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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
J .E. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. D. Dorothy Fryar . Ronald Chaney ( artist) .R. . The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged.D. Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.B.M. United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.W. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) .vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P . Jan Irvine .
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1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . 61 . . . . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . . . 93 . . . . . 2. . . . . _ 1 . . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . 1 . . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . 2 . . . . 2 . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of References . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . 2.5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . .2 The NBody Problem . 1 . . . . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . 14 . . . .. . . . . . 2 . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . . . . . 2 . . 1 . . . . 2 . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . . . . 1 . . . . 71 . . . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . . . . . . 1 01 . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . 1 . .1 Historical Background . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . Exercises . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . .1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . 4 . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 .4 The pIteration Method . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . .12 . . . .
. . . . . . . 8 .2 The Solar System . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . 275 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . . . . 279 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . 357 . 277 6. Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . 379 . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . 5 . . 277 6. . 7 . . . . . . . . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range .1 Historical Background . 3 85 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . 258 . . . 7. .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 87 9. Histor ical Background .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . . . . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station .5 . . .1 8. . 3 27 . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . 8. . 273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 84 . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . 26 5 . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . 5 . xi 5 . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Reference s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . 3 20 . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . Exerc ises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List o f Re ferences . . 25 1 . . Exercises . . . . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 . 380 . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . 27 1 . . . . . 297 6. . . . . . . . . . . 333 . . . 344 352 355 . . . . . 390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . .1 9. List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . Suggested Projects . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . .4 9. . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . 440 449 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . 426 9 . . . . . . . . .
1 642 . Kepler. Newman! .' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. JarnesR. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. he might have been put into a quart mug. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. as his mother told him in later years. Tycho. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. the poor and sickly mathematician. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. the year Galileo died.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. unfitted by nature for accurate observations.CHAPTER 1 TWO. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. the noble and aristocratic Dane.
necessarily moved in circles. One day in 1 685 . the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. with the sun at a focus . not an explanation of planetary motion . From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars.1 Kepler's Laws. Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . discoverer of Halley's comet. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. Kepler's laws were only a description.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. TWO. therefore .1 Still. Finally . is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). It fit. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse.1. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside .BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. Since the time of Aris totle . The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . 2 1.
Dissatisfied with this explanation. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. "Why. without mentioning the b et.1. of course . were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. more simply. casually posed the question. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. in ellipses. t he Principia. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances.Sec. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . when he recovered from his shock." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. or . in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. 1 . I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. 4 1. they speculated whether a force . Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries .2 Newton's Laws of Motion. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind.
. . 1 2) Fg = .. • . " Figure 1 .1 . 1 .11 Newton's Law of Motion . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 .n ( 1 . . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.67Ox 1 0. The universal gravitational constant.1.'�V . 1. / .1 ) (1 .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .12) t o equat i.1 . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. . has the value 6.1 . G.4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. Note that equation ( 1 .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. 1 . .G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. .
. . An important force.2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. etc.e. j. . a lunar or interplanetary probe. . I " '. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. X I . All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion.. In addition. or a planet). an earth satellite . The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. propellants) to pro duce thrust. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation.. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. At any given time in its j ourney.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies ..2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(.e..�I '.Sec 1.. m2 • m3 m m. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . . not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. I I I Figure 1. . solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. 1.II I I I " I I I I :.. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. thrust and solar radiation pressure . the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag.
are discussed in Chapter 3 . • • • z FOTHER . The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. 1 equator.2' The NBody Problem Figure . Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch ..���Y � X n 1. Y. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. Although small. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. These effects.. Thus.. 2. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies.1 . the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion.
the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes.3) Obviously . II 3 (1..Se c 1. etc .2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . .2.2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. Fg. thrust.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself.2.5 ) The other external force . F gn where =  Gm . . We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . The v ector sum. of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1.2 ·1 is T composed of drag. The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . solar radiation pr essure. Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . . (1. m'J JI 3 (rj j) . equation ( 1 .
d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL.26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion. (1.2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.28 would not be zero .27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.F I dt TOTAL dt (1..28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 . r·I = F TOTAL mj 0... y ....8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch..1 + F OTHER ' (l . . Thus. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL. Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time . z coordinate system.I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x ... In other words. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma.I) and all other external forces . is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ.
G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.11) 2. equation ( 1 . sun and planets .G And for i = 0 . Equation (1 . vector.2. Y. expelling mass or relativistic effects.2. m . unpowered flight.2. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le.2.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . mn may be the moon.Sec 1 .. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form. ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . r JI.1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. ( 1.1 2) ..2.. m· J (�i) . Then writin g equation 1 . 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .1 0) for i = 1.10) ( . we get j = j � *i 1 3 .29) is a second order . Equation ( 1 . nonlinear. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions. F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . mi 0).29) reduces to = r· 1 n . The only remaining forces then are gravitational.
2 1 7 ) .2.1 From equation ( 1 .G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1..10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch. Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .21 1 ) and ( 1 . Since r 1 2 = .2 1 6) each bracket.r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence.22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1. n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.1 2) into equation ( 1 . 2. . .2.2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.1 4) gives.
2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .3.6x l O lO 1 . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion . There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. 1. This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. 1 . Table 1 . mi orbit about the earth. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 . the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . sun and planets on a near earth satellite . Howe ver .3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 .Sec.2x l O 8 2.9x l O 8 7 . The bodies are spherically symmetric .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies.89 6x l 0 4 2. . To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of.1 Simplifying Assump tions. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies.3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . 1 x l 0 10 3. 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison.
3. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. Y'.. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. 1 . For the time being. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. Let (X'. " s However.3. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'.12 TWO. . Y'. Y. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . Z') are rM a nd rm respectively .1 ) (1 . Y'.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 3 2 ) . he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest.3. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M.1 . Y' . There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1.2 The Equation of Relative Motion. Let (X. remains always similar and irrnovable. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . without relation to anything external. which "in its own nature. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. 1 2.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 .
Z) with its origin in the central body. velocity.y X' Figure 1 .31) we have = _ r . (1 . Y.33). Y.Sec.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r.33) . Note that since the coordinate set (X.. 1. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. and acceleration in a nonrotating.32) from equation (1. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. Y'. Y'. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. Note that this is the same as equation (1. GIM+ml r Equation (1. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. Y.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. ballistic missiles. Z'). Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. Z').
namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass.3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text." That is. If you think ab out the model we have created. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . It is convenient to define a parameter.4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion.14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. will be much less than that of the central body . Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. M. 1 some planet or the sun. 1. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . the mass of the orbiting body . m. "kinetic . 3 ·4 ) .3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. Then equation 1 . you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs." for another form called "potential energy . Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). If m is not much less than M. called the gravitational GM. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) .
that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. v =r and v= f. ( 1 .lL\I r dt JJ. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . 1 . r 2. then 1 .41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. N 0 tlcmg that . 1.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 .!!. Therefore. C. 5.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O . dt 1:L = O.Sec. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .4 frame (the large mass) does not change . v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. which appears in . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 .4.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . But what about the arbitrary co nstant .r ) = � r �(r .
This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . O. In other words. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. at what distance .iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . We conclude .42) 1 . e .g. r. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. The expression for � is �. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . dt . therefore .fL 3 . �. that the specific mechanical energy.2 Conservation of angular momentum. Since in general a x a= 0. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy .  ( 1 . The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. rX .4. If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. 3 4) by r 2 . Noticing that .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch.iL (rxv) = O. the earth. The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary.
</J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. h. (1 . called specific angular momen tum." "Up" simply means away . 1 . Therefore . we have shown that the specific angular momentum.41 Flightpath angle . we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space .41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane .The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h.43) v I h = r x v. I Figure 1 .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . Therefore .
¢. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . I h = rv c o s ¢. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. however. 1 85 2 1 + 6. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . respectively. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). v.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. Ch. J and K are unit vectors.0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. the zeni th angle .4. • ( 1 .7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1.5936 1 + 5 . V =5.4274I+2. Determine the specific mechanical energy . c o s ¢=Jl.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS .2778 J + 1 0 .4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. (4. ¢. r = 12.7 1 37J+O.899 X 107 ft.420 .8143 r • v > 0 . = 0. and the specific angular momentum.8143 = 35. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. Also find the flight·path angle. &. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. h. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . We can now define the direction of the velocity vector. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. In an inertial coordinate system.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5.
You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.I.. we see that J!:.5. 1 . (1.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .& . (h xr) =. JJ..( r) r.3 3 r r r since r • i = f . Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity. .· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .. While this equation (1. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain. 1 .Sec.. Also note that J. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. �t (B· .51) The left side of equation (1.1!y r ..33) is simple. its complete solution is not. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. err.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion.
a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r..54) . in general.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum.9 cos V (1.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. +(81J. v. c and a . we obtain = 1 h2 /g . I r 1 + e cos V p (1.. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. h2 where vector r.53) 1 . V. (1. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. . which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. Equation (1. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle.54) . 5. + r o Since." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B .
however. potential and kinetic. 4 . 1. 3.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. not just ellipses. parabola. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant.Sec. As r and v change along the orbit. ellipse. 5 .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 .51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. an exchange of energy between the two forms. Although Figure 1. (See Figure 1 . We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . remains constant. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. 2.51 illustrates an ellipse. There is.44) 1 . The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. Before discussing the factors . the flightpath angle. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. must change so as to keep h constant.41 and equation (1 .5.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. cp.
If the plane cuts both nappes. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone).52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. or a single point. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. Figure 1. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . the section is a hyperbola having two branches. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines . the section is a parabola. The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. 1 Figure 1 . Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks.5 2 illustrates this definition . If. the section is an ellipse.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .
Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned.53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections.Sec 1 . the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion .5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . Figure 1 . The secondary or vacant focus. F'. F. The prime focus. F and F'. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit.53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections .
It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. In the parabola. ( 1 . for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative .55) p = a (1 . Thus.e2). The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. The dimension. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 .54)). a. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses".5 3 ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium." "perihelion" or "aphelion. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse ")." etc. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . is c�lled the semimaj or axis.
52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !.58) 1 . which points toward periapsis.Sec . 1e ( 1 . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis.4 The Eccentricity Vector. we encountered the vector constant of integration. e = BltL.56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e).= a( 1 +e) .53) and ( 1 . the trajectory equation. 5. 53). ( 1 .1 0) . In the derivation of equation ( 1 . 1 ( 1 . 5. . By comparing equations ( 1 . B.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 . . 1.59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 .. tL r ( 1 . Quite obviously.
x v. p. v ) v . _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . th . Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. we get • p.. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity.p.26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. ( 1 . equation ( 1 . h. Figure 1 . v.p. /or any orbit. of the satellite. and that as h is . By comparing equation ( 1 . By inspection.53) and equation ( 1 . Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. 1 .1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2.6. ( 1 . r r p.. e .44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. is zero. Therefore. e = V x (r x v) . e = ( v v ) r .(r . If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum.61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). is equivalent to increasing h.1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. v)v. r  r . 1.6 RELATING &.5.
 . Figure 1 .. . . We can then write. (1 .F �..42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . �' " .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . as a corollary to equation ( 1 . v.. R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. I '. = �.44).61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle. .1 ) predicts . p.�= � .62) we obtain &. of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .6.  . 57) p rp = a(1 . is zero.e ) . r I . 1 01) .increased the parameter. . .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . .
e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f .6. or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in.56) and equation (1 . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. Figure 1 .63) misleading. the energy of a satellite (negative .a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . Thus.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis. Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. 1 and from equation ( l . of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . a. Many students find equation ( 1 . You should study it together with Figure 1 . &. of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).6. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). zero.28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch .1 ) therefore p.
r p = rES + 200 = 3643. 6 . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. m i . 3 n . if & is positive . 0 .Jf5P. e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . For a given satellite . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit.897  e2 ) = 3. = 6. 64) Notice again that if & is negative. p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. The student should be aware of this pitfall. and specific angular momentum.1 and perigee altitude 200 n . e is greater than I (a hyperbola).Sec 1 . all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. m i . Determine its altitude at apogee.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. if & is zero .. and semimaj or axis. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather.. e is exactly 1 (a parabola). 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. & = 2 . ra = 1 � e = 4453. . the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . mi. m i . 9 n .7 n . Namely. specific mechanical energy. 2& = 3 . semilatus rectum.  a=  '!:..0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0.
7·2) . The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . specifically r + 1 . ( 1 .7·3) I r p + r a = 2a.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa.mi. Since an ellipse is a closed curve.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant. the distance between the foci is ( 1 .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a .= 2. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a . the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.7· 1 ) B y inspection.m i . I ( 1 .JpjJ.7· 1 . An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread.7 . an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . = 5. 1 n.r Ell = 1 009. h =. 2a = r a + r = 8097. 1 .855 = 6 .
you will see that the . becomes r dt = 11 dll. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .72.horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .73) ( 1 .Sec. e is defined as combine to yield da. 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.1 . Using equation ( 1 .1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . 2 b.75) which. Since r + r' = 2a. equation ( 1 .7.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . If you refer to Figure 1 .72) and ( 1 .7.7 . when rearranged . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 .76) . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. in general. 2 ( 1 .
77) dt 2 = 11 dA. is given by the expression So. 1 Figure 1 . Figure 1 . d A.72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. d v. swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. we can rewrite equation ( 1 .73 Differential element of area .32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .76) as ( 1 .
proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a.8.77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. ( 1 .78) b =) a 2 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired .79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 .8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . 55) and ( 1 . 1 Circular Satellite Speed.Sec. since h = /JlP. Naturally. 1 .8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit. the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. Of course.79).e2 ) = JaP and.8 . incidentally. is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . so equation ( 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . Equation ( 1 . the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. 1 .c2 =) a 2 ( 1 .1 ) 1 . The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. a.75). During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . From equations ( 1 . Thus. Integrating equation ( 1 .
One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . F or a low altitude earth orbit.1 Geometry of the Parabola.1 . 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . Another is that.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . 1 . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know. the periapsis radius is just r 1 . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. rCS' from the energy equation. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.1 ) .9. The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola.9. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 .9.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch .000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a.000 ft/sec. circular speed is about 26 . The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction.34 TWO .
first at a general point a distance .91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory." 1 . from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity.9." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back. Of course. as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory.92) .57).E.Sec. r.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   . 1 .2 Escape Speed. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. Theoretically.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .
Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . 5 7). The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 .. a. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. b . must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 . (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. 8. = j.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 .1 57.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1.Since the specific mechanical energy.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit.400 nm above the surface it is only 26. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. the semimajor axis. 36 TWO . of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola.1/2a.000 ft/sec.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field.92) =21 . a. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. 53374 106 ft = = 36. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude . As you would expect.
53374 106 ft 2 43. 06748 106 ft 7087. where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .8 n. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. rb i t P 7087.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21.amr iO. m i .92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . m i . 1 .Sec. 8n.
The parameters a. Obviously. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . If we consider the lefthand focus. instead. The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . If. 1 0. A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . then the righthand branch represents the orbit. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). 1 0. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes).1 ) . 1 . (L l O. then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. 1 1 . 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth.1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). F .
we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. 1 0. is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . 1 0." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. 1 . If.. The angle between the asymptotes. 0. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . 1 .2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. V 00' . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 .1 . The turning angle . on the other hand. 1 02) becomes ( 1 . which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value .0. 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . the smaller will b e the turning angle .for the hyperbola. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 .but since Sec.
Astronomers call thi� ' . In other words. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. It is a fact. a million miles) from earth. we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. the concept is convenient and is widely used. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. 1 . absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . of course . for all practical purposes it has escaped. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. 1 0.3 Sphere of Influence. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. It is. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. 1 (1 . 1 . that once a space probe is a great distance (say . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. however.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch .
moon. For other problems where the earth. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . 1 . 1 1 . Using canonical units determine & .046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units.l. earth. e. will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 ." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. h.Sec. or other planet.1 . or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . J. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. then the value of the gravitational parameter. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . 5 9362 5 . 1 The Reference Orbit. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. p. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. r a' r p' . 1 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. 1 1 . Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU.
1 .42).I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. 5 D U e �2 _ /J. [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. Alt = . � = . 1 67 D U �/T U � = .
Sec. = 3. 25D U EB = 4. 1 .64) Find ra from equation (1.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 .7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. 5 D U = 9.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 .58) Find r p from equation (1..5 7)  r a = 1 e p.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .= 4 . 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .61) Find h from equation (1. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1. 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. = 2. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t. 5 D U ".
1 . 2J AK IJK h = AI . The orbit eccentricity is 0. 1 EXERCISES 1 . is 30 x 1 0 6 ft.44 TW O.1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 .000 ft/sec and 4 . 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. Why.3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. 5 81) 1 . (Answer : e = 1 . 2K DU 2 /TU . &= . Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. b . .B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch .2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 .000 n mi.. Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. respectively. Find the specific energy of the trajectory. Find the eccentricity of the orbit.1 . + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. 6 J 1 . a. 1 .2. in general. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. c. Find the period of the orbit.
8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. a a. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . r v c. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . ¢ =3 = 1 . 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . 2K + . p 1. 1. 0 1K v = l + l . mi during descent? (Ans. (Ans. 354 10" r 1 . 4K r r v = .6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n.6 18 = 59° 58') .5 rpe r i gee = 1 . V ft/sec. p b. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. elliptical. &. Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. 91 J space. hyperbolic. D U /T U DU e.123K = 1 . 1 . r x ft ) = 3. 7 Prove that d. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ).000 ft) with a velocity of 25.5 DU DU DU d.9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300.Ch .000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600.
2 e = . p = 2. c. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = . p = 6.6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . (Neglect atmo spheric drag.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . 1 .) 1 . p = 2. Determine the maximum altitude attained. e. 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.000 ft.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . d . P 1 . ellipses and a hyperbolas. b . 1 2 Given that e = �. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. derive values for e for circles. p = 3. p = 6. e=O e = . sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00.
What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 .Ch . 1 . 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: .V O U EB /TU EB ) .6. 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. c. * 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. 207 1 . What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans . rc = at +b = 0. Show that : b.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . you may use the same Figure 2. 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. Q and W respectively.4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. When describing a heliocentric orbit . 2 . Yw '+.Xw UK vectors.Sec.24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. 2 . the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section .2. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond .
the time when the satellite was at periapsis. Instead of argument of periapsis. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. 2. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. 3 . shape and orientation of an orbit . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . 4 . the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. is substituted for a in the above list. 6. a. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . if you know a and e you can compute p. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different.3. 5 . 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes.the angle . K I I . argumen t of periapsisthe angle . Another system. measured in the direction of the satellite's motion.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . i. Frequently the semilatus rectum. 2 . e. T. time of periapsis passage . The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . Similarly. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . Q longitude of the ascending node. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . in the fundamental plane .the angle from to periapsis measured h.1 as follows : 1 . p. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . Obviously .3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . w. the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors.
2 .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.31 Orbital elements .Sec.
to ' called the "epoch. earth. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . From Figure 2. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. w and va are all defined. (2 . If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . both of which are always defined . 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis.1 ) . Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. then b oth W and n are undefined. in the plane of the orbit. n=n+w. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde .31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun.60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch ." Direct means easterly. This is the dire ction in which the sun.3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) ." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . then both w and Uo are undefined. Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . 1 £0 £0 + . a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n.3.
To be perpendicular to K.42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. 2 .41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK .Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . Therefore . 2. The node vector. n and e. vI vJ v K J (2 . 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. To be perpendicular to h. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. t o . n must be perpendicular to both K and h.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 .4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . n would have to lie in the orbital plane. h. n an d e.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. n. 2. h. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes.4. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . or in their intersection which is called the "line of . How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors.
We are only interested in its direction. 2.1 ) (2 .2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. All three vectors. Now that we have h. between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes.3. Study this figure carefully . 2 nodes. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . h.1 1 )). ex. p. n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. the cosine of the angle .1 .4. An understanding of it is essential to what follows . If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved .4. We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . e. is obtained from (2 .46) Of course .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . In general." Specifically . The vector.S . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . The parameter.
.) e. Since n is the angle between I and n.4. � � h.' (2. c o s U o = !!.L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .Sec.1 0) 7 .49) 6.4 3 . (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .:.) c o S Po = � er (2 .) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2. (2 . Since Uo is the angle between n and f . 2. Since Vo is the angle between e and f.48) 5 . Since i is the angle between K and h.. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.) .4. 2 . Since w is the angle between n and (2.1 1) .47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .
3 . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). look at the geometry of Figure 2 .1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . 2 z x 8 .1 and study it until they do . Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2. The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now.4. .64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . If they don't make sense to you. With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v.
Figure 2. 5 DU e == .Sec.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 . VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.
2 3 Figure 2 .\ .4 DU p == .5 e == .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .
Sec.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1. 2.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .
