.F L I G H T . Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .22. minus the triangle ." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E .24). in order to use equation (4. to its corresponding true anomaly.Sec 4. we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.24) E .e si n Ai yields E) . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally. E.2 T I M EO F .T = 4 ( E . whose base is (a CDS E). substituting into equation (4. Kepler introduced the definition M = It ." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion. and whose altitude is (a si n E ).we get � ( E .27) (4. v.27) reduces to (4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' .28) . Obviously .e sin E (4.
Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. we can say that t .24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.( t o . Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4. The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .T ) .(to . E Figure 4 .T) . when v is between o and n. In general we can say that t  to = 4.[ 2kn + (E .( Eo  E) (4. At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.28).29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.24 right. + t . so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .e Sin .T o ) . 4 E E. In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a .T) .to = lP (t .24 left).to = ( t . from Figure 4.
2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa. From equation (4.2. From equations in section 1 .1 2) (4.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.2. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .2.2. Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .1 3) (4.8 si n E ) V r .  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .2 T I M EO F.1 1 ) easily integrable .J1=82 d E (4.1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.7 .1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .21 2).Sec 4.21 6) V 1 .82 f: ( 1 .82 ( E .2.8 E ) dE (4.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a. .F L I G H T .+ COS (4.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.2.2.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r.4 4. Therefore . If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . In one sense .Sec 4. C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . But now we have a problem. (4 . we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. a.1 3) ro va v t" . va' a and the trial value of x.47) has been used to eliminate z. a trialanderror solution is indicated.2 Solving for x When Time is Known .aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. Figure 4.1 2) is transcendental in x. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. ( 1 . 4.4.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .4. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . Fortunately .4. Equation (4 . 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa. since equation (4.
B and C are coplanar vectors.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. we must then calculate the corresponding and v. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . Substituting for r in equation (4. With x known.41 9) .3 The f and 9 Expressions.42. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4.1 = x 2 C + x . it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. xn .1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.4. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. and A and B are not colinear. the four vectors fO ' (4.41 6) dx x .32). Thus A.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 . 4 .4.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q.4. 1 dt r (4.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . (4. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point. the iteration may be terminated.
4.1 8) into equation (4.. g . equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q.where f. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable . First.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w .. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 .. = fg.. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates..420) This equation shows that f . if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity.4. we will derive an interesting relationship between f..4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities. g.. x.1 9) gives Sec 4 . however. g . We can isolate the scalar .. f and 9 are not independent.4. the left side of the O .. f and g.1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h . f. Crossing equation (4. in equation (4.
a l e + Sln Y. Xw .4.34) and (4.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x. (4.w o Yw h (4. .425). 4 h (4. we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x. x wYw . x + Co cos v = .426) . .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .4.4.42 1 ) We can isolate (4. o .1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw .1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.423) (4.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .e2 )  r .E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f . ) .1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4. yw x . (4.425) Combining equations (4. From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .
e quation (4..426) and (4.428) yw .42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4.4.43 0) 0 1 f C a = . \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin . ro ..43 1 ) . x + co h = .1 ) .429) Substituting equations (4.a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum.42 1 ) c /Ii..426) through (4 . Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4.427) and using the definition of the universal variable .Va • W .43 0) f (4. (4. e quation (4.sin r  � (4. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4... 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.a Va 2 = 1 9..a  mitions of z..Sec 4 ... x =� cos x + c r . r.. x = 0 at t = o .32). ro ro .429) into equation (4.. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C ..(e sin � + cos � )...
435) (4.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.433) (4. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.32) (4. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .] � a .4. r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 . 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .1 ) and (4 ..202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .4..j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r..4·3) � r o .436) . � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.
rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. if we are going to use equation (4. but we have not said what and z represent. 4 . Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4.e E). the expression (t would replace 4 .1 8). then compute v from equation (4.5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. its definition. 5 . x + Co cos [ � . Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4. Va x (4.4.[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . note that equation (4.1 ) Va = _ E . then compute r and r from equation (4 . in any of the equations where z appears. la . 2 . The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. Si n va = Va =  c o s .43 1 ) and (4.1 9) .4 .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).4. From and determine r and a. to 4.Sec 4. Also.34) (4. can be used.1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . 1 The Physical Significance of and z.43 6) .420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions.434) . Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. Note also that if were not zero .43 5) and (4.x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . 4 . 1 . 3 . 5 .4. Obviously .
66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f. a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 .57) .Do . 5 ·1) at time x = 0.3 4) and (4.E o l .56) la. 1 (4.55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .F 0 1  Va I E . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ .204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 . therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r. so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �). To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4. we can conclude that = V'ii I F .1 3) .53) from (4 .5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE. (4 . we get x= D . (4 . (4 .52) whenever is negative .53) Subtracting equation (4.4.5 4) (4. Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x .
F a ) '· z is zero.5. from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. Therefore . 5 . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem.to 4 .when z is positive .5 9) .8) Figure 4 .1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . If imaginary. either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . 5 . so Sec 4. the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4. a. In computing the semimaj or axis. I z = I F . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem.
Furthermore . In the case of elliptical orbits.. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. .ji11. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period.a vG ) .v y� ( ..All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. so s i n h fi . with £X.. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. ( t a to) . wherever it occu rs. C = 1 . and . / ( .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .P)/ 2.5 .e . a = ± x 3 ..1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . so S � V0r eFz 2 .:z. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n.6F.cosh . is large. When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result... then Z will be a large negative number . convergence will be extremely rapid. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X.5. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 .a � eFz ± 2x 3 . 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. we get for elliptical orbits.fZi3 = q . since X = foE.. Use this for a first guess .
t o ) 2x 3 � + t .t o ) x ::::: sign (t .sign (t .£.r� ) ] J The use of these approximations. we get � S .L ( t .to is positive. n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J. so Sec 4 .a . . vice versa . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence ..t o ) Fa .1 1 ) . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.t o ) sign (t . X will be positive and . Anytime t . recognizing that X will be positive when (t . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term. 5 . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t . Thu s . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z. 4 . where appropriate .5. Therefore.a eFz sign ( t .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .r:z .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before.sign in the above expression . 5 .Q) eV La 2J.t o ) #a ( 1 ] .t o ) � ( 1 .tJ is positive .tohATci ( l .
The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4. we can write equation (4. = Similarly.4.1 1 ) We can write equation (4.1 3) COS . 1 . If z is near zero .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .Ji . use equations (4.cosh . z cos i � ..4.5.4.(1  . .s i n i V} = i si n i B . the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S. so an equivalent expression for S is S � s . if z is negative .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz.1 1 ) as But i v:z .".5.5. (4.B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.1 1 ) .1 0) (4. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .0 6 + .7! + .y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive. .4..1 0) as C where = i C = . 4 (4 . use equations (4.4.1 2) and (4 . s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .5.1 0) and (4.1 3). Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .4.
The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 . . .1 4) ·· 1 . (4Ir) 2 ..� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4.Sec 4.. (611)2 etc.5.5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z . 0 .5..1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity .+ . 0 'j (4. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z ... Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ . .Ji! + Ji!..
r a . 4 functions . Find r. 39 5 . va > � a= :l = 1 . 1 K . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . 1 .[i) z ] (4 . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . dC /d z and dS /d z . we get I � = fz. va = Therefore & = 1. I dS = _ ( C .3S ) .266  .( 1 . Differentiating the definition of C.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .5.2C ) . Given ra = I D U va = 1 .)] P (4.zS . it is not surprising that the derivatives.12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0.s i n z dz 2z [ 0. and v at = t=2 T U . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM.5 .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. t=2 T U9 ra = I. 2& . can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.1 6) Differentiating the definition of S .
000 1 .007 2.973 a Using equation (4.821 1 .t. y'ii"(t . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary. 24 1 = 1 . solving for t .. 1 . we can make a 2 __ = 1 .12.1 .4.6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.277 dXn 1 .1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 .279 1 .1 .222 Repeating the process.5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.58 1 . we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places..1 4) and (4.8 1 6 1 .222 = 1 . 58+. 58+ . xn tn fit After three iterations.58 1 ..t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.t o x_ 21Tya lP :. X l Zl y"""a6E or x ..Since x = and .8 2 1 1 .82 1 1 .222 1 .58) 2 1 . 2 2 x 3 ' etc. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .4.705 2 .8 1 6 x n+1 ..8 1 6 1 . 705 . tn toward t = ZTU. using a slide rule .266 ( 1 ..
8801 Ch .32 1 1 + 1 . yw and r in terms of D. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. But first some useful identities will be presented. we will derive expressions for xw . But .1 ) From Figure 4.. r = _. 4 4. since e = 1 . 1 24. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit. E and F.1 7). we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly .2) .6. f.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. E or F. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D.2.. g = 1 .0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . g. for the parabola.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. 236K g. Finally.0._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4.Then from the definitions of f. f = 0.. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. 880 1 1 . D. f = 0.6.6. 4. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F.6 . (4.1 we can see that X w = r cos v . v. E and F..A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D. as D = v'P tan � 2 .321 . and 9 = 0.JPt::.
6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .Sec 4 . (4. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.6.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r. the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.65) .61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system.1 ) .62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .
(4.6. The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown.62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. Using r • r = and equation (2. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.s i n p v = ffp ta n v .66) v . 2' 1 Q Figure 4 . 4 rr. For the eccentric anomaly .62 Perifocal components of r . r • v.J7!. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 ) . in Figure 4 .Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product.
I Substituting from equations (4. (4. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .62.24) . yw Just as we did for the parabola.6. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. we can say that I yw = Q. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .67) (a si n E ) a But . M  (4.1 0) e sin E also. (4. e illS E we get another useful  �. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) .67) and (4 .Sec 4 .   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .8) and simplifying. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) .6. 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae.
E is imaginary .e Si n r E Finally . 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4.22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.:.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch ..1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation...6. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4. we obtain E = . F is imaginary. is given by e si n rr = r = $a . The .28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4..Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4. v..6.6. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E . e cos E from equation (4. solving this equation for • v . For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly.!.6.1 0) . when E is a real number. when F is a real number .1 3) .
6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E . Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. so (4. r.a r  (4.6 .1 8) .Il a •v (4.e) .1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v .range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. The rectangular components of a general position vector.el = a (cos i F .63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.6. 6. 4.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F .1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4. 6. Similarly.1).6.67) we can write Sec 4 . In Figure 4 .e ) . may be written as (4. But l cos i F = cosh F .61 6) r e cosh F = 1.  But i si n iF = si n h F. 6. so Yw = a � sinh F. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning. From equation (4.
are yw = r sin v (4.c os I 9 ' = v'f. .. 62 1) (4. ( . V._ c��V P IW (4...ji! sin v p (4.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y .A F U N CT I O N O F T. tan p /:.42 1 ) . (4.624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . where tv = v ...6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4..625) (4.I M E Ch .1 .c o s tv ) (4.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .JiLP.. 623) .x"..P ( 1 .:.p .. 626) . Figure 4. r0 · = 1 . and note that h = .vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf .. ..V _ 2 1 . we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = . the rectangular components of the velocity vector ..: o s /:. 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:. so 1 � L (I . 4 +.V..
I Jlla sin E.to ) .(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o . using equation (4.6.63 0) (4. 629) f = 1 . o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.6.4.a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .. r (4. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation. (4.e2 ) v. (4.e) v! fJa( l .63 1 ) (4.cos L'!. yw 9 and (t .3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .a ( 1 . 627) But. we get f = a( cos E .� ( 1 .6.!Ji8 sin L'!.68) .( L'!.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .e2 ).cos L'!.E ) f = . E rr . Similarly.E . From equations (4.Ji!.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .63 2) .1 (4. Thus Xw Sec 4.sin L'!.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .E ) .e cos E o ) .e 2 ) cos E .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.a E sin E . = .E) 9 r _ 0 j.1 0).67) and (4. Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .e2 ) = 1.
ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable . cosh 6F ) .63 6) 4. A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some . with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself.. of course . . � V a3 ( t .6.to) . and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it. 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4.634) (4.(1 E .  E. (4. and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .6F ) .2 6) is one equation in one unknown .8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) .26) Even though equation (4.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .t o ) .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . Kepler himself realized this.4 Kepler Problem Algorithm.63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch . M can be obtained from = (4.629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.2k7T + M o . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E . (4. In classical terms.
6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. select a new trial value.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. that results from this trial value . we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . E It would. � Figure 4. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. of course .638) n dM/d E I E=E n . be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4.Sec 4 . compute the mean anomaly.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . ' (4. M n . E n+ l E + M .63 7) Now. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. but this is not very accurate.
va and the timeofflight. however. 2.5 cos V DU . Solve for V if needed. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem.e cos En (4.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M .4 0) EXERCISES 4. e.4. t .M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating.  . It can be used for LW or�E . 3 .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4.1 8) and (4. 5. d M = 1 e cos E . Once E i s determined by any method.1 2) .t ' are given. Determine f and V from equations (4.4.when e is nearly 1 .1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. even when e is nearly 1 . Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. where d M / d E l E = En En. p and va· 2 .5 + . From fa and va determine r 0' a.1 9). equation (4. 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value. e.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . dE Therefore.6.2. 4 . 1 . the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(.
