This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R. Ronald Chaney ( artist) .vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P .W. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged. Jan Irvine . J .E.D. . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Dorothy Fryar .R. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin.B.M. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . D.
.
. . . . . . 2.9 The Measurement of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . 1 . . 2 . . . . 1 09 . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . .2 The NBody Problem . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . 1 . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . 2. 14 . . . . . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . 11 . . 1 . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . 2 . . . . 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ 1 . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . . . 1 01 . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . 2 . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . .1 Historical Background . 2 . . 61 . . . List of References . .
. . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . .1 3 . . .1 4. . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. 4 . . . . 1 49 . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . 390 . . 3 87 9. . . . . 3 85 9. .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises .4 7. . . . . . . . . . List o f Re ferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Reference s . . . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . . . 25 1 . . . . . . . . 344 352 355 . . . . . . . 258 . . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . . . 333 . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . 3 20 . . . . . . . . . 275 . . . . . . . . . 380 . . 279 6 . . . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . 3 27 . . . 357 . . . . . . Histor ical Background . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . 7. .1 9. . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . 359 . . . . . . . . . . Exerc ises . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Solar System . 273 . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . 3 84 . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . 297 6. 379 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . List of References . . . . 26 5 . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . 357 358 . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . xi 5 . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1 . . . . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . .
425 List of References . . . . . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . 440 449 . . . . . . . . .
Tycho. JarnesR. the year Galileo died. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. 1 642 . the poor and sickly mathematician. he might have been put into a quart mug. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. the noble and aristocratic Dane. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. as his mother told him in later years.CHAPTER 1 TWO. Newman! . yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. Kepler.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day.
therefore . One day in 1 685 .1. The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. It fit. Finally . Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. not an explanation of planetary motion . Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . with the sun at a focus . is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. TWO.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse.1 Still.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. discoverer of Halley's comet.1 Kepler's Laws. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). Since the time of Aris totle . The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . necessarily moved in circles. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . 2 1. Kepler's laws were only a description.
4 1. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. Dissatisfied with this explanation. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : .2 Newton's Laws of Motion. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. t he Principia. more simply. of course . undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. "Why.Sec. in ellipses. casually posed the question. when he recovered from his shock. or . The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. without mentioning the b et. 1 . Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction.1. they speculated whether a force .
Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them. . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . . The universal gravitational constant. Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia.1.12) t o equat i. 1.1 .11 Newton's Law of Motion . Note that equation ( 1 .G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll. 1 2) Fg = . G.'�V .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.1 . . " Figure 1 .1 .67Ox 1 0. 1 . 1 .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. .1 ) (1 . / . • ..8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .n ( 1 . .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system. has the value 6.4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. .
X I . An important force. a lunar or interplanetary probe.. . etc.e. . m2 • m3 m m. In addition. an earth satellite . propellants) to pro duce thrust. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies.Sec 1. 1.. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies .2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i.. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i.. . I " '. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ .2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. At any given time in its j ourney. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. thrust and solar radiation pressure . or a planet).e..II I I I " I I I I :. . To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}.�I '... j. . I I I Figure 1.
6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch .. Y. Although small. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. are discussed in Chapter 3 .. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides.1 . 2. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . These effects. • • • z FOTHER . this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies.2' The NBody Problem Figure . Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. 1 equator. Thus.���Y � X n 1. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X.. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator.
5 ) The other external force . The v ector sum. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r .2. II 3 (1. Fg. perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . solar radiation pr essure. . m'J JI 3 (rj j) . .3) Obviously . The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where .Se c 1.I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) .2. equation ( 1 .2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . (1.2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. etc . thrust. F gn where =  Gm . .2 ·1 is T composed of drag..
is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ.27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.I) and all other external forces ...2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.. In other words. Thus.28 would not be zero .1 + F OTHER ' (l . it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL. ... r·I = F TOTAL mj 0.. z coordinate system.F I dt TOTAL dt (1. y .I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x .8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time .. (1.26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL...28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 .
F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc .2. equation ( 1 .G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form.29) is a second order .1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. Equation (1 . It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions. vector.2.1 2) .29) reduces to = r· 1 n . The only remaining forces then are gravitational.. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 . Y. Then writin g equation 1 .2. mn may be the moon.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X .10) ( . ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . m· J (�i) . r JI. sun and planets .G And for i = 0 .1 0) for i = 1... mi 0).2.Sec 1 . nonlinear. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present. m .11) 2. ( 1. we get j = j � *i 1 3 . Equation ( 1 . expelling mass or relativistic effects. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le.2. unpowered flight.
G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth . n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.1 4) gives. Since r 1 2 = . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 ..r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence.2 1 6) each bracket. .2.1 2) into equation ( 1 . . 2.22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.1 From equation ( 1 .2. 2 1 7 ) .2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.21 1 ) and ( 1 .1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .
Table 1 .Sec. 1.2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies.2x l O 8 2. sun and planets on a near earth satellite .89 6x l 0 4 2.3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth.1 Simplifying Assump tions. To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .9x l O 8 7 . .6x l O lO 1 . The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. 1 .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. The bodies are spherically symmetric . 1 x l 0 10 3.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . mi orbit about the earth.3. to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion . Howe ver .
3. without relation to anything external. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'.. 1 2. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'.3. Y' . Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M.1 ) (1 . 1 . let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . Y'. Let (X'. Let (X. remains always similar and irrnovable. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. " s However.2 The Equation of Relative Motion. Y'. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. 3 2 ) . which "in its own nature.3. . For the time being. N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . Z') are rM a nd rm respectively .12 TWO. Y. Y'.1 .
Y'. Z'). the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. GIM+ml r Equation (1. 1.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. Y'. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. Y. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . Note that since the coordinate set (X. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites.Sec.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r.. velocity.33) . Y.33). Note that this is the same as equation (1. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. (1 .32) from equation (1. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. Z'). Z) with its origin in the central body. and acceleration in a nonrotating.31) we have = _ r .y X' Figure 1 . Y. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. ballistic missiles.
you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. 3 ·4 ) . Then equation 1 . Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . m." for another form called "potential energy . From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m." That is. then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors).3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . will be much less than that of the central body . parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . It is convenient to define a parameter. 1 some planet or the sun. If you think ab out the model we have created. If m is not much less than M." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation .14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. 1. called the gravitational GM. M. "kinetic .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. the mass of the orbiting body .3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 .
4 frame (the large mass) does not change .r ) = � r �(r . v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . 1. To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4.4. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . v =r and v= f. 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O . r 2. which appears in .41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. then 1 .lL\I r dt JJ.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy.Sec. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . 1 .' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . ( 1 . But what about the arbitrary co nstant . Therefore. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0.!!. dt 1:L = O. 5. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . N 0 tlcmg that . C. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero . that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &.
16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . In other words. dt . r. O. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. that the specific mechanical energy. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. The expression for � is �. neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion.  ( 1 .iL (rxv) = O. We conclude . rX . at what distance . the earth. Since in general a x a= 0. therefore . In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. 3 4) by r 2 . Noticing that .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. �. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary .4.fL 3 . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive.42) 1 . e .iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' .2 Conservation of angular momentum. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity .g. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy.
of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. called specific angular momen tum.41 Flightpath angle . we have shown that the specific angular momentum. I Figure 1 . </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal." "Up" simply means away . But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . Therefore . (1 . We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. Therefore .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space .The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. 1 .43) v I h = r x v.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. h.
= 0. c o s ¢=Jl.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. J and K are unit vectors.4274I+2. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. Ch. ¢.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are .0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. V =5. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. v. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.2778 J + 1 0 .8143 r • v > 0 . " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient.8143 = 35. In an inertial coordinate system. and the specific angular momentum. ¢.420 . Also find the flight·path angle.4.7 1 37J+O. &. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . Determine the specific mechanical energy . r = 12. (4.899 X 107 ft.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . however.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. I h = rv c o s ¢. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . 1 85 2 1 + 6. • ( 1 . h.5936 1 + 5 . Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. respectively. the zeni th angle .
.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body.( r) r. we see that J!:.Sec. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. . A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see.33) is simple. its complete solution is not. �t (B· ..1!y r .3 3 r r r since r • i = f .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .5. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4. 1 . Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity.51) The left side of equation (1.. While this equation (1. JJ.I.& .. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v . 1 . err. (h xr) =.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ. (1. Also note that J.
20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation. (1. I r 1 + e cos V p (1.54) .54) . v. + r o Since.53) 1 .53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle.. h2 where vector r. in general.9 cos V (1." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1..1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. we obtain = 1 h2 /g . is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. V. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !. c and a . Equation (1. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. 5. +(81J.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . .
51 illustrates an ellipse. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 .51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. parabola. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem.Sec. Although Figure 1. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant.44) 1 . not just ellipses.41 and equation (1 .3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. (See Figure 1 . 3.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. As r and v change along the orbit. 5 . potential and kinetic. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. 1. however. 4 . There is. Before discussing the factors . an exchange of energy between the two forms. remains constant. ellipse. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. the flightpath angle.5. must change so as to keep h constant. 2.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . cp.
52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines . Figure 1. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. the section is an ellipse. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . If the plane cuts both nappes. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone.5 2 illustrates this definition . in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. If.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 Figure 1 . If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). or a single point. The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. the section is a parabola. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks.
Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci.Sec 1 . The secondary or vacant focus. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. The prime focus.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. Figure 1 . the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . F. F and F'. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. F'.53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections .53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections.
" "perihelion" or "aphelion. Thus." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. In the parabola. The dimension. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse ").54)). Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. is c�lled the semimaj or axis.5 3 . a.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning." etc. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics.e2). It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a.55) p = a (1 . the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. ( 1 . for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 .
By comparing equations ( 1 .58) 1 . Quite obviously. 1.1 0) . B. which points toward periapsis. 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe. tL r ( 1 . 5. .53) and ( 1 .= a( 1 +e) . In the derivation of equation ( 1 . e = BltL. 5.4 The Eccentricity Vector.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . 53).56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e).5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 .Sec .59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . ( 1 .52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. 1 ( 1 . since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. . the trajectory equation.. 1e ( 1 . we encountered the vector constant of integration.
1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. of the satellite.(r . we get • p. If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r .. v ) v . Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth.53) and equation ( 1 .44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle.p. ( 1 . of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum.6 RELATING &. is equivalent to increasing h. e = ( v v ) r .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. ( 1 . r r p. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. th . Figure 1 .5. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. 1. /or any orbit. Therefore.p.6.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. 1 . e = V x (r x v) . AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. v)v. and that as h is . x v. h. By inspection. is zero. By comparing equation ( 1 .. p. equation ( 1 . r  r .1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. e .61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). v.
. Figure 1 .�= � . v. as a corollary to equation ( 1 . R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. r I . (1 . p. �' " .. . We can then write. . 57) p rp = a(1 .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 ..e ) .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 ..� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . 1 01) . of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle.F �.44).6.  .62) we obtain &. .1 ) predicts . .increased the parameter. = �. . is zero. I '. .
the energy of a satellite (negative . You should study it together with Figure 1 .e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f .1 ) therefore p. 1 and from equation ( l .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . zero. Thus. Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. Figure 1 .56) and equation (1 .6. of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . a. while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive.63) misleading. of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).6.28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . Many students find equation ( 1 . &.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive .
and specific angular momentum. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather.  a=  '!:. e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . ra = 1 � e = 4453. if & is zero . semilatus rectum. r p = rES + 200 = 3643.1 and perigee altitude 200 n . Namely. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. For a given satellite .. A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. if & is positive . m i . the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 0 . 64) Notice again that if & is negative. 2& = 3 . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008.. m i .Jf5P. The student should be aware of this pitfall. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. 3 n .897  e2 ) = 3. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. 6 .7 n .2 Determine its specific angular momentum. = 6. 9 n . and semimaj or axis. mi. & = 2 . m i .0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. e is exactly 1 (a parabola). specific mechanical energy. Determine its altitude at apogee.. e is greater than I (a hyperbola). .Sec 1 .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = .
7· 1 . specifically r + 1 . I ( 1 . the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.7· 1 ) B y inspection. Since an ellipse is a closed curve. 2a = r a + r = 8097.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a .6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses.m i . an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over .8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .7 .r Ell = 1 009. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. 1 .mi. h =.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.855 = 6 . An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. the distance between the foci is ( 1 .JpjJ.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa. 1 n. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. = 5.30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . The method is illustrated in Figure 1 .= 2.7·2) . ( 1 .