Find inclination. Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.45 ) Since h =. using equation (2 . f.. . Find eccentricity. [ ( f. Using equation (2.i:.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . ml . 7 75 .(r . n.I:!:. From equation (2. e..6. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node .l h2 .l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 . i..1. Find p using equation (2 . and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. ) r .4.68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system).48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane ..47) = .= 4D U = 13.7 4n . EEl .1 ) p = . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
n = COS .41 0) v a c os. From equation (2.. Find argument of periapsis.!!.  Find longitude of periapsis. Find true anomaily . for this case . is undefined. From equation (2 .. = cos .= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis.Sec. II.49) W n · e W. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore . va.:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . 2 .1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 . .n. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. II. can be determined in this case. 4 .1 (.
First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) . 2 Find true longitude o f epoch.25 EB EB D U EB 7748. v)v] =.m i .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .6.. EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct . From equation (2.E)r(r .  then from equation ( 1 . The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p . = From equation (2..70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .85 n .5 ..1 ) Find e. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=.33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .
5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .5 Find the inclination.49) w: 0 W = cos.1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2. 2.4. va : From equation (2.Sec.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. From equation (2. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r . I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 .11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .I Find the true anomaly .47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n . From equation (2 . .
changes with time . 2 elements are given. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. that occurs in a given time . . n. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . w and v. v.ffe si n V (2. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. Of the se six elements. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. 8. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . The method.24): ro to. shown below. w and va . In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. i . i.5.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 8.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. Let ' s assume that we know p.to.5 2) . lV. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. consists of two steps. n.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . 2. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time .5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2.
A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.54) r = J � [. 2.25 45{) (2.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.5 i= p 2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v). v �[.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 . 5P DU E9 (2.Sec.54) from equation r (2. Before equation (2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .
6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. Certain vectors. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. such as position vectors. For example. vector represents.6. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . direction . the direction of the po sitive zaxis. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. 2 2. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . its fundamental (xy) plane ." The phrase in quotes describes what the . Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . east. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. suppose you know the south." 2. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. east .74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . or what it represents. but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. suppose you know the south. In other words. have a definite starting point . For example . and it still represents the same thing. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . east a!1d up. namely. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame.
���________� • . y' and z ' axes. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation. y ����. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. 2. V and W along the x ' . 2. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis." In other words.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S ." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite. Let us imagine three unit vectors I.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. and extending along the x. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis.Sec. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. Figure 2.61) . Figure 2. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .6.y Y 75 . : r Y I ex a .61 illustrates the two frames.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite .
62) above and equating it with (2. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2. 2 From Figure 2. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 . We will use subscripts to identify the basis.6. 65) .61 we can see that the unit vectors U.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch . thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ). (2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2.1 ) yields I.
(2 . . 2 . 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .6.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.69) '" axis. 68) B '" (2.67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2.Sec. Rotation about the xaxis. The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.67) yields the set of equations (2 . derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. These are summarized belox:: .66) (2.64) above . Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis.
We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) . 1 ). 2 (2. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L .61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame .4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. a. Figure 2.7 .6. Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.
Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order).6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e .61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. Equation (2. The inverse of any orth. Now. denoted by D . In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate.e.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e .cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . AB =1= SA ). (i. Hence .61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. 2. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. . We can write equation (2. The transpose of the matrix D .Sec. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.1 . Fortunately. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors.
th' O ugh w hi ch on .. 62. oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . axes in to CO ham . 6. sh ow n in F ig u " Th . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [." a ny mp licat e d .". d th yo u will b . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. 2 (2.80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. 5 Tmn .".1 2) Figure 2 ..n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . th. gl " n i lly . By me mo C. mu " in cid 'n ce b . n t rizing th .sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch .Eq to th e IJ K in at .6 . tluee b . d w . anglo . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . a bl . 'o ta t. d wi th .. m1 " fo. 6. basis no ma t .". an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . Perifo ca l to th e G Th . to p' ter ho w co no.2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK . O c M ma t..ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es .
The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix.. . Thus if a i ' aJ .63. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . aQ.63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry.. from Figure 2. then Sec ... aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. a K and ap . 2 . To . we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit ... R. For example ... Figure 2.
since I and P are unit vectors.1 4) R23 = . J and K Thus R = J . ! • P.82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. P K · P In Figure 2. Q I ' W J · W K .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i . Now a.1 3) i. B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. 2 from their dot product .6. I • p I · Q J . Similarly.sin n sin w cos i . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I.6. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w . Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. a �.63 .cos n sin w .
. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both .7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . 2 .5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. V.5 . it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. 2. In this case either n or w or both are undefined. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I.1 ) and (2.Sec . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need .
7 .84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . E and Z shown in Figure 2 .7.( N o rt h ) 2.1 . the rate at which range is changing.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . EI. (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth.1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south.7 . can also be measured. The azimuth angle . p. is measured clockwise from north . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. Az. 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . AZ . 7 . the elevation angle . 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. 2.71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . The unit vectors S. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.
1 . as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky.7 4) = + P (2 .7 .1 ) where .7 . Sec. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. From Figure 2.and EO/.72 we see that r (2 . = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 . 2.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI. p. E I . Thus. we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 .72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2.73) E l (B I ). There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. Az.75) . /l!L.7. from the geometry of Figure 2. We will express the po sition vector as (2 .72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z.3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. = Ps PE = P cos Pz.
If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2. For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. 2 J topo centric frame . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth. A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .76) .72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . Unfortunately.86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .
73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . EB x f. v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. 2 . It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v.Sec. you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth.73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . Therefore .77) . Figure 2. (2 .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) .
707 o .3535 .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . 3535 .1 = [.E + 1 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.6 1 2 . 5Z (Given) [).612 . is 2 S E + . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth .707 . 300 N Lat .866 .612) r = R + P = 2S .5 J . Figure 2. Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The angle to Greenwich is 3040 . 5 Z (units are DU).
75 ) . rotating with respect to the (x.7.4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame .7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. y. v.9 1 81 + 2. z). 2. (2. I =J =K=O. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. w) .. 332J  . We will denote this quantity by w.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial.Sec. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems. z) system (Figure 2 . (2.. y. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time .79) J. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . .982K . The unit vectors D. V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . however.
7. V = w x V and W = w x W . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame .1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . The remaining terms of equation (2. Hence . .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . Similarly.7.79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . . equation (2 .1 0) reduces further to . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. Hence . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . equation (2 . .
.. . . y...... 2 .. ....Sec. dt R I (2 . z) '.71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector.. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u .... �:.7. ..7.1 2) .y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ .. ... ...LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 .. ...... Equation (2.. " F i xed " System ( x. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u... ..1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q. W) Figure 2. v v..75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA.
7.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .1 2) to the po sition vector r. (2 .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.7.1 3) into equation (2 . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .7.) .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +. The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .7 . Equation (2 .7 . 2 iLl F = ." Ioox.7 .7.9!.1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 . (2 .7. Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.7.
) 2. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. It is known . 2. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. In the model which has been adopted. Therefore .8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . circles. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. Sections parallel to the equator are . ae .Sec. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. 2 . The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. If the earth were perfectly spherical. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. of course . however .8.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid.
The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter . When you are given the latitude of a place . The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight .8. Consider Figure 2.1 . Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated . the difference between L and is usually negligible . 2. 2. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) .8.8. The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field .785 0.3 Station Coordinates. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. 1 45 6356.08182 == km km L La L . While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . it does complicate the concept of latitude.94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level.2 The Measurement of Latitude.
. It is convenient to introduce the angle (3.. the "reduced latitude .8 . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 .8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude . L .!! o .Sec. 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � .82 . The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e ." which is illustrated in Figure 2.. It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal. c. O . 4 km Figure 2. 2 .82. Thus.1 ) . / (2..
Ch . z . 0 O D. b e =a e V� = b2 + d.82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz.. I C. / . 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . a2 .. for any ellipse .82) . c:  0) x Figure 2.and e = da.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L.1:  (2 .
 dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2. (2.85) .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . Thus. 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = . (2 . 2 .Sec:.
The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point .98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .8 8) . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components.8 7) 2. (2 . If the Greenwich sidereal time . {1 ' is known . it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude . elevation above mean sea level. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . From Figure 2. and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time . {1.86) L. sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2.8.85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. 2 ( 2 .
8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2. Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t. is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) .Sec . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site .84 shows a spherical earth. L. Although Figure 2." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time . 2 . the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time .8.89) ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 .
From (2 . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction . 2 j i Figure 2 .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth .8 . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.1 0) .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch .
A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . a Z If a l . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day . 2. It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle .9 . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. This is the time kept by ordinary clocks.8. so . (2 .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time .6. This should be made clear by F igure 2.cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . 2 . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun .1 2) and a s ' a E .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval.1 . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined .Sec.9.00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 .1 2) .9 equation (2 .
when the earth is near perihelion. 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2.09054 mean solar seconds . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical.9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 . So far. In early January. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion.1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = .
or Zulu (Z) time.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) .2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . Thus. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . This relationship is illustrated on page 99.9.Sec. For example . . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . if it . Universal Time (UT). The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . 2. let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 .is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 .3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s.9. 2 .
in addition. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero .sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . we express time in decimal fractions of a day. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . ° 229421 1. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. 8 9=8 9 0 1 ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. .9.104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. Ephemeris and 2.4 Precession of the Equinoxes. m i n .
. 2 . the equatorial plane is not .92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars.6 years. the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . However ..9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . 6 yrs I Figure 2. 0 0 0 y rs " . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . ..000 year s . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun.Sec . As the earth' s axis precesses. The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge..z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic... the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 ." with a perio d of 1 8 . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period.6 year s . The period of the precession is about 2 6. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. Due to the asphericity of the earth. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year .
2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . 00 1 From section 2 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . 5 7 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown .378km = 0 . x= [ z= � ae + � . 25 8=8 g + A = .00 1 + L= 0 .296° H = 6 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 .1 . 6 24 5 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. at 0600 GMT. The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs.0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 .74933340 = 1 .296 degrees west longitude .6245 rad ians o 9 .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 . Day  = Long o 57 .
2D UES = (0. At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .6971 + . 00 1 (S.From equation (2.(0.7 1 SJ + OK Sec. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 .6245 )1 + 1 .74) .6245) = .346E + O.346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 . 2 .72) PE p Pz Ps = . 00 1 c o s(S. 0.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.
73Z D U (T U r = 0.73 p + (O.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .46S .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .433 .5 1 .0E + 1 .866 0.46 D U /T U (0.(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .0.04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .1 .7·5 ) From equation (2 . 1 08 Ch . 46 = 0.1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.Ps = .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .(0.1 .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .1 .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .3.346E + l .061 .4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.8 .84J .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.0 1 .8 .610.4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = . 0.346J + 1 .�� lO.0588K) From equation (2 .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:. 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .46 P =D1 .25 0.77) v = [� ] [ J 0. 3.
1 01 Orbit through f 1 . it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . p . As Baker S points out .8J . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. Figure 2. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p .3. Ei. Ai. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . Gibbs is.Sec. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. may be lacking. f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar).0. and the orb it is uniquely determined.232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . 2. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . EI . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. of course . Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 .081 . 2 . W. k.
(2 . (2 . Q and W. find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. Dotting (2 . equation ( 1 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . 2 fine scholar .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. 1 0. 1 08) . 1 05 ) and (2 .r.1 ) successively by fl . 1 03) by f3 X r l . 1 04) . 1 04) (2 . 1 06) Multiply (2 . 1 0. f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass.1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . 1 0. 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 02) gives (2 . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . Notice that C2 may now be divided out. 1 05) (2 . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree .r 3 ) = 0 .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .5 4). we can show that : e ' f = p . and the definition of a dot product . then u sing (2 . (2 .1 ) by (2 . 1 03) Cross (2. Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar .
1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D.1 5) . (2 . 1 09) D. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above .e .1 3) : (2 . 1 0.1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . 1 0 pD = N . (2. equation (2 . Therefore . (2 . 1 0. N and D have the same dire ction. 1 0. 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . 1 0. Since P. then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec.(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. D = N P = O' N (2 . i. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P.1 4) (2 . provided N . N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h.1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 .Let the right side of (2 . 2 . . 1 0.1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. 1 0.
D and S ve ctors.52) we can write i X h = p. (2 . 1 020) to find P.1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . (2 . Before solving the problem. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 .r t ) f2 + ( rt . 1 0. 1 0.1 9) Since P. 1 0. 1 0. and (2 . Therefore.1 7) to find e. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . P = Q X W.1 6) .1 9) to find W. (2 . check N * O and D .1 8) to find Q.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . 1 0. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . Q and W are orthogonal. From equation ( 1 .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . N > o. N and S vectors.1 8) N (2 . However . (2. 1 0. (2 . Then use (2 . 1 0. ( f  r + e) . 1 01 0) to find p. it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. 1 020) Thus. since NeQ = pS. 1 0.1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . 1 02 1 ) .
so c) b . 1 024) (2 .h = P. D X r + JJ{.E. h X (h h ) v ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP.(h .Sec . 1 0. e) We can write h v v = . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . b) c O . 1 025) .. (h xr r = + (a . Using the identity . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) .( a . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. ON (2 . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. v) h and h . 2 . v = eP.2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . = p.
N=FO. Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . N and S vectors. proceed as follows : For example . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. v2 � + L S r2 • . 1 . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. = 0 for coplanar vectors. shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . This method . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. 1 02 6) Thus. Test: 0 10 .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . possible two body orbit . but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . Form L = = 6. find v2 : 2. Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . 2 L + LS (2 . This is not exactly true. 4 . The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. Finally . using the stated tests. to find any of the three velocities directly . Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size .
8000K = 0. period and the velocity vector at position two . r1 r2 r3 = 1 . NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem.039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 .000K = 0_700J . Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . and the timeofflight between these po sitions.0471 O U = 0 .5000K Find : P. Form the D . P = 0= N  2.97 .Sec. and S vectors: D= N S 1 ." Thus. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth. 9701 = 2. If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors.0774J 0. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors.9000J + 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .0. 2 .047 1 = . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. N . 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. the semilatus rectum. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). r 1 and r2 . eccentricity. Since 010.
0.041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.270K W= N. 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type. .0804 e = = = 0 .1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .0. then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .657K D U /T U 2 0. 1r/{: 6.0. 0408 1 1 . = .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .97 o lP = a = 1 .963J .960 DU/T U (4. 2 S .576J . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 .4 to solve for the elements. Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .67 TU (89. 700J .497 9.963K N 1 .270J + 0.1 .
:S :J: JS L K . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 .7 2). In either case . (X1 ' < \ � . 2.z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. r = pL [�. (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background .g . ° 2 . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . 1 1 2) r .6 2 : 1 1 .Sec. and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . 3. Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . j = 1. (2 . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. = OJ + R j . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . If we let L . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. 2 . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . [:i:n :: :. As a result . then ' . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit .1 ) (2 . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. L. 1 1 .
\ •. �J 1  . . ' ' :. 1 1 3) (2 . R and R are known at time t2 .1  R ) r3 . however . (2 ./  L . L. r u. � . \' P2 i �� G ". 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . 0 (2 . f f. .. are not known . \ . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. p.. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . • 00 . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 .. ':.J V I . \ [L. .1 . . L.. 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. I .' ' " ': . . • ' I . say the middle ob servatio n .[. : '< ' .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 .. p. The vectors L. the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . p and r. �� I 1 " _ .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . \ Figure 2.
provided the three observations are not too far apart in time . t2 and t3 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t3 ) (2 .t 1 ) ( t.t 1 .t 1 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t 1 ) ( t3 .t3 ( t 2 .t 1 ) (t 3 . 1 1 .t 3 ) (t.t 1 ) ( t2 . Since we have the value of L at.t 2 .t2 ) .t 2 ) + ( t 3 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector . 2 .t2 L3 ( t 3 .t 1 ) ( t2 . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t 3 ) L2 (2.t 3 ) ( t } .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t 3 ( t 1 .three t�es.t2 ) (t.t2 ) ( t} . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =. 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2. t2 .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date . 1 1 6) + 2t .t2 ) ( t 1 .t 1 ) ( t2 . t } . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t. 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t } ) (t 3 .Sec.
1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . LI . It should be noted. . 2 . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . p.u L /r 3 . D reduces to L D =2 L I L . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . For the time being.u I r3 time s the first column from the third column.L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 .. making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f.. . L K + .ons (2 . + . in fact . L J I (2 . 1 1 6) and (2 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. 4 Equation (2 . better yet . p. however. I L . This. 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule..u R Ir3 I + . L L L K K K J .u L 1 / r 3 L J + . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . p' and r. it is evident that L Dp = . that if more than three observations are available . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . L J .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . 1 1 5 ) .u R Ir3 J + .
The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. 1 1 . 1 1 . p and r. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. 1 1 . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 .4 Solving for Velocity . R . 1 1 .L L L J K I p .. Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. O O. R R . If we do this we find that . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . 1 1 5). L K . 1 1 .1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. . L J L I K J!. Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . R J .1 2) . 1 1 . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . 1 1 ..1 0) into (2.Sec . Substituting equation (2 . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. L K L J L I K (2.1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2.1 1) Op = .1 0) and (2 . 2 . 1 1 2). From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 . 2 . is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. R R I . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. 0. .
There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. 2 . such as P. a3 . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . ° 3 . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. 1 1 . Laplace ' s method fails . 1 1 . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t .1 4) p 2. (2 .1 3) for p. I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v.For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. To obtain the velocity vector . 1 1 . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . El. E l . As a matter of fact . a . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . 2 (2 . k.2).1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . 1 1 . 1 1 . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . P. D. ° .
Doppler rangerate. v Kl at t = to are correct. For example . A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. 1 Computing Residuals. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. 1 21) .::"P 2 ' .::"P 3 . \ ' t2 . Assuming that the residuals are small. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e .::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. of course. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. . 1 2. 2. ts and t6 ' These predictions are .::"P . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . The six residuals are �1 ' . t3 . 2 The Differential Correction equations. It may happen .Sec. however .g. 1 2. t4 . a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. 2. r K ' v " vJ . that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. p) will differ from the computed data. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. The question then arises. .
rj . NK.) Then. by trial and error. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. NI . usually 6 for orbit problems) n . 1 2. . (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. ap1 . New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. V K ) . With the aid of a digital computer. D.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . equations (2 . for example . . Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. .VI . 2.VK .1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method. reduce the residuals to zero .r l " v K )p1 ( r l . r K " ' arl D. . Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. i. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . All that is required is to introduce a small variation. D. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. 1 2 .Vj' D. The inversion of equations (2 . 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. 1 2. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's.e. Nj. however.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch ..3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives.
1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). 2 . is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . 2 . zero .g . Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . a and (3 are the elements (two here . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . = = n) . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. minimum as described above . . use 0. Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. for the exactly determined case (p or b. The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. for 90% confidence . Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. since p 2 below) . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. 3 .tb each of the elements measured. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem.. called the root me an square (RMS) . 4. Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum.W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e .. b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements.8 1 ) . Solve equation (2 . If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution .
j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and .:.Assume equal confidence in all data.2. 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. the partial derivatives are : . ex VI. == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. Choo se ex and for the first estimates. 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2).
1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. Thus. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 .Sec. 2.
In practice. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. we will use a simple . corresponding to the given Xi and compute . 6 orbit elements) would be used. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence .474 and f3 = 3. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. To illustrate the method involved.360 = . 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. yet still overspecified number of measurements.474 Xi 3 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch .
. aa . 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 ..000 1 9..031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.) 2 n . 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l ._1.000 50. 3 . 2 .y.934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .Vi 2. 969 ____  Vi .0 01 1 3.500 8.866 4 x .1 26 0. 0 35 3. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .000 n = Vi 0.1 05 9. 934 = 1 . E ( V 1. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.828 0 0.1.Sec. 474 x 3 .007 0.474 4 0 07 19.865 49. ( V i Yi ) 2 4.
474 + ..2.031 8.1.l Now using (2 . 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .304 = .380708 A = 40."""'" �T�� . so we iterate.733. 1 22) we have £::.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) . {3 = {3 new . which is larger than what we started with. 1 96 = 3. 105.062 .0.304 0. 0 18 0. Thus (X new = . 1 75 ] 5.039 £::... 0. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.056 ""' T .3.4 1 69.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. The second iteration yields: £::.001 07 33 b = 0.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .z 10.670 3.027 12.021 070 20. 1 961 0.36 .(X 26 3. 81 30 8.360. = 3. 27 A WA = [12.
which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. during orbital decay. the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. 7 35 x 3 . 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 .00 1 . 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . and finally.Sec . W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. 038 [3 = 3 . In practice . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . in theory. 038 . However.500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth.5 8 1 . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally .735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . 2. Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . .5 8 2 . however.000 . 2 . The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . 1 2. 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. 2 . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how .
manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network ." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. 2 .000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. spacecraft failure diagnosis. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. the precomputed 2. The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). At present. forming "clouds" of space debris. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . 1 Radar Sensors. 2 2. In addition. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. 1 3. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System.5 003. 1 The Spacetrack System. 1 4 . the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere .1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS .500 miles make about 1 2 . Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. antisatellite targeting. and midcourse ICBM inter ception. These detection radars with a range of 2. the White Sands Missile Range . about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas.