6 For the data given in problem 4.3 Given l:J) = ffP.Ch .5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead.e.3. i. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P.4 If. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. find r and v for . x. glven fO' vO' and t. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 .. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. 625) . Explain why this must be so . 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. how should the area of search for x be limited.85 TU) 4.348J +  1 .2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. corresponding to l:J) of 600• . (partial Ans. TOF = 5. f = 4 . 4. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. Find the values of f. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. V = 3481 . find the universal variable. (Ans.
f and g. 1 0. 1 1 For problem 4. ra == 2.5 DU.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. 4 .99). 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. with a perigee above the north pole. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . 5. TOF = 2. 9 At burnout. g. == 1 . Va and w and will solve for f.51 0) and (4. 4 . e = .10 rp 4 . then . 7 The text. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. e = . Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . 5 DU. 4 4 ..224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. Do the same for problem 4. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. Develop. (Ans.5 .1 1). Le. and give your analytic reasoning behind. 4 . Va and t .73 TV) 4. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value.to and solve for f and v. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa.9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. if X == x (t ) . 2. in equations (4.
1 95 1 . 4. o 4 . L'.43 5) and (4. Philosophical Library.. The Macmillan 3 .. 4. 4 . g. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. equation (4. Einstein. 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.630) through (4. See equations (4. ..tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression.E. New York. Madison.I:!:. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. Albert. The University of Wisconsin Press. NY.6 TU) .2 .. Wise. r.43 6). 1 963 . Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. New York. = . A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. f and 9 in terms of (t . Company. 2. r3 fJ.. NY. NY. Koestler. LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Kepler. 2. Robert. 1 7 Derive the expression for g .and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t .r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. 1 95 9 . Small. The Sleepwalkers.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. 1 964.( t .16 * 4. Guidance . Stahlman. Battin. A New York.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . 63 2).1 8). Arthur. Richard H.0 + . A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D.
1 28 . S." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. K. 1 965. Roger R. Redondo Beach. Vol 70. Moulton. "Universal Variables. New 6. 8. Lemmon. J. 1 0.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 92. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. pp 3093 1 5. Sundrnan. pp 66066 1 . California. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. 1 96 1 . Unpublished notes. and 1. W. Sperling. pp 1 08. 1 1 ." A stron. 1 965. .ach. pp 1 89. Vol 3 1 . Stumpff. H. The MacMillan Company. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships." ARS 1. 1 9 1 2 . to Celestial Mechanics. K." A cta Vol 36. pp 1 05 . Mathmatica. Vol 275 . Goodyear. 7. United States Air Force Academy . Vol 70.1 79. W . Brooks. J. 9. H. 1 947. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. A n Introduction York. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. E. W." A str. . Herrick. F . 1 965 . H . Bate. 4 5 . N. 1 2. Forest Ray. 1 9 1 4." A stron.
. in 1 7 8 1 . A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. 227 5. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. in the first year of the 1 9th century. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. But. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . a 24yearold German mathematician. Uranus.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants.
but for a different reason. no more . The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. Because of its importance. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. If they paid some attention to philosophy . Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . exactly 1 year later. 5. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban."the Gauss problem. Hegel asserted. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . no less. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. and for convenience in referring to it later.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION .228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. The object turned out to be Ceres. and the direction of .
The relationship between the four vectors f l . 2.1 ... / . or the "long way. If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit.SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ .motion. the orbit is a degenerate conic. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations." through an angular change greater than 7r. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. Sec . Obviously .. f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4.. / I I I I I Figure 5 ... appears in the denominator of any expression. p." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . It is not surprising. If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. . the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible.. therefore. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion.. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . .21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 .". particularly if the parameter. 5 .
a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. g. 2. f and g. 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 .cos �v) = 1 . (5 .23). n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . but the first four are known.26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . 23) and (5 . (5 .24) arid (5 .27) and (5 .( 1 .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f.25 ) (5 .( 1 .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns.25).. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns.cos �E ) ..2. r . so 2 .230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .22) r2 a ( 1 . 27) . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. p. a or �E.. g. a and �E. Use equations (5.cos �E ) f = 1 . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . a 9 = 1 . r2 P p rI .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 .cos �V . so a trialanderror solution is necessary . 2. what we have is three equations in three unknowns. Consider equations (5 . f.. p. (5 .23) Actually.cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 .y'ii8 .24) Si n �E (5 . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature.1 ) (5 . There are seven variablesf1 .sin �E ) � JJ. 3. the solut �on to .( 1 .1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f. (5 . From equation (5 . 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . t. bv . Test the result by solving equation (5 .
= 1 .1 ) (5 .c x2 y. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. 5 . 3 .3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter.3 2) . n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed.. however. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. let's write the expressions for f. g . a and L'£ or 6F. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated.:t x3 S. and would enable us to use the universal variables. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . x and z. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable.Sec. p. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss.( 1 . In each case . introduced in Chapter 4. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. r1 (5 . This last step is perhaps the most important of all.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I.
35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .. A y= .38) y.c o s b..33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.j A equation (5 . ( 1 c o s b.34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange. p r1 j .39) . ( 1 .1I 1 � .i n b.v) (5 .v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 .( 1 c o s b. rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b..v) • 9 = = IE.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch ..v y.. P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b..v (5 .232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .viI x ( 1 zS) \ .A . 5 X2 (5 . we get r 1 r 2 (1 .33)  (5. yields X C..37) I y = r 1 + r2 .31 ). as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.jE: .( c o s b.v ) 1 c o s b.36) may be written (5 . we obtain A. such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable. 1 ..
.: r I . rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .3. we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.31 3) (5 .on simplllw.1 4) 1 The velocity.31 7) .".ff. 3 We can also express X in equation (5 . and the auxiliary variable .LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. so that (5 . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 .. the last term of this expression may be simplified.420). (5 .38).1 ).32) and (5 .qr::oo . From equations (5 .1 0) (5 .31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . by using equations (5 . can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.1 6) (5 . A. 3.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 . y. +.3. 3.=1' Ig =r2 =. we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 . 32).Sec. I" � \ ·1 fr .3. 5 . thi 't "p. to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 .37 ) and (5 .r I (5 .34).31 5) (5 .
1 0) . a Newton iteration. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. y.31 7).3 . Although any iterative scheme .P .31 8) ( ) (5 . If it is not nearly the same .1 4) and (5 . (5 .31 3). which converges more rapidly.0.dz dz dz 2yy dz . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. 6.31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. using equation (5 . A.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .37).1 1). From f ' f and the "direction of motion. necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. 2 .0. Pick a trial value for z. Determine the auxiliary variable. When the method has converged to a solution. 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 ." evaluate the I 2 constant.E2 and z = . dt / dz. 5.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i .1 2) (5 . Since z = . 5.3. from equation (5 . may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z.31 9) .4. evaluate t.31 6) and (5 . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . 9 and 9 from equations (5 .1 0) and (4. The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .4. 7 .= 3 x 2 . 3.S + X 3 _ + .3. The derivative. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained.31 5). Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.39). Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4. 4. this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly . 5 1 .31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 . 3. then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. Determine x from equation (5 .
39) for dy = dz  But.Sec. we showed that y. i n section 4 . 5 . .z S) dS _ .32 1 )  . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .=  dS (C . 5 .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . we get ( 1 .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .320) (5 . 3 .
" We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .1 0) and (4.7K DU.41 1 ). "direction of motion": rl =0. equations (4. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = . There is only one path for a given direction of motion.324) _  (5 .01 + + O.326) . D M � si g n (1T L'>.323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 .4.OK DU. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S.318). These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .v) .320) and (5 . Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM. ill rl . determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .  (5 .6J + 0.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 . 5 so.319) and (5 .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . 51 r2 = 1.236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.322) into equation (5 . we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . Using universal variables. At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit).
1 5) . a convenient form of equation (5 . 327) r1 = 1 . 5 .1 . 0000 + 1 .5.962 radians LW long way = 21T ..39). I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 .1 4) and (4.6V short way = 5. 86474323 = 1 . from equations (4.6V > 1T). 0000 1 . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . For ease of numerical solutions.3 : Step 1 : LW (5 .28406 = 1 . 5 . 0488088482 + 1 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (. 0488088482 + 1 . 23287446 yT12 vm .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . 28406 ( __ = 3 .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = .37) does when .0.6V is small. 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = . Now following the algorithm of section 5 .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .327). A A l ong way =1 .Sec.1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).321 radians Using (5 .
so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now..489482706 (6") . X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : ..672625 1 6 TU + through 6..3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch . Since �t for this problem is less than 1 . (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way..23287446 t l o ng = 0. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .28406 y'0.780 1 9540 1 /2 0. Step 5: Using equation (5 .86474323 = 1 . the desired time o f flight is : . Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.1 0)...0 we do not normalize. from the given data.. 0432z = 1 3. 1 3 min = 0445 z . Y l o ng = 3..86474323 2.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .3.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration...05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.28406 y'3.444689 m 0.23287446 0. 1 .9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off.
314).50634848K v2 = 0. (5 .0.6009 1 852 .1 3).76973587J .31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 . 1 1 39209665J  0.3 .4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.6 1 856634 = 0. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.989794 D U/TU 0.9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.36 1 677491 + 0.3.Sec. (5.60 1 874421 .28406 Y = 4.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.t solved .0.0.94746230 A = 1 . 5 .1 5).5288 97 1 4 = 2.79852734 v2 = 1 .96670788 z = x 0.3.1 6) and (5 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 . 74994739 VI = 0.250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.8826885334K v2 = 0.02234 1 8 1 1 . 7499473 9 t = 0.63049 1 80961 1 .554824 D U /T U f = 3.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0. W e have : � 104 (within 0.83073807 v 2 = 1 .83236253 Using equations (5 .58 1 43981 VI = 0.5544 1 39777J 0.t . (5 . 1 7866539741 + 1 .28406 Y = 0.
38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative.076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .39).0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4.1 O} VC . 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.52). Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 . This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics.9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of.38) and (5 .636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0.39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. From equation (5 .31 . there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.= 0. where f::1) is less than 7T. and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position). This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths.2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 . In other words. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive.zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation . yet equation (5 . For "short way" trajectories. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell .
v.?S.c o s x =.6V V 1 . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .25).23).va si . a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x. we get  . This check is only necessary when is positive. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity.1 ) and si n  COS . and 2 solving for p. we can solve for a and get 1 . hence. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . a and ""E. for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity.4 TH E p. From equation (5 .4.4.Sec.. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.j1 .6V COS . F or "long way" trajectories y is positive . if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::..cos ""V ( 1 . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.c o s ""E si n ""E .42) into equation (5./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity . 5.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 .6V p � .cos !:::. 5.cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) ..V ) a (5 .4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. (sin xl i . we obtain 5. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.4.)2 cos . The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.
E) •  k = k Ll.. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.4. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .E .E Q ± y'2ni C O S .2 Expressing a as a Function of p.46) Ll. we obtain m p a= (5 .Q p ) 2 (5 .45) ± Using these same definitions. (5 .44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.E ( k . 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.48) k . The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .c o s bJ)) (5 .43) 5.v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .Qp y'2ni p .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5. (5 .E Solving for cos2.43) as Ll. 2 Ll. and noting that � c os '2 . we get Ll.J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.45) and simplify.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .E CO � = ± p= k = .
5. . we need to determine � (or . Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . 5. Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. First .6. a may not be smaller than some minimum value . am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 .. 5 .4 .4..where k. The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . however. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048).41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 .F in case a is negative). Sec.4 T H E p. we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . 2.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr.!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter .3 Checking the Trial Value of p. The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero.
If (.41 1) c o sh .25). 5 c o s . In Figure 5. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 . The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.6.F (5 ." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 . Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. If we look at "long way" trajectories. F 1 .F is positive.1 0) = = 1 . F .( 1 .6.6.a r1 (1  f) (5 .24) and (5 . there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.E .6.1 3) .E a If yield is negative..24) or the corresponding equation involving .4 The t vs P Curve .s i n .F: (5 .. To get a feeling for the problem. p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .6. F ) .From the trial value of P and the known information. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.Tar (si n h .E from equations (5 .49) Since we always assume .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.6. we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .4. we can determine . If a is positive.4.23) and (5 . (5 .vi. the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .E ) (5 . let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .6.25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . we see that the limiting case of .23).6. let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way.41 2) (5 . although t approaches infInity for this orbit.6. 9 and f from equations (5 . we can compute f.4.6.
Since it is important thar the first trial value...zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero....42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 .. as well as all subsequent guesses for p. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 ..4 T H E p. for t:sv greater than IT. In Figure 5 . parabola hyperbola Figure 5 . lie within the prescribed limits.. For l'J) less than IT.. P must lie between o and P j j . P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case ..I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse . we should first compute P j or P j j . 5 . From the discussion above. t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j .43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight... P must lie between P j and infinity.. Sec.
I .1 4) Q .4.5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. 5 1 :co . Several simple methods may be used successfully.4. . b . p )0 p" . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. and one that gives too large a value..4. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). 0 Q + y2in k  (5 .46). In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p.246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE ..yLri1 (5 . The solution is then bracketed and. • .. .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. � " . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5.43 k p a rameter . . . one that gives too small a value for t. by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . ell .1 5) 5 . The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution. from equation (5 . '" E 0> '" .