1 .72) and ( 1 . equation ( 1 . 1 . 2 ( 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis. At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 . e is defined as combine to yield da. 2 b.75) which.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 .7. you will see that the . in general.72.71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since.horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v. Using equation ( 1 .44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 .7. becomes r dt = 11 dll. when rearranged . If you refer to Figure 1 .2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.Sec.7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .7 .76) . Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .73) ( 1 . Since r + r' = 2a. r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.
32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . we can rewrite equation ( 1 . d A.77) dt 2 = 11 dA. swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle.76) as ( 1 .73 Differential element of area . Figure 1 .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. d v. 1 Figure 1 . is given by the expression So.
8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . Of course. 1 .77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. 1 Circular Satellite Speed.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. Thus. proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse .75).Sec. being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. incidentally. Naturally.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 . Equation ( 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . ( 1 . Integrating equation ( 1 . since h = /JlP.79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. a.8 .8. so equation ( 1 . 1 .78) b =) a 2 .8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit.1 ) 1 .79).79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . From equations ( 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 .e2 ) = JaP and. the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. 55) and ( 1 .
1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit. F or a low altitude earth orbit. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.9.9. The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.1 ) .000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . 1 . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 .34 TWO .000 ft/sec. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.9. Another is that.1 Geometry of the Parabola. the periapsis radius is just r 1 . The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . rCS' from the energy equation.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . circular speed is about 26 . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 .1 .
as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero .57). from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � .Sec. Of course. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.E." 1 . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity.9. Theoretically.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 ." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed. first at a general point a distance . 1 .2 Escape Speed.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   .92) . there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. r.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .
Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : .1 57. the semimajor axis. a. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J.1/2a. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 .) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . As you would expect. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8. 8. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets.Since the specific mechanical energy.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1.92) =21 . of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola.000 ft/sec. = j. b .400 nm above the surface it is only 26. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 5 7). a.. 53374 106 ft = = 36.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 . 36 TWO . Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude .
rb i t P 7087.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .amr iO. 06748 106 ft 7087.8 n. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. m i .53374 106 ft 2 43. m i .9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21.Sec. 1 . 8n.
then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . instead. F . then the righthand branch represents the orbit. (L l O. If. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). Obviously. 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. If we consider the lefthand focus. A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . 1 0. The parameters a. 1 . 1 0. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola.1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). 1 1 .1 ) .
is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . 1 0. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . The angle between the asymptotes. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola.0.. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. 1 02) becomes ( 1 . on the other hand. The turning angle . which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed.but since Sec. 0. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . V 00' . we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. 1 . the smaller will b e the turning angle . If.for the hyperbola. 1 . is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 .1 . we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed. 1 0. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 ." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity.
1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. 1 . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. the concept is convenient and is widely used.3 Sphere of Influence. It is. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. 1 . 1 0. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. Astronomers call thi� ' . for all practical purposes it has escaped. of course . a million miles) from earth." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. 1 (1 . This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. however. It is a fact. In other words.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. moon. r a' r p' . Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. or other planet. then the value of the gravitational parameter. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . 1 . earth. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . 1 1 .Sec. 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. J. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. 5 9362 5 .1 . e. h. 1 The Reference Orbit. For other problems where the earth. 1 . p. will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . Using canonical units determine & .l. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. 1 1 . A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 .
� = . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 67 D U �/T U � = . 5 D U e �2 _ /J.42). Alt = . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 .1 . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 .
1 . 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t. 5 D U = 9. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.= 4 . = 3. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .61) Find h from equation (1.5 7)  r a = 1 e p.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8..4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 . 5 D U ".58) Find r p from equation (1. 25D U EB = 4.64) Find ra from equation (1.Sec. = 2.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .
6 J 1 . 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. The orbit eccentricity is 0. a.2. . Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. c. 2J AK IJK h = AI . 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system.3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. Find the eccentricity of the orbit.. 1 . is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. Find the specific energy of the trajectory. &= . in general.000 ft/sec and 4 . 1 EXERCISES 1 . is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. (Answer : e = 1 . 1 . Why.44 TW O.1 . Find the period of the orbit.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth.000 n mi.1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . 5 81) 1 . b . 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. respectively.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . 2K DU 2 /TU .4 Six constants of integration (or effectively.
000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. r x ft ) = 3. (Ans. r v c.5 DU DU DU d.5 rpe r i gee = 1 .6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. D U /T U DU e. V ft/sec. 2K + .000 ft) with a velocity of 25. ¢ =3 = 1 . 4K r r v = . What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. p b.Ch . 1. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . p 1. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . 91 J space.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. 7 Prove that d.6 18 = 59° 58') .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. 354 10" r 1 . 0 1K v = l + l . mi during descent? (Ans. elliptical. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. a a. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0.123K = 1 . 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . &. 1 . hyperbolic.
2 e = . 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. 1 2 Given that e = �. Determine the maximum altitude attained.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . (Neglect atmo spheric drag. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. p = 6.6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . ellipses and a hyperbolas. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = . p = 2. e. b .000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. p = 3.000 ft. p = 2. derive values for e for circles. 1 . c. e=O e = .2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . d . 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points. p = 6. P 1 .) 1 . 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a.
207 1 . Show that : b. 1 . What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. * 1 .V O U EB /TU EB ) . c.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. rc = at +b = 0.6. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB.Ch . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
2 . 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. Q and W respectively.Xw UK vectors. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. 2 . Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . When describing a heliocentric orbit . you may use the same Figure 2. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW.4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System.Sec.24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis.2. Yw '+. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun.
5 . It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . shape and orientation of an orbit . 3 . 6. w. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . 2 . Similarly. is substituted for a in the above list. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. 4 . the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. a. K I I .3. 2. T. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. time of periapsis passage . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit .3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . if you know a and e you can compute p. Another system. e. p.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . in the fundamental plane . Instead of argument of periapsis. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . Frequently the semilatus rectum. Obviously . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis.the angle . In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. Q longitude of the ascending node.1 as follows : 1 .the time when the satellite was at periapsis.the angle from to periapsis measured h. i.
Sec.3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.31 Orbital elements . 2 .
60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. then both w and Uo are undefined. '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . to ' called the "epoch. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis.1 ) . Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . in the plane of the orbit. 1 £0 £0 + . n=n+w.31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. w and va are all defined. then b oth W and n are undefined. (2 .3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . This is the dire ction in which the sun." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. From Figure 2." Direct means easterly. earth. then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. both of which are always defined . Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit).3. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun.
41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . n would have to lie in the orbital plane.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . 2. 2.42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. n an d e. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. h. t o .4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . 2 . or in their intersection which is called the "line of . vI vJ v K J (2 . The node vector.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . n must be perpendicular to both K and h. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. n and e. h. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector.4. Therefore . n. To be perpendicular to K. To be perpendicular to h.
3. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . The vector. is obtained from (2 . n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . 2 nodes. In general. between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. h. An understanding of it is essential to what follows .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . Now that we have h. the cosine of the angle . The parameter.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved .S . We are only interested in its direction. We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . All three vectors. Study this figure carefully . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit.1 1 )). n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node." Specifically . e.4.1 . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. 2. ex.1 ) (2 .4.46) Of course . p.
47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .' (2.) .L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° . Since Vo is the angle between e and f.. c o s U o = !!. Since n is the angle between I and n.4. � � h.1 1) . 2 .4. Since i is the angle between K and h..1 0) 7 . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2. Since Uo is the angle between n and f . Since w is the angle between n and (2.) c o S Po = � er (2 .:.4 3 . (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .) e.49) 6.Sec. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.48) 5 . (2 .) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° . 2.
With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v.1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . look at the geometry of Figure 2 . . 3 . The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now.4. The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2. 2 z x 8 .1 and study it until they do .64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . If they don't make sense to you.
Figure 2. VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. 5 DU e == . 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 .Sec.
2 3 Figure 2 .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .5 e == .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .4 DU p == .\ .
Sec.44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 . 2.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .
EEl .. From equation (2.47) = . 7 75 . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). Find inclination. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. Find eccentricity.l h2 . [ ( f. f. n.I:!:.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . using equation (2 .1 ) p = . ml .7 4n .l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 .. e.i:. ) r .(r .48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.6. . i. Using equation (2.. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node . Find p using equation (2 .4..1.= 4D U = 13.45 ) Since h =.
II. II. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . can be determined in this case. = cos . is undefined. . From equation (2.. Find argument of periapsis. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis..1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 .:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However .49) W n · e W. From equation (2 .41 0) v a c os. 4 . for this case .1 (. Find true anomaily .!!.n = COS . In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. 2 .Sec.  Find longitude of periapsis.n. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector . since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore . va.
The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p . 1 [6 \ h=rxv=. First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .25 EB EB D U EB 7748.5 .  then from equation ( 1 .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = . v)v] =.\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2..1 ) Find e..33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .E)r(r . = From equation (2. EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .6.70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .m i . 2 Find true longitude o f epoch..85 n . From equation (2.
48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 . .11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .Sec. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .I Find the true anomaly . va : From equation (2.49) w: 0 W = cos.5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .5 Find the inclination. 2. From equation (2.4. From equation (2 .
2. 8. consists of two steps.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. changes with time . n.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. .to.24): ro to. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. 8. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . n. w and v. that occurs in a given time . i. 2 elements are given. v.5. i . 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. shown below. w and va . Let ' s assume that we know p. Of the se six elements. lV. The method. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time .5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 . Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .5 2) .ffe si n V (2.5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 .
5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 2.5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .54) r = J � [. 5P DU E9 (2. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system. v �[.25 45{) (2.Sec.54) from equation r (2.5 i= p 2. Before equation (2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .
namely. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. 2 2. suppose you know the south. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. or what it represents.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . Certain vectors. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. For example. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . east. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. its fundamental (xy) plane . The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. direction . changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . east ." 2. suppose you know the south. A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . such as position vectors. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). have a definite starting point .6. In other words. east a!1d up. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . vector represents. For example . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. and it still represents the same thing. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors." The phrase in quotes describes what the .
Figure 2. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 . 2. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. ���________� • .61 illustrates the two frames. 2. : r Y I ex a ." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . Let us imagine three unit vectors I.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.6.Sec. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S ." In other words. y ����.61) . V and W along the x ' . Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. Figure 2.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. y' and z ' axes. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis.y Y 75 . and extending along the x.
1 ) yields I.6. 65) . 2 From Figure 2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).62) above and equating it with (2. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2. (2.61 we can see that the unit vectors U. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch . We will use subscripts to identify the basis.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.
6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2. 68) B '" (2. 2 . These are summarized belox:: .67) yields the set of equations (2 . derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame .Sec.6.64) above . Rotation about the xaxis.69) '" axis. (2 . The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.66) (2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis. .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2.
6. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .84 shows the angular relationship between two frames.78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2. a. So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes.61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame . Figure 2. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. 1 ). 2 (2.7 .4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.
Now. AB =1= SA ). all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.Sec. The inverse of any orth. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. Hence .61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. denoted by D .6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose .61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e .1 .cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2. Fortunately. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. The transpose of the matrix D . . 2.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. We can write equation (2.e. (i. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). Equation (2.
6. a bl .. n t rizing th . a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. th. gl " n i lly . 62. d w . d th yo u will b . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . anglo . axes in to CO ham .".2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK . O c M ma t. th' O ugh w hi ch on . d wi th .6 . 5 Tmn . tluee b .1 2) Figure 2 ... an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce . Perifo ca l to th e G Th . By me mo C. 2 (2." a ny mp licat e d .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. mu " in cid 'n ce b . to p' ter ho w co no. "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . 'o ta t.n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . basis no ma t .sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch .Eq to th e IJ K in at .. oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am .ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . 6.".". P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. sh ow n in F ig u " Th . m1 " fo.
Thus if a i ' aJ .. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems.. R..63. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . . 2 . aQ. To ....63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. a K and ap .. 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit . For example . from Figure 2.The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame .. then Sec . Figure 2.
82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Now a. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. ! • P.cos n sin w .1 4) R23 = .63 .6. R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. P K · P In Figure 2. I • p I · Q J .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i . J and K Thus R = J . B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides.6. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. since I and P are unit vectors.sin n sin w cos i . the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .1 3) i. 2 from their dot product . Q I ' W J · W K . Similarly. The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A.sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . a �.
5 . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. 2. . 2 . V. In this case either n or w or both are undefined.5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site .Sec . Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements.1 ) and (2. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical.