One FPS49 . New Jersey. the FPS43.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. 2. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. Alaska. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. and is on active spacetrack alert.Sec.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. is now on active Spacetrack alert. Figure 2. One of the earlier detection radars. Turkey.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. while three are located at Clear. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. Greenland. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range.
there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. Alaska. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. United Kingdom.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. under the 140ft radome at the left. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is .142. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. This BMEWS station at Clear. Alaska. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. In addition. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. 2 Figure 2. Florida. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear.
High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia.14. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver.143. 2.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan.Sec. When two or . over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. 2. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite.2 Radio Interferometers.
and therefore . The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . the semimajor axis. Canada . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. Alberta. each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. In addition to these . but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. Considering the type of observational data received. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. 1 4 . SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . is well established. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific.3 Optical Sensors. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. 2 .
From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars.145. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. it is . Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. Alberta.400 miles. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. and the lighting correct. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . 1 0 Under favorable conditions.Sec.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. seeing conditions must be good. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. 2. A separate optical system superimposes. As a result. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable.
SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . in any case . 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. takes time. precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . 4 Typical Sensor Errors. is relatively accurat e . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. For detection radars. 2 . Doppler rangerat e info rmation.) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large .1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . on the other hand . Further . . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . In any case . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s.000 meters. 1 4 . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . New Mexico site. Massachusett s .
Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated.5 Future Developments. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .14. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag.Sec 2. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects.7 seconds in time would remain.146. 2. nonuniform gravitational fields. lunar attraction.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0.
While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. Many improvements . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . In t he system under development . p. the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. howeve r . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . a continuousw ave . but it also record s target tracks for later playback . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . Theoretically . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. Now. of the target . Operating in the SHF b and . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar .
18cP  2 .. For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . The arc CB which forms the • . 1 5 . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . 2 . 1 5 . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. o f the orbit . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. respectively with a launch a zimuth . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime .Sec. 1 5 . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r .. 1 5 2 . i.1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . F igure 2 . 1 5 .
1 5 . that the launch azimuth. I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . i : c os i = . 2. Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . 1 5 ·3 . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . betwe en 00 and 1 80° . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . For a due east launch equat ion (2 . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . A direct orbit require s . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . . L o?" If i is to be minimized . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth.c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . f3 ' be easterly . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . 0 i.e . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . therefore . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track.
1 5 . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . Figure 2 . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . 2 . su r face . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 .Sec.
89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. i = 90° . Englan d . e = . = u nd ef i ned ) = . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c.7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. Colorado ( 1 04. a solar day or sidereal day? b .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . Which takes longer .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. 885. 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. = (partial answers : 2. J .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy . 9 7 0 . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d.7071 + . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. 2 EXERCISES 2 .
W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2.Ch. 2. c .2K DU . 1. e. 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = .) Determine p. 82 u a .8 I J P = . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. i . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . (Answer [partial] e = .7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . Determine the orbital e lements. 3<.J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. 2 + b . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 .8 2075 .
7 6) .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = .4 1 4202 0. Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e .060668 8 3 1 . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch .3 5 35 3995 0 1 . 2. Units are earth canonical units. 1 0 2. p = 1 . 2. r3 r l I J K 1 . (Answer : r = 1 . equatorial .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . LST = 63 . b . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . b . 1 7 1 . 6464495 a. makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . W. By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . Q. 2 . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis .system along the unit ve ctor s P. 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . a. C alifornia . b ut not nece ssary. 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. 1 0 January 1 9 70.4 1 4225 1 1 1 . r2 1 . U se of a computer is sugge sted . the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis .3 1 065 1 5 0. 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . PST . Site longitude is 1 2 1 .5 0 West .
89497724 0 0 0 1 . fl f2 f3 d. C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.707 1 0 1 0 1 0.0 0 2 .707 1 1 25 5 0.5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .0 1 .2K with a velo city o f AI .1 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f. 1 4  DU/TU.9 1 420062 4 .89497 879 0. fl f2 f3 0 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 .0 0 2 .0 7 . .97 2 .n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .97 0 1 .0 0 . fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.94974 1 7 6 .2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.9 1 42 3467 2 .6 0.1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q . B .207 1 25 5 1 .8 0 .565 6808 1 0 0 .6 0. fl f2 f3 3 .0 2 .0 1 . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.094964 1 8 0.8 0 0 .Ch.0 0 .0 7 .7 0 0 e. DU * 2.62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .20709623 0 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .0 2 .62 1 34384 c.09497879 1 .5 65 6808 1 0.
0078 J 0. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . v = 0. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. ( A ns. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system.17 p 0.75 K D U /T U )  . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . 2 a . 9 7 . Express the coordinates.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. Obj ect b . Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. d . Obj ect vernal equinox direction. b. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . . has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . east and zenith (up) component s? c.620 1 I 0. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. * 2 . 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 .1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. ___ e. Obj ect c.
. NY . Pierre Simo n . Pedro Ramon . Carl Friedrich. Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . U. Sons Ltd . Simo n and S chuster . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . Edmond Halley . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . Armitage ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . 1 95 7 . Jr . Telescope . pp 1 08 . Inc. "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. New York ." in The World of Math ematics . 1 9 67 . 4. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 6. G . Henize ." Vol 48 . C leeto n . Laplace . NY . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. New York . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . C . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. Paul G . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . Second Revised Edition . S . New York . 2 . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . "Space Traffic Surveillance . The M acmillan Company. Navy Space Surveillance System. 1 95 6 . Thoma s. Vol 3 . Mass. Inc. New York and London . E scobal. Dover Publications . No 6 . "The A erospace Vehicle s . C ambridge . 1 965 . Forest Ray .1 1 1 .Ch. Space/A ero na utics . London . 1 9 66. D avis . Sky Publishing Corp . 1 9 1 4. L. Jame s R . 9 . K. 1 96 3 . Newman . New York . NY . 8 . 5 . 1 0 . Thomas Nelson and 3. Robert M . Moulton . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . Gauss. E . 7 . Academic Pre ss. 1 962. Baker ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . Angus. John Wiley & Sons. NY. November 1 9 67 .
2 1 1 . Colorado. p 39 . 1 6. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. 1 3 ." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. McGrawHill. the A stronautical Sciences. USAF Academy. Electronic . Bate. 1 4. Journal of Oct 2. . NY. 1 966. Thomas J. S. Gerald C. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1 967 . SepOct 1 967. 1 966. NY. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . Air Force Systems Command. 1 5 . No 20 . 1 970. New York . "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control." Satellite Control Facility. New York. Davies. NY. New York. P. New York." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. NY . R." The Vol 1 4. and Eller." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Vo1 40. Sunnyvale. Robert D . 17. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. 1 9 66. R.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Briskman. California. Carson. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. 1 962. Inc. Roger R. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. "Future Radar Developments. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. Cheetham. 1 962. No 5 . 1 2 .
It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. for the next 250 years. ) 00 . It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time .CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights.000 or more miles. and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. and the different force of gravity in different heights. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. After that . energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. according to their different velocity. 1 . the idea seems to have been forgotten. The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. Goddard. or variously eccentric. 1 0. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. those bodies. as of 5 .
" Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . still in its infancy . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . particularly if it is manned . 3 . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere .research. Manned spaceflight . 3 . Rather . Project Orbiter. 1 . o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. However. since it contemplated the use of military hardware . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. On 4 October 1 95 7 . has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth.
EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr. 11 L ...' � S' (1) 0 .///11// .25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" ..+ :=. I MONTH I ..H O URS WEEK . .V'h WillI e: � ...: fiD It: 0 It: <t . .. c... AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 .::: 0(I) "" 20 10 . � '" . � ee.J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .50K �. YEAR a YEARS .. (I) CD � . mJ77/1/... 20K (. ..(/} � � (I) E � � . c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ . ..rrrj. . � . ...rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N .n w .... 71.J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E ..J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl . VI/II � V � ....
1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . m . a p ogee 1 00 n . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch.2 Direct Ascent to Orbit.1 shows the limits imposed by drag . stated. p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . 1 ·2 . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . Figure 3 . 1 . Figure 3 . 1 . m . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . 3 .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. m . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit .
The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. 1 3 .Sec. The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. The vehicle is not allowed to coast . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. 3 . The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. as you can see from Figure 3 . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. 1 2 .or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit.. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 .
1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. 3 . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. therefore. As a result. The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. You . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. 1 . successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. 1 5 .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. Figure 3 . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque .
J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+."� ill Q rn o I � fS . "::> Figure 3 .5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t..J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�.D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.Sec.���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS ..2 . 3 . 1 > . 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .9 r�=r�rr...
"' "' . 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch . I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: ...J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 .J 5 "' C iii 0. 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.
1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. and oppo. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . completing one revolution every 90 days. the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 .Sec. a. The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. which also is due to oblateness.40 and 1 1 6. 3 . A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. What is the inclination of the orbit? b.40 or greater than 1 1 6. It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days.Q 360 ° per 90 days :. 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. With this perturbation . 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2.67 0 /day From Figure 3 . 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . Figure 3 . The ascending node moves to the west . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. Therefore = .6.60 .6 0 . Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude .
This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. 1 The Synchronous Satellite. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . This. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . On the scale of Figure 3 . For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian.21 shows why. 3 . The first stage booster climbs 3 . There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the .2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. 3 .6 earth radii above the surface . ground trace of a synchronous satellite. however.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .2. If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. Figure 3. 1 2 this would be 2*. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min).300 nm or about 5 .000 nm altitude . Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. This is. Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. for example .inches from the surface. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. 2 . 3 Figure 3 .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . of course. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . 1 . unfortunately. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. not the case . Of course. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time .
This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit. At apogee of the ascent ellipse..22 Ascent ellipse . burn """ " " . . intervals ..21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically.. . the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit.� � Figure 3 .. Dot ted grou nd trace . reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more. Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 . 3.. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm .Sec...2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. curve is \ " " .
This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. 2vdv .3 . 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. 3 .33) or = da 2a2 vdv . We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . and flightpath angle. fJ. /:.  fJ.31) If we solve for '. but . at appropriate points in the orbit. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed.34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. we get (3 . 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. = _ r 2a .32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . Usually this is not serious. as they are called . In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . for some other reason. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size.da a2 = fJ. a? v. a very precise orbit is required.. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. speed.v (3.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . (3 . if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. we get a change in . dv. (3.
Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit .h a �  da. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . Since the major axis is 2a.V v P P (3.34). 3 . In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters.34) for small but finite 6. 3 . a2 6. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. For example . whose radius is rl . 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. to the large orbit. The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . called Hohmann transfer orbits. 2 The Hohmann Transfer. whose radius is r2 . of the orbit given by equation (3 ." 3 . therefore . suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec .v) . Similarly. Since we know r l .1 .35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory.3.semimajor axis. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. a 6.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. along the transfer ellipse. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. 4 Jl.
&.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch . its speed is .31 &. (3. since p. 2at Figure 3 .37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit./2 a .t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3.31 (3.36) = r i + r2 =  and. 3 the transfer orbit.
� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . 3 I N. & t = � = . the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction.39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. 3 . i n our example .1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one .V required to double the altitude of the satellite . Although. Find the minimum /::. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Minimum rp = 2 DU.1 0) (3 . ra = 3 DU. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases.V implies a Hohmann transfer . The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit .Sec. it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. For the transfer traj ectory.3.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 .3. . to VI ' So .
32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible . 3 V cs 1 = (il = . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.061 DU/TU I::.VTOT == .3.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 . I t is obvious from Figure 3 . 1 29 DU/TU = 3. Figure 3.707 DU /TU vi r.346 ft/sec 3 .577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.313) .3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits. We can express this condition mathematically as r = .1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .JfF"= .3. I::.� r 1 1 +e p p (3.V2 = .V1 = .068 D U/TU V cs =.
I &. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. p p (p.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. �.Sec. and the angular momentum.1 4) (3. Knowing and e. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. we can compute the energy. respectively .33) and interpret them graphically.1 5) . 3 .3. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area. p p p  = . / 2a .3. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. (3. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. ht. To satisfy both conditions. in the transfer orbit.
1 is just the flightpath angle .34 /::. __ Figure 3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . p r2. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit .. we get (3.39) The angle between v1 and va. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>. . its speed is (3 .33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r .
(3. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above .V using the law of cosines. b. b. more simply. Or. 1 Simple Plane Change .4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ". If.V. This is called a simple plane change.34.1 .4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3. after applying a finite b. A velocity change .V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion.3. 4 .V required. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . or it can rotate the line of apsides. the b. form an isosceles vector triangle. We can solve for the magnitude of b.4. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape .V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the .V. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle .V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.1 7) reduces to equation (3. e.41) 3.V. ¢l ' is zero. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged.310) when the flightpath angle . To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b.41 . we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. it is not surprising that equation (3 . 3. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. 3 .1 'I' . (3 .31 6) Now. b. assuming that we know v and e.3. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . and obtain directly for circular orbits.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. together with the b. as shown at the right of Figure 3 .Sec.
A plane change of 60 0 . Determine the total b. a. Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . b . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. makes b. The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane).170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . calculate the additional b. It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. for example . . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized.1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. DU circular orbit. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. 3 Figure 3 .vrequired to accomplish the mission. Therefore . If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit.
953 DU/TU L. 3. 1 +� 1 .Vl = V l .Sec.0.618 = 1 . .__ = . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .270. 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 ..1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) .V l 1 . I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis. Therefore at = r2 . DU 2 1 Hence .Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . The given information is: h I = 0.953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L. & t = = �= .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.1 = \1'1 .
6.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.2 . 447)(.V22 v.626 vcs2 = V't.= 0 . 1 5 DU/TU 6. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch . 3 87 .042 ft/sec Therefore v = .447) (. 4 .4) (. 2 + 0.2(.V2 = y'l'5= 0.447) 0.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .(0. 31 7 + .626) = 0.626) = 0 .704 DU/TU 18.V2 .253 ft/sec . + v�s2.387 DU/TU = 1 0.447 DU/TU 2 1 .317) to determine 6. v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0. 3 and we must use equation (3.3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.
4.078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .Sec.0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .447 ) ( .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 . 3.1 ) t:::. F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .
2 Calculate the total 6.449 DU/TU) 3. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 .e. 0.21 . Ch . r p = 1 DU e = 0.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of . 3 EXERCISES 3 .V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . 3 .5 DU/TU.. 0 . lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2.5 DU .4 Refer to Figure 3 .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . a plane change or an orbit transfer.76. i. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. a. i changedall other parameters remained the same. 3. 1 1 DU and e = 0.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. What is the minimum 6. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.2 DU and 4 DU respectively. a = 2. (Ans. c.5 b.
9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . (Ans. 9 Calculate the total l::. = 0. 95 DU 8 = 0.1 DU 8 1 = 0.7 3 . 34DU2 (fU d.412 5 3 . . 8 Compute the minimum I::.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . 5 & Design a satellite . 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0.V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. C ompare this with the I::.v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU.56 c. P = 1. parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 .Ch . 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . * 3 . The . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . using Hohmann transfers. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. 0 . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . 3 .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = .
2nd revised ed. University of California Press. Space Planners Guide. 1 9 60. 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . DC . 1 962. Headquarters. The Viking Press. 1 96 1 . Vol 2. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. 3 . The Viking Press. NY . 1 July 1 965 . 4 . New York . New York and London . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Air Force Systems Command . Missiles. . NY. Robert M . V2 . Walter . 1 .. Ley. Washington . L. New York . Baker. 1 95 5 . Willy. A cademic Pre'ss. Newton . Rockets. Sir Isaac. Makemson. Principia. and Space Travel. 5 . Dornberger. and Maud W.1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .
. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. Albert Einstein ! 4 .CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . or perhaps usurping them . Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. I quickly took advantage of the absence. was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. This was Kepler 's first great problem. . if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. presupposed the solution of the first. who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. . including the earth . the determination of the true movement of the planets.. . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. . or lack of circumspection. . . the solution of the second problem.2 1 77 . of the heirs. by taking the observations under my care .
"is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. detour. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. I + . The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the ." Kepler points out in his Preface.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. whole grand entertainment would be lost.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . When Christopher Columbus. subterfuges. we not only forgive them. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. but above all to convey to him the reasons. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. Thus. . 1 . . 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. "What matters to me.
But then without a word of transition. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. Moreover. however. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . perihelion and aphelion. . At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . never noticing his error. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. . This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. with the warning: "Ye physicists. almost with masochistic delight. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. that. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. His results. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. for now we are going to invade your territory. without benefit of any preconceived notions. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . as it were. again incorrectly .Sec 4. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. prick your ears.
arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. " Finally. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg.. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . as I shall prove further down . Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to .. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. He had . but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. . a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. he settled on the oval. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. . 4 Figure 4 .2 Finally.
. de rive the . return e d by stealth through the backdoor.' " . an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened.Sec 4. . I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. disguising itself to be accepted. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. . Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. Ah. . until I went nearly mad. That is to say. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . and velocity and the timeofflight. .e .2 T I M EO F . In this chapter we will. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·.F L I G HT . I thought and searched. are one and the same . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. . You: are . whereas the two . made a mistake in geometry. . 4..: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits.. believing that this was a quite different . but he did not know how. in a moment of despair. time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits .y it should move in an orbit at all.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY .and chased away. Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. hypothesis. . but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. which I had rejected . came when.. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. have persisted to this day. The climax to this comedy of errors. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. . mine] .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. : . for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to .
7T a b .2 . but more motivated. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4.1 ) . The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see.l . 4 existed . A ' in Figure 4.2. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. say from periapsis to some general point.21 Area swept out by r .A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch .22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . (4. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus.. P. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4.2.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''.1 ) i s the area � .. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . We will pursue a lengthier.. ''"'''"'. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.2. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. In going part way around an orbit.. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use . i..182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY . 4.e . where the true anomaly is v .
has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. A dotted line . From analytical geometry.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. E E Circle : . the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 .F L I G HT . \/2 a2 _ . 22 Eccentric anomaly. 2 T i M EO F .Sec 4 .l.Z x2 + . perpendicular to the major axis.
From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. 4 Hence . oos E and whose (4.a E) .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) .22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis.23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V .�rea PSV minus the dotted area. Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 . Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . It Tollows directly from equation (4. A2 .
27) (4. cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .we get � ( E .24) E .e si n E ) I (4.27) reduces to (4.24)." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.Sec 4. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). Kepler introduced the definition M = It .e si n E (4.1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' .e si n Ai yields E) .e sin E (4. From Figure 4." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally. we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly. Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) . in order to use equation (4. and whose altitude is (a si n E ).E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.2 . minus the triangle .T = 4 ( E .28) .22. v.2 T I M EO F . substituting into equation (4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation . cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4. to its corresponding true anomaly. whose base is (a CDS E). Obviously .F L I G H T . E.
we can say that t .[ 2kn + (E .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4.( t o . In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . E Figure 4 .28).e Sin .to = ( t . 4 E E. Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4. when v is between o and n.24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.T) .(to . + t . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.24 right.T) .T ) . from Figure 4.24 left).T o ) . In general we can say that t  to = 4. The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .( Eo  E) (4. so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .to = lP (t . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.
+ COS (4.2.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .2. From equations in section 1 . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .8 E ) dE (4.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.82 f: ( 1 .2.2.7 . From equation (4.21 6) V 1 .1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.J1=82 d E (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .Sec 4.2.21 2).2.82 ( E . we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .1 2) (4.2.F L I G H T .1 3) (4.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.8 si n E ) V r . .1 1 ) easily integrable .2 T I M EO F.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .47) has been used to eliminate z.4. Figure 4. Therefore . An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known .1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given.2 Solving for x When Time is Known . (4 . 4. Equation (4 . But now we have a problem. ( 1 .Sec 4. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . since equation (4.1 2) is transcendental in x. a. In one sense .4 4. From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. va' a and the trial value of x. 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . Fortunately . a trialanderror solution is indicated.1 3) ro va v t" . C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn .4.4.