P n . ... . . ..44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration .4. . 4 T H E p. .1 and Pn . . ... . O��_4o P n. .. .. . . .t n . .1 6).1 6) This scheme can be repeated.1 ) (5. .. It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer..1 ) (t n ...4...1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p. ... . . .. ... .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn.. always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5... . tn t . then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t . .Sec.t n ) ( P n ... ..I Figure 5 ....... .. but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. . . If tn. 5 ... If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. . then a better estimate of p may be obtained from ..
si n L'> E l .1 7) I t =9 viIZ. ( � .iri equati �n (S.1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p.24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative . � ( S . fl3  fJ. (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .41 8) (S .4.r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S . we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 41 9) .41 7).4. 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.
420) From equation (5 . we obtain .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) . that ( k .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 . bE d�E .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .Qp ) Q.47).Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m . 5 .( k .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .4 T H E p.2mk2 Qp 2kQp .4 8) . from equation (5 .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .2 dp k ( k .Sec.= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .E / dp and noting.
. (5 . and (5 .42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .1 9).COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .Qp) si n 6E JJ.= .420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .1 8) from (5 .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .6E JJ. _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.4.� (6E .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .. By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F . 5 (5 . which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9. p(k h JJ.423) . (5 .4..
2·3).1 4) and (5 . 2.1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.4. we will develop and use the f and 9 series. Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.II using 2 . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . 2 . Solve for f. 5 251 . Using the trial value.4. 6. t and .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .22). The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. 5 . 3 .4.6E or Ll. a. As stated earlier . solve for a from equation (5 4 . of p. 9 . 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . Q and m from r] . 25).1 0) or equation (5 .4. equations (5 .27) and (5 . 5 .E or Ll. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. r and Ll.4.423). 4 .49) and (5 .1 1 ) . (5 .24) and (5 . Pn . We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .422) or (5 .1 5). Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola.To evaluate the slope at Pn . 7 . Evaluate the constants k. Solve for t from equation (5 . Solve for Ll. 5 . Evaluate 9 from equation (5 .8).1 2) or (5 .44).4. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. the values of g. Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . as appropriate . using equations (5 . Sec. 8 . 9 and f from equations (5 .F obtained from the trial value. The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem.F. should be used in equation (5 .
� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . 5 9) .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . Therefore. 5 5) r r (5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . 5 2) (5 .54) we have the following recursion (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion. we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. we write equation (5 . 5 4) for n = O. r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . (5 .57) (5 . (5 . 5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 .
51 2) u . 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .5 11 ) (5 . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . We define them as follows : O. this can be (5 . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 . v are known . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .and the equation of motion f  (5 .51 3) rr and the definition of p.51 6) (5 . as we shall u . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. 5 .5. 5 . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 . p.5.5W)  (r . p and q which will be useful later .1 7) .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec.515) =  ur. u L. q. 5 .
. ) _ 24 (r . (5 .r .57) and (5 . Summarizing: (5 .U . v) _ 1 u. = .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r . r) (v) 2 .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .3u p (5 . _ [1 1  2 (v .1 8) Using the definition of P.U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. 5. 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r .p (u + 2q ) . 5 . 1 1 1 1 . r r (5 . ) .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . 5.(v) 2 . 5 20) (5 . 522) q = .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . .23 r· (V) r   u.u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . . d q = d t .
30p p + 3 q ) .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u .u G = .54) for n = 1 .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. 5. Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P . = r 0.3 u p ( u . = . Fs = F4 .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u .u G 4 = u ( u . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ . = F 1 r + G 1 .u r = .6 u 2 p = .t!:.Sec. = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q . Writing equation (5 . p and q.1 5u p ( u . F3 = F .6 u 2 p = .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .. = .3p ( u + 2q ) .
the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T. Referring to equations (5 . 5 = U (u .523) . therefore.2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .1 .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .Gn n. Vo (5 . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .524) (5 .tao Comparing with equation (5 .52) and (5 .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t . .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. .526) . ) .5.1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .
5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) . F = 3up 3 F = u(.1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 . F 1 = 0.94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.90q .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .Sec.l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) . G = u. G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).28q .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 . G 1 = 1 . G = O.3q .51 . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .2 1 q .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) . F 2 = 'U.l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) . 5 .6q .30q . G = 30up(1 4p2 .
5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . The f and 9 series may be used .f (r I . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . 5 . p. Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. 7) (5 .2 Solution of the Gauss Problem.6.0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch .51) + 9= 7  1 . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. (5 . 2·5). This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large.5·29) .2·3).258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u .24) and (5 .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . r I . 5.5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy.5·27) + ' (5 . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. 5. From equation (5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. 7) r I g (r I . f I . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods.
.6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .Sec. 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6. 5. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. L£ . becomes dt (1 . thus Figure 5 .61 Sector and triangle area (5 .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA. h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . As.77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . This .
A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 .2 The First Equation of Gauss. 5. .43) and using the identity. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. E ) . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.6.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .64) = 2 (2� co s � )3.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.' l'2 2 2 (5 . This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 ." + l( 1 . but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large.260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .6. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 .62) (5 . 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.c o s b.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss.2E ) 2 . 4 � c o s b.
s i n l:>E ) .£Q.1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .L .67) 1 cos l:>v =. L ( l:>E . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 . From the first of these equations..(5 .65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 . ( .24) and (5 .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.. 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 . Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 . Si.= . equation ..s i n l:>E ) .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J. Using the identity..Sec.6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 . n l:> E ) .65). .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .2 ( 1 r1 r .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 . 3 The Second Equation of G auss.61).61 ) becomes si n l:v .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J. t/y.. (5 . 5 .6 . si n l:v cos � . so ..2 2 L (5 .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 .
s and w. pick a trial value for y. To review what we have done so far. 6. 23). and one more unknown. 27) and (5 .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E.Si.s) . 24) and (5 . S + 1 .69) are transcendental. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . y and LE . in three unknowns.43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . equations (5 . the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 .6.262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . n = 2 si n 3 LE . y 2 ( y . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. y. p.from (5 . recall that we started with three equations. When convergence has occurred. a and LE. a good first guess is y � 1 . The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 .64) and (5 . We then added another independent equation. By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. and so on.1 ) . 22) completes the solution.69) cos f = 1 .cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) .4 Solution of the Equations . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w.1 ) = W (LE . (5 . we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns.6.64) and solving for y. !:JJ and t. so a trialanderror solution is necessary. Unfortunately.1 0) ." 5 .25). (5 . more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. Next. from r I ' r2 .2(� . The first step is to evaluate the constants. (5 .6. until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . (5 . which is known as "the second equation of Gauss.si n LE ) we may write. using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 .
Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .F are close to zero.F = rush . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.c:.E is imaginary. F = si nh .F .c:. equation (5 .E and . difficulties may be anticipated any time .69) and to determine y. equation (5 . Since we already know that when . Noting that . i sin i. Using the identity.1 0) may become greater than one. then . indicating that�. E or .c:.c:.c:. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs. as y2 = W S + x .1 0) may also b e written as Sec.F whenever the right side is greater than one .c:. .s i n .F .cE.c:.c:.6.cosh 2 . 6.c:. 5 .6.6.1 2) become indeterminate..E s i n 3 .F is real.E . 6.69) and · (5 .c:.F 2 ) · (5 . they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section. F.F and COS i . S.1 1 ) s i n h . )� s + 1 .c:.c:.c:.c:.c:.6.c:.Since the equations above involve .0.E is imaginary.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.S ) y (5 . E = i .F will be zero and both equations (5 . 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . the righthand side of equation (5 .1 2) = X = .1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 . For this reason.F .69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .c:.c:.c:.c:. F s i n h 3 "2 . If the given timeofflight is short.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.
2. Depending on the type of conic. from rl . E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. (s + x ) · 1 (5 .1 (5 ..1 4) Now. 2 . ( 1 + §. Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . The result.27) and (5 . parabola.23). 6 . the orbit being an ellipse. s and w. . 3 . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 .]) and t using equations (5 .6.25) and (5 . .61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . (5 . (5 .6.26). determine 6. Compute the constants. 7 ..1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . 4. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. .Y:i. 1� = 2 3 1.E or 6. or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. /:. which is developed by Moulton. is .63).1 1). the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point.F from equation (5 . problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. Evaluate f.6.6.6 . 2 6.1 3). and 9 from equations (5 .24). ) .62) and (5 .6. E as a power series in x. g . 5 . 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s.264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ..1 4). r2 .6. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . Determine X from equation (5 .1 0) or (5 .1 5) 1 . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. zero. replacing CDs 6.22). f.43). and then expressing 6.2 Ch . Determine p from equation (5 . or negative.
ballistic missile targeting.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity." In all but the simplest cases. To avoid generalities. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. 5 . Usually. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . �atellite intercept and rendezvous. and ballistic missile interception. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM.Sec." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . The £:. 72. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. To make the problem even more specific. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 .
...�: :... .� .266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . ��y V \" _ .. �/ �/ ".. \ •• • • • • • ...f.".7.1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .. .' ':. ". at t.1 . 7 . I n .. 5 i nterceptor .. ".." \ t a rg e t / \ . r..\. ) / ot t. fI }/ \ \ ... e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.� ' . I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 .
Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. 5 . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. which is when the intercept will occur.Sec. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 .
the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. " . 5 them. . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. . Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. �v? �v . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would .238 km/sec. \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . . . launch vel. . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. . . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. . .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. \ \ \ Figure 5 . we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. .
We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . In summary . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. Because of earth rotation.72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . the better . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t .7 . the launch site will have moved eastward . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 .7 . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . In Figure 5 . Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . 5 . From Figure 5 . 5 . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor.5 . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site .
270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .7..J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .V plot for example intercept problem .. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .4 /':.O F .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.) z :J « .
the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. P3 . (5 . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5. the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . the three components of r2 . v2 • P I ' P2 .8 . i.e. 82) t2 so (5 . 5 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series.85) (5 .8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .Sec.84) (5 . another method will be develope d . t2 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis .86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. Although we have examined a very specific example . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry.1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. P3 · . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 .
T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch . the components of f2 and V2 . b .8.1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x. y. 5 to (5 . ' r2 . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a.8·7) (5 . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . in fact only six of the equations are independent. L3 . y and Z . R1 . � into equations (5 .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . and eliminating the K components.L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z .8) (5 . i. Rz .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. Estimate the magnitude of f2 .8. y and z . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d .e. the components of Vz be X. f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . 8. 526) and (5 . L2 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 .
1 5.4 Verify the development of equation (5 048).1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. f2 I + J DU).2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 .Ch . I I I I  x. Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. which are the components of f2 and v2 . 5 . . =: =: 5 . 5. Y. 5 Z. (5. c.31 ). using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. Z. Usirlg specific numbers. Limitations.526) and (5 .423) for hyperbolic orbits. EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 .31 3) through (5 . but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. Accuracy.32). Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . Ease of computation.39).527). e .31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.3 Verify equations (5 . Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . f.6 Derive equation (5 . 5.t2 and t2 t } are not too large.41 .522).V required for intercept? 5. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04. and (5.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. b.
00256 (J + K» . which will contain both position vectors. although a few iterations can be made by hand. The universal variable method . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5.274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . b.tl = 1 .t l determine v2 using a. 5 . c. d. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. (Ans. The original Gauss method.8 using the universal variable. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. vI = 0. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. (Ans.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 .7 .J + K).9 Repeat problem 5 . h = 1 . rl r2 p. + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5.0922 TU. 5 Given two position vectors rI .8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . r2 . 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . 5 . t2 . 5. d. as a function of rI r2 . Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. The piteration technique.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 .009 (. r2 'and the distance between them.
Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. Simon and Schuster.66986 9921+0 . New 6.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. c . NY. 2 . McGrawHill Book Company. r 1 = 2I t2 . A n Introduction York. Inc. Forest Ray. Herrick. to Celestial Mechanics. f 1 = 1 . New York. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. Davis.Ch . Escobal. A stronautical Guidance.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 .2J Use "long way" traj ectory. d . and A.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence .t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. (Answer : v = 0. NY.t 1 = 0.0. New York. New York.6J + 0. S.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = .9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . "The Prince of Mathematicians. Moulton. 1 963. 4. Bell. 3. New York. John Wiley & Sons. Eric Temple . Pedro Ramon. 1 9 59. the MacMillan Company. 1 956. Gauss. Appendix A. Vol 5 . Mathematics. 1 9 1 4.7K D U t 2 . 1 964. r 1 = I t 2 . 1 965. f l = 0 . 51 + 0. Battin. 2I D U t2 . NY. Inc. (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. a. r 1 = 41 t 2 ." in The World of 1 . Liu. Carl Friedrich. 1 . Dover Publications. Methods of Orbit Determination.4804847 1 1 2 +0.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. Richard H. . NY.
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1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . Napoleon I 6. . The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. have a very short history . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. Efforts. The result is well known. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 .000 V2's had been fired in anger . which concern us in this chapter. ironically . It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . World War II as "too late . culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. longrange ballistic missiles. It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I .
000 pounds thrust. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. Trevor Gardner . The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. California. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. In July 1 95 4. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. 4 Accordingly. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. According to Dr. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. in June 1 9 53 . these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . After all. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . Brigadier General 3 . 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority .000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . They met in a vacant church in Inglewood.
In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. 6. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. Otherwise.000 people participating directly. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. Atlas was a reality. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. Progress was rapid. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . 6 . the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. After three unsuccessful attempts. by mid· 1 95 9 . Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight .Sec. Blasingame . the program had.