If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . the rate at which range is changing. The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. is measured clockwise from north . 7 . 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2.7 . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles. E and Z shown in Figure 2 . Az. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth.7 .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system.1 . EI.84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch .7.71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . p. The unit vectors S.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. The azimuth angle . can also be measured. AZ . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . the elevation angle .( N o rt h ) 2. 2.
from the geometry of Figure 2. = Ps PE = P cos Pz. Thus.7 .7 . E I . Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. From Figure 2. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .and EO/. We will express the po sition vector as (2 .7 4) = + P (2 .1 .7.72 we see that r (2 . we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 .1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.1 ) where .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame.72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. Sec. There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2.75) .73) E l (B I ). Az.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. 2. /l!L. p.
72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.76) . For the moment we will assume that equation (2 . Unfortunately. 2 J topo centric frame .86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth. A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .
Therefore . (2 . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v.Sec.74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame .73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed.77) . Figure 2. If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f.73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . 2 . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". EB x f.
5 J . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . is 2 S E + . Figure 2. 3535 . 300 N Lat . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.707 .E + 1 .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 .707 o .3535 . 5 Z (units are DU).612 .866 . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.612) r = R + P = 2S . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.6 1 2 .1 = [. 5Z (Given) [).
7.982K . . The unit vectors D. It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. 2. y. y. I =J =K=O.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2.Sec. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame .78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. (2. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . Also let there be another coordinate system ( u.9 1 81 + 2. Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. w) .4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame .79) J. rotating with respect to the (x..7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . We will denote this quantity by w. z). z) system (Figure 2 . • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . 332J  . v. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • .75 ) . V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . (2. however.
equation (2 .1 0) reduces further to . .7.7.79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. Hence . V = w x V and W = w x W . Similarly. . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . The remaining terms of equation (2. R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . .1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA.71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . Hence . equation (2 .
.7.. .. . Equation (2.75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA. . v v. ..LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 .Sec..... W) Figure 2..... " F i xed " System ( x.. .... y. .7.... .. dt R I (2 .71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u .y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ .. �:..1 2) . � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u... z) '.1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q...... 2 .... .
1 2) to the po sition vector r.1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .7.JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 . Equation (2 .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.1 3) into equation (2 . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch ." Ioox.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .7. Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth. (2 . The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 . 2 iLl F = .7.7.1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.7.1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .7. We will now apply the operator equation (2 .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .7 .) .9!. (2 .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .7 .7 .
Sec.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. 2 . We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. It is known . 2.) 2. If the earth were perfectly spherical. however . that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . Therefore . In the model which has been adopted. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation .8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. Sections parallel to the equator are . ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. circles. of course .8. ae .
The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. 2. The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter . it does complicate the concept of latitude. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378.785 0.8.8.8. the difference between L and is usually negligible . The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated . When you are given the latitude of a place . 1 45 6356. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use .2 The Measurement of Latitude.1 .3 Station Coordinates." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude .08182 == km km L La L . Consider Figure 2. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field . The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude.94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2.
1 ) . Thus.. It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal. O . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3..8 . L . We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude .Sec.8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . the "reduced latitude .. The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e .82.!! o . 4 km Figure 2. 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 . c. / (2. 2 .82 . 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � .." which is illustrated in Figure 2.
I C. Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L.82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. for any ellipse .and e = da. b e =a e V� = b2 + d. a2 . 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 .82) .1:  (2 .. / . 0 O D.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But .. Ch . z . c:  0) x Figure 2.
 dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . (2. d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2.Sec:.8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . 2 . (2 . Thus. 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L .85) .
83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K.98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. (2 . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.86) L.8 7) 2. The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components. 2 ( 2 . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time . elevation above mean sea level. {1 ' is known .8. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . {1.8 8) . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . If the Greenwich sidereal time . From Figure 2. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .
8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2. Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t.84 shows a spherical earth.8. the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time .89) ." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . L. is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . 2 . Although Figure 2.Sec .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich .
84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . From (2 .8 . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.1 0) . 2 j i Figure 2 .
9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n .1 2) . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . a Z If a l . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars.Sec.cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .9 .1 2) and a s ' a E . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval.1 . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . 2.6. 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 . When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. so .9 equation (2 . (2 . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .9. 2 . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day . It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science .8. This should be made clear by F igure 2. The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day .
we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical.09054 mean solar seconds . when the earth is near perihelion. a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. So far. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. In early January.
9. 2 . 2. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also .0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis.Sec.9.is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. For example . Universal Time (UT). What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours.2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . Thus. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . This relationship is illustrated on page 99. if it . 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year .) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) .3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . or Zulu (Z) time.
0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 .sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years.4 Precession of the Equinoxes. we express time in decimal fractions of a day. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. in addition. 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100.9. Ephemeris and 2. 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . m i n . we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . ° 229421 1. . 8 9=8 9 0 1 .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane .
" with a perio d of 1 8 .. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic. 6 yrs I Figure 2.6 year s .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . 0 0 0 y rs " . so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top .6 years.. As the earth' s axis precesses. The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge.. The period of the precession is about 2 6. the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 . . 2 . The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation .. Due to the asphericity of the earth.000 year s . the equatorial plane is not . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period..92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars. on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly.9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 .Sec .. However .
6245 rad ians o 9 .296 degrees west longitude . 00 1 From section 2 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .1 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Day  = Long o 57 .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . 5 7 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .296° H = 6 . x= [ z= � ae + � . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. What is the inertial position vector of a point 6.8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . at 0600 GMT. Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 .74933340 = 1 . 25 8=8 g + A = .00 1 + L= 0 .378km = 0 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. 6 24 5 .
72) PE p Pz Ps = . 00 1 (S.6971 + .346E + O. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0. 00 1 c o s(S.(0. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.2D UES = (0.4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.7 1 SJ + OK Sec.From equation (2.6245) = .9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.6245 )1 + 1 .74) . 2 . 0.
8 .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .346E + l .8 .84J .5 1 .346J + 1 . 3.(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .Ps = .�� lO.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.1 .73 p + (O.0E + 1 .061 .77) v = [� ] [ J 0. 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .3. 1 08 Ch .1 .46 P =D1 .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .866 0.0588K) From equation (2 .7·5 ) From equation (2 .25 0.1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .0 1 .46S .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .(0. 46 = 0.4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.610.1 .0.433 .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly . 0.232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .73Z D U (T U r = 0.46 D U /T U (0.
may be lacking.3.081 .0. and the orb it is uniquely determined. Ai. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . Gibbs is. EI . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. k.Sec. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). Ei. 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . 2 . W. of course .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. Figure 2. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . 2. As Baker S points out . p .8J .
1 06) Multiply (2 . 1 0. we can show that : e ' f = p . Dotting (2 . 1 03) Cross (2. 1 05) (2 . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar .r. Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . (2 . Notice that C2 may now be divided out. 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p.r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p.1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . 1 04) (2 . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P.r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . 2 fine scholar . 1 0. 1 08) .1 ) successively by fl .1 ) by (2 .5 4). and the definition of a dot product . (2 .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 04) . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. 1 02) gives (2 . 1 03) by f3 X r l . then u sing (2 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . 1 05 ) and (2 .r 3 ) = 0 . Q and W. (2 . equation ( 1 . who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . 1 0.
1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . 1 09) D.1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e.1 4) (2 .Let the right side of (2 . Since P. 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . Therefore . N and D have the same dire ction. provided N . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec.1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . . 1 0. equation (2 . (2. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. (2 . 1 0 pD = N . (2 . D = N P = O' N (2 . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D.1 3) : (2 . 1 0. 1 0. 1 0.1 5) . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system.(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . 1 0.e . i. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. 2 . 1 0.1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 .
N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . 1 0. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 . check N * O and D .52) we can write i X h = p. Q and W are orthogonal.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors.r t ) f2 + ( rt .r2 ) f3 ] (2 . The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2.1 9) Since P. (2.1 9) to find W. (2 . 1 0.1 8) to find Q. and (2 . 1 020) Thus. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . ( f  r + e) . 1 020) to find P. D and S ve ctors. (2 .1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1 6) . to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N.1 7) to find e. 1 0. 1 0.1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . P = Q X W. 1 0. Before solving the problem. However .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. 1 0.1 8) N (2 . N > o. N and S vectors. Therefore. 1 01 0) to find p.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 1 0. 1 0. since NeQ = pS. Then use (2 . (2 . From equation ( 1 . 1 02 1 ) . (2 .
1 025) . b) c O .(h .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . Using the identity .( a ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. 2 . (h xr r = + (a . = p.E. 1 024) (2 . ON (2 . v = eP.Sec . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 .. D X r + JJ{. 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. h X (h h ) v .h = P. 1 0. e) We can write h v v = . so c) b . v) h and h .
using the stated tests. The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . = 0 for coplanar vectors. Form L = = 6. 1 02 6) Thus. possible two body orbit . 4 . Finally . 1 . shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. to find any of the three velocities directly . but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . This method . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. find v2 : 2. O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. N and S vectors. v2 � + L S r2 • . This is not exactly true. Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. Test: 0 10 . 2 L + LS (2 . proceed as follows : For example . N=FO.
Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . r 1 and r2 .Sec.0471 O U = 0 . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. Form the D . the semilatus rectum. and the timeofflight between these po sitions.047 1 = . r1 r2 r3 = 1 . and S vectors: D= N S 1 . This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution .0774J 0.9000J + 0. Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). P = 0= N  2. period and the velocity vector at position two . 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. eccentricity. If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors.000K = 0_700J .039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 .8000K = 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. 2 . 9701 = 2.97 .5000K Find : P. Since 010.0." Thus. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth. N .
379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = . 1r/{: 6.576J . 2 S . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 .960 DU/T U (4. then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .657K D U /T U 2 0. . 700J .0804 e = = = 0 .963J . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.270J + 0.270K W= N.4 to solve for the elements. 0408 1 1 .1 .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = . 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.97 o lP = a = 1 .497 9. = .041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.963K N 1 .0.0.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .67 TU (89.0.
optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . r = pL [�. However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. (2 . 3. ° 2 . L. 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. then ' . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . j = 1. (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background .Sec. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. If we let L . In either case .g . As a result . (X1 ' < \ � . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s .:S :J: JS L K . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. 2. and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . [:i:n :: :.1 ) (2 .7 2). Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . 2 . Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite .z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. = OJ + R j . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch.6 2 : 1 1 . 1 1 2) r . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. 1 1 .
p. f f. 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . . ' ' :.. 0 (2 . R and R are known at time t2 .. • 00 .1  R ) r3 .1 . \' P2 i �� G ". p. L. 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch .. however . • ' I . . ':./  L .. \ •. \ . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . The vectors L. say the middle ob servatio n . \ Figure 2.r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . \ [L. L. are not known . : '< ' . � .. r u.J V I . . �J 1  .[. . I . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . p and r. . �� I 1 " _ . (2 . 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. 1 1 3) (2 .' ' " ': .
t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t 1 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t 1 ) ( t2 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t } ) (t 3 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t. t2 and t3 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t3 ) (2 .t 1 ) (t 3 .t 3 ) (t.t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .t 3 ( t 1 . Since we have the value of L at. 2 .t2 ) .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 .t2 ) (t.t 1 . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t2 ) ( t} .t 3 ) L2 (2. 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t2 L3 ( t 3 .three t�es.t 2 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector . 1 1 6) + 2t . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t 3 ) ( t } .Sec. t2 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =. t } .t2 ) ( t 1 .t 1 ) ( t3 .t3 ( t 2 . 1 1 .t 1 ) ( t.
1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. 2 . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . I L .u R Ir3 I + . .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. + . D reduces to L D =2 L I L . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. L J I (2 . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . It should be noted.u L /r 3 . . L K + . p.. 1 1 6) and (2 . L L L K K K J ..u L 1 / r 3 L J + . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. in fact . however. 4 Equation (2 .L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . better yet . For the time being. p.1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . This.. that if more than three observations are available . LI . p' and r. 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f.ons (2 . it is evident that L Dp = .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . L J .u R Ir3 J + . 1 1 5 ) .
1 1 . .1 2) . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. 1 1 . L K .1 0) and (2 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 2). 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . p and r.. R R I . . From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . Substituting equation (2 . R R . O O.1 0) into (2. 2 . If we do this we find that . 1 1 . is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. 0. 1 1 5). 1 1 . 1 1 . R . R J . J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2.. .L L L J K I p .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 .1 1) Op = . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2.1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. L K L J L I K (2.4 Solving for Velocity . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . L J L I K J!. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . 2 . Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. r2 = pL RI = + p (2.1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2.Sec .
As a matter of fact . 2 (2 . 1 1 . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. Laplace ' s method fails . (2 . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts.5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . 1 1 . P.1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . 1 1 . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . ° 3 . ° . 1 1 .2). a . D. This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date .1 3) for p. Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . k. 1 1 . a3 . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. El.For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . 2 . E l . To obtain the velocity vector . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . such as P.1 4) p 2.