42. Thus A.41 6) dx x .4. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 . the four vectors fO ' (4. With x known. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .32).4. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. (4. we must then calculate the corresponding and v.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q.41 9) .4. 4 . B and C are coplanar vectors. 1 dt r (4.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.1 = x 2 C + x .41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible. xn . Substituting for r in equation (4. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) .fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . and A and B are not colinear. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar. the iteration may be terminated. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 .3 The f and 9 Expressions. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.
g. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q.. f and g.1 9) gives Sec 4 .. the left side of the O . f and 9 are not independent.1 8) into equation (4. Crossing equation (4. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. = fg..4. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity. f.1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h .. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 .420) This equation shows that f .4.4. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates.. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable . We can isolate the scalar . First.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w .4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4... in equation (4. however. g .where f. g . t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities... x.
From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .425) Combining equations (4.423) (4.1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw .X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .e2 )  r . 4 h (4. (4. .w o Yw h (4.4. yw x . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x. .42 1 ) We can isolate (4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4. ) .a l e + Sln Y.1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4. Xw .34) and (4.4.425).4.426) . x + Co cos v = . x wYw .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x. o . (4.
429) into equation (4. e quation (4.427) and using the definition of the universal variable . ro .a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum.Va • W ... x = 0 at t = o .(e sin � + cos � ). Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4.a  mitions of z.1 ) .. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4.. e quation (4.Sec 4 .a Va 2 = 1 9...... \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .42 1 ) c /Ii.426) through (4 . (4.43 0) f (4.. x =� cos x + c r . x + co h = ..42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C .32).428) yw .43 0) 0 1 f C a = .sin r  � (4.4. 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4...426) and (4..43 1 ) . ro ro .429) Substituting equations (4. r.
] � a .32) (4..4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 ..1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.435) (4.1 ) and (4 .A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .436) .4. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.. r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .4. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .4·3) � r o .c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .4.202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY . r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.433) (4.
Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4.420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions.4. From and determine r and a. 1 .x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 .434) .5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation.43 5) and (4. 4 . then compute v from equation (4. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t.4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem.43 6) . Note also that if were not zero .1 ) Va = _ E . x + Co cos [ � . The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. 5 . in any of the equations where z appears. can be used.34) (4. Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z.1 8).Sec 4. then compute r and r from equation (4 . its definition. 5 . but we have not said what and z represent. 1 The Physical Significance of and z. 3 .1 9) . if we are going to use equation (4.e E). Va x (4. 4 .4. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4.43 1 ) and (4. the expression (t would replace 4 .5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit . note that equation (4. Si n va = Va =  c o s . 2 . Also. Obviously . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . to 4.4 .4.[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . la .
66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.53) Subtracting equation (4.5 4) (4.53) from (4 . (4 .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �). so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .Do .4.204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x . we can conclude that = V'ii I F . a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 .52) whenever is negative . therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12. + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .E o l . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE. (4 . 1 (4.F 0 1  Va I E . we get x= D . 5 ·1) at time x = 0.57) .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f.1 3) .56) la. (4 . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .3 4) and (4.
5. from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer.8) Figure 4 . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. 5 . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. I z = I F . Therefore . a.when z is positive .1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.to 4 .F a ) '· z is zero. In computing the semimaj or axis. 5 .5 9) . so Sec 4. If imaginary.
When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4.e .P)/ 2.5. we get for elliptical orbits. a = ± x 3 . so s i n h fi . can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .cosh .a � eFz ± 2x 3 . convergence will be extremely rapid..5 .All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. since X = foE. then Z will be a large negative number .v y� ( .. Use this for a first guess .. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 ..:z. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. so S � V0r eFz 2 . Furthermore .. ( t a to) . If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. / ( .6F. with £X.a vG ) . . In the case of elliptical orbits.ji11.. is large. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period.. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. wherever it occu rs. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X.fZi3 = q .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z . I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. C = 1 . Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. and .
Therefore. we get � S . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.to is positive. 5 .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.sign (t .tohATci ( l .1 1 ) .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .a eFz sign ( t .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations. for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence . where appropriate .t o ) � ( 1 . 4 . X will be positive and .tJ is positive . . Anytime t . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .£.t o ) #a ( 1 ] . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t ..5.a . so Sec 4 . 5 . vice versa .L ( t . recognizing that X will be positive when (t . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.t o ) 2x 3 � + t . Thu s .t o ) sign (t .t o ) Fa .t o ) x ::::: sign (t .r:z . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before.The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.Q) eV La 2J.sign in the above expression .
cosh . use equations (4.51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.1 0) and (4. If z is near zero . we can write equation (4.5.1 3).".1 0) as C where = i C = . so an equivalent expression for S is S � s . s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 . w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 . if z is negative .y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .Ji .. 4 (4 . use equations (4.4.s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .1 2) and (4 ..4.1 1 ) We can write equation (4.(1  .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz.1 0) (4. z cos i � . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.5.0 6 + .s i n i V} = i si n i B .4. Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S . .1 1 ) as But i v:z . Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .4. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.4. .1 3) COS .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive. 1 . = Similarly.7! + .5.4.5. (4.1 1 ) .
(611)2 etc. (4Ir) 2 .... 0 .1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity ..Ji! + Ji!. Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .. 0 'j (4. .5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .5. . ..� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4.1 4) ·· 1 .5. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .+ . The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 .Sec 4.
[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin .zS . 2& . 1 . Find r.12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. 4 functions .s i n z dz 2z [ 0. and v at = t=2 T U . va = Therefore & = 1. 39 5 .5 . Given ra = I D U va = 1 . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x.266  .)] P (4. 1 K . t=2 T U9 ra = I. va > � a= :l = 1 .2C ) .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM.[i) z ] (4 . we get I � = fz. dC /d z and dS /d z .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.( 1 . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . Differentiating the definition of C. r a . I dS = _ ( C .21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch .3S ) .5. it is not surprising that the derivatives.
82 1 1 .222 Repeating the process... 705 .1 4) and (4.t o x_ 21Tya lP :.973 a Using equation (4.. solving for t .000 1 .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .4.705 2 . xn tn fit After three iterations.6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.222 1 ..1 . y'ii"(t . 2 2 x 3 ' etc. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .277 dXn 1 .821 1 .58 1 . 24 1 = 1 . 1 .279 1 .8 1 6 x n+1 . X l Zl y"""a6E or x .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2. 58+..12.1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 .t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.007 2. Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary. we can make a 2 __ = 1 .58 1 .58) 2 1 .8 2 1 1 .8 1 6 1 . using a slide rule .4.1 ..Since x = and . tn toward t = ZTU.266 ( 1 .8 1 6 1 .t.222 = 1 . 58+ .
Then from the definitions of f.6 .1 7).6.. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D.0. f = 0. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. as D = v'P tan � 2 . But .6. But first some useful identities will be presented. D. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit..031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. E or F.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. r = _. E and F. v. g. 1 24. 236K g. yw and r in terms of D.1 ) From Figure 4. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. g = 1 . f = 0. 4..1 we can see that X w = r cos v . In order to simplify Barker's equation (4.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. (4.JPt::. and 9 = 0.2. Finally.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . 880 1 1 . for the parabola. E and F. since e = 1 .. we will derive expressions for xw .2) .6.321 .8801 Ch ._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. f. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. 4 4.32 1 1 + 1 .
1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4. the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . (4.6.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .Sec 4 .62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos . yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system.65) .1 ) .
(4.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. Using r • r = and equation (2.6.1 ) . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown. 4 rr. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 . 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . in Figure 4 . For the eccentric anomaly .62 Perifocal components of r . w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known.66) v .62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. r • v.J7!.s i n p v = ffp ta n v . r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.
I Substituting from equations (4. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . e illS E we get another useful  �.6.24) .   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . 69) I e C OS E = 1 r . (4.1 0) e sin E also. yw Just as we did for the parabola. we can say that I yw = Q. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4.Sec 4 . To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .67) and (4 .67) (a si n E ) a But . (4.8) and simplifying. 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4.62. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .6. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. M  (4.
F is imaginary.1 3) .1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4. when F is a real number . we obtain E = . is given by e si n rr = r = $a . when E is a real number.e Si n r E Finally . we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E .1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation...6.6.28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4. E is imaginary . solving this equation for • v . For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.:.6. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.1 0) . v.. e cos E from equation (4. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly.6.22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.!.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . The ..Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.
6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E . From equation (4. 6. Similarly.1).6.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. 6. But l cos i F = cosh F .e ) . Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. r. The rectangular components of a general position vector.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':. In Figure 4 .61 6) r e cosh F = 1. 4.range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity.a r  (4.6.Il a •v (4.e) .1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . may be written as (4.el = a (cos i F .1 8) .67) we can write Sec 4 . = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.  But i si n iF = si n h F. so Yw = a � sinh F. so (4. 6. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F . Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation.6 .
218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y . 62 1) (4. are yw = r sin v (4... and note that h = .P ( 1 ...42 1 ) .. Figure 4.. (4.6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4..V.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .: o s /:. tan p /:..:. .c os I 9 ' = v'f._ c��V P IW (4.p .624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.625) (4. we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = ..c o s tv ) (4. the rectangular components of the velocity vector . r0 · = 1 .x". 4 +..A F U N CT I O N O F T.I M E Ch . where tv = v . .vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf ..V _ 2 1 ..ji! sin v p (4. V. 626) . 623) .1 . so 1 � L (I . ( ..JiLP.
(4.6.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E . From equations (4. Similarly.!Ji8 sin L'!..sin L'!.a ( 1 .63 1 ) (4.( L'!.e2 ) v.cos L'!.628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.e2 ). the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.e cos E o ) . Thus Xw Sec 4.e) v! fJa( l . E rr . = .E ) f = . yw 9 and (t . (4.63 0) (4. 627) But.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .a E sin E .4. r (4.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .cos L'!.to ) .e 2 ) cos E .Ji!.63 2) . 629) f = 1 .� ( 1 . using equation (4.6. Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .E .E) 9 r _ 0 j.1 0).a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l . o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.1 (4.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .E ) .67) and (4.I Jlla sin E.6.e2 ) = 1.68) . we get f = a( cos E .6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .
and Sma1l4 tells us: " But.26) Even though equation (4.(1 E . A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . (4. Kepler himself realized this. 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4.t o ) . The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .2k7T + M o .63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .63 6) 4. of course . cosh 6F ) .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm.629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.6. (4. In classical terms. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable . M can be obtained from = (4. from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .2 6) is one equation in one unknown .8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .6F ) . ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4. ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .  E. � V a3 ( t .. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it.220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch .634) (4.to) .
that results from this trial value . E It would. ' (4. 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next .64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. of course . � Figure 4. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . M n .638) n dM/d E I E=E n . select a new trial value. compute the mean anomaly. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. E n+ l E + M .63 7) Now.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4.Sec 4 . but this is not very accurate.
however. 1 . From fa and va determine r 0' a. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. Determine f and V from equations (4.1 2) .4. even when e is nearly 1 .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. d M = 1 e cos E .M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. 2. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. t .5 + .1 9).5 cos V DU .4 0) EXERCISES 4.t ' are given.1 8) and (4.4. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . e. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. e.6.e cos En (4.2. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(.  . r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . 5. where d M / d E l E = En En. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. equation (4. va and the timeofflight. dE Therefore. 4 . Once E i s determined by any method. p and va· 2 . 3 . Solve for V if needed. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . It can be used for LW or�E .when e is nearly 1 . The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation.
Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . find r and v for .348J +  1 . find the universal variable. how should the area of search for x be limited. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. 4.e. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. V = 3481 .3 Given l:J) = ffP. x.3. f = 4 .4 If.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse.6 For the data given in problem 4. Find the values of f. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. (Ans. corresponding to l:J) of 600• . i. glven fO' vO' and t. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa.85 TU) 4.Ch . 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting.5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. Explain why this must be so . one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P. TOF = 5. 625) . a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU.. (partial Ans.
== 1 .73 TV) 4. (Ans. 4 . Develop. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. Va and w and will solve for f. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . if X == x (t ) . 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point.10 rp 4 . 5 DU. 2. e = . 4 .9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. with a perigee above the north pole.99).. g. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 .1 1). 1 1 For problem 4. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value.51 0) and (4. TOF = 2. then . Le.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch.to and solve for f and v. Do the same for problem 4. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. f and g. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . 1 0. 7 The text.5 . 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude.5 DU. Va and t . 4 . what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. 4 4 . 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. e = . 5. and give your analytic reasoning behind. 9 At burnout. ra == 2. in equations (4.
NY.2 .. Robert.. 4 . . 1 963 . 1 964.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � .tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. Koestler. 2. Richard H. A New York. Madison.16 * 4. 4. g. See equations (4. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. r3 fJ. L'. Philosophical Library. r. Battin. Company.I:!:.43 6).6 TU) . Kepler. Albert.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f. Guidance . Arthur. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . Wise. 63 2). LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D.. o 4 .1 8). equation (4.. 1 95 1 .E. Stahlman. 4.630) through (4. NY. NY. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. The Sleepwalkers.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 .43 5) and (4. Einstein.( t . 1 95 9 .0 + . Small. The Macmillan 3 . f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. 1 7 Derive the expression for g . Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. = .. 2. New York.r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. The University of Wisconsin Press. New York. f and 9 in terms of (t .
1 96 1 . 1 9 1 4. Unpublished notes. H . K. Stumpff. California. Goodyear. to Celestial Mechanics. W. . . "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. 1 965. F . Bate. Sperling. E.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . The MacMillan Company. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. 1 9 1 2 . Roger R. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. pp 1 05 . J. H. Brooks. 7." A stron.1 79." A stron." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. W. 1 947. S. 1 965. A n Introduction York. Vol 3 1 .1 92. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. Vol 70. W . N. Mathmatica. H. pp 3093 1 5. Sundrnan. J. "Universal Variables." A cta Vol 36. and 1. Moulton. United States Air Force Academy . pp 1 08. 1 1 . K." A str. 1 2. Vol 70. 9. New 6. Redondo Beach.1 28 . 8. pp 66066 1 . pp 1 89. 4 5 . Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. 1 0.ach. 1 965 ." ARS 1. Herrick. Forest Ray. Vol 275 . Lemmon.
so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. in 1 7 8 1 . Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas.. 227 5. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . Uranus. But. a 24yearold German mathematician. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. in the first year of the 1 9th century.
The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . and the direction of . Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. no more . I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. and for convenience in referring to it later. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. 5. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. no less. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. exactly 1 year later. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. The object turned out to be Ceres."the Gauss problem. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . If they paid some attention to philosophy ." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. but for a different reason. Because of its importance. Hegel asserted. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun.
the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used.SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ .1 . / I I I I I Figure 5 .. that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r).. The relationship between the four vectors f l . or the "long way.. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. particularly if the parameter. f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4.. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. ." through an angular change greater than 7r.". . Sec . there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. Obviously . appears in the denominator of any expression. / . the orbit is a degenerate conic. therefore. If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . . 5 .21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 .... p.motion. 2. It is not surprising. but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case..
the solut �on to . (5 . There are seven variablesf1 . r . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p.cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 .24) Si n �E (5 . f. so 2 .230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 23) and (5 .24) arid (5 .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f.cos �E ) f = 1 .. 2.25). 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . a 9 = 1 . p. so a trialanderror solution is necessary ..1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f. n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . 3. p. Test the result by solving equation (5 . r2 P p rI .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si.27) and (5 . 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. g.cos �v) = 1 .1 ) (5 . (5 . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns.( 1 . Consider equations (5 . t. Use equations (5.23) Actually.y'ii8 ..( 1 . g. bv .22) r2 a ( 1 . a or �E.( 1 .26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 .23).sin �E ) � JJ. f and g.cos �E ) .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . a and �E. (5 .25 ) (5 .2. but the first four are known. From equation (5 . 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . 27) . what we have is three equations in three unknowns. 2. (5 . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 .cos �V . We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 ..
g . This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. This last step is perhaps the most important of all. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work.1 ) (5 . A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. however..Sec. x and z. introduced in Chapter 4. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. r1 (5 . a and L'£ or 6F. In each case .c x2 y.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. p.3 2) .:t x3 S. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. and would enable us to use the universal variables. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. 3 .( 1 . 5 . a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. = 1 . What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. let's write the expressions for f.
36) may be written (5 .232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .31 ).jE: .( c o s b... ( 1 .j A equation (5 . P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b.35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.v ) 1 c o s b. rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.v) • 9 = = IE.39) .V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch .37) I y = r 1 + r2 .v y.( 1 c o s b.33)  (5.c o s b. we get r 1 r 2 (1 . we obtain A..v (5 .1I 1 � . 1 . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.v) (5 . ( 1 c o s b.38) y.. yields X C.viI x ( 1 zS) \ ...A . as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant. 5 X2 (5 .. p r1 j . A y= ..v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 .i n b.
we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. y. by using equations (5 .".31 5) (5 . (5 .r I (5 .on simplllw.31 3) (5 . +.34).32) and (5 .3.ff.31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I .1 0) (5 .qr::oo . we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 . .1 6) (5 .1 ).=1' Ig =r2 =. From equations (5 . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 . thi 't "p.420).: r I . so that (5 .35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 . can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves. the last term of this expression may be simplified. 5 . 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .38).1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 . 3. 32).37 ) and (5 .3. to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .3. A. 3.1 4) 1 The velocity. I" � \ ·1 fr .31 7) .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .Sec.. and the auxiliary variable . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 .
37). From f ' f and the "direction of motion. 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z.1 0) and (4.31 9) .1 1). Although any iterative scheme . If it is not nearly the same . Pick a trial value for z. 6. a Newton iteration. The derivative.31 6) and (5 . (5 .31 7). 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . 3. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point.dz dz dz 2yy dz . dt / dz. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation.= 3 x 2 . When the method has converged to a solution. Determine x from equation (5 . 5. from equation (5 .3." evaluate the I 2 constant. 5 1 .234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . A. Since z = . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . 9 and 9 from equations (5 .4.3 .4. which converges more rapidly. Determine the auxiliary variable. using equation (5 . Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4. 5. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . y. then compute VI and v2 from equations (5.1 2) (5 .31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 .39). 7 . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. 4.31 3).0. may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . 3. 2 .1 0) .31 5).1 4) and (5 . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .3.S + X 3 _ + .31 8) ( ) (5 .P .E2 and z = . evaluate t.0. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained.
3 .39) for dy = dz  But. Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .=  dS (C .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS . we showed that y.320) (5 .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 . we get ( 1 . 5 .32 1 )  . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . i n section 4 . 5 .Sec. .z S) dS _ .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .
Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.4.326) .6J + 0.OK DU.318).32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit). the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . equations (4. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0. 5 so. we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . D M � si g n (1T L'>. "direction of motion": rl =0." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 .41 1 ). These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .1 0) and (4.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .  (5 . ill rl .v) .319) and (5 . To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM. Using universal variables. At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0. determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .324) _  (5 .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .322) into equation (5 .320) and (5 .7K DU. 51 r2 = 1. There is only one path for a given direction of motion. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .01 + + O.
6V is small. 23287446 yT12 vm . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . from equations (4.327). 0000 + 1 . 0000 1 .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = .39). 327) r1 = 1 . A A l ong way =1 .1 5) .. 5 . 0488088482 + 1 .1 4) and (4.37) does when .28406 = 1 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (.0488008482 OU r2 = 1 .6V > 1T).1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 . 0488088482 + 1 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .962 radians LW long way = 21T . 86474323 = 1 . 28406 ( __ = 3 . For ease of numerical solutions.1 .6V short way = 5.Sec.28406 ( __ ) = 0 .321 radians Using (5 .5.0.28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = . a convenient form of equation (5 . 5 . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 .
.672625 1 6 TU + through 6.. the desired time o f flight is : ...489482706 (6") .3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .86474323 = 1 .9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off..28406 y'3. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 .86474323 2. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : .. Y l o ng = 3. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration..444689 m 0. Step 5: Using equation (5 .05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0... 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.780 1 9540 1 /2 0.1 0).3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 . 1 . from the given data.23287446 0.0 we do not normalize.. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .28406 y'0. 0432z = 1 3.3. 1 3 min = 0445 z . (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.23287446 t l o ng = 0.