" "height of apogee.. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory .2.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .22) . what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude.2. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics. such terms as "height at burnout.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point." "flightpath angle at burnout.2. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory.. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions. =. Figure 6. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . Q . 1 defines these new quantities. 6 from launch to burnout. Since Va:.2 The Nondimensional Parameter. It will not be discussed in this text. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations." etc. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. however..2. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. 6 . Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . 6 . During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . need not be redefined. (6 .ji1Tr. There are.
2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 . 6.Sec .21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .
26) .the expression p. It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2.2.O/r from equation (6.3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6. (6. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. When Q is equal to 1 . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit.2. 24) 6 . and substitute for V.1 ) . If Q is greater than 2 . the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .23) or IQ=2�·1 p . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 .25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 .
6 . lies on each side of the major axis.26) above can. 'l'.27) .co s v b o . half the freeflight range angle . and co s � = .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .Sec. be written as (6. therefore. 2 Equation.f6.
we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1./.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. since p = a( 1 . can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. ¢ro. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . A.29) and (6.1 1) into equation (6. what should the flightpath angle.2.e2 ).29) Now. .1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target. = r Q C O S2 cp .2. h = rv cos cp. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. the required freeflight range angle.2.T.284 . e. also becomes known. (6. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation.28) p.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. . 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. the total range angle. .
In other words. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point .2. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . Now. we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . Sec 6 . In Figure 6 . F'.23 Ellipse geometry 6 . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . with a little algebra.4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. We could . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . is called r bo . it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . Instead . ¢bo.
It means.I n 2 and also as rb (6.Qb o sin � .000 ) from equation (6. that. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � .x) = sin (6. � + 'lr) = . If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.2.1 3) (6. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s.2. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 ." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering.1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. d. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery.24. for example.1 6) . F' and the burnout point. Qb o 2 2 (6. This is.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . we can express d as 'i' d = o S .286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . shown in Figure 6. in fact.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal.2.2.
2.9.2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .Sec.1 6) gives us . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory . sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals . 6.866. .
This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 .P/2&. . Because a = . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . 2. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . Provided that 'l' is attainable.1 6) does not exceed 1 . While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. If Q bo is greater than 1 . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . Table 6.25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. 2. Figure 6 . Nevertheless. This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 .288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting.21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. equation (6 . so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . If Q bo is exactly 1 .
Sec.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6. 6 .
290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .low traj .5 DU. skims earth high only . cos ¢ b o == 0. Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. hits earth 000 > 1 high only .1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _.low traj . During the test firing of a ballistic missile. the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU.21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'.625 .11 5 18 1 . 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. vbo = 2/3 DU/TU. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. hits earth Table 6 . ha p og ee 0. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj .
2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation.Sec. 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . ) (60 n m i ) =2.025) = 1 . versus the flightpath angle .2. What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. 60 0W .2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. :. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 26.08 1 7 DU/TU and .. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . 600 E. c os � = + N . 36° . 6 . 6.1 .2. We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 .1 2) . A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. Notice or <P b o = :. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle .025 DU respectively. 6 2 1 . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 .5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . 'IT. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . 2<P b o + 64°20.4Deg. 08 1 7 ( 1 .
(2<P bO � ) 2 . :. � 80 . One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6..2.1 7) I (6.. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target. .� 90 Figure 6. en EO I . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .s.7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight .. s 0> Q) 0 � c .Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 .pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 .2. be the maximum range condition. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.1 6) equals exactly 1 . then. 0> <1> <1> � IJ.26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory..:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' . A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .... 2.1 8) L__________________� .292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell . If the right side of equation (6..
2. VI 1 800 . the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . 2. due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only.1 9) for maximum range conditions. noting that l . From the symmetry of Figure 6. By inspection.7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). 2.e cos 2 (6.2. 220) for maximum range conditions.Sec:.222) .6 Time of FreeFlight. We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. 2 .'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .cos 2 . but .1 7 ). 6 . sin �= 2 2 . This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle .. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o . 'JI . 6 . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 .8) .Qbo Qb o (6 . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4.
A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. and the eccentricity. The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. Figure 6 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch .27 Time of freeflight (6.1 1). since five variables have been plotted on the figure.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. a. In fact . 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . 28. can be obtained from equ ations (6. 6 The semimajor axis. 23) and (6. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . 2. e.
What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.884) ( 1 . The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.8 period vs. 6 .95 From Figure 6.750 n m .28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.Sec.000 nm. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.075) == 0.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM.25 D U == 7 . altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6.
I ' : ' : : : : : : . . : : .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . .9h Ir. .CI�rie� v X I . : ' . ' . hi.� '" �� :.aje. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: ... : : .. .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . :: : J: : : . . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. . : :/ . :: :"/ N .
As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian.6X and .32 r ads = 1 33.444 n m = 2.77 0 = 0 . .6C may be / 9 57 1. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. 957 Hsi 66. position. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target. 2 00 ft/sec . . we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance .1 � 0. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal. F or purposes of this example.6C represents the cro ssrange error. suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. For brevity . 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth .6X.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. 6 .3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed.3 .  Vbo 6. 6 . For a fixed burnout altitude . . 8. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. In Figure 6 .1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . 'l' From equation (6.Sec. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit.933 D Urr U � 24. impacting at B. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . The arc length .3 ° From equation (6. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first. 3 .6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north.OOO nm max = 3.6C.2.220) . the crossrange error.
3. the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 .1 . X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch . 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation.3 .32) 2 X Figure 6. Equation (6. In Figure 6 . . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point .31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. 3. if they are in degrees. we can use the small angle approxunatlOn.1 ) to (6. we get (6. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. if the intended target had been the north pole . cos . I 1 .thought of as angles."2 to simplify equation (6 . for example.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane .
the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . 299 Figure 6. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section.2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. 6(3. 6 . before . will result. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . Figure 6 .Sec. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount.'l1. �C. a crossrange error. 'l1. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C.33) . we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . are as planned.32 Azimuth error 6 .3 .32 is the crossrange error . P.
\]I will represent a downrange .3 .x ' to simplify equation (6.oo a "'00 Fl ight . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.path angle . <Pbo' In Figure 6..� I a q.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.21 about the center of the Earth. In other words.0.D. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 ..34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r. it will hit the target anyway . This . cos X � 1 . the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn . are shown by a solid line in the figure ..33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 .0. 6 If we assume that both 43 and .300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount . 6.0.\]I.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle.y I  : : i.33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it . An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.3. if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.. \]I. (6.
3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.8) (6. 6 . The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.cot <P b o (6. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.2. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 . The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .3 .1 0) Qbo I i .Sec.36) (6.1 2) of this chapter .'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. We could get an approximate value for .3. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .6.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .
3. _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6. Let us first express equation (6. acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 . 3.3.1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 . a'l1 . Vb Substituting from equation (6.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .3.3.1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.
000 nm range. angle errors. the actual range error on a 3 . For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 .33. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . While we need equation (6. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). In fact. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a.1 3) This partial derivative . Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. particular burnout error . an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . If this seems strange. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way .600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . 6 . equation . 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. 3 . 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. Figure 6.Sec.1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient.3 . The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 .33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors.3. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . A plot of range versus burnout radius. when used in the manner described above. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section.
3.1 4) for small values of . too slow and the missile falls short.3.6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .3.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout . 6. if burnout occurs too low.31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6. 6 however. . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.3.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = . differentiating the range equation (6 . Again. b o 'fJ ' (6 .1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 ..1 1) implicitly. The magnitude of the error is (6.3.3.1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6. the missile falls short of the target in every case .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory . Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . the missile overshoots .
9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . 1 D U . An analysis of equation (6 . like the other two influence coefficients. Total downrange error : . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error .905) 2 ( 1 .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. We will need Q bo (. Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.6¢ b o = . 3. r bo = 1 .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .6V b o + a 'lr . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .1 0.1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range . . 649 r ad U D U/T . 1 ) 2 .4 D U .Sec.9 0 5 D U !TU .5 x 1 05 D U/TU . LW b o = .1 8) would reveal that. 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 .4 rad ians.6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.735 = 6 . ub o = 5 x 1 0 . There is no crossrange error.3. A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = . 6 . 735 rad DU r b o ( .
4 )+6. The rotation is from west to east. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. <p.S ) .4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr .4 ) (3444) � 4 n .1 .1 . 6. its flightpath angle. The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character.5 24 ft/sec. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar. {3. In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. then all three .56x 1 0.1 0. 56x 1 0 . We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. v. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 . Relative to this inertial XY Z frame .2 1 (. 6 =2. That is. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. and its azimuth angle. m i . ove rshoot 6. 0. for example).2sin 1 60 o 2 = .735 ( 5x 1.4. That is.649 (5x 1 O . 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . both the launch point and the target are in motion. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 .4 ) TOT =1 1 .
we will refer to measurements of burnout . �. of 45 0 . and a speed of. an azimuth. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel.4. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . A simple example should clarify this point..4. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. Hereafter. 6 .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 ." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6.5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . say 1 . of 900 (east).Sec. An observer at rest would not agree . .1 ) .000 ft/sec. (6. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e.I ·=<� • . of train l \\�.000 ft/sec. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. Like the observer on the moving train.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . 1>. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 .41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile.
and up components of the true velocity. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve .308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . flightpath angle . It is. this will not be difficult. �. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. v. Thus. of course. v at burnout which determines the missile ' s .45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. first. break up V into its components. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. Once you have the components of ve. We can obtain the south. (6 .42) The true speed.44) �. east . Vs (6 . If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . lies.
43 is just 90 0 L o.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . Rather . it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. the target will be there also. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . 6.Sec.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. In Figure 6 . The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. when the missile arrives at point B.4. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . so the arc length OA in Figure 6. The term.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . Hopefully.
. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 .0.N + w ffitA ) . (6 .N + wffitA' where .43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. . tA . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point.48) Again. It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . Once we know the total range angle.0. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.0.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target.N. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight.0. then a value of .N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3. The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. we get c o s {3 = sin L t . If you are firing the missile the "long way" around. by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . we can solve for the required launch azimuth. A. (6 .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 . The longitude difference. {3.47) Solving for cos {3. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.0.0. {3. and if. (6 .
" The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. A. tA But . 6 . In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff .Sec. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . and launch azimuth.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. (3. Needless to say. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range .
1 ) 1 .5022 ta . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 .3 ° W burns out at 30o N. 29 . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of ... 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. using Q bo = . 33° ¢bo = v E = . 9 s i n 300= . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . 87 9 30. 5 1 1 95 v . 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . 79 . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = ..0 58 8cos290 = . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ .( . 8° v n /3 = v = . v = .42) through (6 .j( . 45 ) 2 = . 339 ) =. 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( .675 s (J=333 .. .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 339 ) 2 + ( . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . 85 From Figure 6 .. 6 .9 DU/TU.. 9cos3 00cos 3300= .. 1 DU. Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry.4 5) : v= . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.
Sec. . 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1.80° . 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . tff=3. 334 TU boN = 135° . 334TU ) =123. 6 70) =. 334)=135° . 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 .7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = . 6. w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 .203.4 . 770 N re = 156. 77° = .13 = 7. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again.7 8 0 .85 and ¢bo = 3 0. 29 .we(3. 3709 �GG (3.123 .3. 2 5 TU :.
4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6.6 ft/sec) 6 . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6.' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. and a spherical Earth.1 9)? Why? 6 .2. Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude.1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N. m i . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .840. v = 1 6 .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . = . .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U .05 D U = 1 0° . m i . r b o = 1 . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . 6 EXERCISES 6 . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . R = 6 0 n .5 D U!TU 1 .926 D U /TU . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 .
6.06 DU. Using the equations si n iL.Ch.400 n mi. 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 .x and L¥3 be? . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 .0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 . .000 run) 6 . 7 I n general. = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . . Rtf = 4 .)(.2 1 2 run) 6. Rtf = 5 . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0.02.98 to 1 . 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8.j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 . an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + .6. in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . 6 . A lateral displacement . Do not use charts.02. how large can . (Ans. What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . 1 0 During a test flight. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of .'lr ). In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 .
vbo = 0.. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range .31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . c . a.r = 0. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. Is this a high.V = 25 . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. b . ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a.0 DU for a ballistic missile. 6 . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .642 DU/TU) .346 n mi long) b..800 nautical miles? (Ans. or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 . 7 . low. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . (Ans. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 .6888 n mi L:. 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. 6 6 .
Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity. 6 ..600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. 1 5 00 E. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 .20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. at an altitude of 2. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. i.ri. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . 1 2 00 W..23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . 6 .QL. Ch . 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means.where e is the 6 . at the same altitude . 3 0 0 E. tff 40. b. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 .22 The range error equation could be written as: b.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N. 5 DU. Q bo + . Do not use charts. R t of 4. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 .4 min) = 6... 5 DU and whose perigee is . 6. What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum. If the velocity at burnout was 28. �bo and analyze the result . using a minimum timeofflight trajectory .6 . What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans.e .530 ft/sec.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'.'I' = � b.700 n mi using a high trajectory.
and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 .1 045 . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of .02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. 92S1 0608.5 0 . low. Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. How far will the missile miss the target? 4.318 V bo =23. c.6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.4 rad ian s a. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.500 ft/sec=O. (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 . elevation . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 .66E+20784. v bo = . 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .48966 = 3 1 5 . (Ans. b.3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . 1 200W . or maximum range trajectory? 6 .0057 ° = .1 0 .
site located 319 During the actual firing. Assuming a symmetric orbit. tff 3 2 . downrange displacement of burnout point . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. 5 7 min) == * 6 .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . What was the freeflight range. 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . 1 20 OW . What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a.649 n mi . L t 54 0 3 1 '. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b .1 2 ' . 0 (Ans. rotating. atmosphereless Earth. . 1. What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 .6 1 8 .73 n mi. 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . (Ans. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . 43e . and r bo � r(fl.Ch . == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 .