::"P .::"P 3 .Sec.g. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. v Kl at t = to are correct. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. . It may happen . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. t3 . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. 1 Computing Residuals. r K ' v " vJ . The question then arises. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. 1 21) . t4 . 2. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . Assuming that the residuals are small. 2 The Differential Correction equations. 2. 1 2. however . p) will differ from the computed data.::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. . a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only .::"P 2 ' . 1 2. ts and t6 ' These predictions are . Doppler rangerate. of course." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. For example . The six residuals are �1 ' . \ ' t2 .
ap1 . such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. however. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j .1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc.Vj' D. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient.VI . All that is required is to introduce a small variation. usually 6 for orbit problems) n . for example . D.. D. NI . 2.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. .) Then. r K " ' arl D. V K ) . . The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon.r l " v K )p1 ( r l . 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. . by trial and error. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. reduce the residuals to zero . Nj. 1 2. With the aid of a digital computer. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. equations (2 .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . 1 2. The inversion of equations (2 . . i. rj . 1 2 . The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation.VK . The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method.e. NK.
. minimum as described above . since p 2 below) . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements.8 1 ) .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . a and (3 are the elements (two here . for 90% confidence . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. Solve equation (2 .. 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . called the root me an square (RMS) . In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. zero . for the exactly determined case (p or b. 4. Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. use 0. = = n) . If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. 2 .g . . Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). 2 .tb each of the elements measured. Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. 3 . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2.
lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 .Assume equal confidence in all data. the partial derivatives are : . 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch .:. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2).2. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. ex VI.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Choo se ex and for the first estimates.
Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . Thus. 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 . {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 2. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 .Sec.
2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. we will use a simple . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . 6 orbit elements) would be used. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. In practice. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . To illustrate the method involved. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. yet still overspecified number of measurements.474 Xi 3 .360 = .474 and f3 = 3. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution.
000 50.000 1 9. 3 .1 05 9. 0 35 3. 969 ____  Vi .Sec.0 01 1 3. .1..474 4 0 07 19.934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .500 8.. 2 . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.866 4 x .1 26 0. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 . E ( V 1._1. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .) 2 n . 934 = 1 . 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l . ( V i Yi ) 2 4. aa .007 0.y.828 0 0.Vi 2.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.000 n = Vi 0.865 49. 474 x 3 .
056 ""' T .1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .360.. 81 30 8.021 070 20. {3 = {3 new .0.1.304 = .380708 A = 40.304 0.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. 1 22) we have £::.062 . which is larger than what we started with.36 .001 07 33 b = 0.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = . 1 75 ] 5. 0.2. 105.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 . 1 96 = 3.670 3. Thus (X new = ...474 + . 75 = lOll :0 17 """'. The second iteration yields: £::. 0 18 0.l Now using (2 .031 8.027 12."""'" �T�� .(X 26 3.3.z 10.733.039 £::. so we iterate.4 1 69. = 3. 1 961 0. 27 A WA = [12.
00 1 .5 8 2 . The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . 2 . 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. and finally.Sec . 7 35 x 3 . 2 .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. however. in theory. By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. 1 2. the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. . This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0.4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its.735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . 038 [3 = 3 . However. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . 2.000 . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . during orbital decay. W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. 038 .5 8 1 . In practice .
1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). In addition. At present. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. 1 The Spacetrack System. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. These detection radars with a range of 2. 1 Radar Sensors. The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. 2 2. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. spacecraft failure diagnosis. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. the precomputed 2. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring.5 003. and midcourse ICBM inter ception.500 miles make about 1 2 .000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. antisatellite targeting. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . 1 3. the White Sands Missile Range . forming "clouds" of space debris. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. 2 .1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. 1 4 .
2. Figure 2.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. while three are located at Clear. One of the earlier detection radars. One FPS49 . and is on active spacetrack alert. Alaska. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. New Jersey. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. the FPS43.Sec. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. Greenland. is now on active Spacetrack alert. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. Turkey.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings.
gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. United Kingdom. In addition. 2 Figure 2. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously.142. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. Florida. This BMEWS station at Clear. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . Alaska. Alaska. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. under the 140ft radome at the left.
14. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. 2.143. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. 2.Sec. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. When two or . It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground.2 Radio Interferometers. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere.
3 Optical Sensors. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. Considering the type of observational data received. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . Alberta. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. In addition to these . 2 . The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . the semimajor axis. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . 1 4 . two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. and therefore . SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. is well established. Canada .
A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. Alberta.145.Sec. As a result. it is . 1 0 Under favorable conditions. and the lighting correct. seeing conditions must be good. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. 2. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars.400 miles. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . A separate optical system superimposes.
it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. is relatively accurat e . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . on the other hand . In any case . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack .1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . Massachusett s . takes time. Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge .000 meters. Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. 2 . Doppler rangerat e info rmation. Further . 1 4 . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. 4 Typical Sensor Errors. One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . For detection radars. I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. New Mexico site. precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . in any case . .
The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .5 Future Developments.7 seconds in time would remain.14. nonuniform gravitational fields. 2. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein.Sec 2. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2.146. lunar attraction.
Operating in the SHF b and . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . of the target . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . but it also record s target tracks for later playback . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . howeve r . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . Many improvements . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . In t he system under development . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. Now. The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . Theoretically . a continuousw ave . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . p.
1 5 . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . respectively with a launch a zimuth . F igure 2 .1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . i. The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . 1 5 . o f the orbit . For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. 1 5 . 1 5 . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth.1 Ground trace sat ellite is. As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . 18cP  2 . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . The arc CB which forms the • . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . 1 5 2 . 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 ..Sec. 2 . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An..
cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . 0 i. therefore .e . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . i : c os i = . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . 1 5 . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . L o?" If i is to be minimized . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. 1 5 ·3 . A direct orbit require s . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . betwe en 00 and 1 80° . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . f3 ' should 0 be 90° .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . For a due east launch equat ion (2 . 2. this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . f3 ' be easterly .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . that the launch azimuth.
Figure 2 .Sec.2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . su r face . 1 5 . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . 2 .
1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. e = . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. i = 90° .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. = (partial answers : 2.3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. 885. J . Englan d . = u nd ef i ned ) = . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a .7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. Colorado ( 1 04.7071 + .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . a solar day or sidereal day? b . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2.89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d.5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . Which takes longer .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy . 9 7 0 . 2 EXERCISES 2 .
e. Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. c . Determine the orbital e lements.8 I J P = . 2. Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction.Ch. .2K DU . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . 2 + b . OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system.8 2075 . 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . 1.) Determine p.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . 3<. 82 u a . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. i . (Answer [partial] e = .
2. 2 . b . C alifornia . U se of a computer is sugge sted . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le .3 5 35 3995 0 1 .4 1 4225 1 1 1 .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . 1 0 January 1 9 70. b . 6464495 a. PST . Units are earth canonical units. the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . LST = 63 . 1 7 1 . equatorial .3 1 065 1 5 0. 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . p = 1 . the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis .5 0 West . W. Q. (Answer : r = 1 .system along the unit ve ctor s P. Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . a. the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis .7 6) . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans.060668 8 3 1 . r3 r l I J K 1 . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . 1 0 2. makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. b ut not nece ssary. 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . 2. circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d .4 1 4202 0. 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. r2 1 . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 .
C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.20709623 0 .89497724 0 0 0 1 .89497 879 0.5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .8 0 .1 .0 7 .0 0 . fl f2 f3 0 .0 0 .207 1 25 5 1 .707 1 0 1 0 1 0. fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f. 1 4  DU/TU.97 2 . fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.565 6808 1 0 0 . DU * 2.62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .8 0 0 .2K with a velo city o f AI . 3 6 395 5 26 1 .5 65 6808 1 0.707 1 1 25 5 0.09497879 1 .0 2 .9 1 420062 4 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct . B .2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.9 1 42 3467 2 .n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.94974 1 7 6 .0 1 . .Ch.6 0.97 0 1 .7 0 0 e.0 0 2 .6 0.0 0 2 . fl f2 f3 3 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .094964 1 8 0.0 1 . fl f2 f3 d.0 2 .0 7 .62 1 34384 c.
9 7 . ( A ns. ___ e.1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . b. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. . Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . Obj ect c. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. east and zenith (up) component s? c.75 K D U /T U )  .0078 J 0. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. 2 a . Obj ect vernal equinox direction. What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d .17 p 0. * 2 . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. Express the coordinates. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates.620 1 I 0. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . d . has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . v = 0. Obj ect b . 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion .
Memo ires de 1 78 0 . 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 1 0 . No 6 . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . Paul G .1 1 1 . Edmond Halley . 8 . November 1 9 67 . pp 1 08 ." Vol 48 . . K. L. 6. S . Laplace . 1 96 3 . Jr . Inc. 4. Armitage . London . New York . 7 . Baker . Moulton . G ." in The World of Math ematics . Academic Pre ss. Henize . Forest Ray . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . E scobal. Pedro Ramon . New York . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. Inc. Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. 1 962. New York and London . Telescope . NY . Simo n and S chuster . 2 . Pierre Simo n . 1 95 6 . New York . Space/A ero na utics . E . 1 965 . Vol 3 . 1 95 7 . 1 9 66. NY. "The A erospace Vehicle s . D avis . C ambridge . The M acmillan Company. Dover Publications . Robert M . Navy Space Surveillance System. Sky Publishing Corp . NY . 5 . C . Thomas Nelson and 3. Thoma s. 9 . C leeto n . NY . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . Newman . John Wiley & Sons. Gauss. Sons Ltd ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . 1 9 1 4. New York .Ch. Carl Friedrich." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . Jame s R . "Space Traffic Surveillance . Second Revised Edition . Angus. Mass. Institute of the Aero space S cience s . U. C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . 1 9 67 .
Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. NY . 2 1 1 . No 20 . Roger R. . Bate. 1 967 . California. 17. Davies. "Future Radar Developments. Gerald C. the A stronautical Sciences. P." The Vol 1 4. Colorado. No 5 . "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New York. NY. Journal of Oct 2. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. 1 6. 1 9 66. Inc. S. Thomas J. 1 966. p 39 . Vo1 40. McGrawHill. New York. Cheetham. SepOct 1 967. Briskman. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. 1 966. Sunnyvale. NY. 1 5 . New York . 1 2 . New York. USAF Academy. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . and Eller." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. 1 3 . R. 1 4. 1 962." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. 1 962. Carson. Air Force Systems Command. NY. Electronic . "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. R. 1 970. Robert D ." Satellite Control Facility.
the idea seems to have been forgotten. Goddard. or rather as many semidiameters of the earth.000 or more miles. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. those bodies. ) 00 . and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. for the next 250 years. and the different force of gravity in different heights. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. 1 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. 1 0. and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. or variously eccentric. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . After that . It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . according to their different velocity. as of 5 .
was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. On 4 October 1 95 7 . For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . Project Orbiter. 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. However. still in its infancy . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. 1 . particularly if it is manned . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . 3 . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. Manned spaceflight . since it contemplated the use of military hardware . o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. Rather .research. 3 . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets.
...: fiD It: 0 It: <t .::: 0(I) "" 20 10 ... 71.25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" .. � ee. . � '" ..' � S' (1) 0 ... YEAR a YEARS . (I) CD � ... . � .. .rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION ..V'h WillI e: � . VI/II � V � .(/} � � (I) E � � .J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl .J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E . .///11// ..EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr.. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ ..... c. AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 . mJ77/1/..+ :=.n w .H O URS WEEK . 20K (. ..rrrj... I MONTH I .50K �.. 11 L . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N .
p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . Figure 3 . m . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. Figure 3 . 1 . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . 3 . m . 1 . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . a p ogee 1 00 n . 1 ·2 . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . stated. m .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch .
there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . 3 . The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point.Sec. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. as you can see from Figure 3 . The vehicle is not allowed to coast . 1 2 . The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. 1 3 . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 .!f? <I • _ Figure 3 .. It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 .or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f.
This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . Figure 3 . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). As a result.1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 1 5 . You . 1 . The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . 3 . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . therefore.3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth .
D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.9 r�=r�rr.���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.2 . 1 > ..J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N . 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+..."� ill Q rn o I � fS .:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�.J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*. 3 . "::> Figure 3 .Sec..
J 5 "' C iii 0.1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0. I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 . "' "' ... 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .
67 0 /day From Figure 3 . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits.40 or greater than 1 1 6.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . Figure 3 . a. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . which also is due to oblateness. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63. What is the inclination of the orbit? b.6 0 . completing one revolution every 90 days. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . The ascending node moves to the west . It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. Therefore = .6. 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days.60 . With this perturbation . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. 3 .site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 .Q 360 ° per 90 days :.40 and 1 1 6.Sec. and oppo.
unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude.2. 2 . If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame .inches from the surface. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. 1 . If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator.2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. ground trace of a synchronous satellite.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). 1 The Synchronous Satellite. 3 Figure 3 . of course.1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . however. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China.6 earth radii above the surface . 1 2 this would be 2*. On the scale of Figure 3 . There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the .21 shows why." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. not the case . 3 . Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . This is.000 nm altitude . 3 . Figure 3. This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. Of course. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. unfortunately. for example . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. This. The first stage booster climbs 3 .300 nm or about 5 . The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious.
curve is \ " " .Sec.. Dot ted grou nd trace . 3.. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit.2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. .. .. the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit.21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically.22 Ascent ellipse . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr. At apogee of the ascent ellipse. intervals . burn """ " " .� � Figure 3 . reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more....
for some other reason.. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. a? v.v (3. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 .32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . = _ r 2a . but . 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. 2vdv . (3 .da a2 = fJ. 3 . 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude .31) If we solve for '.  fJ. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. a very precise orbit is required. dv. Usually this is not serious.3 .34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. at appropriate points in the orbit. speed. fJ. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 .33) or = da 2a2 vdv . we get a change in . it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. and flightpath angle. as they are called .1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. /:. (3. we get (3 . This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis.
a2 6. 2 The Hohmann Transfer.34) for small but finite 6.semimajor axis. Since we know r l .34). to the large orbit.1 .h a �  da. 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. Since the major axis is 2a. therefore . called Hohmann transfer orbits. a 6. 4 Jl. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are ." 3 . Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. along the transfer ellipse. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. 3 . the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . 3 .3. For example . It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. whose radius is rl .v) . of the orbit given by equation (3 . We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. whose radius is r2 .35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory.V v P P (3. Similarly. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl .
/2 a . since p.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3.31 (3. 2at Figure 3 .37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.31 &. &.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch . its speed is . (3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.36) = r i + r2 =  and. 3 the transfer orbit.
i n our example .1 0) (3 . Find the minimum /::. ra = 3 DU.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. 3 I N. The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section .3.V required to double the altitude of the satellite . to VI ' So . the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. Although.Sec.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. For the transfer traj ectory.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases.39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. & t = � = . Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it.V implies a Hohmann transfer . 3 . Minimum rp = 2 DU.3.
3.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .3.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits. I::.V1 = .068 D U/TU V cs =.3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .577 DU/TU r2 2 I::. Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits. 1 29 DU/TU = 3.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch . Figure 3.346 ft/sec 3 .V2 = .VTOT == . I t is obvious from Figure 3 . We can express this condition mathematically as r = .061 DU/TU I::.� r 1 1 +e p p (3.313) . 3 V cs 1 = (il = .707 DU /TU vi r.JfF"= .
p p p  = . �. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. (3. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above.1 4) (3.Sec. respectively . ht. p p (p.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. Knowing and e. To satisfy both conditions. I &. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.3. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r.1 5) .3. and the angular momentum. 3 . Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. in the transfer orbit. / 2a .33) and interpret them graphically. we can compute the energy. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 .
Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit . __ Figure 3.. .33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r .1 is just the flightpath angle . p r2. we get (3. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. its speed is (3 .1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.39) The angle between v1 and va. </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.34 /::.
e.4. 1 Simple Plane Change .3. (3. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles.1 . or it can rotate the line of apsides. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. more simply.31 6) Now.V.310) when the flightpath angle .34. the b. together with the b. as shown at the right of Figure 3 . form an isosceles vector triangle. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.V. after applying a finite b. If. b.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . A velocity change . b.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.1 7) reduces to equation (3. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. and obtain directly for circular orbits.1 'I' .41) 3.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . We can solve for the magnitude of b.41 .V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the .3. 3 .Sec. (3 . then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. b. assuming that we know v and e. it is not surprising that equation (3 .V. Or. This is called a simple plane change. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle .4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".V using the law of cosines. 4 . we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . 3.V required. ¢l ' is zero.
Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . . for example . Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . Determine the total b. The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . DU circular orbit. Therefore . makes b.vrequired to accomplish the mission.41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). calculate the additional b. a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. 3 Figure 3 .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit.V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . A plane change of 60 0 .V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. b . Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . a. If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit.
4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a. 1 +� 1 .Sec. .__ = .953 DU/TU L. Therefore at = r2 .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) . 3.0. 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.Vl = V l . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .270.Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . & t = = �= . The given information is: h I = 0.V l 1 .Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.. DU 2 1 Hence .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L. I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.1 = \1'1 .618 = 1 .1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.
4) (. 4 .112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .2(.042 ft/sec Therefore v = . 3 and we must use equation (3. 3 87 .704 DU/TU 18.626) = 0 . 447)(. 1 5 DU/TU 6. + v�s2. v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.V2 = y'l'5= 0.(0.= 0 . 6.2 .4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.V22 v.387 DU/TU = 1 0.626) = 0.447 DU/TU 2 1 .626 vcs2 = V't.447) (.V2 .447) 0. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 . 2 + 0.317) to determine 6. 31 7 + .253 ft/sec .
4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .Sec.0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 . F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .447 ) ( .4. 3.078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .1 ) t:::.
a. 0. What is the minimum 6. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.76.e.5 DU . 0 . 3 EXERCISES 3 .6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 .5 DU/TU.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.449 DU/TU) 3. 3 . a plane change or an orbit transfer. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 .21 . i.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time .5 b. (Ans. r p = 1 DU e = 0. i changedall other parameters remained the same. 3.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. a = 2.V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. Ch . Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of .. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2.2 DU and 4 DU respectively.4 Refer to Figure 3 . 1 1 DU and e = 0.2 Calculate the total 6. c.
Ch . C ompare this with the I::. 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . 34DU2 (fU d. P = 1.9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . 0 . * 3 . 95 DU 8 = 0. 5 & Design a satellite .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 .v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU.56 c. The . (Ans. Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned.7 3 .412 5 3 . 9 Calculate the total l::. 3 . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . 8 Compute the minimum I::. 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . = 0. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . using Hohmann transfers. 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0.1 DU 8 1 = 0.
NY. 1 96 1 .1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Sir Isaac. 4 . . University of California Press. Newton . 1 962. V2 . New York . Willy. 1 . 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . Space Planners Guide. and Maud W. The Viking Press. Dornberger. 1 9 60. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. NY . 2nd revised ed. Air Force Systems Command . Missiles. 1 July 1 965 . The Viking Press. Vol 2. Robert M . Rockets. DC . Walter .. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Headquarters. Baker. New York . Ley. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Principia. Makemson. and Space Travel. New York and London . Washington . A cademic Pre'ss. L. 3 . 5 . 1 95 5 .
was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. . . or perhaps usurping them . by taking the observations under my care .. This was Kepler 's first great problem. . . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. presupposed the solution of the first. of the heirs. . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. Albert Einstein ! 4 .2 1 77 .CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . . the determination of the true movement of the planets. . or lack of circumspection. Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. I quickly took advantage of the absence. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. the solution of the second problem. including the earth .
and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . I + . trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space." Kepler points out in his Preface. but above all to convey to him the reasons. detour. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. whole grand entertainment would be lost. . 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . Thus.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . 1 .1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. we not only forgive them. When Christopher Columbus. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. "What matters to me. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. subterfuges. . "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say.
as it were. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. never noticing his error. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors.Sec 4. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. His results. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. however. with the warning: "Ye physicists. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. . Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. almost with masochistic delight. prick your ears. But then without a word of transition. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. that. again incorrectly . there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. for now we are going to invade your territory. perihelion and aphelion. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. . At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. without benefit of any preconceived notions. Moreover.
2 Finally. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. . . a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. 4 Figure 4 .. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . as I shall prove further down . But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg.. " Finally. He had . with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . he settled on the oval.
: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. made a mistake in geometry. . The climax to this comedy of errors. whereas the two . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did.y it should move in an orbit at all. mine] . : . Ah. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. return e d by stealth through the backdoor.' " . . have persisted to this day. which I had rejected . . are one and the same . I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses.. de rive the .2 T I M EO F . he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. hypothesis.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY ..F L I G HT . until I went nearly mad.e . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. In this chapter we will. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end. . . Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. That is to say.Sec 4. I thought and searched. 4. but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. . but he did not know how. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . . came when. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. You: are . Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . in a moment of despair.. and velocity and the timeofflight. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·.and chased away. believing that this was a quite different . disguising itself to be accepted. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. . . time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb.
e . It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically. (4. ''"'''"'..22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . i.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY . 4. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area.2 .21 Area swept out by r . We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse.2..1 ) . 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit .. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus. 7T a b .A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . 4 existed . The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. A ' in Figure 4. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use . We will pursue a lengthier. In going part way around an orbit.. but more motivated.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. say from periapsis to some general point. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4.2.l .1 ) i s the area � . where the true anomaly is v .2.. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. P.
From analytical geometry. \/2 a2 _ . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. E E Circle : .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse.l. the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 .Sec 4 . 22 Eccentric anomaly. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . perpendicular to the major axis.F L I G HT .Z x2 + . 2 T i M EO F . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. A dotted line .
From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis.22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae .�rea PSV minus the dotted area.From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . It Tollows directly from equation (4. . A2 .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . 4 Hence .a E) .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . oos E and whose (4. Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 .
Sec 4. in order to use equation (4.24). E. to its corresponding true anomaly. whose base is (a CDS E). From Figure 4.e si n Ai yields E) .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .F L I G H T . substituting into equation (4.we get � ( E .22. v.24) E .e si n E ) I (4. Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally. minus the triangle .e sin E (4.2 ." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.27) (4. we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.2 T I M EO F . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v . Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) . cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' . Obviously . Kepler introduced the definition M = It .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.27) reduces to (4.e si n E (4.28) . and whose altitude is (a si n E )." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E . which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians).26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .T = 4 ( E .
24 right.[ 2kn + (E .T) .T ) .T o ) . when v is between o and n. In general we can say that t  to = 4. so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .28). + t .to = lP (t .T) .24 left). In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a .(to .e Sin . from Figure 4.Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. E Figure 4 .29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v. 4 E E. we can say that t .( t o . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.( Eo  E) (4.24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.to = ( t . Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4. The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .
82 ( E .2.8 E ) dE (4.2.Sec 4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.8 si n E ) V r .1 2) (4.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .1 1 ) easily integrable .E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.82 f: ( 1 .1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4. From equations in section 1 .F L I G H T .2.J1=82 d E (4.2 T I M EO F.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.2.1 3) (4.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.2.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t . From equation (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.7 . .2.21 6) V 1 .2.21 2).+ COS (4. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
( 1 .1 3) ro va v t" .4. C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn .4 4. va' a and the trial value of x. 4. In one sense . An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known .aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. a trialanderror solution is indicated.47) has been used to eliminate z. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. a. Fortunately . 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa.4. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given.1 2) is transcendental in x. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign .Sec 4. Equation (4 . But now we have a problem.2 Solving for x When Time is Known . since equation (4. (4 . Figure 4. Therefore .1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .4.
Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar. Substituting for r in equation (4.41 6) dx x . Thus A.4.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .1 = x 2 C + x .3 The f and 9 Expressions. the four vectors fO ' (4.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y .41 9) . we must then calculate the corresponding and v. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. With x known.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . and A and B are not colinear.32).41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible.42. 1 dt r (4. B and C are coplanar vectors. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. (4. 4 .1 5) where t is the given timeofflight. xn .4. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4.4. the iteration may be terminated. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .
. g .4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4.. f.1 9) gives Sec 4 .1 8) into equation (4. x. g ...4.4. = fg. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity. the left side of the O ... f and g. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. We can isolate the scalar .420) This equation shows that f . Crossing equation (4.where f. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 . The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable . equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q. f and 9 are not independent...4.1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h . g. First.. however.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w . We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates. in equation (4.
4. x + Co cos v = . o . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x. . x wYw . Xw . (4. 4 h (4.42 1 ) We can isolate (4.425).426) . yw x .e2 )  r .425) Combining equations (4.r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .a l e + Sln Y. ) .w o Yw h (4.34) and (4.1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.4. . From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw . (4.423) (4.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .
a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum..sin r  � (4.43 0) 0 1 f C a = . r.a  mitions of z.a Va 2 = 1 9.32). 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.43 1 ) .427) and using the definition of the universal variable . Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4. x = 0 at t = o .426) through (4 ....43 0) f (4.42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4.. x =� cos x + c r . e quation (4..Sec 4 . ro ro . ro .. x + co h = . (4.. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4...(e sin � + cos � )..429) into equation (4.426) and (4.. e quation (4. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .4.429) Substituting equations (4.Va • W .42 1 ) c /Ii.. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C ..1 ) .428) yw .