4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.94746230 A = 1 .5544 1 39777J 0.0.Sec.1 3). (5.t solved .9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.554824 D U /T U f = 3.83073807 v 2 = 1 .1 6) and (5 . 1 1 39209665J  0.79852734 v2 = 1 .989794 D U/TU 0.6009 1 852 .0.02234 1 8 1 1 .60 1 874421 .035746 D U/T U 9 = 0. 74994739 VI = 0. 5 . 1 7866539741 + 1 .31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .58 1 43981 VI = 0.314).5288 97 1 4 = 2.662242 1 3 A = · 1 . 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.8826885334K v2 = 0.83236253 Using equations (5 .1 5). W e have : � 104 (within 0.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 . 7499473 9 t = 0.3. (5 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.0.76973587J . (5 .3 .250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.96670788 z = x 0.36 1 677491 + 0.3.t .28406 Y = 0.63049 1 80961 1 .50634848K v2 = 0.28406 Y = 4.6 1 856634 = 0.
and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position).31 .39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number.9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. In other words. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 .38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of.38) and (5 . the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4.1 O} VC . The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .52). Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . yet equation (5 .636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. For "short way" trajectories.076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive.= 0.2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . From equation (5 .zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation . the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .39). the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. where f::1) is less than 7T.
c o s x =. a and ""E.)2 cos . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve . we get  . 5.4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5.4 TH E p.va si . From equation (5 .6V p � .cos ""V ( 1 .6V V 1 .?S.25)..I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.4.V ) a (5 . The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive . we obtain 5./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .c o s ""E si n ""E . It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity.j1 . hence.v. for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 .. This check is only necessary when is positive.cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E. a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p . if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.42) into equation (5.Sec. The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 .23). and 2 solving for p. we can solve for a and get 1 ..6V COS . 5. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique. (sin xl i .cos !:::.4.1 ) and si n  COS .4.
E CO � = ± p= k = . a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.2 Expressing a as a Function of p.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .E) •  k = k Ll. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .45) and simplify. and noting that � c os '2 . 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.E Q ± y'2ni C O S .. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .Qp y'2ni p .45) ± Using these same definitions.E Solving for cos2. (5 . 2 Ll. The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.43) as Ll.47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.4.43) 5.E .48) k . we get Ll.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch . (5 .46) Ll.E ( k .c o s bJ)) (5 . we obtain m p a= (5 .Q p ) 2 (5 .
Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. 5.where k. a may not be smaller than some minimum value .4 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . 2.4. Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . we need to determine � (or .3 Checking the Trial Value of p. however.!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . Sec. First .4 T H E p..41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . 5.F in case a is negative). . Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero.. 5 . The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 .6.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr.
( 1 .6. there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.vi.41 2) (5 . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.4.F is positive. Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p.24) and (5 .4.a r1 (1  f) (5 .23) and (5 ." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .Tar (si n h .6.E a If yield is negative. If a is positive.6.1 0) = = 1 . F ..49) Since we always assume . 5 c o s . let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 . we see that the limiting case of .4 The t vs P Curve .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 9 and f from equations (5 .s i n . If (. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.23). we can determine . In Figure 5.6.6.4. let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way.41 1) c o sh . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like . The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 . If we look at "long way" trajectories.E ) (5 . F ) .6.f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .F (5 . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .E . F 1 .E from equations (5 .1 3) .6.6. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.From the trial value of P and the known information. we can compute f.24) or the corresponding equation involving .6.25).. (5 .6. although t approaches infInity for this orbit.F: (5 . To get a feeling for the problem. the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .
parabola hyperbola Figure 5 . t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j . we should first compute P j or P j j ..42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 .. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight.. P must lie between o and P j j . Sec. for t:sv greater than IT.zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. From the discussion above. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 . P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case ....I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse .. In Figure 5 .. as well as all subsequent guesses for p.. Since it is important thar the first trial value.. For l'J) less than IT. lie within the prescribed limits...4 T H E p. 5 .. P must lie between P j and infinity.43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories.
In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p. p )0 p" . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5.1 5) 5 .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. I . .4.1 4) Q . � " . • .yLri1 (5 . from equation (5 . Several simple methods may be used successfully. . 0 Q + y2in k  (5 . The solution is then bracketed and. 5 1 :co .5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. ell .4. one that gives too small a value for t..4.246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). .43 k p a rameter . and one that gives too large a value. .. The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution..46). '" E 0> '" . b .
. .. . . . then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t .. .. If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it... always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5.. .. . . . then a better estimate of p may be obtained from . . . . 5 ..1 6)...t n . It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer.4. . O��_4o P n.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn.. ... .. . .I Figure 5 . .. ...t n ) ( P n .. .4. If tn. ....Sec..... ... tn t .1 ) (5.. .. .. ..1 6) This scheme can be repeated. ..44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration . ..1 and Pn . . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. .1 ) (t n . 4 T H E p.P n .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p.
1 7) I t =9 viIZ. fl3  fJ.1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g .iri equati �n (S. ( � .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .41 7).4. 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.si n L'> E l . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative . � ( S .24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  .41 8) (S . 41 9) .4.r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S . (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .
4 T H E p. 5 . we obtain .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .420) From equation (5 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .2mk2 Qp 2kQp .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .E / dp and noting. that ( k .Sec.47). from equation (5 .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE .Qp ) Q.Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .( k .2 dp k ( k .4 8) . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k . bE d�E .
423) .250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .1 9)...420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k . p(k h JJ.. (5 .6E JJ. which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.4. _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.= . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .1 8) from (5 .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F . (5 . 5 (5 .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .� (6E .4. and (5 .Qp) si n 6E JJ.
5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . 4 . 8 .1 2) or (5 . 2. Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 .6E or Ll.1 5).To evaluate the slope at Pn . a. Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola. Solve for f.8). Solve for t from equation (5 . of p. 7 .1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. 25). The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a. 5 251 .4. 5 .F obtained from the trial value. 6. should be used in equation (5 . This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. the values of g. As stated earlier . the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. we will develop and use the f and 9 series. We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 . Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.423). r and Ll.4.44).24) and (5 .27) and (5 .2·3).4. Pn .F.4. Evaluate the constants k. 5 . equations (5 .1 1 ) . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo .49) and (5 . 3 .22). Q and m from r] . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. Sec. as appropriate . 5 .E or Ll.1 4) and (5 . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained.1 0) or equation (5 . Solve for Ll. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. 9 and f from equations (5 . Evaluate 9 from equation (5 .II using 2 . (5 .4. 9 . 2 . Using the trial value.4. solve for a from equation (5 4 .422) or (5 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 . t and . using equations (5 .
5 2) (5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. 5 5) r r (5 .54) we have the following recursion (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . Therefore. 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.57) (5 . (5 . 5 .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 4) for n = O. we write equation (5 . 5 9) . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v.252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . (5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = .
From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. 5 . 5 . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate.5.51 6) (5 . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 . We define them as follows : O. as we shall u .5W)  (r . v are known .5. u L. 5 . p. Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .1 7) .515) =  ur.and the equation of motion f  (5 . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u.1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . p and q which will be useful later . 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .51 3) rr and the definition of p. q. v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .5 11 ) (5 . this can be (5 .51 2) u .
u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . r) (v) 2 .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .57) and (5 . 5 20) (5 . Summarizing: (5 . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . ) . r r (5 . d q = d t . _ [1 1  2 (v . 5. 5.U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. 5 . .p (u + 2q ) . .3u p (5 . v) _ 1 u.U . ) _ 24 (r . 1 1 1 1 .23 r· (V) r   u. 522) q = . = .1 8) Using the definition of P. (5 .(v) 2 .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 .r . . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r .
6 u 2 p = .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . 5.30p p + 3 q ) . F3 = F . = r 0. = F 1 r + G 1 .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .3p ( u + 2q ) .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .t!:.u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u .Sec.1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.u G = . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = . = . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q . Writing equation (5 . = .6 u 2 p = .1 5u p ( u .54) for n = 1 .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .3 u p ( u . Fs = F4 . p and q.u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \.30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .u G 4 = u ( u .u r = ..2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.
523) . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 . Referring to equations (5 .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T. ) .1 .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 . Vo (5 .Gn n.1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .52) and (5 .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .526) .tao Comparing with equation (5 . therefore. . .5.524) (5 . 5 = U (u .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .
6q .28q . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .90q .2 1 q .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 . F = 3up 3 F = u(.3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .51 . G = u.7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) . F 2 = 'U.1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.Sec. 5 .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (. F 1 = 0.l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) .30q . G = O.3q . G = 30up(1 4p2 .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 . G 1 = 1 . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).
the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious.5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 .0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u .2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. From equation (5 . 5. we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 .5·29) .5·27) + ' (5 . (5 . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle .f (r I . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . 7) r I g (r I .24) and (5 . The f and 9 series may be used . 5 . r I .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only.2·3). This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . 2·5).6. This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. f I . 5.5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . 7) (5 . p.51) + 9= 7  1 .
77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r .61 Sector and triangle area (5 . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. This . 5. L£ . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6. so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude .Sec. thus Figure 5 .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA. As. becomes dt (1 .6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. .
2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 . This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression. but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 . If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.43) and using the identity." + l( 1 . 4 � c o s b.2E ) 2 . The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . E ) .260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. .63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss.6.' l'2 2 2 (5 .1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y.2 The First Equation of Gauss.62) (5 .6. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 . 5.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3.c o s b.
.s i n l:>E ) .L .61 ) becomes si n l:v .61).6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 . si n l:v cos � . From the first of these equations.£Q.Sec. n l:> E ) .65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 . Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 . equation .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.. so . (5 .. we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .2 ( 1 r1 r ..JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression. t/y.6 . 3 The Second Equation of G auss.23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.67) 1 cos l:>v =.65).. ( . Si.1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E . Using the identity.24) and (5 .= . 5 ..67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .2 2 L (5 .s i n l:>E ) .(5 . L ( l:>E .
si n LE ) we may write. n = 2 si n 3 LE . The first step is to evaluate the constants. 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. To review what we have done so far.2(� . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. y. pick a trial value for y. from r I ' r2 .s) . 23).from (5 .1 ) .6. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . recall that we started with three equations.4 Solution of the Equations . and so on. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation.6." 5 .1 0) . and one more unknown. s and w.1 ) = W (LE . y and LE . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . (5 . (5 . Unfortunately. a and LE. p. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . (5 . When convergence has occurred.Si.6. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . 22) completes the solution. so a trialanderror solution is necessary.69) cos f = 1 . we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. (5 . !:JJ and t.262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .25).64) and (5 . which is known as "the second equation of Gauss.1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E.43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. 27) and (5 .69) are transcendental. since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . a good first guess is y � 1 .64) and solving for y. S + 1 . using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . 6. more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. equations (5 . 24) and (5 . in three unknowns. We then added another independent equation. y 2 ( y . Next.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) .
)� s + 1 . Noting that .c:. 6.cosh 2 .F is real.6. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y .c:. 6.c:.1 2) = X = . Using the identity. i sin i.c:. 5 .69) and to determine y.E and .c:. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables. For this reason. then .c:.0.c:.c:.69) and · (5 .F and COS i . If the given timeofflight is short.S ) y (5 .cE.E is imaginary.1 0) may become greater than one. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.E s i n 3 .F . S. indicating that�. F = si nh .c:. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 . E = i .F will be zero and both equations (5 .c:.c:. Since we already know that when .E is imaginary..1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 . equation (5 .F . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.c:.F whenever the right side is greater than one . F.Since the equations above involve .1 1 ) s i n h .c:.F .1 2) become indeterminate. they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical. E or .c:.E . difficulties may be anticipated any time . the righthand side of equation (5 .c:. F s i n h 3 "2 .69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .F = rush .5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.F 2 ) · (5 .6. equation (5 .c:.c:.1 0) may also b e written as Sec.6.c:. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section.s i n .E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.c:.F are close to zero.6.c:. as y2 = W S + x . .
the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. (s + x ) · 1 (5 . ( 1 + §.1 4). ) . 1� = 2 3 1. Determine p from equation (5 . from rl .6.1 4) Now.27) and (5 .1 5) 1 .26).6. or negative. replacing CDs 6.61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 .. and then expressing 6. Evaluate f. determine 6. 3 . .1 3). Depending on the type of conic. the orbit being an ellipse.1 (5 .43). 2. Compute the constants. /:. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . which is developed by Moulton.. r2 . 5 . Determine X from equation (5 . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 .]) and t using equations (5 .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 .264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point.25) and (5 . g .24).22).62) and (5 . f.1 1). . 6 . and 9 from equations (5 . E as a power series in x.63)..6 . or hyperbola according to whether x is positive.Y:i. The result.1 0) or (5 . This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &.F from equation (5 .6. E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit.23). . 2 6. Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . parabola. is . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. 4. .2 Ch . 7 . (5 .E or 6.6.6. s and w.6. 2 . (5 . zero.
let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. and ballistic missile interception. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 .v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. �atellite intercept and rendezvous. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time ." In all but the simplest cases. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. 5 . The £:. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . To avoid generalities.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . Usually. 72. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site.Sec. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. To make the problem even more specific. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . ballistic missile targeting. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity.
e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary..� . .� ' .. 7 .1 .. ��y V \" _ . "." \ t a rg e t / \ .. r. 5 i nterceptor . fI }/ \ \ .�: :... "... . I n .' ':.\...... \ •• • • • • • .7.. ) / ot t. �/ �/ "..266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .".1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem . at t..f. I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 .
7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. 5 . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . which is when the intercept will occur.Sec. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 .
. . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . 5 them. .238 km/sec. 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. �v? �v . . .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . . " . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . \ \ \ Figure 5 . launch vel. But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. . we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is.
After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and .5 . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . Because of earth rotation. The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . the launch site will have moved eastward . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . 5 . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . In summary . the better . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor.7 . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot.7 . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. From Figure 5 . 5 . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . In Figure 5 . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site .
4 /':.J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .V plot for example intercept problem ..F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.O F .) z :J « . 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .7..
L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . P3 · .8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. another method will be develope d .85) (5 . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6.8 . P3 .e. 5 . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . the three components of r2 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry.84) (5 . (5 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. t2 .Sec. t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . 82) t2 so (5 . Although we have examined a very specific example . v2 • P I ' P2 . i.1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L.
Estimate the magnitude of f2 . the components of Vz be X.1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . 526) and (5 .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. the components of f2 and V2 . in fact only six of the equations are independent.272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c.e. f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . L3 . L2 . and eliminating the K components. Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . R1 . y and z . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . ' r2 . 8.T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . y. y and Z . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . i.8) (5 .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a.8·7) (5 . b . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d .8. Rz . 5 to (5 .8. � into equations (5 .
and (5. but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04. =: =: 5 . 5 Z.32). . Ease of computation. e . 5 .31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 .3 Verify equations (5 . Z. 5. which are the components of f2 and v2 . Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. (5. Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a.V required for intercept? 5.t2 and t2 t } are not too large.6 Derive equation (5 . Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 . b. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. Accuracy.31 3) through (5 .1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l.1 5. f. 5.Ch .39).4 Verify the development of equation (5 048).522). f2 I + J DU). I I I I  x. Usirlg specific numbers.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location.31 ). verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6.2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6.527). The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer. c.423) for hyperbolic orbits.526) and (5 . Limitations.41 . Y.
c. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. rl r2 p. r2 .009 (. 5. 5 .7 . Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. h = 1 .J + K).06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 .8 using the universal variable. as a function of rI r2 .8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . vI = 0. t2 . d. r2 'and the distance between them. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. 5 Given two position vectors rI . The universal variable method . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5.0922 TU. which will contain both position vectors. The original Gauss method.tl = 1 .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . The piteration technique. 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . (Ans. although a few iterations can be made by hand.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use.9 Repeat problem 5 . = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. (Ans.00256 (J + K» . 5 . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . b. d.t l determine v2 using a.
t 1 = 0.66986 9921+0 . A n Introduction York. "The Prince of Mathematicians. New 6. McGrawHill Book Company. the MacMillan Company. Battin.4804847 1 1 2 +0. Escobal.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . Liu. Methods of Orbit Determination. . d . 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . 1 956.Ch . a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. Appendix A. Mathematics. r 1 = 2I t2 . A stronautical Guidance. 51 + 0. Inc. 1 9 1 4.0. Bell. Herrick.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. New York. NY. S.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. r 1 = 41 t 2 . 2 . Eric Temple . Moulton. Richard H. to Celestial Mechanics. New York. 1 965. Forest Ray.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. Vol 5 . Davis. Carl Friedrich. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. Simon and Schuster.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . 2I D U t2 . f 1 = 1 . Dover Publications. John Wiley & Sons. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 .2J Use "long way" traj ectory. Gauss. r 1 = I t 2 . (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. Pedro Ramon. NY. NY. a. f l = 0 . NY. Inc. 1 964. 3.6J + 0. 1 963. and A. (Answer : v = 0." in The World of 1 . New York. 1 9 59. 1 .J D U Use "long way" trajectory.7K D U t 2 . 4. c . Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. New York.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = .
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It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. longrange ballistic missiles. culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. Napoleon I 6. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . World War II as "too late . The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. have a very short history .000 V2's had been fired in anger .CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. The result is well known. ironically . Efforts. . It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . which concern us in this chapter.
California. 4 Accordingly.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. After all.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. Trevor Gardner . it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today.000 pounds thrust. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. Brigadier General 3 . The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. According to Dr. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . in June 1 9 53 . In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. In July 1 95 4.
Sec. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. the program had. Blasingame . 6. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. Atlas was a reality. Progress was rapid. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . Otherwise. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. After three unsuccessful attempts. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . 6 . by mid· 1 95 9 . Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile .000 people participating directly. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority.
(6 .ji1Tr.2. need not be redefined. Q .2. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. 1 defines these new quantities.. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range.. 6 from launch to burnout.2. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. 6 . The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system." "flightpath angle at burnout.. It will not be discussed in this text. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here .280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories." "height of apogee. There are. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 .2.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory ." etc. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics. 6 . =. however. Since Va:.22) . Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . Figure 6. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 .2 The Nondimensional Parameter. such terms as "height at burnout.
6.2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .Sec .
the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .the expression p.25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 .2.23) or IQ=2�·1 p . We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 .282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. When Q is equal to 1 .1 ) . 24) 6 . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section.O/r from equation (6. If Q is greater than 2 . and substitute for V.26) . (6. It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit.3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.2. 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit.
2 Equation.Sec. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 . lies on each side of the major axis. 6 .f6.22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) . and co s � = .27) . 'l'.26) above can.co s v b o . half the freeflight range angle . be written as (6. therefore.
e2 ). (6. the total range angle. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter.29) Now. ¢ro.T. e.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6.28) p. . the required freeflight range angle.284 . also becomes known. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. A. = r Q C O S2 cp . and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and.1 1) into equation (6.2./.2. what should the flightpath angle. .1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions.2. . If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. since p = a( 1 . h = rv cos cp. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.29) and (6.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2.
23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . In Figure 6 . Sec 6 . the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . ¢bo. We could . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . is called r bo . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus.2. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle .23 Ellipse geometry 6 . with a little algebra.4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. Instead . F'. Now. Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 .In other words. it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r.
1 3) (6.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.24.x) = sin (6.2.Qb o sin � .I n 2 and also as rb (6. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . the basis for the so called "whispering gallery. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . shown in Figure 6." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. This is. in fact.2. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . for example.1 6) . if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s.2. � + 'lr) = .000 ) from equation (6. Qb o 2 2 (6. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse .23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . F' and the burnout point. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 . It means. d.1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x.2. that.
6. so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .9.2.1 6) gives us .866. sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .Sec. .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .
the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed .288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole .P/2&. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . Because a = . Nevertheless. This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . 2. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . Figure 6 . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. If Q bo is exactly 1 . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. Table 6. the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. If Q bo is greater than 1 . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. Provided that 'l' is attainable. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. 2. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. equation (6 . but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose .1 6) does not exceed 1 .
6 .Sec.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.
cos ¢ b o == 0.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. skims earth high only . hits earth Table 6 . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU.21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'.5 DU. vbo = 2/3 DU/TU. During the test firing of a ballistic missile.low traj . Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. hits earth 000 > 1 high only . ha p og ee 0. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1.11 5 18 1 . range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj .low traj .625 .
60 0W .2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . 26.025) = 1 . versus the flightpath angle . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . c os � = + N .08 1 7 DU/TU and .2.2..1 2) . 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . Notice or <P b o = :. ) (60 n m i ) =2. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. 'IT. 6 2 1 .5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . :. Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . 2<P b o + 64°20. 6 . 600 E. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39.1 . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 .025 DU respectively.4Deg. 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.Sec. 6. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. 08 1 7 ( 1 . 36° . As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT.
be the maximum range condition. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.1 6) equals exactly 1 . A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target.. ..2.7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight . en EO I . then.s.26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory. 2.1 8) L__________________� . A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .� 90 Figure 6.. s 0> Q) 0 � c .pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 .2... 0> <1> <1> � IJ. There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition . we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6. If the right side of equation (6.1 7) I (6. :.. � 80 .Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 . (2<P bO � ) 2 .292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell ...:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .
due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified.222) . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 .7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). By inspection. sin �= 2 2 ..cos 2 .Sec:.1 9) for maximum range conditions. 'JI .2. the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . but .1 7 ).2. The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .6 Time of FreeFlight. 2. From the symmetry of Figure 6.8) ./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only.Qbo Qb o (6 .e cos 2 (6. noting that l . If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o . 6 . VI 1 800 . 2. This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . 2 . 6 . We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6. 220) for maximum range conditions.