Schwiebert. Inc. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. 5 . "Free Flight . Lt Col Kenneth. Space Technology Laboratories. 1 95 5 . 3 . 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. Wheelon . Doubleday & Company.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . Publishers. Gantz .2.2.02 DU. A History of the U. 2. 1 960.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .6Vb o . New York. Inc. Garden City. The Viking Press. ed . 1 962. Ernest G . NY. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). 6 * 6. * 6. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. altitude at bo ::: . Vol 2.1 2) . NY. Calif. Los Angeles. Burgess. Albert D." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 .4) . R ff ::: 1 0. NY.800 n mi.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . 4. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . 1958. New York. V2 . Eric. Walter. New York .3 . (Hin t : See section 6.S. How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . Dornberger . NY. 1 965 . The MacMillan Company. Praeger.3 1 The approximation : * 6. Frederick A. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. . What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts.
. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. Proctor. of all which. have been discovered. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 .. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. since it gives us light during the night. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. does. when it is light anyway. the Sun or the Moon? . together with the Earth. and is. and moving round it. The Moon is the more useful. move round the Sun once a year.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. the 32 1 . when it is dark. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For.the Moon. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . though principally attracted by the Earth. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. about which she moves. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . .
" In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. W. Even interplanetary trajectories. Brown . What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. D'Alembert. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. Clairaut . with no less subtility than industry. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . 7. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time .2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. Lagrange and Laplace . 7 Author in this book. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. W. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. but because it comes close to being a double planet. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. . has given a full account. The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction.in this case the Sun.
.. . :. According to one theory advanced by G. in fact.3 04 of the mass of the Earth. .21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . . H. .3 days.: =j Figure 7.. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . . . The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. . The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. Darwin. the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. .400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing.Sec. .:. This puts the center of the system 4. son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. ��===c==Q.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . . As a result . the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . 7 . the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962.
due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. In the case of the Moon's orbit .2. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. the orbital elements are constantly . The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. 7 Figure 7. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon.22 Lunar orbital elements 7. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .
8 days. called "evection.054900489 . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours.3 1 66 1 days. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . The line of nodes. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . c. The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384.000 years ago by Hipparchus. 7 . b. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. This effect . We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a.400 km." was discovered more than 2 .Sec. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time .
The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node ." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . the other .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . where the Moon crosses from north to south. its mean value is 5 0 S ' . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . rotates westward.5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. e .326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I .2 Lunar Librations. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S .6 years. From Figure 7. but more than a century later . the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. If the Moon's orbit were = . When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. in l S72. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670.9 years. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory .2. is the descending node . and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . 23 ° 27' . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. Thus. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. making one complete revolution in l S .6 years. d . The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'.000 years. for only then can Sun.
Actually we see . lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . the computer time required could become prohibitive . The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. and 7. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. at one time or another. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs.75 0 around each limb of the moon. among other things. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca.Sec. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. As a result. solar perturbations. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. we would see exactly half of its surface . The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. monthbymonth basis. This permits us to see about 7 .3 . about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. solar pressure . which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . daybyday. 7 . Because of the complex motions of the Moon. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . and the terminal attraction of the Moon. SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion.
With this thought in mind.. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions.. 7. a = :l:!:. this will not introduce significant errors.3.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed.0549 . semimaj or axis. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. It is not important that the analytical method be precise. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about ..Q. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ.400 km. 2& e = y'1  pia . With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. 7 .328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the .3 .
i.0 S pe e d .3 . 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . e r Figure 7. we get c o s V = 2. II.c C/) ... we can solve for va . We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit..2 10..31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly.  I..M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10.Sec.9 I njection 1 1. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit. . 1 r1 1 .g' . 7 .. 60 \ \ I njection . j 80 . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression. E i= .r1 1..c " 0 .:.. In Figure 7..
.')'.. .. . : . As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic .. 7 .. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' .. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero...32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . In Figure 7. \ 0 �� ' earth " .. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP. . : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 .J! . to parabolic.: / :1 .3 ... 7 an injection altitude of .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed . then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory .. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. .330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection. Actually. For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.
The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . if we keep reducing the injection speed . the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . Moon from our assumed inj ection point . 1 8 8 km/sec. 7 . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. From Figure 7 .32. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us.32 we see that. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. as the injection speed is decreased. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. Assuming an inj ection altitude of . . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. 82 km/sec.Sec.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . If we are trying to minimize injection speed. 3 . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. which we can call 1/1. the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. if we try to take longer by going slower.966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. Eventually . is a function of . this minimum injection speed is 1 0. we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . Assuming no lunar gravity . This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. due to errors in guidance or other factors. both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the .we will never reach the Moon at all. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. 7 . In such a case . In general the sweep angle .
the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. Neglecting lunar gravity. But.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted .33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. If. that is. .33 . the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. the initial velocity is too high. and wrrft. for example . This may be seen from Figure 7 . where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit..
the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the .4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. R s' given by the expression Sec. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 .arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally.0 km/sec. In effect. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. for all practical purposes.4.1 ) . For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . . 7 .p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. however. the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. 5 However." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . only are interested in determining ap. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. There is. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly .It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon.encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence.3 00 km. 7. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon.
a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h . 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon. consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .4 .1 ) yields the value Rs = 66. Figure 7 . The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7. A full derivation of equation (7 .) Then.4.300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth.1 ) can be found in Battin .4. 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.4.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. 7 .
Sec. from geometry . A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. at lunar arrival is (7 . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables.46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . 1 . 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. r 1 .r h V 1 I (7 .42) (7 . the radius. Finally.43) From the law of cosines. The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 . r 1 . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions.45) COS <P I . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 .44) . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit.
p=� (7 .to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined. JJ. 7 Figure 7.48) (7 .1 0) . a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 p ia  a = :l!. Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p.47) 2& e = ". t l .4.41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.49) (7 .
1 2) Next.6 rad/sec 1 0 .4. 7 .1 5) 2. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = . we can determine the eccentric anomalies. 1 37 X X 1 0.Sec.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence . .3 rad/TUEIl (7 .1 6) The phase angle at departure.4. where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.1 1 ) (7 . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 . the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .4.649 2. Eo and E1 from Finally.4.4. Wm = = t 1 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.e 1 r1 __ (7 . timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .1 3) (7 .4.
4.4. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. (7 .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. (7 .1 8) (7 . We will do this in the sections that follow. is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft . r 1 . Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 .48) through (7 . a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 .1 9) .45).2 Conditions at the Patch Point . at arrival is completely determined by \ . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed.42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.1 6) above . 7 . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 .0 1 8 k m/sec. 7 .4. Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO .4.1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. The geocentric radius. If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center.4. then the selena centric radius.which we chose arbitrarily . r2 .42 : V m = 1 . it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . In Figure 7 .
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .50 � � c 0 i e 1.30 .40 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7. 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 . «>  0.20 .54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .
There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. b oth of which are undesirable. If lighting conditions are important. Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination . The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. Figure 7 . However. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 .52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. If lunar declination at intercept is specified. once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. 7 .5 0 and 28 .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. It should be obvious from equation (7 . As a result .52) and Figure 7 .5 0 . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . 54.5.Sec. if we add a coasting arc. sir! 0 1 . 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions.si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. 5 4 worth noticing. From Figure 7 .3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date .5 3) .
3 1 9 3 . 1 0 1 6.97 28 3 1 47 .05 28 33 1 1 .27 3 5 .97 1 1 9.08 28 29 08 .385 1 67 . 24 28 23 34 .72 1 1 8 25 08.449 1 67 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 . 7 1 7 1 66 .3 . 624 1 7 3 5 00.424 1 67 .38 + 9 . 7 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.39 28 3 0 34. 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . 078 1 66 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 . 86 28 26 29 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 .949 1 8 05 42.90 28 33 5 3 . 1 4 1 06.4 1 3 1 66 .44 22.1 44. 973 FIgure 1 65 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39. 1 5 28 34 1 0.6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .9 8 9 8 .3 3 3 1 67 . 1 9 173. 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .342 1 7 40 3 5 . 8 1 28 32 47 .695 1 8 02 54 . 1 0 28 27 29 .85 1 1 66 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26. 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.3 1 28 29 48 .76 28 3 1 09 .85 4 1 .862 1 65 . 1 3 . 1 90 1 67 .56 . .63 1 1 1 .45 8 0.97 28 34 3 9 .46 1 1 67 . 5 9 28 34 33 .242 1 66 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .3 1 + 1 48 .737 18 1 9 36 .41 7 1 67 .32 1 1 67 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .203 28 1 8 49 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .89 28 24 29 .254 1 67 .34 28 32 1 7 .84 60.44 28 2 1 1 8 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.05 8 1 65 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .88 28 33 3 5 .460 1 67 .970 1 66 . 1 969 .35 28 1 6 08 .7 1 54.00 28 28 1 5 .07 47.308 1 8 22 22.883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .97 29.998 17 5 7 20.3 1 8 5 .47 28 25 3 8 . 267 1 67 .58 73. 5 8 67.78 1 3 1 .766 1 7 43 23 .95 7 1 7 37 48.23 1 23 .374 1 8 00 07 . 24 . 8 0 1 36.435 1 65 .020 1 8 1 6 49.445 1 67 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON . 5 7 1 1 66 . 2 1 28 34 42 . . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .376 1 67 . 1 7 2 1 67 .87 28 34 22.963 1 8 27 5 5 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .
si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . 1/1 c ' Thus. Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . c o s 1/1 t . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . The difference i n right ascension . slightly (7 .5 . it is possible to adjustt l . we get cos 6a. is the same as the "local sidereal time . 84). !::lX . which may be computed from the injection conditions. \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints.54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . 5 3 .3 .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time.ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . the total time . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 .Sec.57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE.53 . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . 5 4).89) : (7 56) . The launch time. �. and may be obtained from equation (2. ao' at this launch time . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . to' and the right ascension of the launch site .9 . at the launch point (see Figure 2. 7 . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . tt ' is (7 ." 8.
V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. 7.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . 000 k m 33 .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.3 224 . .4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.t I ES Ch . and the exact We now know the injection conditions. � .3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. 7.426 k m 2 /sec2 6. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.54) agree. What additional 6. 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . 7 . r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier.
. . 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. b. 7 . At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7.9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.Ch . The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. a .6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 .400 k m : a . Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. Determine the /:. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit.
Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. select ro ' vo ' to meet this . 7 7 . Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem.) * 7 . Use h bo l OO n mi . 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. <1>0 = = = * 7 . Specifically. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. . requirement. 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. 1 2 cannot really be used in practice.
NY. . Principia . 2. L. an d Maud W. Berkeley and Los Angeles. November 1 95 9 . Isaac . The Story of the Moon . 1 962. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . McGrawHill Book Company.1 6. 4.Ch. Baker. The Moon . New York." ARMA Document DR 220. 5. Gamow. London and New York. Abelard Schuman. Doran and Company. University of California Press. 1 964. NY. Battin. Richard H . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. 1 9 5 9 . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Inc. Academic Press. 1 967. 3 . A stronautical Guidance. Garden City. George . New York. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. Clyde . Second Edition. Doubleday. Robert M. Fisher. Makemson. NY. 6. Newton. 1 943 .
.
so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. By 1 507 he was 357 . From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . etc. two ears. At first it was not understood . But the tide of opinion ebbed. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. such as the seven metals. and a mouth . compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . C opernicus. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . which it were tedious to enumerate .CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. two unpropitious. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 ." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations.. two eyes. two nostrils. indeed. two luminaries. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance .
2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. . With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. 8. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. 8. are spread much more widely throughout the system. 6. Mars. indeed. 3. some of which pass near the Sun. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . . Neptune. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . at the age of 70. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. diameter.2. The "law. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. . It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. In addition. 1 2 . Venus. comets. nevertheless. Saturn. If we write down the series 0.1 . Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Jupiter . and Pluto . 1 Bode's Law. Earth." as may be seen in Table 8 . Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets.2. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. the members of the solar system." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. . Uranus. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept ." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true .
8.39 0.20 9.Sec.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered. 0 is presented in Table 8 .2 Table 8. compared with the total mission duration.52 1 9.22. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune . 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . 8.7 1 .0 1. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.0 1 9 .72 1 .8 5 .00 1 .4 0. 8. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 . Table 8 . Except for Mercury and Pluto . shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.65 5.6 3 8 . Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune . Only for brief periods. The size.8 77.52 2.2 1 0.6 2.28 3 0. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic.2. The sixth orbital element. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants. is its path . 1 7 39.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.21 Actual Distance 0.