A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch ..] � a .436) . r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §. r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .32) (4.4·3) � r o . � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .4.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.433) (4. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.4..4.435) (4.1 ) and (4 .
x + Co cos [ � . its definition. if we are going to use equation (4.434) .[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4. la .1 8).4. in any of the equations where z appears.e E). 4 .1 9) .Sec 4. The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter.4.43 1 ) and (4.1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit . 5 .43 5) and (4.34) (4.43 6) . 1 The Physical Significance of and z. the expression (t would replace 4 . note that equation (4. then compute r and r from equation (4 . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme .4 . but we have not said what and z represent.5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. to 4. then compute v from equation (4. Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . Si n va = Va =  c o s . 3 . Also.4. 2 . can be used. 5 .420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions.4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem.1 ) Va = _ E . Obviously .x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . From and determine r and a. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. Va x (4. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. Note also that if were not zero . 4 . 1 . Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4. Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z.
we get x= D . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .53) Subtracting equation (4. therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.57) . (4 .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.3 4) and (4.E o l .204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . (4 . we can conclude that = V'ii I F .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.56) la.4. + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 . 1 (4.5 4) (4. To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4. 5 ·1) at time x = 0.F 0 1  Va I E . Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f.53) from (4 .1 3) . (4 .Do .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r. since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ . a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 .52) whenever is negative .
5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.5.to 4 . from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer.5 9) . 5 . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. a. In computing the semimaj or axis. Therefore . I z = I F .F a ) '· z is zero.8) Figure 4 . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4. If imaginary. 5 .1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . so Sec 4.when z is positive .
( t a to) .. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X.. wherever it occu rs. and . z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 .:z. convergence will be extremely rapid.. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. a = ± x 3 . if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value.5 . I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. Use this for a first guess .P)/ 2. C = 1 ... since X = foE. then Z will be a large negative number .6F. with £X. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result.v y� ( .a � eFz ± 2x 3 . In the case of elliptical orbits.fZi3 = q . 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. so s i n h fi .ji11. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. / ( .e . When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4.All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a.cosh ...5.a vG ) . Furthermore . is large. we get for elliptical orbits.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . so S � V0r eFz 2 .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z . Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. .
to is positive.Q) eV La 2J.r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.t o ) sign (t . recognizing that X will be positive when (t ..sign (t .1 1 ) .tohATci ( l .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term. where appropriate . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .t o ) Fa . vice versa .a eFz sign ( t .t o ) x ::::: sign (t .r:z .sign in the above expression . 5 .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r . X will be positive and . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence . Thu s . we get � S .£.5.t o ) � ( 1 . so Sec 4 .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.tJ is positive .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before.L ( t . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the . Therefore.t o ) #a ( 1 ] . 5 . 4 .t o ) 2x 3 � + t . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z. 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .a . Anytime t . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4. .
use equations (4.1 3) COS .1 1 ) We can write equation (4.4..s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .1 0) as C where = i C = .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. = Similarly.0 6 + .". .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive.(1  ..1 1 ) . the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.4.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .1 1 ) as But i v:z . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S . 1 .1 0) (4. use equations (4. 4 (4 .4. so an equivalent expression for S is S � s . If z is near zero . s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.cosh .Ji .s i n i V} = i si n i B .5.5.7! + .5.5. if z is negative .4.4.1 0) and (4. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0. we can write equation (4. z cos i � . . (4.51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .1 2) and (4 . w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .1 3).4.
52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .5. (4Ir) 2 . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ . 0 .. .1 4) ·· 1 .Sec 4.5.Ji! + Ji!. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity . Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . ...1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity . 0 'j (4..5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z . . The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 ..+ .� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4.. (611)2 etc.
I dS = _ ( C .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM. we get I � = fz.( 1 . 39 5 . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.[i) z ] (4 . va > � a= :l = 1 .s i n z dz 2z [ 0.2C ) . Find r.12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 .266  .zS .5.5 . 1 . 1 K .3S ) . it is not surprising that the derivatives. 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x. dC /d z and dS /d z .21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . Given ra = I D U va = 1 . 4 functions . va = Therefore & = 1. and v at = t=2 T U . 2& .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . t=2 T U9 ra = I.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .)] P (4.c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. r a . Differentiating the definition of C.
1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 . using a slide rule .1 .222 1 . we can make a 2 __ = 1 .1 4) and (4.. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.279 1 . solving for t . 58+. tn toward t = ZTU.222 = 1 .4.8 1 6 1 . 2 2 x 3 ' etc.1 .277 dXn 1 . X l Zl y"""a6E or x ..58) 2 1 ..6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.4. y'ii"(t .973 a Using equation (4. Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.58 1 .12. 1 .8 1 6 x n+1 . 705 .8 1 6 1 . we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ . 24 1 = 1 ..000 1 ..8 2 1 1 .t.007 2.222 Repeating the process.58 1 ..821 1 .705 2 .Since x = and .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2. 58+ .t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.266 ( 1 . xn tn fit After three iterations.82 1 1 .t o x_ 21Tya lP :.
we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . for the parabola..JPt::.2) . You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F.6._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. 4.2. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. f = 0. since e = 1 . f. But .1 7). E and F.0. we will derive expressions for xw .6 ..1 we can see that X w = r cos v . (4.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . and 9 = 0.32 1 1 + 1 . f = 0.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. Finally.321 .8801 Ch .. But first some useful identities will be presented.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0.Then from the definitions of f.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0.6. g.6. E and F. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D. D. v. yw and r in terms of D. g = 1 . 236K g. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v.. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit. 880 1 1 . 4 4.1 ) From Figure 4. 1 24. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. E or F. as D = v'P tan � 2 . r = _.
61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.6.65) .Sec 4 .1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . (4.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system. the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .1 ) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.
2' 1 Q Figure 4 . r • v. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. in Figure 4 .1 ) . (4. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known.6.62 Perifocal components of r .s i n p v = ffp ta n v .Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. 4 rr.J7!. The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown. For the eccentric anomaly . 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .66) v . Using r • r = and equation (2.
yw Just as we did for the parabola. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4.6. e illS E we get another useful  �. (4.8) and simplifying.67) and (4 . (4.24) .62.6. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle . since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .67) (a si n E ) a But . we can say that I yw = Q.Sec 4 . 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .1 0) e sin E also.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E .69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. I Substituting from equations (4. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . M  (4.
6. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly..e Si n r E Finally . The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4. we obtain E = .6.!.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.1 0) . 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4..1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation. solving this equation for • v . we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E . F is imaginary.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4.:.28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4. E is imaginary . v. e cos E from equation (4.. when E is a real number.1 3) .6. is given by e si n rr = r = $a . The . when F is a real number .6...22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.
Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF.e) .Il a •v (4. may be written as (4.6 . From equation (4. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic. 6.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . 6.6.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. 4. so (4.1 8) .range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity.a r  (4.el = a (cos i F . 6.  But i si n iF = si n h F. The rectangular components of a general position vector.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E . But l cos i F = cosh F . In Figure 4 .67) we can write Sec 4 . Similarly. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F .61 6) r e cosh F = 1.6.e ) .2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':. so Yw = a � sinh F.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. r.1).
626) ._ c��V P IW (4. 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.JiLP.ji! sin v p (4. so 1 � L (I .p .A F U N CT I O N O F T. and note that h = .6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4. (4.. .:. where tv = v .63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .. 623) . we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = .P ( 1 . Figure 4. r0 · = 1 .218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y ..1 .c o s tv ) (4..... ( .V _ 2 1 .. .vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf .V.42 1 ) . 4 +..625) (4.. V..x". 62 1) (4.. tan p /:. the rectangular components of the velocity vector .: o s /:.c os I 9 ' = v'f.. are yw = r sin v (4.624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) .I M E Ch .
e cos E o ) .a E sin E .E ) .Ji!. Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .a ( 1 .6. r (4.e) v! fJa( l . 629) f = 1 .68) . (4.!Ji8 sin L'!.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .E) 9 r _ 0 j.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .I Jlla sin E.e 2 ) cos E .4.e2 ) v.63 1 ) (4.( L'!.E ) f = .63 2) .1 (4.cos L'!. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation. yw 9 and (t .e2 ). From equations (4.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .6.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o . Similarly.1 0).67) and (4.e2 ) = 1.� ( 1 .6.63 0) (4.. 627) But.to ) . we get f = a( cos E .e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .sin L'!.E . = .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4. Thus Xw Sec 4. o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.cos L'!. E rr . using equation (4. (4.
A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some . � V a3 ( t .629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E. ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4. 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4. Kepler himself realized this.2 6) is one equation in one unknown . The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .6. In classical terms. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . (4. of course .6F ) .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .(1 E . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm..8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) . and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true.634) (4.  E.26) Even though equation (4. . (4.63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .t o ) .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch .to) . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .63 6) 4.63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself. M can be obtained from = (4. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it. cosh 6F ) .2k7T + M o .
select a new trial value. ' (4.Sec 4 . of course . we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. E n+ l E + M . but this is not very accurate.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M.638) n dM/d E I E=E n .64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y .63 7) Now. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. compute the mean anomaly. M n . 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. that results from this trial value . E It would. � Figure 4.
1 . From fa and va determine r 0' a. 2. where d M / d E l E = En En. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). the true anomaly may be found from equation (4.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. 3 . we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. equation (4. Once E i s determined by any method. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(.4 0) EXERCISES 4.6.4. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value. Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence.1 2) . Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration.e cos En (4. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4.t ' are given. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . It can be used for LW or�E . Determine f and V from equations (4. 5.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. d M = 1 e cos E . e.5 + .4.1 8) and (4. dE Therefore. even when e is nearly 1 . The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola.2. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. Solve for V if needed. p and va· 2 .M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating.1 9).5 cos V DU . t .222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y .  . va and the timeofflight. 4 . e.when e is nearly 1 . however.
5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting.85 TU) 4. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa.6 For the data given in problem 4. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. how should the area of search for x be limited. find r and v for .348J +  1 . Find the values of f. find the universal variable. 4. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. TOF = 5.5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. Explain why this must be so . i. x. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. V = 3481 . Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . glven fO' vO' and t. f = 4 . (partial Ans..3 Given l:J) = ffP. (Ans.Ch . in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P. corresponding to l:J) of 600• .3.4 If. 625) .e.
. == 1 .5 DU. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 .224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. f and g.5 . with a perigee above the north pole. e = . 5. Do the same for problem 4. Develop. Va and t . an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. and give your analytic reasoning behind.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. 4 . gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. (Ans.9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. e = . 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans.51 0) and (4. then . TOF = 2. g. Le. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . 4 4 . Va and w and will solve for f. 1 1 For problem 4.10 rp 4 .73 TV) 4.1 1). 4 . ra == 2. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. 2.99). 5 DU.to and solve for f and v. if X == x (t ) . 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. 1 0. in equations (4. 7 The text. 4 . 9 At burnout.
o 4 . 63 2).1 8).2 . Robert.. r3 fJ. 1 95 9 . Stahlman.630) through (4.r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4.E. A New York.43 5) and (4.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . Albert. 1 963 . A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company.6 TU) . The Sleepwalkers. .to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 .to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . NY. The University of Wisconsin Press..tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. Guidance ... Small. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. New York. Battin.16 * 4. Kepler. equation (4. 4. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D.0 + . 4. Company. LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 2.. 1 964. 1 95 1 .43 6). g. 1 7 Derive the expression for g . Arthur. Wise. 4 . The Macmillan 3 . Madison. NY. Richard H. New York.( t . 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . Koestler. L'. 2. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. Einstein. Philosophical Library. 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f. = . NY. See equations (4. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. f and 9 in terms of (t .I:!:. r.
pp 3093 1 5. Vol 3 1 . 1 1 . H. 7. K. W. California. Herrick. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. 1 2. 1 965. J. Vol 275 .1 92. United States Air Force Academy . pp 1 89. 1 9 1 4. Stumpff." A str. F . Vol 70. Sundrnan. W . Roger R. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships.1 28 . pp 66066 1 . Bate. 1 947." A stron. J. Sperling. 1 965 . pp 1 05 . E.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 8." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. 1 0." A cta Vol 36. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science.ach. Vol 70. 1 965. W. H . . pp 1 08. Unpublished notes. N. "Universal Variables. 4 5 . Moulton. Forest Ray. S. . A n Introduction York." ARS 1. Lemmon. New 6." A stron. H. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. Redondo Beach. Goodyear. 9. 1 9 1 2 .1 79. Brooks. 1 96 1 . K. to Celestial Mechanics. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. Mathmatica. The MacMillan Company. and 1.