223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.27 Time of freeflight (6. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . In fact . 28. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. since five variables have been plotted on the figure. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. Figure 6 . 2. e.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile .300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively.1 1). and the eccentricity. 6 The semimajor axis. a. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. 23) and (6. can be obtained from equ ations (6.
8 period vs.075) == 0.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0. 6 . What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.Sec.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM.25 D U == 7 .884) ( 1 . altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.750 n m .95 From Figure 6.000 nm.
hi..CI�rie� v X I .9h Ir. .� '" �� :. :: : J: : : . ' . .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. . : : . : ' . : :/ .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 .I ' : ' : : : : : : . :: :"/ N .aje.. . � ren I ("') !XI r » Free . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: . : : ..
3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. 'l' From equation (6.3 . range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. The arc length .6C represents the cro ssrange error. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point.6X and . .6C may be / 9 57 1. For a fixed burnout altitude . As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian.933 D Urr U � 24. 3 . the crossrange error.32 r ads = 1 33. impacting at B.444 n m = 2.Sec. 6 . In Figure 6 .3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed.77 0 = 0 .2. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. . These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. 8. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.6X.220) .3 ° From equation (6.OOO nm max = 3. 957 Hsi 66.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . 6 . .  Vbo 6. position. For brevity . F or purposes of this example. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors.1 � 0.6C. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . 2 00 ft/sec . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first.
If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth.thought of as angles. cos . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X."2 to simplify equation (6 . I 1 . if they are in degrees. 3. Equation (6.32) 2 X Figure 6. . if the intended target had been the north pole . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr.3 . we get (6.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. In Figure 6 .1 ) to (6.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .3. for example.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane .1 . you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center.
From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C.'l1.32 is the crossrange error .2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. before . If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . 6 . 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range .32 Azimuth error 6 . will result.33) . this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. 6(3. 299 Figure 6. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. 'l1. are as planned. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . P. Figure 6 . we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth.3 . �C.Sec. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. a crossrange error.
4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle.3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point.33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .oo a "'00 Fl ight .path angle .x ' to simplify equation (6.0.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 .0. 6. <Pbo' In Figure 6.34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.D. \]I.. This .0.3 . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.y I  : : i. 6 If we assume that both 43 and .33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.3. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn .. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount . are shown by a solid line in the figure .\]I will represent a downrange .� I a q. cos X � 1 . In other words. (6. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it . if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 . it will hit the target anyway ..300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch .\]I. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.21 about the center of the Earth..C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation.
The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.cot <P b o (6.1 0) Qbo I i .1 2) of this chapter .2.3 . The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.8) (6. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 . The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .6. We could get an approximate value for . But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.36) (6.Sec. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3. 6 .39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .3.
1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6. 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate . a'l1 . Let us first express equation (6.3.1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3.1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( . Vb Substituting from equation (6. 3.1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .3. _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.3.
If this seems strange. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. In fact. Figure 6. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . the actual range error on a 3 . The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . equation .000 nm range. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0.3. 6 .1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient.33.1 3) This partial derivative .33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . A plot of range versus burnout radius. angle errors. While we need equation (6. particular burnout error .Sec. Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. 3 . Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory .3 . when used in the manner described above. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section.
. differentiating the range equation (6 .3.000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .3.1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6.1 1) implicitly. if burnout occurs too low. b o 'fJ ' (6 . too slow and the missile falls short. 6. 6 however. The magnitude of the error is (6.3.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 4) for small values of . Again.1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.3. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 .3. the missile overshoots .3.6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots .. the missile falls short of the target in every case . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.
A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. 649 r ad U D U/T .Sec. 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 . ub o = 5 x 1 0 .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range .3. ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error . 1 D U . . Total downrange error : . 1 ) 2 .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . 735 rad DU r b o ( . like the other two influence coefficients. Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.5 x 1 05 D U/TU .4 D U .1 0.6V b o + a 'lr . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.4 rad ians. LW b o = .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) .905) 2 ( 1 .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . 3.735 = 6 .6¢ b o = .1 8) would reveal that. An analysis of equation (6 . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] . 6 . r bo = 1 . We will need Q bo (.9 0 5 D U !TU . There is no crossrange error.
5 24 ft/sec.4. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. then all three . it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. 6 =2. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 .4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating.735 ( 5x 1.4 ) TOT =1 1 . {3. for example).1 0. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . <p. In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . 56x 1 0 . That is.2 1 (. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . If we know the timeofflight of the missile . both the launch point and the target are in motion. 0. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. 6. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives. m i .S ) .1 .4 ) (3444) � 4 n . The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation.1 .2sin 1 60 o 2 = . ove rshoot 6.4 )+6. That is.649 (5x 1 O . its flightpath angle. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar.56x 1 0. The rotation is from west to east. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . and its azimuth angle. v.
" The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. and a speed of. �. we will refer to measurements of burnout . Hereafter. Like the observer on the moving train.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . 6 . of 45 0 .000 ft/sec. (6.5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system.I ·=<� • . . we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . A simple example should clarify this point. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 .Sec. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it.4.1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 .1 ) . direction in this frame as 1>e and �e.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. of 900 (east).000 ft/sec. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 .. of train l \\�. an azimuth. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. An observer at rest would not agree . 1>.4. say 1 . Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel.
It is. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. break up V into its components. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . (6 . Vs (6 . lies.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. first.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. and up components of the true velocity. v. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . this will not be difficult. �. Once you have the components of ve.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. Thus. We can obtain the south. flightpath angle . finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . of course. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . east .42) The true speed.44) �.
This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . Rather . when the missile arrives at point B. In Figure 6 . If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 .2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. The term. then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . Hopefully. so the arc length OA in Figure 6. 6. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight .42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 .Sec.43 is just 90 0 L o. the target will be there also.4. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B.
The longitude difference. and if.0.0. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. A. and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 .0. {3. {3. (6 .N + w ffitA ) .0.47) Solving for cos {3. The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3. then a value of . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . Once we know the total range angle. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.N + wffitA' where .48) Again.0. this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . . by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6. .46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 . tA . we get c o s {3 = sin L t .triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. (6 . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. If you are firing the missile the "long way" around. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. we can solve for the required launch azimuth.N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target.0.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 .N. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. (6 .
Needless to say. By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. A.Sec. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . and launch azimuth. (3. 6 . how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . tA But . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range .43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range.
45 ) 2 = .9 DU/TU. 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . 9cos3 00cos 3300= . 9 s i n 300= ..5022 ta . . 29 .. using Q bo = . 339 ) 2 + ( . 87 9 30. 1 ) 1 .. 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 79 . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.3 ° W burns out at 30o N. 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . 339 ) =.( ..0 58 8cos290 = . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 ..675 s (J=333 .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . v = . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . 5 1 1 95 v . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory ..42) through (6 . 85 From Figure 6 . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. 1 DU. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 8° v n /3 = v = . 33° ¢bo = v E = . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 .4 5) : v= . 6 . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of .j( ..
6.we(3.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 .4 . 770 N re = 156. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1. 6 70) =. 77° = . 334 TU boN = 135° . 29 .80° . w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . tff=3.Sec. using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. .85 and ¢bo = 3 0. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again.13 = 7. 334)=135° . 2 5 TU :. 334TU ) =123.203.123 .3.7 8 0 . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = . 3709 �GG (3.
and a spherical Earth.5 D U!TU 1 . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .840.926 D U /TU . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. r b o = 1 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude. Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.2. = .05 D U = 1 0° . v = 1 6 . m i . .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. 6 EXERCISES 6 .6 ft/sec) 6 .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0.4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .1 9)? Why? 6 . m i . R = 6 0 n . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 .
2 1 2 run) 6. 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . Rtf = 5 .400 n mi.0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 . Rtf = 4 . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point.98 to 1 . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . Using the equations si n iL. . 6 .02. (Ans.Ch.j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8.02. . 7 I n general.6. 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . A lateral displacement .000 run) 6 . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o .'lr ).83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . Do not use charts. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .)(. how large can .6. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . 1 0 During a test flight.06 DU.x and L¥3 be? . 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory .
or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 .346 n mi long) b. 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 . b .800 nautical miles? (Ans. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar .r = 0. Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. Is this a high. vbo = 0.6888 n mi L:. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . (Ans. c . ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range ..31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range.936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . 6 . low.. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. 6 6 . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 .642 DU/TU) . a.V = 25 . 7 .0 DU for a ballistic missile.
2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 . Do not use charts. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . 5 DU and whose perigee is .22 The range error equation could be written as: b. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi.23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . 6 . Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. tff 40.530 ft/sec. 6 . what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 .092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N. 5 DU...600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N.'I' = � b.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. If the velocity at burnout was 28.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . 6.where e is the 6 .6 . What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum.ri. i. at an altitude of 2. at the same altitude . using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . 1 5 00 E.e ... using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.QL.4 min) = 6. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . Ch .700 n mi using a high trajectory. b. Q bo + . 1 2 00 W. �bo and analyze the result . determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . R t of 4. 3 0 0 E.
1 200W . v bo = .66E+20784. 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of .6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . b.4 rad ian s a. or maximum range trajectory? 6 . (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .318 V bo =23.3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 .1 045 .1 0 .500 ft/sec=O. 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . low. 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 . c. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. elevation .0057 ° = .25 An ICBM is to be flight tested. (Ans.5 0 . 92S1 0608. It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.48966 = 3 1 5 . Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. How far will the missile miss the target? 4.
8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. 43e . 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. (Ans. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . What was the freeflight range. L t 54 0 3 1 '. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. Assuming a symmetric orbit. What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 .73 n mi.Ch . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . tff 3 2 . downrange displacement of burnout point . the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' .400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . 5 7 min) == * 6 . 0 (Ans. What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . 1. site located 319 During the actual firing. and r bo � r(fl.649 n mi . 1 20 OW . atmosphereless Earth. rotating. .6 1 8 . ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c.1 2 ' .
V2 . Walter. * 6. R ff ::: 1 0. Doubleday & Company. Praeger. Burgess. Wheelon . 6 * 6. Publishers. Dornberger . The Viking Press. 1 960. Albert D. 3 . Schwiebert.2. (Hin t : See section 6. Ernest G . The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. A History of the U. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. . Calif. altitude at bo ::: . New York.02 DU.2. Inc. Lt Col Kenneth. The MacMillan Company. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. Vol 2." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. 1 95 5 . ed . Inc. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. Frederick A.800 n mi.6Vb o .30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . and truncate all terms third degree and higher). New York . NY. New York. NY. 5 . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . 1958. NY.3 . 4.1 2) . "Free Flight . Gantz . LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. NY. Garden City. 1 962.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .S.3 1 The approximation : * 6.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 .1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . 2. Eric.4) . Space Technology Laboratories. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . Los Angeles. 1 965 .
1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . together with the Earth. and moving round it. of all which.the Moon. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. the 32 1 . have been discovered. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never .CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. about which she moves. . . drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. when it is dark. whence arise several irregularities in her motion.. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. the Sun or the Moon? . Proctor. The Moon is the more useful. move round the Sun once a year. and is. does. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . though principally attracted by the Earth. since it gives us light during the night. when it is light anyway.
may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. 7 Author in this book. but because it comes close to being a double planet. with no less subtility than industry. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . W. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. 7. A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. W. has given a full account." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. D'Alembert. Even interplanetary trajectories.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. Clairaut . Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . . In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon .322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. Lagrange and Laplace . not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth.in this case the Sun. Brown . What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 .
The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. .400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962.: =j Figure 7. the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. As a result . 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . :. . Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing.:. H. . . According to one theory advanced by G.3 04 of the mass of the Earth. .67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . in fact. son of the great biologist Charles Darwin.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. . . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . .3 days. . the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 .. This puts the center of the system 4. . 7 .Sec.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . Darwin. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. . ��===c==Q..
for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements.22 Lunar orbital elements 7. In the case of the Moon's orbit . The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. the orbital elements are constantly . 7 Figure 7. due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .2.
" was discovered more than 2 .8 days. c. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 .Sec.3 1 66 1 days. Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27.000 years ago by Hipparchus.400 km. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. 7 . The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . The line of nodes. their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a.054900489 . b. called "evection. The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . This effect .
In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth ." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . its mean value is 5 0 S ' . 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic.000 years. 23 ° 27' . 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period.23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. where the Moon crosses from north to south. making one complete revolution in l S . When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. e . Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . d .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . If the Moon's orbit were = . The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . From Figure 7. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 .326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation.6 years. When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. but more than a century later .9 years.6 years.2. in l S72.2 Lunar Librations. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . for only then can Sun. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. the other . The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. Thus. is the descending node . Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. rotates westward. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum.
actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris.3 . solar pressure . the computer time required could become prohibitive . and the terminal attraction of the Moon. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . solar perturbations.Sec. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. As a result. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. we would see exactly half of its surface . daybyday. monthbymonth basis. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. 7 . and 7." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date .Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure.75 0 around each limb of the moon. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. at one time or another. among other things. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. This permits us to see about 7 . lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . Actually we see .
a = :l:!:. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the .3..Q. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. 2& e = y'1  pia . and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit .6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions.0549 . 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . this will not introduce significant errors. 7.400 km. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about .. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. It is not important that the analytical method be precise. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. With this thought in mind. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. 7 . We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.3 .. semimaj or axis.
:.r1 1.3 . if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit. k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression... In Figure 7.. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . 60 \ \ I njection . we can solve for va . j 80 .31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .i. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10.. II. 1 r1 1 .  I.2 10..M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 ..g' . e r Figure 7. . 7 .. We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4. E i= . we get c o s V = 2..c " 0 .0 S pe e d .. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.9 I njection 1 1..31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly.Sec.c C/) .
330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . . to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' .. It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.J! . Actually. 7 . 7 an injection altitude of . \ 0 �� ' earth " . : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 . We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed .... the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection...32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP. then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit.')'. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero.. For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite ..3 .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . . to parabolic. .. As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds.. 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. : . .: / :1 .. In Figure 7.
Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. if we try to take longer by going slower. 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. 3 . If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. 82 km/sec. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us.32. 7 . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . Eventually .32 we see that. the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon .we will never reach the Moon at all. which we can call 1/1. this minimum injection speed is 1 0. if we keep reducing the injection speed . is a function of . From Figure 7 . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . Assuming no lunar gravity . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. 1 8 8 km/sec. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. In such a case . the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. Moon from our assumed inj ection point .Sec. as the injection speed is decreased. Assuming an inj ection altitude of .966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . In general the sweep angle . resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. 7 . due to errors in guidance or other factors. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) .
that is. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. This may be seen from Figure 7 . so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. . the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj.33 . the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. the initial velocity is too high. But. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . If. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. for example . and wrrft. Neglecting lunar gravity. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t.. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted.
This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. 5 However. the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance ." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . however. 7 .p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact.4.1 ) . which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 .4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and.encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations.3 00 km. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . R s' given by the expression Sec. 7. 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 . only are interested in determining ap.arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally.0 km/sec. There is. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . for all practical purposes. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. In effect. . We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon.
4." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .) Then. a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h .1 ) can be found in Battin . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 . 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. A full derivation of equation (7 . Figure 7 . 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.1 ) yields the value Rs = 66.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.4.4 .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.4.1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.
r 1 . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables. The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee .43) From the law of cosines. from geometry . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. Finally. 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration.42) (7 .Sec. the radius. at lunar arrival is (7 .r h V 1 I (7 . r 1 .45) COS <P I . 1 .44) . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence.
1 0) .4. p=� (7 .49) (7 .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 p ia  a = :l!.to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.48) (7 . 7 Figure 7. Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. JJ. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 . t l .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.47) 2& e = ".
1 37 X X 1 0. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .6 rad/sec 1 0 . . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 . Wm = = t 1 .Sec. Eo and E1 from Finally.1 5) 2.4. the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .4.1 3) (7 . we can determine the eccentric anomalies.4.4.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .1 6) The phase angle at departure.4. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system. where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.3 rad/TUEIl (7 .to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .e 1 r1 __ (7 .4.1 1 ) (7 .1 2) Next.649 2. 7 .
it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory.42 : V m = 1 .45).which we chose arbitrarily .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail. r2 .48) through (7 . then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. (7 .4. (7 . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft . The geocentric radius.1 9) . the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so.0 1 8 k m/sec. In Figure 7 .4. 7 .2 Conditions at the Patch Point . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 .1 6) above . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. at arrival is completely determined by \ .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 .4.4. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO . is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. then the selena centric radius. We will do this in the sections that follow. result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . r 1 .1 8) (7 . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. 7 .4.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
30 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7. «>  0.50 � � c 0 i e 1.348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .20 .54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .40 .
Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .5 0 .52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. Figure 7 .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 .Sec. If lighting conditions are important. once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. As a result . There are several interesting features of Figure 7 .52) and Figure 7 . 5 4 worth noticing. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 .5 3) . if we add a coasting arc. then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7. we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . It should be obvious from equation (7 . The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. 54. If lunar declination at intercept is specified.si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . However.5 0 and 28 . b oth of which are undesirable. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. 7 . sir! 0 1 . 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7.5. From Figure 7 .3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date .
7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39. 1 67 1 7 29 26 . 1 5 28 34 1 0.424 1 67 . 1 9 173.95 7 1 7 37 48.3 1 28 29 48 .63 1 1 1 .45 8 0. 24 28 23 34 .76 28 3 1 09 . 86 28 26 29 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .85 4 1 .342 1 7 40 3 5 . 1 0 28 27 29 .254 1 67 .1 44. 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .737 18 1 9 36 .3 1 8 5 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 . 5 9 28 34 33 .9 8 9 8 . .44 22.78 1 3 1 . 8 1 28 32 47 .05 8 1 65 .46 1 1 67 .89 28 24 29 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40. 7 8 o 1 8 33 26. 5 8 67.72 1 1 8 25 08.39 28 3 0 34.23 1 23 .203 28 1 8 49 . 078 1 66 .58 73.374 1 8 00 07 .308 1 8 22 22.3 1 + 1 48 .47 28 25 3 8 .963 1 8 27 5 5 . 1 969 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON . 1 90 1 67 .08 28 29 08 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .385 1 67 .7 1 54.862 1 65 .97 1 1 9.460 1 67 .970 1 66 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 . 1 4 1 06.949 1 8 05 42. F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . 7 .44 28 2 1 1 8 .97 28 34 3 9 .05 28 33 1 1 .97 28 3 1 47 .766 1 7 43 23 .435 1 65 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8. 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .32 1 1 67 .56 .020 1 8 1 6 49.97 29.449 1 67 . 1 7 2 1 67 .4 1 3 1 66 . 2 1 28 34 42 . 8 0 1 36.85 1 1 66 . 1 3 .84 60.00 28 28 1 5 .3 3 3 1 67 . 5 7 1 1 66 .3 . 973 FIgure 1 65 . 24 . 1 0 1 6.34 28 32 1 7 .27 3 5 .88 28 33 3 5 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.242 1 66 .998 17 5 7 20.41 7 1 67 .695 1 8 02 54 . 624 1 7 3 5 00. 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .445 1 67 . . 7 1 7 1 66 .07 47.87 28 34 22.3 1 9 3 .35 28 1 6 08 .38 + 9 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 .376 1 67 .90 28 33 5 3 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 . 267 1 67 .
\ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints.53 . !::lX . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 .89) : (7 56) .5 . at the launch point (see Figure 2. which may be computed from the injection conditions. c o s 1/1 t . ao' at this launch time . The launch time." 8. it is possible to adjustt l . slightly (7 . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. is the same as the "local sidereal time . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. �. 84). we get cos 6a. and may be obtained from equation (2.54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 .Sec.9 .si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . the total time . 5 3 . 1/1 c ' Thus. The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time .3 . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . The difference i n right ascension . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . 5 4). 7 .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. tt ' is (7 .
2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. 7. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . and the exact We now know the injection conditions. 7 . r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier.426 k m 2 /sec2 6. The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.t I ES Ch . 7. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 .3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.3 224 .4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. .V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon.54) agree. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. 000 k m 33 .and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. What additional 6. 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. � .
9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. a . Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . .I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 .. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. b. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c.Ch . Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth.6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. Determine the /:. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 .400 k m : a . S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. 7 . What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby.
There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). <1>0 = = = * 7 . Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . Use h bo l OO n mi . CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 .Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . Specifically. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem.) * 7 . Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. 7 7 . . Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. requirement. select ro ' vo ' to meet this .
University of California Press. . NY. 1 964. Garden City. 3 . McGrawHill Book Company. 6.Ch. Second Edition. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. 5. Principia . Abelard Schuman. Newton. NY. The Moon . New York. 2.1 6. Makemson. Baker. London and New York. Academic Press. 1 943 . Gamow." ARMA Document DR 220. Isaac . Inc. Doran and Company. Battin. 1 967. The Story of the Moon . Richard H . November 1 95 9 . 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 1 9 5 9 . 4. Doubleday. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. L. George . New York. Clyde . Berkeley and Los Angeles. NY. A stronautical Guidance. Fisher. an d Maud W. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. 1 962. Robert M.