005 0 .000 1 . 2056 .441 73 ° .7233 1 .306 2 ° .275 222 ° .970 7 6 ° . 38 7 1 ..423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.322 1 00 ° .2583 7 ° .) 00 .225 237 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° . 05 1 4 .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .684 93 ° .850 1 ° . 76 ° .096 1 88 ° . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.. m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .773 1 7° .0539 .5 1 9 1 9 . 3 97 1 09 ° .489 0° . 5 73 1 75 ° .004 3 ° .76 . 5 68 3 1 ° . 8 94 341 ° .405 undefined 49 ° ..28 3 0. 000 1 °..203 9.497 1 3 ° .870 L.ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 074 1 83 ° . 1 7 3 9 . 1 1 1 326 ° . 0 1 67 .828 1 7 1 °. 0934 . 1 39 1 1 3 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° .. 0068 .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . 1 42 1 02 ° .5 24 5 . 7 73 1 ° . 1 3 6 47 ° . 0482 .394 0° .400 276 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° .
06 9 .3 05x 1 04 1 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .9? 1 .6 1 5 1 .8 6 29.000 .74 2 .268x 1 0 B 3 . 1 08 3 1 8 .8 8 1 1 1 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m ." .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .79 24. 00 3 3 3 43 2 .9 1 08 ..0 95.80 5 .65 6. 0 1 1 64.PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto ..04 29.2 1 4.l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .7 5 7 .820x 1 0 6 6 .795x 1 0 7 5 .24 1 .6 1 7 . 1 1 49 . 5 227.05 6 .46 84.8 1 7 1 .8 247 .3 .000 1 .49 4.232x l 0 4 3 .896x 1 0 6 3 .87 3 5 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .257x l O s 3 . 1 4 1 3 .986x l O s 4.
however. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. Just as in lunar trajectories. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. was the Hohmann transfer. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible .362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit.3l . If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point .3 . For transfers to mo st of the planets. 8. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. this consideration is important. if continued past the destination planet . For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet.v required. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . from the standpoint of /:. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. The Hohmann transfer.
d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit.' . Nevertheless.. 8." . The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by ..v required for an interplanetary mission. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / .Sec. . Therefore . \ _.u o_____+. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::.V.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.
the difference between the heliocentric speed. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun.3 and should be reviewed .l 0 (8 .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. • . VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . From Table 8.3.78 kIn/sec. 3 .3 .1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system.where f. B (8 .31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity. The heliocentric speed. for the Hohmann transfer.33) In Table 8 . then. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. In any case . The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.
1 6 30.295 1 . From Table 8 . 40.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .73 38.42 4 1 .Sec.07 4 1 .345 1 . t2 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.05 4 1 .28 27.31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .379 1 . VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer . 8.04 1 6.22 the radius to Mars from the Sun.78 46.099 1 .524 A U From equation (8 .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .748 .3 9 1 1 . rE9> are respectively : . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.5 1 46 . 1 2 5 8 .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence. rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.31 1 05 . Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.28 32. r d = 1 .60 Table 8. In other words .9 1 6 1 .57 .9  2 .74 6.397 22.
2 Phase Angle at Departure.32 for a Mars trajectory.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight. and is illustrated in Figure 8 .3. v .t1 ) wt . the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8. If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure. 8 From equation (8 . From equation (8 .9 d ays 8. where is the angular velocity of the target planet.35) wt (t2 . the phase angle at departure . vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.32) the heliocentric speed .34) __ (8 .VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.7088 years = 258.t 1 = 1T = 4.099A U/TU 0 = 32.4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 . The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 .73Km/sec . The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points.3. Thus.
. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. . . 'Yl (8 .. . . 367 .. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun.. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet.36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. If we miss a particular launch opportunity..... 8. .3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . Figure 8.Sec. .32 Phase angle at departure.1 76 . .. pp 1 60.
we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again.37) (8. yrs 0. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km.00 Table 8.W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . Thus. 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period.07 5 . 340 . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.32 1 . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth.0 1 1 . 1 3 1 .025 Synodic Period.38) .213 .03 8 . 8.09 1 . so W EfJ7 s .368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .w t I (8 . the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.60 2.2 1 7 3 . rad/yr 26 .530 . Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence.32 In a time .v 1 determined. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. Mars and Venus.3.07 1 1 0.01 1 . we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ . 3 ·2.04 1 . we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.
 '?. (8 . . . . . '\ . . �. . � _ i t_ r b_ .. . � Figure 8.33 / .Sec.310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in ..39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo...... .r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . . . . . . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 .:V. f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. . 8 . . ".
8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 .2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. we may write . between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola.3. From Figure 8.the injection speed .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . is given by cos fI =  §.34 we see that the angie . C but since e = da for any conic.33 .1 1 ) becomes = 2 .6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 .1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. the angle . km/sec. fI. the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8. This may be seen by solving equation (8 . so equation (8 . 3. fI. Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. For transfer to one of the outer planets.
1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8.3.34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .1 e where the eccentricity . 8 .Sec.3. 3 T H E PATC H E D. is obtained directly from the injection (8 . conditions : = (8 .CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .1 2) e. 3.
The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth. At arrival.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .4 Arrival at the Target Planet. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 .1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 .36.3.3. 8. cfJ as shown in Figure 8.35 Interplanetary launch (8 . Generally. however. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.3. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur.
1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines.Sec. 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :. 8 .36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 . 3.1 6) (8.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet.1 8) . (8 . sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 . 3 .3. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 .
in Figure 8.36). 3 7 we see that  (8 . will be directed toward the center of the planet. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there.s i n if> 2 v (8 .1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . It also means that the relative velocity vector. 3. . e. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it.3 . the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed.The angle . 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 .38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown.320) y = x si n e (8. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. In Figure 8. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . 3 7 . 8 . From Figure 8 .
lt/ 2 X _ . 8 .322) .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f. (8 .37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .Sec. X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.
the speed at periapsis is simply .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet .(8. 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance.327) for y Yields (8 . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = . 324) (8.328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence.326) Because angular momentum is conserved. we obtain . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . Solving equation (8 . 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . y.
3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . V2 + 2fJ.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. b. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.Sec. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking.05 DU. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. the "inwact parameter.329). only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . The. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 .328) we 'get (8 . The given information is . 8. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. then a much smaller target must be considered.t 3  rt (8 .33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . rt This particular offset distance is called b .39. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission.
378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .1 VI = 1 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .099 A U/TU 0. 6V 1 = 1 . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence . 3 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.05 D U 1 .099 .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .1 :: 0.099 A U/TU = :.
905 = = 379 37 . {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept. 1 39 + 1 . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. From Table 8 .v = 2v si n L 2 /::. t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .1 . 8 .Sec.07 6 ft/sec 2 .1 ) .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept. the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.044 8 .4.v (8 . This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.4. departure Figure 8 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.43 DU/TU .
8. 8.4.3 . 7.... 8 as derived in equation (3 .. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. 5 for the planet Jupiter.1 )) . Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years.3..380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 8.62 DUJTU� 8.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units.8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 . _  /' .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun . 8.1 ) .3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 . " . EXERCISES 8 . (Ans. 8 . 8.32. 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.
000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. a. It can be shown that . v = 39 .v = 1 5 ..V = 0. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .l:. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit .V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.v ? (Ans. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit. M = 5.l:.l:. r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j . where 8.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the .l:.35) ITbo no .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. 1 00 ft/sec) c. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.V required? (Ans.000 ft/sec.394 DUe/TU� b .Ch.l:. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.348 DUe/TUE9> . Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . If c = 9 . . 1 DUE[) radius. vesc = 1 .900 ft/sec. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 .
= 0. 6. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long.254 AU/TU� .5 DUEI1 circular orbit.0. 0. 1 DUe/TUEl1.. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans. v= 0.V of . 09 DUe/TU$) = .28 AU2 /TU2 . The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 . 0.. � = 0..382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee.0. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6.. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a..V at apogee or perigee? 8.which results if the same 6. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b .V is applied at perigee.73 1 DU8TU� b . What is the 6. so work carefully and follow any suggestions. v=' (Ans.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e..V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .0.9 00 ft/sec) 8 . The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. a. (Ans. What is the 6.Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units.? (Ans. 3 .5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. 8 8 .046 DU� /TU � b . 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . The mission will begin in a 1 .) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. What is the 6... 8. (Ans. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. Find the 6. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. Find the hyperbolic excess speed. 0. a.
Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth.87 TU� b .2 AU/TU� d. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 .) (Ans.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 .3 9 DU oITU& 2 . (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. for the above transfer. called the turning angle . The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. For a given planet. 0. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. 1 . 1 4 a.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. 0. 3 .5 AU. <P2 and vll1II in that order. O o) 8. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. 8 . P. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit.867 AU/TU� e .Ch. it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. c. Compute the phase angle at departure. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars.5 AU? (Ans. (Ans. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . Vrrw = 0. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity.050 ft/sec) 8 . 'Y1 . 1 . 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination.373 AU/TU � f. (Ans. then find h.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 .
U S Government Printing Office . James R. Newman. 1 95 6 . Washington. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . 1 969. Simon and Schuster. The World of Mathematics. 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. NY. New York. What would be an estimate of the return b. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . pp 430434. * Ch . Assume circular. 1 . 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. Vol 2. 8 8. 1 963. 3 . London. Fimple . American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. . R. 1 967. No 2 . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. 1 96 1 . and the angular rates of the planets. D C . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. W . coplanar planet orbits. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories.V! Give the answer in lan/sec" ." AIAA Journal. transfer time. Vol 1 . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. 4 .where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet.
and at times unexplainable . irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. it is found that there seem to be distinct. Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. Macroscopically . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. There is always some variation 385 . " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. " Webster 9 . one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth).
Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . which had not been treated by Newton . The power and all directional controls are kept constant. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. The wind gust was a perturbation.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. atmo spheric drag and lift.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. about a century later. etc. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . Brown 's papers of 1 897. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. Fortunately. meteoroid collisions. except the motion of the perigee. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. Then. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. In fact. M. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. and relativistic effects. 6 . Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon.from the norm. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. magnetic. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 9 . solar radiation effects. E. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example .
These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . and variation of elements techniques are discussed. With the capability for orbital flight . Encke. H. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite.Sec. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. 9. the Cowell. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. a section discussing methods and errors is included . There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. It was developed by P. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . In particular. See section 1 . 9 . General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations.
Sun and planets.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. y = vy (9. the equations would be . F or numerical integration equation (9 . including all the perturbations.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . the equation would be (9 . For the twobody problem with perturb ations. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. r=Y �r (9 .22) would be further broken down into the vector components.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .2.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon.
 ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. When motion is near a large attracting body . Classically. the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. 8 . In spherical coordinates (r. and he would be correct . Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings.Sec. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 .Il m ( 3 . roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. Intuitively. This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method.25) .23). There are some disadvantages of the method . It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories.24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2. Even in double precision computer arithmetic. The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. 9 . 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation .22). In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic .'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 .
This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere .31 The osculatil.'l. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . 9. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. 9 (9 . "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. The term connotes the sense of contact. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . Presumably . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. reference or b i t Figure 9. and . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . in our case .25) As a reminder. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . In the Encke method .
The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). Now w e will consider th.33) we obtain . Note that at the epoch.. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path.33) Sub stituting equations (9 . 9 . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. At that time .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. 9. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .to ) ' p (9 . the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 .1 ) and (9 . be defined as (see Figure and . Let r and p be the radius vectors to . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit.1 ) and for the osculating orbit.Sec.e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration. 3 .3 . r + � r3 r = a t .3 2) into (9 . = p ( tb ) p p to = 0. or epoch..1 ) .3. respectively . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits.  (9 .3.32)  Sr.1 ) .
lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r ..3 6) Equation (9 . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object ..3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .37) .3 / 2 (9 . 6r (to + .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch .was to obtain more accuracy.34) then becomes (9. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .6r] r3 r (9 . theoretically. However. p is a known function of time . 6r. So .35) 3 3 r _ (9 .. 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .6r ) . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:.6.t) can be calculated numerically. so r can be obtained from 6r and p.392 6r == a ) p + IlL p . For a given set of initial conditions. one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method.
/  Our problem is not yet solved . Expanding. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . Now some ways of calculating q must be found.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. In terms of its components Figure 9. o y . OZ are the cartesian components o f or. 9 .Sec. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. however.
The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9. .37) becomes (9 .38) and (9 .2q So q =  Now.38)  1 . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. /) y2 .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .3. There are two methods of solution at this point . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.37). 3.2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates. (9 .31 2) . 9 From equation (9 .(1 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .( 1 . .1 0) (9 .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .
and 5r 0 at this point.does not remain quite small.3. k. The method using equation (9 . Knowing 5r(to + t:. q( to + t:. g. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. p 229).t) . Integrate another t:.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. although the use of equation (9 . (jr 0.3 8) 3.t) 2 . It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits.t where k is the step number.01 ). v = p + (jr. Then the tables could be u sed to find f .> a specified constant. b. In (jr p v as described earlier. rectify and go to step a . The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. f(to + t:. Calculate r = p + (jr. c.t .Sec. r (to ) . so larger step sizes can be taken. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . a. For an integration step.3. e . The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body.t replaced by kt:.1 2) may be slightly faster.1 0). Rectification should be initiated when . p(to + t:.1 2) is used. but of the order of magnitude of 0. t:.nowing p (to ) . calculate (jr (to + t:.t) from equation (9 . If equation (9 . 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated . 9 . Otherwise (jr p . If.t ) from equation (9 . In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . q (to ) O. d . 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows .39) is recommended for use with the computer.3.t to get (jr{ to + kt:. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . = = = = = p continue. Vol 2.t). Go to step c with t:.t) calculate 1 . f.