1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND .. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. Uranus. But. 227 5. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. in the first year of the 1 9th century. in 1 7 8 1 . before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. a 24yearold German mathematician.
The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. Hegel asserted. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. and for convenience in referring to it later. Because of its importance. no more . and the direction of . Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. but for a different reason." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . If they paid some attention to philosophy . on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. 5. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. The object turned out to be Ceres. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. exactly 1 year later. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . no less.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun."the Gauss problem. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name.
but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case.".1 . / . or the "long way. 2. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . Obviously . .. appears in the denominator of any expression." through an angular change greater than 7r." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. . that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. p. The relationship between the four vectors f l . f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible... . It is not surprising. particularly if the parameter... the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit.21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. therefore. the orbit is a degenerate conic. 5 .. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way.motion. Sec .SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ .. If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). / I I I I I Figure 5 ..
1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f.. r2 P p rI . There are seven variablesf1 .( 1 . (5 . a or �E. From equation (5 . r . Test the result by solving equation (5 .( 1 . (5 . but the first four are known. 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si.cos �v) = 1 .cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent.r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 .y'ii8 .24) Si n �E (5 . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature..22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f.2. what we have is three equations in three unknowns. t.25 ) (5 . 3. a and �E.26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . the solut �on to . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E .22) r2 a ( 1 . Consider equations (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary .23). 2. bv . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 .27) and (5 .cos �E ) . Use equations (5. 23) and (5 . a 9 = 1 .23) Actually. 27) . 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. (5 .sin �E ) � JJ. (5 . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 .. p. We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . f and g. f.( 1 .25). g.230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .cos �V .cos �E ) f = 1 .24) arid (5 . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. so 2 . g. p.1 ) (5 . 2..
r1 (5 . In each case .cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I.:t x3 S. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work.( 1 . 5 . x and z. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. and would enable us to use the universal variables.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. This last step is perhaps the most important of all. 3 . adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. introduced in Chapter 4. = 1 . however. a and L'£ or 6F.3 2) . A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated.1 ) (5 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4.. g . Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. p. let's write the expressions for f. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter.c x2 y. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 .Sec.
1I 1 � .v) • 9 = = IE... ( 1 c o s b.v) (5 . yields X C. A y= .33)  (5.A .i n b.v ) 1 c o s b.232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 ..31 ).viI x ( 1 zS) \ .( c o s b.v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 .v (5 .v y..36) may be written (5 . 1 . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch .33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.. ( 1 . 5 X2 (5 .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange. p r1 j .. P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b..37) I y = r 1 + r2 ..j A equation (5 .jE: .38) y.39) .c o s b. rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b. we obtain A.35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 . we get r 1 r 2 (1 .( 1 c o s b. as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.
".37 ) and (5 .31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I .1 4) 1 The velocity.qr::oo . 3.3.35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 .ff.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .31 5) (5 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .31 7) . the last term of this expression may be simplified.1 6) (5 . 5 .r I (5 . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: . 3 We can also express X in equation (5 . 32).420).LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 . and the auxiliary variable .Sec. (5 . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .31 3) (5 . thi 't "p.32) and (5 . y. ..1 0) (5 .: r I . can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves. by using equations (5 . I" � \ ·1 fr .=1' Ig =r2 =. 3.34). +. From equations (5 . we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.38).on simplllw.1 ).3. rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 . A. so that (5 .3.
Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4. 7 . A.1 0) and (4.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. which converges more rapidly.4. 9 and 9 from equations (5 . y. 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . If it is not nearly the same .3.0. Since z = . may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. evaluate t. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation.39). (5 .31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 .31 9) . using equation (5 . Although any iterative scheme .3 . 5. The derivative." evaluate the I 2 constant. 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. a Newton iteration.31 3). The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .4.S + X 3 _ + .31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.31 7). 3.3. this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly . Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . Determine x from equation (5 .31 8) ( ) (5 .31 6) and (5 . from equation (5 .= 3 x 2 .1 1). 2 . 6. Pick a trial value for z. 3.1 0) .1 4) and (5 . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . 5. Determine the auxiliary variable. When the method has converged to a solution. From f ' f and the "direction of motion. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. dt / dz. 4.E2 and z = .31 5).0. may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. 5 1 .dz dz dz 2yy dz .1 2) (5 .P .37).
3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .32 1 )  . 5 .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS . 5 . we get ( 1 . . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . we showed that y.Sec.31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 . i n section 4 .320) (5 . 3 .39) for dy = dz  But.z S) dS _ .=  dS (C .
51 r2 = 1. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM.318).OK DU.01 + + O.323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = . 5 so. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S. Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit).7K DU.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . equations (4. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.319) and (5 . ill rl . we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 .326) .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 . There is only one path for a given direction of motion.322) into equation (5 .4." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements. Using universal variables.v) . we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 . At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z.+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 0) and (4.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 . determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .324) _  (5 . "direction of motion": rl =0. D M � si g n (1T L'>.  (5 .320) and (5 .41 1 ).6J + 0.
a convenient form of equation (5 . 327) r1 = 1 .37) does when .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 . A A l ong way =1 . from equations (4.28406 = 1 .321 radians Using (5 . 0000 + 1 .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = . Now following the algorithm of section 5 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 .327). 0488088482 + 1 .39). 86474323 = 1 .6V short way = 5.3 : Step 1 : LW (5 .6V is small. 5 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = . 5 .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).1 .0.1 5) . 23287446 yT12 vm . 0000 1 . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 .5.1 4) and (4. OM = +1 we have "short way " (.6V > 1T).Sec. For ease of numerical solutions. Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 .. 28406 ( __ = 3 .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = .962 radians LW long way = 21T . 0488088482 + 1 .
86474323 2.1 0).68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 . 0432z = 1 3..) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration. Step 5: Using equation (5 .489482706 (6") .28406 y'3. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : . 1 ..28406 y'0.. the desired time o f flight is : . so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now..3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .3.672625 1 6 TU + through 6.86474323 = 1 .3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 . Since �t for this problem is less than 1 .... 1 3 min = 0445 z .23287446 0.0 we do not normalize. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.780 1 9540 1 /2 0. from the given data. (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way..05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0..9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off..238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .444689 m 0.23287446 t l o ng = 0. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative. Y l o ng = 3.
5544 1 39777J 0.314).0.50634848K v2 = 0. 5 .5288 97 1 4 = 2.28406 Y = 4.94746230 A = 1 . (5 .3 .31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .60 1 874421 .4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.28406 Y = 0.1 6) and (5 .96670788 z = x 0.250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.79852734 v2 = 1 .76973587J . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.8826885334K v2 = 0.1 5).58 1 43981 VI = 0.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .02234 1 8 1 1 . 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.83236253 Using equations (5 .0.554824 D U /T U f = 3.3.3.83073807 v 2 = 1 .63049 1 80961 1 . W e have : � 104 (within 0.36 1 677491 + 0. 74994739 VI = 0.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .Sec.842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.0. (5.989794 D U/TU 0.1 3).t .t solved . 1 7866539741 + 1 . (5 .9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3. 1 1 39209665J  0. 7499473 9 t = 0.6 1 856634 = 0.6009 1 852 .
the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. From equation (5 . There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of.076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .39).1 O} VC . where f::1) is less than 7T. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. In other words. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive.39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 .38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.= 0.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0.9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 . the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths.31 . and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position). For "short way" trajectories.38) and (5 . yet equation (5 .2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 .52). The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .
I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.42) into equation (5. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns. hence. 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.4. a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .1 ) and si n  COS .c o s ""E si n ""E . we get  .v...4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. and 2 solving for p. The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve . From equation (5 .cos ""V ( 1 . we obtain 5./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .6V V 1 .1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . This check is only necessary when is positive.va si . a and ""E.?S. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.Sec.4.)2 cos . 5.V ) a (5 . 5.cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . F or "long way" trajectories y is positive . for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity.6V COS .6V p � .c o s x =. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique. (sin xl i .j1 . we can solve for a and get 1 .23). It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity. The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.25)..cos !:::.4.4 TH E p.
43) 5.J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch . we obtain m p a= (5 .45) and simplify. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 . The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information. (5 .46) Ll.E CO � = ± p= k = .c o s bJ)) (5 . we get Ll.E Q ± y'2ni C O S .E) •  k = k Ll. and noting that � c os '2 .E ( k .Qp y'2ni p . 2 Ll.E Solving for cos2.E .43) as Ll. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .4.47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.48) k . (5 .45) ± Using these same definitions. 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.2 Expressing a as a Function of p. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll..v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .Q p ) 2 (5 .
. . am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 .where k. we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048).!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . Sec.4 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 .1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr. 5 . The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. however. Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). First . Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. 5. we need to determine � (or .4. a may not be smaller than some minimum value . 2.4 T H E p.6.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . 5..F in case a is negative).3 Checking the Trial Value of p.
4.24) or the corresponding equation involving . In Figure 5. the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving . we can compute f. F ) .6.41 1) c o sh .Tar (si n h .6.6.F: (5 .6. 5 c o s . The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 . we can determine . If (.6.a r1 (1  f) (5 . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like .F is positive. let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way.6.25). (5 .s i n ..1 0) = = 1 .4.49) Since we always assume .( 1 .6. If we look at "long way" trajectories.4.25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .From the trial value of P and the known information. let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .F (5 . If a is positive.23).. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.4 The t vs P Curve .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length. F .E a If yield is negative." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 . 9 and f from equations (5 . As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.41 2) (5 .vi. we see that the limiting case of .6.1 3) .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .6. although t approaches infInity for this orbit.E .E ) (5 . Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.6.23) and (5 . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i . F 1 .24) and (5 . there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation. To get a feeling for the problem.E from equations (5 .
As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight. for t:sv greater than IT.. Since it is important thar the first trial value. From the discussion above... we should first compute P j or P j j .. t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j .zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 ... lie within the prescribed limits.4 T H E p... In Figure 5 . P must lie between P j and infinity. as well as all subsequent guesses for p. Sec.I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse .. P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case . we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 .43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. P must lie between o and P j j ... 5 ..42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 . For l'J) less than IT..
yLri1 (5 .. 0 Q + y2in k  (5 . � " . one that gives too small a value for t. from equation (5 . b .. In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p. I .1 5) 5 .4.4. '" E 0> '" .246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . .43 k p a rameter . The solution is then bracketed and. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi).1 4) Q . • .4. 5 1 :co . The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution. by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain.5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5. p )0 p" .46). Several simple methods may be used successfully.. ell . . and one that gives too large a value. . .
.1 6) This scheme can be repeated. .. ......1 ) (t n ... .1 ) (5. . .... . .. .4.t n ) ( P n .. always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5.. . tn t . ..... then a better estimate of p may be obtained from . 4 T H E p. .. .t n . .. O��_4o P n... then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t .. . ... 5 .44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration .. . . .. . . . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p..1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p. .. ..Sec.P n .1 and Pn ..I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. If tn.I Figure 5 .. ..4. . .. It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer. . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it.1 6). .
1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .si n L'> E l . � ( S .4.iri equati �n (S. fl3  fJ.1 7) I t =9 viIZ.24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative . ( � .41 8) (S .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .4.41 7). 41 9) .r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.
Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.4 8) . we obtain .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .E / dp and noting.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .Sec. 5 .2 dp k ( k . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .( k .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .2mk2 Qp 2kQp . from equation (5 .47).47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .420) From equation (5 .Qp ) Q.Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .4 T H E p. that ( k .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k . bE d�E .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .
(5 .4. and (5 .6E JJ.250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .1 8) from (5 .COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .1 9).. p(k h JJ.. _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.� (6E . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 . 5 (5 .423) . (5 .42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .Qp) si n 6E JJ.6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.= .4.42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F ..si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 . which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.
1 2) or (5 . Pn .423). Using the trial value. Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. 5 . solve for a from equation (5 4 . t and .1 5). 8 .44). 7 .4. 2. 2 . Q and m from r] .To evaluate the slope at Pn . we will develop and use the f and 9 series. Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.49) and (5 .1 0) or equation (5 .1 1 ) . 5 .4.F. 5 251 . Solve for f. (5 .24) and (5 .422) or (5 .II using 2 . Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola.4. We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .2·3). As stated earlier . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. 9 and f from equations (5 . 25). the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. 3 .4. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a.1 4) and (5 . r and Ll. Solve for t from equation (5 . 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES .8).1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.4. 6. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. 4 . a. Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . of p. Sec.6E or Ll.4. 9 . the values of g.F obtained from the trial value. Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . equations (5 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 . should be used in equation (5 .22). as appropriate .E or Ll. Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . 5 . Evaluate the constants k. using equations (5 . Solve for Ll.27) and (5 .