.
The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. By 1 507 he was 357 ." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. two unpropitious. At first it was not understood . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. C opernicus. two ears. two eyes. such as the seven metals. But the tide of opinion ebbed. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. etc. compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe .CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . which it were tedious to enumerate . and a mouth . so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . two nostrils. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century.. two luminaries. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . indeed.
3.1 .2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies.2. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. Venus. If we write down the series 0. diameter. are spread much more widely throughout the system.2. Mars." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. 6. at the age of 70. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. the members of the solar system. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. .358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . . 8. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. In addition. Jupiter . Uranus. 1 2 . 8. ." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. . Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature." as may be seen in Table 8 . Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. nevertheless. Saturn. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. comets. and Pluto . indeed. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. Neptune. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. The "law. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. 1 Bode's Law. Earth. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. some of which pass near the Sun. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church.
0 is presented in Table 8 .2 1 0.8 5 .2.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.7 1 .6 2. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune . which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.8 77.2 Table 8. The size.65 5. Only for brief periods. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 .52 1 9. 8.21 Actual Distance 0.00 1 .3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. 1 7 39.52 2.39 0.Sec. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .22. compared with the total mission duration.0 1.4 0.28 3 0. 8.72 1 . the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. is its path . The sixth orbital element.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered. Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune . shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.0 1 9 .23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets. 8. Except for Mercury and Pluto . changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.6 3 8 . Table 8 .20 9.
322 1 00 ° .225 237 ° .. 8 94 341 ° . 05 1 4 . 5 1 3 5 2 ° . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .275 222 ° . 38 7 1 . 5 73 1 75 ° .28 3 0. 0934 . 1 7 3 9 . 1 42 1 02 ° .203 9.096 1 88 ° .2583 7 ° .5 24 5 .7233 1 .684 93 ° .. 2056 .004 3 ° . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 0 1 67 .394 0° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . 1 3 6 47 ° . 7 73 1 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° ..) 00 . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.306 2 ° .405 undefined 49 ° .497 1 3 ° .400 276 ° .828 1 7 1 °.. 0068 . 074 1 83 ° . 0482 .5 1 9 1 9 .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .441 73 ° .000 1 .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .870 L. 76 ° .0539 ..005 0 .970 7 6 ° . 1 1 1 326 ° .76 .773 1 7° . 000 1 °.ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 3 97 1 09 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .850 1 ° .489 0° . 5 68 3 1 ° .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.
7 5 7 .257x l O s 3 .6 1 7 .24 1 .04 29.8 1 7 1 .896x 1 0 6 3 .986x l O s 4.74 2 .46 84.80 5 .65 6.49 4.2 1 4." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .268x 1 0 B 3 .6 1 5 1 .232x l 0 4 3 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .3 ." .3 05x 1 04 1 .0 95.8 247 .8 6 29.8 8 1 1 1 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .05 6 .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .9? 1 . 0 1 1 64.820x 1 0 6 6 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .9 1 08 ... 1 4 1 3 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.06 9 . 1 1 49 .000 1 . 1 08 3 1 8 .795x 1 0 7 5 . 5 227.000 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .87 3 5 .79 24.
The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible .362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . if continued past the destination planet . the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered.v required. Just as in lunar trajectories. however. from the standpoint of /:. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet.3 . it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. The Hohmann transfer. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . 8. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . this consideration is important. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission.3l . for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. For transfers to mo st of the planets. was the Hohmann transfer. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point .
. Therefore . \ _. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::.." . Nevertheless.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / .' .d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit. 8.V. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.v required for an interplanetary mission. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by . .u o_____+.Sec.
1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The heliocentric speed. then.l 0 (8 .1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system.33) In Table 8 . 3 .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 .where f.3 . VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 . for the Hohmann transfer. From Table 8. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.78 kIn/sec.3 and should be reviewed . If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time. B (8 . and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit. t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. the difference between the heliocentric speed. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. In any case . • .31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.3.
28 32.74 6. it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.78 46.03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence.31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .9 1 6 1 .9  2 .28 27. rE9> are respectively : .31 1 05 .748 .73 38.57 . From Table 8 . rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.397 22.42 4 1 . t2 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.295 1 .099 1 .04 1 6. In other words .5 1 46 . r d = 1 .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .379 1 .05 4 1 .Sec. 40. Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .60 Table 8. 1 6 30. 8.524 A U From equation (8 .07 4 1 . VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.3 9 1 1 . Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . 1 2 5 8 .345 1 .
9 d ays 8.099A U/TU 0 = 32.t1 ) wt .366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .34) __ (8 .4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .73Km/sec .35) wt (t2 .3. where is the angular velocity of the target planet. The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . 8 From equation (8 .32 for a Mars trajectory. 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4. If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.7088 years = 258. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.32) the heliocentric speed .3.2 Phase Angle at Departure.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . Thus. the phase angle at departure . v .t 1 = 1T = 4. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. and is illustrated in Figure 8 .VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected. vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 . the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8. From equation (8 .
. pp 1 60. Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. Figure 8. . The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.... The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun. .1 76 .32 Phase angle at departure. 8. . .36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place .3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " .. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet.. 367 . . . 'Yl (8 .Sec.. .. . If we miss a particular launch opportunity.
1 3 1 .213 . 8.00 Table 8.32 In a time . 340 . Thus.07 1 1 0.3. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed. 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.60 2. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated.37) (8. 3 ·2. It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ . Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.w t I (8 . yrs 0.07 5 .09 1 .v 1 determined.38) . rad/yr 26 .0 1 1 .32 1 . so W EfJ7 s . Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::. the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long. we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again.01 1 .03 8 .368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period.04 1 .530 .3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. Mars and Venus.W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 .025 Synodic Period.2 1 7 3 .
we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo.. . .. ... �. . .. f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� .. .310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in .39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . � Figure 8. . 8 .33 / .. '?.r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. . (8 . . � _ i t_ r b_ .Sec. � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . ". . '\ . . . .:V. . .
so equation (8 . This may be seen by solving equation (8 . we may write .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . For transfer to one of the outer planets. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola.33 .1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars.2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. fI. C but since e = da for any conic.34 we see that the angie . 3. the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 .3. Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. From Figure 8.1 1 ) becomes = 2 .6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . is given by cos fI =  §. fI.39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . km/sec. the angle .the injection speed .
3.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .1 2) e.1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. 3.1 e where the eccentricity . is obtained directly from the injection (8 .Sec.34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola . 3 T H E PATC H E D.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 . 8 .3. conditions : = (8 .
36.3.3. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. however.35 Interplanetary launch (8 . 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 . Generally. then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 .3. 8.4 Arrival at the Target Planet.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . At arrival. cfJ as shown in Figure 8. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle .
3 .2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. (8 .1 8) .1 6) (8.1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 .Sec. 3. 8 . 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 . sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .3.
5 Effective Collision Cross Section. is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . 3 7 we see that  (8 . then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola.320) y = x si n e (8. 8 . If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if.The angle . 3 7 . 3. 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known.s i n if> 2 v (8 .38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . in Figure 8. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . From Figure 8 . This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. will be directed toward the center of the planet. 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory.36). It also means that the relative velocity vector. . In Figure 8. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. e. the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch .3 . If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it.
Sec.lt/ 2 X _ . 8 .322) . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8. (8 . 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f.37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.
we obtain . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .(8.376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . y.)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . 324) (8. 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance.328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet . the speed at periapsis is simply .326) Because angular momentum is conserved.327) for y Yields (8 . Solving equation (8 .
05 DU. The. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. b. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. rt This particular offset distance is called b . In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size.328) we 'get (8 . It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun .33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 .329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed.39. The given information is . This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section.329). " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. V2 + 2fJ.t 3  rt (8 . then a much smaller target must be considered. 8.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission. only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b .launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. the "inwact parameter. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .Sec.
6V 1 = 1 .1 VI = 1 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .099 .05 D U 1 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .099 A U/TU = :.373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.1 :: 0.099 A U/TU 0. 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence . 3 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .
t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.905 = = 379 37 . 8 .43 DU/TU . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .1 .v = 2v si n L 2 /::.1 ) . From Table 8 .4. departure Figure 8 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.Sec.v (8 .4. 1 39 + 1 .044 8 . the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.07 6 ft/sec 2 .
Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .3 . 7.. 8. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8.1 )) .5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .1 ) .3. 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.32. " . 5 for the planet Jupiter.. 8.4.3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 . _  /' ..2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun ..7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years.380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer. 8 . EXERCISES 8 .62 DUJTU� 8. 8 as derived in equation (3 ..6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units. 8. 8. (Ans. 8.
it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission. Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence .l:.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission.348 DUe/TUE9> . Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. a. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 .l:.Ch.V required? (Ans. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. where 8.35) ITbo no .394 DUe/TU� b .l:. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit. 1 DUE[) radius. r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans.900 ft/sec.l:.000 ft/sec. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .V = 0..v = 1 5 . 1 00 ft/sec) c. . Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 . v = 39 .v ? (Ans. It can be shown that . If c = 9 .V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.l:. vesc = 1 .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the . e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit . M = 5.
0. a. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. 6..which results if the same 6. a. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. v= 0. 0...Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e. What is the 6.V is applied at perigee. v=' (Ans. What is the 6.046 DU� /TU � b . 1 DUe/TUEl1.0..9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .V at apogee or perigee? 8.28 AU2 /TU2 .382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 0. Find the hyperbolic excess speed. 8 8 . What is the 6. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . 0. 8. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c..254 AU/TU� . = 0.73 1 DU8TU� b . 09 DUe/TU$) = .0. � = 0. (Ans. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. The mission will begin in a 1 . 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee.? (Ans.V of .5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 .9 00 ft/sec) 8 . 3 ... so work carefully and follow any suggestions.. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 .) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long. Find the 6. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans.5 DUEI1 circular orbit.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. (Ans.
1 4 a. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . Vrrw = 0. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount.050 ft/sec) 8 . O o) 8. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . 8 . P.373 AU/TU � f. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines.Ch. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . for the above transfer.867 AU/TU� e . 3 . 0.87 TU� b . Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. (Ans. called the turning angle . 0. For a given planet. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. 1 .5 AU. <P2 and vll1II in that order. Compute the phase angle at departure.) (Ans.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. 'Y1 .5 AU? (Ans. then find h.3 9 DU oITU& 2 .2 AU/TU� d. c. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. 1 . What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. (Ans.
LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . pp 430434. U S Government Printing Office . Vol 1 ." AIAA Journal. 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. No 2 .V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. Simon and Schuster.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. * Ch . D C . Fimple . London. 3 .V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. Vol 2. transfer time. 1 963. 1 95 6 . 1 . . New York. W . What would be an estimate of the return b. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. coplanar planet orbits. 1 969. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . NY. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. James R. Newman. Assume circular. 8 8. and the angular rates of the planets. 4 . 1 96 1 . R. Washington. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. The World of Mathematics. 1 967.
it is found that there seem to be distinct. There is always some variation 385 . Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. Macroscopically . After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. " Webster 9 .CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). and at times unexplainable .
from the norm. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. etc. which had not been treated by Newton . E. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . 6 . Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . M. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. except the motion of the perigee. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. In fact. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. atmo spheric drag and lift. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. meteoroid collisions. about a century later. and relativistic effects. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. Brown 's papers of 1 897. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. Then. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. The wind gust was a perturbation. Fortunately. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. magnetic. solar radiation effects. 9 .
This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms .2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. Encke. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. With the capability for orbital flight .Sec. In particular. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . See section 1 . 9 . H. 9. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. It was developed by P. a section discussing methods and errors is included . The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. the Cowell.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite.
23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration.22) would be further broken down into the vector components.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. r=Y �r (9 . the equation would be (9 . the equations would be . y = vy (9.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. For the twobody problem with perturb ations. F or numerical integration equation (9 .22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . including all the perturbations. Sun and planets.2. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied.
It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. When motion is near a large attracting body .22).  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation .23). Even in double precision computer arithmetic. Classically.'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 .Il m ( 3 . Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . 9 .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to.24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2. 8 . This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . There are some disadvantages of the method . and he would be correct . The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic .25) . one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. Intuitively. In spherical coordinates (r.Sec. roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small.
9.'l.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. In the Encke method . The term connotes the sense of contact. Presumably . this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field .25) As a reminder. Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known .31 The osculatil. in our case . Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. 9 (9 . reference or b i t Figure 9. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . and . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed .
Now w e will consider th. be defined as (see Figure and . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r .3 2) into (9 . the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path.3 . or epoch.e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method.33) Sub stituting equations (9 . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. At that time .Sec.. Let r and p be the radius vectors to . the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 .1 ) and (9 . 9.1 ) .1 ) and for the osculating orbit. 3 .1 ) . 9 . The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch).3. Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it.. = p ( tb ) p p to = 0.32)  Sr. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration.to ) ' p (9 . Note that at the epoch.3.  (9 . respectively .33) we obtain .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit . r + � r3 r = a t .
t) can be calculated numerically. So .. == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . 6r.3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . 6r (to + . but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .35) 3 3 r _ (9 . theoretically. so r can be obtained from 6r and p. 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r . For a given set of initial conditions.. However..37) .34) then becomes (9.3 / 2 (9 .6r ) .lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object .392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .was to obtain more accuracy.3 6) Equation (9 . one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method. A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:.6.6r] r3 r (9 . p is a known function of time .
we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved./  Our problem is not yet solved . however. OZ are the cartesian components o f or.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / .Sec. 9 . In terms of its components Figure 9. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . Expanding. o y .
but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.3.1 0) (9 .(1 . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 .37) becomes (9 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9. . /) y2 .37).394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . There are two methods of solution at this point . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .( 1 . (9 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .38) and (9 . 3.1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .38)  1 . .31 2) .2q So q =  Now. 9 From equation (9 .
Then the tables could be u sed to find f . r (to ) .1 2) may be slightly faster. If equation (9 .3. For an integration step.nowing p (to ) .01 ). The method using equation (9 . a. so larger step sizes can be taken.t . If.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used.t) .39) is recommended for use with the computer. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. d . b.t) calculate 1 .3 8) 3. Integrate another t:. Vol 2.t replaced by kt:. f. 9 . Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. Calculate r = p + (jr. f(to + t:. calculate (jr (to + t:. but of the order of magnitude of 0.Sec. t:. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid.3. and 5r 0 at this point. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r.1 2) is used. g. Otherwise (jr p . In (jr p v as described earlier. = = = = = p continue. e . k. Rectification should be initiated when . rectify and go to step a .> a specified constant.t) 2 . Go to step c with t:. (jr 0.t ) from equation (9 . q (to ) O.t to get (jr{ to + kt:. Knowing 5r(to + t:. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. v = p + (jr.1 0).does not remain quite small.t where k is the step number.3. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . q( to + t:. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker .t). 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated . In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . p(to + t:. p 229). 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . c. although the use of equation (9 .t) from equation (9 .
4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . = . so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time .23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration .3. one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . A similar check could be made on i . e eccentricity. 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods.6. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. Then e � . See equation (9 . etc . From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) .t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. this method may seem more difficult to implement. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. a .6. Similarly. they would remain constant./l m {m s . For instance. if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. Though. The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. In the absence of perturbations. Thus.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . at the outset. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. from the Encke method 9.cSr ) (9 . One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs. A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six .
� . Vol 2 . R (unit vector R). p 246. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. . it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method.4 . but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily.and dM ?. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . w and.. The standard orbital elements a. 9 . Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time .variations (e.I OOS .Sec. 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. . the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. for a table of parameter sets).T (or M) will be used. along the instantaneous radius vector. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . n. e. 9 .tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . i. r. Eventually . It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . The axis S is . The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker..g. 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations.n (t . 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. Therefore .
43) . is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. The third axis. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly . = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 . W.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.4.
1:!:.44) (9.4 and .� 2& ' = 399 (9 .1 0) .o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a . (9 . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .4. 9.Sec..46) and F S (9 .!I=8!" nr from (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.48) Substituting in equation (9.45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a . expressions for found.48) we find da dt = (9.46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 . (9 . Differentiating the conic equation Qr.43).45) To express this in known terms.44). the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations. dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .
the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.) Since h = hW.la _ (9 04.4.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0). Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.. 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 . so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation. r hW + h da S dt (9 .1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.2 )% a = (1 .400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .�) % J.1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.lae dt h $) a dt .
4.1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).1 6) we obtain .h cos i rF s h2 . 1 e2 (9 .sin QL = dt . K . 4 .Sec. K) � (9 .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.4.4.4.n di dt (9 .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'. 9 .1 8) .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i ..1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .4.4.si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
vat a+v a .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l .45 1 ) .4. {at + c) + 3p. .4..v {at + c ) c (9 .v = . and V are small.2 p.e .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .45 0) should be small.2p. c = ve 2 p.2p. . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.4. allowing c to vary with time . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence . . C.454) + 2p.450) and solving for e we find (9 .. 4 where c will be the parameter.J.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion .2p.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v. The constant of integration.v 2p. . .45 1 ).v which can be easily solved for c. which is a common method of expression of the perturbation.2 (at + C)2  . From equation (9 . VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P. the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9.vt .vc . so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 .vt 2p.Sec.5 1 ) correct to first order in J. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics. Since p. ] (9 . • . 9 . but more practically we would consider � = v .
not expediency. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. In theory. storage and complexity. Unfortunately. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. or has not carefully selected. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . 9 . the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. d. c. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. .e. efficiency. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. allow as large a stepsize as possible. 9 in detail. accuracy. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. b . Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. at best. should be the criteria.. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. 9 . Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. 5 . such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. highly questionable. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . his integration method. such as the disturbing function. economical in computing time. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c.
5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . 5 . 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors.57 = 7 .567 = 7.476. 9 . but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . For instance . In fact. Obviously . Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.28 + 3.388.864. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . 9 . 4. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (.476.843.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic.388. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits.276 + 3 . the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. and f. Baker (v 2.5 (9.Sec.accumulated roundoff error . They are roundoff and truncation errors. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. 2 Integration Errors. The larger the .
The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . In general. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. Gill. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. We will treat the first order equation . Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. AdamsMoulton.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories.62) (9. 9 stepsize. Of course . Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . h. 9. Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . A few of the more common methods will be discussed here.= f(t.63) dx dt (9.6. the larger the truncation error. 6 . Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. Thus. 9 . GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. 1 RungeKutta Method. Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method.1 ) . so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes . The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . EulerCauchy and Bowie . we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error.
65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .) k2 6 3 l2 (9. 9 . and stepsize is easily changed .h ) k3 +. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. x n .% ] + k 2 [ 1 . One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. In general. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .k +.63) and n is the increment number. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .Sec.__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 . easy to implement .6. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .yry.( 1 + y.yV:.( 1 .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n . They are relatively simple .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .64) 1 1 + . they are faster than the singlestep methods.. have a relatively small truncation error. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. 9 . x n + k 3 ) (9.
5 / 1 2 . 3 /8 . Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas.6. 1 /2 .beginning and after each stepsize change.\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . . In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. 3 9.\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. . . The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 .1 f .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + .67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 25 1 /720. 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0.
9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.x n+1I I (P 270 (9.69).h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9.6. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l .1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. In equation (9.59 f n .68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +. .x n + (5 5 f ri . Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method. 9 . for instance.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).1 + 37 f n2 . the error terms are not generally known. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. This method. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.Sec. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .
The GaussJackson method is one of the best.° n 60480 (9.° n + . 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ".h ) .LJ _ 289 8 6 "x.1 f(t n h) 2 2   .8 k .2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n.2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k.1 . requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. .1 ' etc. though it also includes a corrector.6 . Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. 9. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n . The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. though. It is. and most used. n + � 84 "x.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . "x. 9 like other multistep methods. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method.6. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. x. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods.1 f(t n + h). n + 1 2 n i \.
Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. Table 9. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. according to Vinti. 9. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. ¢.Bashforth) methods are preferred. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. the accelerations can be found from (9.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. 2 . 9 .1 ) One such potential function.1 The Nonspherical Earth . Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize.6. 9 . Some of them become quite complex. However.7. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. is known.6.72) .7.5 Numerical Integration Summary . V.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. but only the simpler forms will be treated. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator.l 005).e presented in this section. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . p/r. If the potential function. is ¢ = � [1 . including some which were not discussed in this chapter. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. 2 and NASA C R.I n=2 r (9. 9.
z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . 9 CI) . it could be very fast. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. very difficult to determine proper size. Vol t .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � . Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t.
�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .2..( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .where J.74) .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P..] (9 .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .  I.945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r ..J s � ( � ) (35� .2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 . 9. if> = I!:..30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .L = gravitational parameter Sec.7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r . r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  . = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .
1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J . l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .6 .l ( �) 3 ( 3 . y.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .64 ± O.75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.5 ± O.44 ± O.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .5)x 1 0.6 6 (0.57 ± O.6 J4 = (1 . Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . 1 5 ± O.. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.03)x 1 0. I )x 1 0. The first term in x. 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J . .3003 ""6 ) + . These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. l )x 1 0.6 ± O. l )x 1 0. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9. . Vol 1 .6 J = (0.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75). p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. which are slightly in variance .422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .
the drag coefficient.. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere .7. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. by definition. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth .s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation .. p 147). To do this. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). Vol 1 . To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . simply use r3 r= where . However. The equations are formulated in the geocentric . but will not be presented here.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. 9 .Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. 7 Drag.. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . and other parameters. C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . equatorial coordinate system. s 9. 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . There are a few ctmtiol). The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. Therefore . Thus. term) to the RSW sy stem. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant).2 Atmospheric Drag.Sec.
lli.t b ae ==ic. y .7 .424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. though small.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects.ie. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. but the reader can find this in other documents. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. Radiation pressure. In the geocentric. etc.ilc coffc. . Equation (9 .3 Radiation Pressure. z refer to the geocentric. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo). equatorial coordinate system. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . 9 .78) z . altitude above an oblate Earth.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . 9 m p C O A .7 .
. EXERCISES 9.79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. 1 Verify the development of equation (9 .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. 9 . Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . 9. 9 . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation.4349 0 x .25). .5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. Prove this assertion . Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming.Ch. 9 . but a major force .2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . m = mass of vehicle (grams) . m (9. 7 .1 5) . z directions. 9 where A = cross section f = 4.4.4 Thrust. See equation (9. the variation of eccentricity. y. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 .
Guidance. M. Moulton .445). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. M. Brouwer. 1 9 1 4. 1 967. C . 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. Jr . Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .. New York. Feb 1 968. Baker. New York. . "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. John Wiley and Sons. G. The Macmillan Co . Planetary Coordinates for the.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . Academic Press. F . 3 . 5 . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. DC.ittouck. * 9 . * 9. D. 1 960. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. R. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. Ralston . A. Mendez. L. M. 6. London . New York. 9 9 . . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. New York. Blackford. J . A. Inc. 9 . 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method .000 n mi. . 1 . L. 1 96 1 . and Clemence. and Wl). Robert M ." NASA CR. Academic Press. 4. S . Washington. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. LIST OF REFERENCES 2. * 9 . and Wilf. Allione .l 005 . Years 1 9601 980. M. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Vol VI.
1 0. 1 96 1 . 8 . Ann Arbor. Jr and Makemson. Smart. Jr. 1 963. 1 948 . Escobal. The Macmillan Co. DC . A . McGrawHill. M. F . 1 2. 1 95 6 . Academic Press. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 2nd ed. P . H. Plumber. Methods of Orbit Determination. Longmans. Th e Determination of Orbits. Inc. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). 1 1 . L. C. New York. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. D. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1 967.. New York. 1 5 . Hildebrand. Vol 1 . 1 3 . G. New York. 1 4 . R. Maud W. B . Orbital Flight Handbook. 1 95 3 . Robert M. Inc. R . New York. Cambridge University Press. Dynamical A stronomy . Escobal. Washington. W . Michigan. John Wiley and Sons. M . A stronautical Guidance . New York. 1 968 . The Computation of Orbits. 1 964. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. New York. P. . McGrawHill. NASA SP33 . Townsend. . Baker. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . Methods of A strodynamics. Herget. Paul.Ch . 1 6. Part 1 . Dubyago . E . 1 96 5 . Celestial Mechanics. 9 . R. Published privately by the Author. Battin. New Yark.
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English Units Metric Units 2. 'Derived from those values of Il .922786 NM 1 3 .. 1 Center.. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 . r. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance.24764 11sec 806 .APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. r.092567257 x 107 ft 3963 . Ile Angular Rotation.77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 . Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29. 1 328 2 1 days 9.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. Speed Unit I� TU.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 .9053682 8 km' . 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU.05883 36565 � TV.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. 2506844773 deg min 7..9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .. 1 97 5 . 44686457 min 6378.. 1 . 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . I DU� TUi. 2593 6..68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . 3. Canonical Units I DU. . we 0.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .327 1 5 44 x 1 0 . Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4.
1 2 64963205 0 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .07 1 0 1 50424 4 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.903665 5 64 x 1 0 .4 3 . foot = 0. . there is no roundoff or truncation.2342709 5 .3 14 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .e .239446309 x 1 0.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 . 1f = 3 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown.08 1 52366 0 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 . i.8 9. 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.
In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. K) and (p. temperature . force and acceleration. Examples are displacement. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . If A i s a vector . J. Unit Vector. W). A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. Q. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. (Example : 3 or A). not a null or zero vector.relationships involving vector quantities. I DEFINITIONS Vector. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. C. Thus. 43 1 . Scalar. Examples are mass. time or any real signed number. speed. length of a vector . A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. velocity .
Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). and A and B are not collinear. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. Coplanar Vectors. B and C are coplanar vectors. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear.. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. If A. regardless of the position of their origins. . 1 Similarly. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude .
The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B..1 ) I AI cos B . Scalar or Dot Product. e I I l (C . denoted by A • B. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C . is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle.C. From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : .l ) C.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB .2. C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.B which is the same as A + (B). l .
. The cross product of two vectors A and B.C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A .(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I .. then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . 23 ) (C.8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . sma l lest ang le ( L e . A o A = Aft.24) (C. J .K= 1 I . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them. denoted by A x B .(B + C) = A . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. K are unit orthogonal vectors. if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible .J =K . < 180° ) AxB =C .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . That is.J = J o K=K o I = O where I .1=J .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product. B and C form a right handed system.B + A .
26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. K are unit orthogonal vectors.C. e < In fact A x B = . (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. J. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. then A X B = O.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel.
29) Scalar Triple Product. Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 . BI C1 .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C.
3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.21 4) C. denoted b y A x (B x C) .C. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.2.2.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 . The vector triple produce.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.2. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C . The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .1 2) (C.B3 C) + A ( B3 C .1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .l 3) (C. 2.
... .. K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P... x J Then the velocity relative to the (I.. .....438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o . dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 .with itself...9... " .. v C P K y ..... then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + ...YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of . thus . ..... ....
the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w.3 b. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) . The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path.C.= . VE LOCITY 439 which. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector.. dr v = .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. v = wT .= . In this special case then.
They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. longitude. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . The radar determines p. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . elevation rate . the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). EI. azimuth rate. and of the satellite (R and V). Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . azimuth. The input to TRACK should be range. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. p. positive to the east) of the launch site. elevation. From the 440 . latitude of the launch site.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . range rate . Its geodetic latitude. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). D . It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . Az. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . EI. The input to SITE should be latitude.
LST. REAL LONG. 5 7 5 for data set 3). Following are five sample sets of data for site location. 9 W 0 1 9 05. 1 4923608. DAY.8 S 1 7 5. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . 2 2 29. 007 N 1 04 .1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. e . . .5 90 .5 . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . GST _ 1 .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 .08 30. INTEGER DAY. y.27907 599. If the above program is used. .7 .2045 72 1 6 .75 components are : (. 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897.75 1 003 9 1 . W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . .5 3 4 ON 4 5.01 2035 7 5 .63745829) z = .5 1 35 .05 1 9 5238) . LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. 6 . LST and LONG are in radians. GST. observation time and radar tracking data.62624920) = (.7 5. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . = (. E 7 2 .3 .0027379093®2®PI®D . Input UT as a decimal (i.. Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .775 1 80 1 9. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. 6 8 2. LST) .7 . PI . 8 0. GST. UT. 3 315 . 040075. .07 1 05 .044 1 8440. BEGIN REAL D. 5. .8 N 7 8 . . . 0) = (.74933340.48 201.D.05 1 37.26347 1 9 8 . 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . . PI. 22 1 0.5 3 0 . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . END OF LSTIME . UT.57 76.74933340.
From this information you are required to fmd : a. . For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK).85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . The type of trajectory (circular.4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . d.01 . rectilinear.6 0 . 05 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. parabolic. It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. 1 0 0 2 .4 1 722472 .9 0 2 0 . 7 0 3 VK . hyperbolic).703 .1 0 22. Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach.001 5 30 0 .49 0 . 48 4 0 2.9 1 ..442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. .001 1 0 .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29. Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . b . 6 2 .293 . 0 1 7 45 . 5 . 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. 01 . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth.4 1 4 0 0 65 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.9 1 046 1 80. 0) (.2 VI .1 .5 0 . elliptical. 49 0 0 2.4 1 4 2.707 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix.8 .1 . c. . 1 29579 1 9 . 00001 .
a .5 0 0 . When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds.025 9 1 7 . x should never be greater than 2m.5 .7 . RJ 61 . b. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x.4 of the text for guidance .0. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . If your iteration process is efficient. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4.jiL d. and dt/dx for each iteration. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram.3 D.3 1 0 . 1 38878 . Also for an ellipse. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 . 61 (calculated) . 1 5 0689 1 . c. To determine when convergence has occurred. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. 61. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z).5 . you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61.8 .
6 for 1 :::. 1 65 08 ...9 20 .6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight.999 o 1 03 D. In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z.01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . t :::. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. 1 8 1 . 00 1 074 .. 3.444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.. bt. 1 06 1 0.. 0003 6 1 .00006057 . find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. I t . R2 V2 = (0. 1 0. .w).. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem.t c l :::. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations.. For ellipses limit z to (211')2 ..1 .70655823. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points.4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 . I�I :::. For instance note that y can never be negative .1 .002 1 7 7 1 . 1 362596) = (0.5 1 . One of the data sets tests this situation. 0 . Given r l ' r2 . and sign (7T .. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives. 0....
6 . time of radar observation.4 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . 1 . y. x.66993 1 97 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 . print out a message and go to the next data set .2 .8 5 +1 .1 specifies the long way. Check for this case . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.5 .4804847 1 . .4 .0001 +1 .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite.6 .6 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT.7 0 1 0 20 1 ..4 .6 . and the location of an interceptor launch site .2 1 .2 .1 .5 . so a check should be made for that condi tion. .3 .1 . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. See section 5 .4 1 .3 .0 . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.201 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = . 1 2298 1 44. Also print t:J) and a for each data set . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration. = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.S = (0. If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program.6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .66986992. a message printed and you should go to the next data set . The following data i s i n canonical units.7 0 1 0 1 . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. 7 for further discussion o f this project .9378 1 789) = 4. .7 .2 . The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .3 .6 . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM . location of the tracking site .
Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. b . When you point out your arrays. Times should be read in as minutes. Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out .3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . d. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6.446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. g. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. e . The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. f. Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . the number of reaction times desired . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . c. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . KEPLER and GAUSS. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. the desired increment size for reaction time . Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . Make some provision to print out all of your input data. This will aid you in verifying your solution .45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . TRACK.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. and the number of timeofflight increments desired . To make your program flexible .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74.
844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .74.6 1 3 km EI = 56. 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.92 deg/sec 1 .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .5 p = 1 86.0. 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.1 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 .038 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9. 844 **** **** **** 35 7 .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No . of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .338 **** **** **** 10 8 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.
LATL.448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .
INDEX .
.
3 4 Collision cross section. 1 22. 57 perifocal. 4 3 0 Conversions. 429 lunar distance. 9 3 . 6. 297299 451 . 1 8 3 mean. 423 Azimuth. 94. 3 9 0 station. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric.1 3 1 G auss problem. B urnout. 246 Brahe. 8 4 Copernicus. 2 3 4. 2 1 . 422 gravitational parameter. 3 2 3 masses. 1 00. 20. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 203 Aphelion. 1 8 8 .9 8 gravitational constant. 5 5 heliocentric. 74 geocentricequatorial. 9498 transformations. 7483 Coordinate systems. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 84. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 5 3 . 1 09 Angular momentum. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 24 Apparent solar time.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 5 3 . 60 Argument of periapsis. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 296 geometry. 374 Computer projects. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 60 and universal v ariables. 54 fundamental plane. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 84. 277320 computation chart. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 24 height adjustment. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 429 flattening. Tycho. 5 7 principal direction. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 1 4. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 109 B akerNunn camera. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 4 1 . 4043 Celestial equator. 74 BMEWS. 3 2 5 . 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 1 5 . 279 C anonical units. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 2427 Apogee. 2 1 2 B asis. 5358. 3 5 8 . 429 Astronomical Unit. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 4 gravitational h armonics. 102 Apoapsis. 1 8 5 true. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 349 Angle of elevation. 84 ecliptic. 1 620. 54 orbit plane. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 1 09. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 5 8 Aristotle. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 3 3 period of. 28 1 B arker's equation. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 56 Celestial sphere. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 3 8 9 .
1 0 9 .1 3 1 Direct ascent. 1 42. 94 . 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. function o f true anomaIles. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 26 ff.93 . 221 hyperbolic. 2 1 . G ibbsian orbit determination method. 6 1 Elevation angle. 60 Equations of motion nbody.3 3 pe. Carl Fredrich. 3 5 .1 90. 444 algorithm. 2 8 5 Freeflight range.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 264 eccentric anomalies. 1 0 3 G round track. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 3 6 8 local. 3 89 nbody. Elliptical orbits. 62 vector. 25. 20 1 202 f and g series. 26. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 1 8 1 . 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 22827 1 . 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 3 22 trajectories. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 58 from position a n d velocity. 227 418 ( y ) . 1 8 8 . 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 1 8 2. 2 0 . 1 8 8. 8 0 f and g expressions. 423 424 Earth oblate. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 2 3 3 . 2 6527 1 original G auss method.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 1 54. 3 00 launching. 56. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 2 9 . 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 2 1 ff. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 1 4 0 . 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 2 8 2 time. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 5 8 . 4 G ravitational parameter. 4 Newton's law of. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 1 1 7. G auss problem. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 3 5 . 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 3 5 0 Epoch. 4 G alileo. zenith angle. 3 1 . 3 0 . 2 3 0 . 3 90 . 4 1 9. 1 0 6 mean. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 25 1 . 2 7 1 Departure phase angle.2 1 2 parabolic.1 4 3 . 8 7 . 40.3 0 6 numerical integration. 1 04 Escape speed.452 Declination. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 84. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 25 1 258. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 62 Ecliptic. 60 Dot product.3 9 6 Energy.1 1 6 Gravitation. 1 0 6 precession.1 5 5 Direct motion. 2 1 2. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 1 7 equations. 1 0 twobody. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 2 4 . 1 60 low altitude. 9. 54 Elements of orbit. 2 1 2. 2 9 7 . 9 4 Geoid. apparent. 4 3 3 Drag. 7 G ravitational constant. 306 EarthMoon system. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 60 true longitude at. 1 22. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle.riod o f .
1 1 7 derivatives. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 3 64. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 1 56 vector. equations o f nbody. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 1 . 1 1 7 Latitude. 3 26 orbital elements of. J ohann. 2 7 7 . 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 94 geodetic. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 3 59374. 1 0 2 Meridian. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. Greenwich. 234. 6 rotation of. Edmund. 1 80 third. 2 6 5 27 1 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 3 80 Kepler. 1 5 6. 1 8 5 . 22. 3 5 0 free return. 1 8 8 .3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 9 9 . 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 3 24326. 1 0 1 . numerical rotation of. 5 8 Longitude. 3 65 noncoplanar. 3 1 6 Injection. 2 8 8 . 54 Heliocentric transfer. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 1 Kepler's equation. 3 69. 62 . 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 8 9 . 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 6 . gravitational parameter. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 3 7 9 . 3. 4. 1 52 Mass of planets.3 8 4 general coplanar. 3 69 . 1 9 8 . 3 89 trajectories. 1 02 Mean solar time.1 6 6. 3 1 Manned flight. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 2 Heliocentric constants. 238. 1 5 1 . 2. 2. 2 H alley's comet. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 3 7 0 Integration. 207 I nclination. 60 Latus rectum. 60 Lunar trajectories.I N D EX H alley. 8 Node ascending. 3 44 .1 8 1 first.8 9 derivatives i n . 2 second. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 2. Isaac. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 3 62 . 1 03 Minor axis. 6. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. true at epoch. 1 57 Line of nodes. 94 reduced. limitations. 1 8 Influence coefficients.3 05. 1 5 6. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 20 Least squares solution.9 3 Mu ( � ) . 3 1 Moon. 3 27. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 220 Mean motion. 1 0 twobody. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 3 8 . 3 9 6 M otion. 3 57 . 8 6 . argument of at epoch. 1 7 7. 58 regression. 3 24 . 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 7.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 3 9 6 constraints. 5 Newton. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 62 longitude of ascending. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 1 6 3 . 3 0 3 .3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 2. 2 1 . 3 9. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 22 1 . 1 4 1 . 5 1 . 247 Newton's laws. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 1 4 1 .
2 1 . 94 Potential energy reference. 3 60 physical characteristics. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 4 1 4 sum squared. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. true anomaly. 1 09 . 1 69 Orbit determination. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. flightpath angle. 3 8 7 . 1 0 3 P rojects. 6 1 o f moon. 3 1 . 4 1 2425 errors. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 26527 1 Residuals. 423 due to the moon. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 3 6 1 shape of. 34.3 9 0 Encke's method. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 3 24 .9 8 Optical sensors.1 59 examples. 2 0 . 1 62 O rbit. 5 1 . 2 1 . 6 1 from sighting directions. 1 90 Numerical integration. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 2427 argument of. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 1 5 6 . 57 Perigee. 5 symbols. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 24 height adjustment.1 22. 3 90 . 1 1 7 . 440448 Q parameter. 1 3 Rendezvous. 1 62 . 60 Right ascension. 420 c riteria for choosing.1 22 from position and velocity. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 1 1 7 . 3 9 0 Relative motion. 1 0 9 Rectification.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 443 algorithm. 2 1 2 computer solution. 3 59 . 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 3 44 . 83 from optical sightings. 3 9 0 Parabola. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 20 Polar radius.3 44 Periapsis. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 1 5 1 . 2 8 0 Radar sensors.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 56. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 2 4 Periselenium. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 424 thrust. 4 1 9 . 3 8 6 general. 22727 1 Orbit plane.3 7 9 lunar. 1 1 7. 2 4 . 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 20. 425 Phi ( � ) . 3 24 . 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 203. 3 3 3 .3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 1 6 Potential function. 58 determination from position and velocity.454 Nu (v ) . 3 4 1 Period. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 1 9 3 . 3 3 Perturbations. 9 3 . 220 classical formul ations. 1 1 Retrograde motion.1 76 inplane changes. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters.1 50. two body. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method.
8 9 derivatives in. 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 02. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 4 3 7 .1 9 0 if. canonical. 7 Universal time. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 8 6 . 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 4 3 7 . 1 9 1 . 2 8 8 .3 59 orbital elements. 2 8 7 maximum range. 9 3 . 1 1 . 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 1 3 1 . 1 0 3 Universal variables. 1 8 (see Nbody . 5 radio interferometers.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 1 9 high. Universal gravitation. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 58 Semi minor axis. 9 Sidereal time. 44 1 mean solar. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 3 60 physical characteristics. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 40 Unit vectors. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 1 0 3 universal.1 0 4 Solar system.1 69 Hohmann. 1 03 local sidereal. 1 3 8 optical. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. definition of. 9. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum.4 3 9 d o t product.1 40 errors. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 85 Traj ectory equation. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 2 1 7 parabola. 1 6 6. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes.1 4 assumptions. 9 9 . 425 Time. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 1 9 6 derivatives of.1 0 9 apparent solar.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 1 9 1 225. 3 1 Sensors. 9 9 .1 6 6 True anomaly. 1 3 6 radar. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 1 9 1 development of. 1 6 3 . 99. 3 6 1 Solar time. 99. 1 8 1 . 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 3 1 . 1 1 Units. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 8 4 . 1 8 1 . 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 23.4 3 9 Velocity components. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 30. 1 8 8 . 1 5. 287 low. 3 27. 1 0 1 .1 8 8 . 4. 40. 2 1 at epoch. 2062 1 0 use of. 20 Semimajor axis. 4 3 1 Velocity. 6. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 4 3 7 unit. 5 8 Time zones.1 40 Selenocentric. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 1 52 Station coordinates. 23. 1 8 8 universal variables. 4 3 3 triple product. 1 3 2. 1 6 Sputnik. 1 6. 425 Thrust perturbation.9 8 of planets. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 3 5 8 . 1 3 5 ellipse. 1 0 1 . 20. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal.
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