The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. Similarly.6./l m {m s . Though.3.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . Then e � . one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . In the absence of perturbations. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously.6. e eccentricity. a .t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . this method may seem more difficult to implement. at the outset. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . they would remain constant. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. Thus. One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r .396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. See equation (9 . A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six .cSr ) (9 . the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . For instance. The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. = . 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. etc . A similar check could be made on i . from the Encke method 9. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time .
1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. along the instantaneous radius vector. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. i. R (unit vector R). n. e.. The standard orbital elements a.variations (e. 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. r. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. w and.Sec. 9 . The axis S is .4 .I OOS . These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . . for a table of parameter sets).g.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . . Therefore . Eventually . This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity .and dM ?. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker.n (t . 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . � . The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature .. 9 .T (or M) will be used. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . p 246. The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . Vol 2 .To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary.
1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .43) . W.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.4. The third axis. = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .
. Differentiating the conic equation Qr.!I=8!" nr from (9 . expressions for found.1:!:.46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.43).Sec.4 and .45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a . the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.48) we find da dt = (9.46) and F S (9 .� 2& ' = 399 (9 . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 . V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system. (9 . 9.4.44).1 0) .45) To express this in known terms.49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .48) Substituting in equation (9.44) (9. dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 . (9 .
) Since h = hW.la _ (9 04. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .�) % J.4.400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0). the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904..2 )% a = (1 .lae dt h $) a dt .1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J. r hW + h da S dt (9 . 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .
K .1 6) we obtain . 1 e2 (9 .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .sin QL = dt .4.�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'. 9 .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h ..1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .4.n di dt (9 . 4 . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .4.1 8) .Sec.4. K) � (9 . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .4.1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).4.h cos i rF s h2 ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
Sec.45 0) should be small. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics. but more practically we would consider � = v .vt . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation.. C. For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence . VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.2 (at + C)2  . and V are small.5 1 ) correct to first order in J.5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l ..vt 2p. From equation (9 . {at + c) + 3p.2p.at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .vat a+v a .45 1 ).v 2p.454) + 2p. Since p. . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9. . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 . c = ve 2 p. .4.v = .2p. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . allowing c to vary with time .vc . 9 .v {at + c ) c (9 .4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. The constant of integration. .5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.J.2 p.45 1 ) .4. ] (9 .2p.v which can be easily solved for c.450) and solving for e we find (9 . 4 where c will be the parameter.e . • .4. Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion .
1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. storage and complexity. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. In theory. his integration method.. such as the disturbing function. Unfortunately. not expediency. at best. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. . Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter.e. efficiency. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. 9 . 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. d. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. economical in computing time. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. 9 . should be the criteria. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. allow as large a stepsize as possible. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. 9 in detail. c.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . b . Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. or has not carefully selected. 5 . Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. highly questionable. accuracy.
476. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. 9 . In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as .276 + 3 .388. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. and f. 4. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e .accumulated roundoff error . but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.5 (9. For instance .388. 5 . p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. Baker (v 2. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . 2 Integration Errors.864. In fact.57 = 7 . Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved .86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation.Sec.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. Obviously . suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4.5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. The larger the . They are roundoff and truncation errors. 9 .843.476. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number.567 = 7.28 + 3.
6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors.62) (9. h. 9 stepsize. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . Gill. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . the larger the truncation error. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations.6. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error.1 ) . Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. 9.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. Thus. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . 6 .= f(t. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. AdamsMoulton. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes . The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. 1 RungeKutta Method. There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. 9 . In general.63) dx dt (9. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. Of course . EulerCauchy and Bowie . We will treat the first order equation . Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta.
Sec.( 1 + y. They are relatively simple .yV:. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods . X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: . and stepsize is easily changed . One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.6.64) 1 1 + . though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h .63) and n is the increment number. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. have a relatively small truncation error. x n .k +.k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .( 1 . so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize . It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors. 9 .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9.. The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% .) k2 6 3 l2 (9. In general. x n + k 3 ) (9. they are faster than the singlestep methods.h ) k3 +. easy to implement . This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. 9 .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .% ] + k 2 [ 1 .yry.
5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k.66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 .6.\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . 1 /2 .beginning and after each stepsize change. 25 1 /720. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). . The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . 3 /8 .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme .67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 5 / 1 2 . In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0.\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9.1 f . 3 9. .
6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +. This method. the error terms are not generally known. 9 . The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .x n+1I I (P 270 (9.1 + 37 f n2 .h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9.59 f n . Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis). It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first.6. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see.69). . for instance. In equation (9.x n + (5 5 f ri .Sec.
It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations. though.8 k .1 f(t n h) 2 2   .6. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. 9 like other multistep methods.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n . 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". n + � 84 "x. 9. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. and most used. x.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n.° n + . "x.1 ' etc.1 .418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". The GaussJackson method is one of the best.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) .2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. It is.6 . n + 1 2 n i \.° n 60480 (9. .h ) .LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt.1 f(t n + h). The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. though it also includes a corrector.
9.1 ) One such potential function. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. Some of them become quite complex. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. according to Vinti. V. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. However.7.Bashforth) methods are preferred.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods.72) . 2 . flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec.6. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. Table 9. is known.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. 2 and NASA C R.7. but only the simpler forms will be treated.5 Numerical Integration Summary . If the potential function. 9.6. p/r.e presented in this section. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. the accelerations can be found from (9. 9 . Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods.1 The Nonspherical Earth .I n=2 r (9. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. ¢. is ¢ = � [1 . 9 . the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams.l 005).
Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. it could be very fast.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. very difficult to determine proper size. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � . 9 CI) . Vol t .
945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.2. r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  . = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .74) ...( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .where J..7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .L = gravitational parameter Sec.2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .] (9 .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .J s � ( � ) (35� .  I. 9.30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r . if> = I!:..
1 5 ± O. p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.6 . . 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr.1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J .5)x 1 0. y.57 ± O.64 ± O. l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2. The first term in x.l ( �) 3 ( 3 . l )x 1 0. 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .2205 2" 6 16 r r (9. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9. I )x 1 0. These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0.422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .6 J4 = (1 .(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .6 ± O.6 J = (0. Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 .70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75). .5 ± O.3003 ""6 ) + .03)x 1 0.44 ± O. l )x 1 0.. Vol 1 .75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity . which are slightly in variance . There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.6 6 (0.
Vol 1 . the drag coefficient. The equations are formulated in the geocentric . by definition. A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). simply use r3 r= where . but will not be presented here.Sec. Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only).Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . However. s 9. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . Thus.. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . p 147). frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . 7 Drag. care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . equatorial coordinate system.. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point ..77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . and other parameters. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w.7. Therefore . There are a few ctmtiol). C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. To do this. term) to the RSW sy stem.2 Atmospheric Drag. 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . 9 .s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation .
in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . y .7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density.3 Radiation Pressure. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . equatorial coordinate system.t b ae ==ic. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. In the geocentric.424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. but the reader can find this in other documents.78) z . altitude above an oblate Earth. Equation (9 . x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. z refer to the geocentric.lli. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).ilc coffc.ie.7 . Radiation pressure.7 . 9 m p C O A . . 9 . though small. etc.
y. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . but a major force . 9. EXERCISES 9. 9 where A = cross section f = 4. .79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. m (9.4 Thrust.Ch.3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method.25).4349 0 x . Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming.4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates. z directions. m = mass of vehicle (grams) . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. 9 . Prove this assertion .1 5) . 7 . iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . .5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm). 9 . See equation (9.2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . 9 .4. the variation of eccentricity.
. Jr . Mendez. Academic Press. 1 . John Wiley and Sons. Feb 1 968. L. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. Robert M . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. M. A. Blackford. Academic Press. A. J . The Macmillan Co . 1 9 1 4. Washington. and Wl). * 9 . New York. C . Brouwer. 3 .. 1 967. 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. 4. DC.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. . and Wilf. Years 1 9601 980.445). 1 96 1 . G. S . Guidance. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. 6. London . * 9 . M.000 n mi. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Ralston . Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers.ittouck. 5 . 9 . Moulton . New York." NASA CR. D. * 9. . Allione . New York. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. and Clemence. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . R. LIST OF REFERENCES 2. 9 9 . M. Inc. M. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1 960. Vol VI. F . New York.l 005 . "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. L. Planetary Coordinates for the. Baker.
Longmans. 9 . 1 96 5 . Celestial Mechanics. Orbital Flight Handbook. Michigan. Methods of Orbit Determination. M . Maud W. Vol 1 . 1 967. New Yark. The Computation of Orbits. New York. Robert M. Escobal. McGrawHill. Battin. 1 5 . 1 963. R. 1 6. Jr. 1 2. G. Inc. Cambridge University Press. New York. 1 0.. The Macmillan Co. H. Dubyago . B . M. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. Academic Press. Paul. P. R . . Th e Determination of Orbits. Escobal. Jr and Makemson. A . Methods of A strodynamics. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). P . E . Smart. Baker. John Wiley and Sons. 1 968 . C. 2nd ed. Plumber. Herget. 1 4 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. New York. . 1 3 . New York. Part 1 .Ch . W . F . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . New York. 1 95 6 . Ann Arbor. New York. 1 95 3 . D. 1 96 1 . Hildebrand. Washington. 1 1 . 1 964. NASA SP33 . Townsend. L. 8 . A stronautical Guidance . New York. Published privately by the Author. McGrawHill. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. 1 948 . R. DC . Dynamical A stronomy .
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11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. 1 328 2 1 days 9. 2506844773 deg min 7. 'Derived from those values of Il .24764 11sec 806 .9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 .407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. English Units Metric Units 2. Speed Unit I� TU.092567257 x 107 ft 3963 .. I DU� TUi. 1 97 5 . Canonical Units I DU.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29.77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 . we 0. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . 1 ..05883 36565 � TV. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance.. Ile Angular Rotation. 44686457 min 6378.. r. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself. . r.9053682 8 km' . and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 . 1 Center.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 .922786 NM 1 3 . 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU..784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter.. 2593 6. 3.
8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .4 3 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. foot = 0.8 9.07 1 0 1 50424 4 .08 1 52366 0 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.e . 1f = 3 .01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 . there is no roundoff or truncation.3 14 .239446309 x 1 0. 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.2342709 5 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 . i.2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 . .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A. 1 2 64963205 0 .
A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. Unit Vector.relationships involving vector quantities. temperature . If A i s a vector . (Example : 3 or A). The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. Thus. K) and (p. length of a vector . velocity . 43 1 . Examples are displacement. time or any real signed number. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . W). I DEFINITIONS Vector. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. not a null or zero vector. J. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. force and acceleration. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . speed. Q. Examples are mass. Scalar. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. C.
Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors.. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. regardless of the position of their origins. 1 Similarly. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . and A and B are not collinear. Coplanar Vectors. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. . since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. B and C are coplanar vectors. If A.
The "dot" product of two vectors A and B.l ) C. denoted by A • B. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B. C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle..2. l . V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .1 ) I AI cos B . From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .C. e I I l (C .B which is the same as A + (B). Scalar or Dot Product. is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin.2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB .
J . < 180° ) AxB =C .24) (C. if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.. sma l lest ang le ( L e . That is.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them. denoted by A x B .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . The cross product of two vectors A and B.B + A .K= 1 I . A o A = Aft. B and C form a right handed system. .1=J .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A .J = J o K=K o I = O where I .8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. K are unit orthogonal vectors. then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . 23 ) (C.(B + C) = A .J =K .
C. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C .2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. then A X B = O. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. J. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . e < In fact A x B = . K are unit orthogonal vectors. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C.
Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 . BI C1 .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .29) Scalar Triple Product. Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C.
C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .1 2) (C.l 3) (C.21 4) C. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .2. 2. The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.B3 C) + A ( B3 C .2. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.2.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .C.1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C. Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below. denoted b y A x (B x C) .(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 . The vector triple produce.
... x J Then the velocity relative to the (I....YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of . .... ....with itself... " . then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + .438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o ... dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 .9.. thus ........ K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P... v C P K y ... . ..
= .C. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path. v = wT . dr v = .= .. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. VE LOCITY 439 which. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. In this special case then. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T .3 b. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle.
the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). p. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . elevation. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. Az. The input to TRACK should be range. From the 440 . EI. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. The input to SITE should be latitude. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. azimuth. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . range rate . and altitude above mean sea level are specified . longitude. The radar determines p. Its geodetic latitude. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. positive to the east) of the launch site. D . elevation rate . Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . azimuth rate. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . latitude of the launch site.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . and of the satellite (R and V). EI. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite .
MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .5 3 0 .044 1 8440. GST _ 1 .7 .3 .775 1 80 1 9. BEGIN REAL D. END OF LSTIME . 0) = (. E 7 2 .8 S 1 7 5.D. 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . .1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 .5 90 . e . 8 0.63745829) z = . DAY. LST) .07 1 05 . = (. 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .08 30.5 3 4 ON 4 5. UT.27907 599.7 . . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. 22 1 0. Following are five sample sets of data for site location. LST _ LONG + GST + 1 .01 2035 7 5 . a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. Input UT as a decimal (i. . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. . 6 .2045 72 1 6 . GST. .57 76. If the above program is used.5 . 007 N 1 04 . .7 5. LST. GST. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI).62624920) = (. 5. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . PI . 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x .74933340. 040075. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . 3 315 . .26347 1 9 8 . INTEGER DAY.ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . . 6 8 2. . . UT.8 N 7 8 . observation time and radar tracking data. 2 2 29. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 .05 1 37. REAL LONG.48 201.5 1 35 . 1 4923608. 9 W 0 1 9 05.75 1 003 9 1 . LST and LONG are in radians.. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 .75 components are : (. An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG.0027379093®2®PI®D . y. 5 7 5 for data set 3). PI.74933340.05 1 9 5238) .
48 4 0 2.5 0 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 . 00001 .. d.49 0 . .9 0 2 0 .4 1 4 2. Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.1 . 1 0 0 2 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. The type of trajectory (circular.4 1 722472 . From this information you are required to fmd : a.2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix.85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse .001 5 30 0 . Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . 7 0 3 VK . rectilinear. 1 29579 1 9 .6 0 . 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 .01 . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth.001 1 0 . 01 . 49 0 0 2.703 . For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). . 05 .1 0 22.8 . hyperbolic).442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. b .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29.1 .9 1 046 1 80. c. 0 1 7 45 .707 . elliptical. The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.9 1 .2 VI . parabolic.4 1 4 0 0 65 . . 6 2 . 5 . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. 0) (.293 .
1 5 0689 1 . You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. 61 (calculated) . 61. Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time .8 . To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. b.jiL d. 1 38878 . To determine when convergence has occurred. If your iteration process is efficient. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds.3 1 0 .7 . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. x should never be greater than 2m. a .5 . and dt/dx for each iteration. c. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram.4 of the text for guidance . If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations.025 9 1 7 . If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. RJ 61 .0.5 0 0 . you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. Also for an ellipse.5 .3 D. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 .
. .. It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). 1 06 1 0. and sign (7T . One of the data sets tests this situation.01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . t :::.w). 0.1 . You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives. I�I :::. Given r l ' r2 . 1 362596) = (0.444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.70655823.4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later.002 1 7 7 1 .6 for 1 :::.. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations. 1 0.6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight..9 20 .00006057 . R2 V2 = (0.1 . For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . 00 1 074 . 1 8 1 . I t .. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 ... For instance note that y can never be negative . 0003 6 1 .. 3.5 1 . 0 . Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text.. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine.t c l :::. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.999 o 1 03 D. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points. bt... Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 .. 1 65 08 . In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z.
2 . . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = . The following data i s i n canonical units. This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. x.9378 1 789) = 4. Also print t:J) and a for each data set .66993 1 97 . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM .7 0 1 0 20 1 .201 .. a message printed and you should go to the next data set .6 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.4 .6 .4 1 . See section 5 .3 . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.4 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.8 5 +1 .3 .0001 +1 . . The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the . .66986992.1 .1 specifies the long way.6 . 7 for further discussion o f this project .3 . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (. Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. time of radar observation.5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . 1 .6 .7 .4 . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT.6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. 1 2298 1 44.S = (0.5 . Check for this case . and the location of an interceptor launch site .5 .2 . print out a message and go to the next data set .2 .0 .1 . location of the tracking site .6 . y.6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 .7 0 1 0 1 . so a check should be made for that condi tion.4804847 1 .2 1 .
TRACK. e . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. Times should be read in as minutes. The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. When you point out your arrays.446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . To make your program flexible . Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . the starting value of timeofflight increment size. d. Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . This will aid you in verifying your solution . g. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. c.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . Make some provision to print out all of your input data. assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . and the number of timeofflight increments desired . b . the number of reaction times desired .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. the desired increment size for reaction time . f.3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . KEPLER and GAUSS. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a .
of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No. You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.92 deg/sec 1 .1 .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.038 .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .0. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .338 **** **** **** 10 8 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 . 844 **** **** **** 35 7 .6 1 3 km EI = 56. of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .74. 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .5 p = 1 86.
LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site . LATL.448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL.
INDEX .
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3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 102 Apoapsis. 84 ecliptic. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 9498 transformations. 296 geometry. 109 B akerNunn camera. 84. 1 09. 1 22. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 429 lunar distance. 28 1 B arker's equation. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 2 1 2 B asis. 2427 Apogee. 20. 60 Argument of periapsis. 3 2 5 . 4 1 . 423 Azimuth. 5 3 . 1 8 3 mean. 297299 451 . 3 9 0 station. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 6. 5 5 heliocentric. 7483 Coordinate systems. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 5358. 422 gravitational parameter. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular.1 3 1 G auss problem. 3 2 3 masses. 4 3 0 Conversions. 5 7 principal direction. 203 Aphelion. 3 3 period of. 5 8 Aristotle. 56 Circular satellite orbit. B urnout. 1 09 Angular momentum. 1 8 5 true. 1 620. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 3 5 8 . 5 6 topocentrichorizon.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 2 3 4. Tycho. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 279 C anonical units. 9 3 . 2 1 . 429 Astronomical Unit. 3 8 9 . 277320 computation chart. 94. 4 gravitational h armonics. 5 3 . 74 BMEWS. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 1 8 8 . 4043 Celestial equator. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 429 flattening. 1 00. 56 Celestial sphere. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 57 perifocal. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 24 Apparent solar time. 349 Angle of elevation. 1 62 Argument of latitude.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 3 4 Collision cross section. 1 5 . 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 54 fundamental plane. 24 height adjustment. 84. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 8 4 Copernicus. 246 Brahe. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 54 orbit plane. 60 and universal v ariables. 1 4.9 8 gravitational constant. 74 geocentricequatorial. 374 Computer projects.
1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 20 1 202 f and g series. 1 54. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 1 42. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 221 hyperbolic. 2 3 0 . 1 60 low altitude. 54 Elements of orbit. 2 0 . 2 8 2 time. 62 Ecliptic.3 0 6 numerical integration. 423 424 Earth oblate. 8 7 . 2 3 0 f and g series method. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 25. 4 Newton's law of. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 1 04 Escape speed. 4 G ravitational parameter. G auss problem. 3 00 launching. 444 algorithm. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 1 7 equations. 4 1 9. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 94 . 1 8 1 . Carl Fredrich. zenith angle. 26 ff.3 3 pe. 62 vector. 5 8 . 84.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 3 1 . 25 1 258. 60 Dot product. apparent. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. function o f true anomaIles.1 1 6 Gravitation. 227 418 ( y ) . 60 true longitude at. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 58 from position a n d velocity. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 1 4 0 .1 5 5 Direct motion. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 1 0 6 precession. 4 3 3 Drag. 22827 1 . 3 6 6 Differential correction. 1 0 3 G round track. 3 5 0 Epoch. 3 90 .1 3 1 Direct ascent. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 3 5 . 3 5 . 3 89 nbody. 1 8 8 . 9. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 40. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 2 1 ff. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to.3 9 6 Energy. 3 22 trajectories. 26. 8 0 f and g expressions. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude.riod o f . 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 2 3 3 . Elliptical orbits.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 4 G alileo. 2 4 . 1 22. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 3 6 8 local. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange.2 1 2 parabolic. 3 0 . 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 6 1 Elevation angle. 25 1 . 2 9 7 . 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 1 8 8.1 90. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 1 0 twobody. 9 3 98 effect of rotation.452 Declination. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 2 1 2.93 . 1 1 7. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables.1 4 3 . 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 2 9 . 56. 9 4 Geoid. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 2 1 2. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 2 1 . 3 5 Escape trajectory. 1 0 9 . 306 EarthMoon system. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 1 8 2. 1 0 6 mean. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 7 G ravitational constant. 264 eccentric anomalies.
247 Newton's laws. 2 6 5 27 1 . 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 5 Newton. 1 . 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 3 0 3 . 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 3 26 orbital elements of. 8 9 . 1 80 third. 1 Kepler's equation. J ohann. 3 8 . 9 9 . 1 8 8 . 1 56 vector.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 220 Mean motion. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 62 longitude of ascending. 3. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. Edmund. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. gravitational parameter. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 238. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 1 0 twobody. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 1 5 6.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. Greenwich. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 62 . 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 2 H alley's comet.I N D EX H alley. 1 6 3 . limitations. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 7. 6 . 20 Least squares solution. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 5 8 Longitude. 3 9 6 M otion. 4. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 6 rotation of. 3 4 5 noncoplanar.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 60 Lunar trajectories. 1 9 8 . 3 5 0 free return. 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 3 69. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 1 57 Line of nodes.1 8 1 first. 3 9. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 3 1 Manned flight. 1 1 7 Latitude. 2. equations o f nbody. 1 1 7 derivatives. 1 0 2 Meridian. 1 5 6. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 6. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 2 second. 94 geodetic. 8 6 . 3 44 . 3 7 0 Integration. 2 7 7 . 1 0 1 . argument of at epoch. 1 8 5 . 5 1 . 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 234. 1 25 Librations of Moon.3 8 4 general coplanar.3 05. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 1 03 Minor axis. 2. 1 02 Mean solar time.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 3 69 . 1 4 1 . 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 3 80 Kepler. numerical rotation of. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 1 4 1 . 2 1 . 207 I nclination. 1 7 7. 3 64.1 6 6. 1 52 Mass of planets. 3 65 noncoplanar. 3 27. 2. 1 5 1 . 3 1 6 Injection. 60 Latus rectum. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 3 24 . 3 24326. 3 89 trajectories. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 8 Node ascending. 3 57 . 2 Heliocentric constants. 58 regression. 3 1 Moon. 1 8 Influence coefficients. true at epoch. 2 8 8 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 3 9 6 constraints. 3 62 . 2.9 3 Mu ( � ) .8 9 derivatives i n . 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 3 7 9 . 22. 22 1 . 3 59374. 94 reduced. Isaac.
6 1 o f moon. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 2 4 Periselenium.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 60 Right ascension. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) .1 22 from position and velocity. 2427 argument of. 3 90 . 3 9 0 Relative motion. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination.1 59 examples. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 4 1 2425 errors. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 2 4 .3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 1 1 7 . 3 59 . 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 57 Perigee. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 1 3 Rendezvous. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 2 0 . 4 1 4 sum squared. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 20. 2 1 . 1 90 Numerical integration. 22727 1 Orbit plane.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits.1 22. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 1 1 7. 1 5 1 . 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method.1 76 inplane changes.3 9 0 Encke's method. 83 from optical sightings. flightpath angle. 3 4 1 Period. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 3 24 . 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 3 6 1 shape of.1 50. 9 3 . 220 classical formul ations. 56. 34.3 44 Periapsis. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 24 height adjustment. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 3 1 . 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 20 Polar radius. 1 6 Potential function.454 Nu (v ) . 1 0 3 P rojects. 3 8 6 general. two body. 3 8 7 . 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 3 9 0 Parabola.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 5 1 .3 7 9 lunar. 26527 1 Residuals. 5 symbols. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 1 0 9 Rectification. 3 44 . 58 determination from position and velocity. 443 algorithm. 1 9 3 . 1 5 6 .9 8 Optical sensors. true anomaly. 2 1 . 6 1 from sighting directions. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 1 09 . 203. 1 62 O rbit. 440448 Q parameter. 3 24 . 2 1 2 computer solution. 1 62 . 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 3 3 Perturbations. 420 c riteria for choosing. 424 thrust. 1 69 Orbit determination. 94 Potential energy reference. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 3 3 3 . 425 Phi ( � ) . 3 60 physical characteristics. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 1 1 7 .3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 423 due to the moon. 4 1 9 .
1 0 3 universal. 2 1 7 parabola. 85 Traj ectory equation. 23.3 59 orbital elements. 1 3 8 optical. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 99. 20 Semimajor axis. 425 Time. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 1 9 1 . 1 7 5 general coplanar.1 0 9 apparent solar. 1 6. 3 1 Sensors. 1 3 1 . 1 9 1 225. 9 Sidereal time. 425 Thrust perturbation. 7 Universal time. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 4 3 7 unit. 1 02. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 1 . 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 5 radio interferometers. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum.4 3 9 d o t product. 99. 1 6 3 . 1 3 5 ellipse. 3 5 8 . 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 60 Twobody orbit problem.1 40 errors. 1 60 Synodic period. 4 3 1 Velocity. 1 9 high. 8 4 . 4. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 4 3 3 triple product. 23.1 40 Selenocentric. 1 52 Station coordinates. definition of. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 9 9 . 58 Semi minor axis. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 2062 1 0 use of. 2 8 7 maximum range. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. canonical. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 287 low. 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 1 3 2. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 1 6 Sputnik. 1 8 1 .1 69 Hohmann. 3 6 1 Solar time. 1 1 Units. 8 6 . 2 1 at epoch.8 9 derivatives in. 1 8 8 . 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 1 8 8 universal variables. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 5 8 Time zones. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 3 27. 1 0 1 . 40 Unit vectors.1 8 8 . 1 3 6 radar.1 6 6 True anomaly.1 9 0 if. Universal gravitation.4 3 9 Velocity components. 1 0 1 .I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 6. 44 1 mean solar. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of.1 0 4 Solar system. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 9. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 3 60 physical characteristics.1 4 assumptions. 40. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 30. 1 5. 1 3 1 .9 8 of planets.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 20. 1 03 local sidereal. 9 9 . 1 9 1 development of. 9 3 . 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 1 6 6. 4 3 7 . 1 8 1 . 2 8 8 . 1 8 (see Nbody . 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 4 3 7 . 1 52 Satellite tracking. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters.
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