5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . we write equation (5 . 5 . Therefore.1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.57) (5 .54) we have the following recursion (5 .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . 5 9) .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . 5 4) for n = O. (5 . (5 . 5 2) (5 . 5 5) r r (5 .
and the equation of motion f  (5 . We define them as follows : O. 5 . From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec.51 6) (5 . p and q which will be useful later .5W)  (r . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 . v are known .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. q. These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 . p.515) =  ur.5. 5 .1 7) . this can be (5 .51 3) rr and the definition of p. 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .5 11 ) (5 . as we shall u .5. v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 . 5 . u L.1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .51 2) u .
1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . 1 1 1 1 .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . r) (v) 2 . r r (5 .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 . 522) q = . _ [1 1  2 (v .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . . 5. ) _ 24 (r .3u p (5 . ) .23 r· (V) r   u.r . 5.(v) 2 .57) and (5 . Summarizing: (5 . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .U . .1 8) Using the definition of P.u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . . = . v) _ 1 u. 5 .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . 5 20) (5 . d q = d t . (5 .p (u + 2q ) .
6 u 2 p = .1 5u p ( u .Sec.r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ . 5. Fs = F4 .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .3p ( u + 2q ) .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) . p and q.1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.30p p + 3 q ) .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u . = r 0.2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .6 u 2 p = .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . F3 = F .u G 4 = u ( u . = .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .u r = . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.u G = . = F 1 r + G 1 .t!:.u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . = . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .54) for n = 1 .. ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .3 u p ( u . Writing equation (5 .
526) . therefore. Referring to equations (5 .Gn n.2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .52) and (5 .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . ) . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 . 5 = U (u . .5. .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.524) (5 .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .1 .tao Comparing with equation (5 .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .523) .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. Vo (5 .
G = O.2 1 q .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .3q .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 . F = 3up 3 F = u(. G = u. G = 30up(1 4p2 .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) .51 .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (. G 1 = 1 .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) . 5 .94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .28q . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 . F 1 = 0.7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .Sec. F 2 = 'U. G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .30q .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .6q .90q .
to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. f I . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . r I . This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. 7) r I g (r I .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 .5·29) . The f and 9 series may be used .6.0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch .2·3). 7) (5 . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. 5.2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions.51) + 9= 7  1 .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy.258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u .5·27) + ' (5 . In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . 5.f (r I . From equation (5 . (5 . 5 . the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. 2·5). 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 .24) and (5 . p.
A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA.6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .Sec. .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . becomes dt (1 . L£ .61 Sector and triangle area (5 . 5. h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6.61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. As. thus Figure 5 . This .
If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio. 4 � c o s b. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large.' l'2 2 2 (5 .1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3.62) (5 . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 . E ) .2E ) 2 .43) and using the identity.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .6." + l( 1 .6. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 .c o s b. 5. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 .2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b. . 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.2 The First Equation of Gauss.
si n l:v cos � ..cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .. 3 The Second Equation of G auss.1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .61 ) becomes si n l:v .2 ( 1 r1 r . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 . 5 .. L ( l:>E .. ( .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.L .24) and (5 .s i n l:>E ) ...23) we can write y  =2 2 2  . Si.jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J. Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 .= .Sec. t/y.65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 . equation . so .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 . (5 .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . n l:> E ) .s i n l:>E ) . Using the identity.£Q.JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression. 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 .6 .65).(5 . .2 2 L (5 .61). From the first of these equations.67) 1 cos l:>v =.
(5 . 22) completes the solution. 23). When convergence has occurred. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. 27) and (5 . n = 2 si n 3 LE . which is known as "the second equation of Gauss.6. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation.25). The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . (5 . more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. (5 . a and LE.69) cos f = 1 .6. until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical.Si.6.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) .43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. s and w.2(� . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. y 2 ( y . 6. Next.1 0) .s) . We then added another independent equation.4 Solution of the Equations ." 5 . p. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . pick a trial value for y. y and LE .1 ) . The first step is to evaluate the constants. and one more unknown. Unfortunately.si n LE ) we may write. !:JJ and t.from (5 . 24) and (5 .262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 ) = W (LE . the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . a good first guess is y � 1 .64) and solving for y. (5 . using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. so a trialanderror solution is necessary. y.1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E.64) and (5 . S + 1 . recall that we started with three equations. and so on.69) are transcendental. equations (5 . from r I ' r2 . in three unknowns. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. To review what we have done so far.
6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . F s i n h 3 "2 .F will be zero and both equations (5 .c:.c:. E or .c:.6. then .s i n .c:. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section. as y2 = W S + x .c:. equation (5 .c:.1 1 ) s i n h .c:.69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 . equation (5 .E is imaginary. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.F 2 ) · (5 . i sin i.Since the equations above involve .c:.c:.1 0) may also b e written as Sec.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .c:..1 0) may become greater than one.69) and to determine y. Using the identity.c:.F . 5 . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.F .c:.c:.c:. E = i .E is imaginary.F and COS i .c:. indicating that�.6.E and .c:. difficulties may be anticipated any time . the righthand side of equation (5 .S ) y (5 .F is real. )� s + 1 . 6. 6.6. S.F whenever the right side is greater than one .1 2) become indeterminate.c:.1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 . Since we already know that when .F are close to zero.6.c:. Noting that .cosh 2 . For this reason.1 2) = X = .E .F . F = si nh .0.c:.69) and · (5 . .cE.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.F = rush . they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.c:.E s i n 3 . If the given timeofflight is short. F.
. Determine X from equation (5 .6.6. g .6.264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 .1 4) Now. Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . Depending on the type of conic. E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. . is .6 . (5 . (5 . 2 . determine 6. 3 . 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. parabola. 2. 7 .63). 1� = 2 3 1. the orbit being an ellipse. zero.F from equation (5 .1 0) or (5 . or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. f. and then expressing 6. it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. Determine p from equation (5 .1 3).25) and (5 . The result.6. E as a power series in x. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. . . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point.24).]) and t using equations (5 . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution.1 5) 1 . 5 .23).43). problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 .E or 6. r2 .1 4).26). /:. or negative. replacing CDs 6. Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . Compute the constants. (s + x ) · 1 (5 .6..1 1).2 Ch . 2 6. 4.6.. .1 (5 .27) and (5 . The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . 6 .61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 .62) and (5 . and 9 from equations (5 . s and w. which is developed by Moulton.22). ( 1 + §. from rl .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. Evaluate f. ) .Y:i.
" Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. Usually. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. ballistic missile targeting. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . To make the problem even more specific. �atellite intercept and rendezvous." In all but the simplest cases.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . 5 . If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. 72.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 .Sec. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. The £:. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . and ballistic missile interception. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. To avoid generalities. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed.
266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 7 ... I n .1 ..\." \ t a rg e t / \ .f....1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .. r.. ) / ot t. \ •• • • • • • .". I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 .� . ..�: :. ��y V \" _ ... �/ �/ ".. ". at t. 5 i nterceptor .. e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary..� ' . .' ':.. fI }/ \ \ . "..7.
7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 .Sec. 5 . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. which is when the intercept will occur.
" . . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. . . . 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. \ \ \ Figure 5 . . . . 5 them.238 km/sec. �v? �v . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. launch vel. 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . . Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. . we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired.
the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. In summary . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . Because of earth rotation. 5 . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. In Figure 5 .7 . the launch site will have moved eastward . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions .7 . the better . From Figure 5 . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t .5 . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. 5 . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V.
4 /':. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .7.V plot for example intercept problem ..270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .O F .J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <..) z :J « .
8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 . 82) t2 so (5 . another method will be develope d .8 . i. Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry.e.1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. v2 • P I ' P2 . (5 . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6.Sec. the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . P3 . t2 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 .85) (5 . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5. the three components of r2 .86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . 5 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . Although we have examined a very specific example . P3 · .84) (5 .
Estimate the magnitude of f2 . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . � into equations (5 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . ' r2 . L2 . the components of f2 and V2 .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX .8) (5 . in fact only six of the equations are independent. and eliminating the K components.L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . y and z . y.8.8. the components of Vz be X. 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . 5 to (5 .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch . L3 . R1 .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & .e.8·7) (5 .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . b . 526) and (5 . y and Z . i.1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . 8. Rz .
\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 .527).32). The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer. =: =: 5 . (5.41 .6 Derive equation (5 . I I I I  x. e . Ease of computation. and (5. Accuracy. b.31 ). 5.V required for intercept? 5. using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . 5. Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 .3 Verify equations (5 . Usirlg specific numbers. 5 . . Limitations.39).31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 .2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6.522).4 Verify the development of equation (5 048). 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04.526) and (5 .t2 and t2 t } are not too large. Y.31 3) through (5 .1 5.423) for hyperbolic orbits. 5 Z.1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. Z. Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . f2 I + J DU). f. c. which are the components of f2 and v2 .Ch .
5 Given two position vectors rI .J + K).t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . which will contain both position vectors. 5. The piteration technique. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. The original Gauss method.00256 (J + K» . (Ans. d.009 (. although a few iterations can be made by hand. as a function of rI r2 . (Ans. The universal variable method . vI = 0. r2 'and the distance between them. c.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . d. h = 1 .t l determine v2 using a. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. r2 .tl = 1 . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5.0922 TU. b.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 .8 using the universal variable.9 Repeat problem 5 .7 . 5 . Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. rl r2 p. 5 . 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. t2 .
t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. A n Introduction York. New 6. A stronautical Guidance. . Appendix A. 2 . Carl Friedrich. McGrawHill Book Company. Bell. Forest Ray. Methods of Orbit Determination. Davis. Moulton. 1 963.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. Inc. Herrick. John Wiley & Sons. Mathematics. d . to Celestial Mechanics.6J + 0.t 1 = 0. the MacMillan Company." in The World of 1 . Richard H. Liu.0. Escobal. S.4804847 1 1 2 +0. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. New York. Vol 5 . NY.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. Gauss. 51 + 0.66986 9921+0 . (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. Pedro Ramon. 1 9 1 4. 4. 1 . a. New York. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. f l = 0 . Inc. 1 956. 2I D U t2 . r 1 = I t 2 . Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . c . New York. Dover Publications. NY. 1 964. f 1 = 1 . (Answer : v = 0.Ch . 3. 1 965. New York. NY. Battin. and A. r 1 = 41 t 2 . Simon and Schuster.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . NY.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. "The Prince of Mathematicians. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . r 1 = 2I t2 . 1 9 59.7K D U t 2 . Eric Temple .t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 .9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b .
.
. Napoleon I 6. 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. have a very short history . It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. longrange ballistic missiles. Efforts.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in .000 V2's had been fired in anger . begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . The result is well known. World War II as "too late . By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . ironically . which concern us in this chapter.
in June 1 9 53 . The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. 4 Accordingly. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. Brigadier General 3 . No German was permitted to enter this separate building. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. After all. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .000 pounds thrust. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. According to Dr. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. Trevor Gardner . The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. California. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. In July 1 95 4.
2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. the program had. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. After three unsuccessful attempts. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. Atlas was a reality. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. Blasingame . the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . Progress was rapid. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. Otherwise. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P.000 people participating directly. by mid· 1 95 9 .Sec. 6 . 6. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories.
we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory .2. 6 from launch to burnout. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 ..2. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. 1 defines these new quantities.. Q . a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range.2. =. however.ji1Tr. such terms as "height at burnout." "height of apogee. 6 .. Since Va:. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere ." "flightpath angle at burnout. (6 . need not be redefined. There are." etc.2 The Nondimensional Parameter.22) . It will not be discussed in this text. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. 6 .2. Figure 6. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions.
2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .Sec . 6.
2.25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 .3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . (6.23) or IQ=2�·1 p . the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.the expression p. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point.1 ) . rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .2. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.O/r from equation (6.26) . the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit. 24) 6 . When Q is equal to 1 . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. and substitute for V. Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . If Q is greater than 2 .
'l'. half the freeflight range angle . therefore.Sec. lies on each side of the major axis.co s v b o . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 . and co s � = . be written as (6. 6 .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) .f6. 2 Equation.27) .26) above can.
e2 ). and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and.2. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. e. = r Q C O S2 cp . h = rv cos cp. what should the flightpath angle. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.28) p. the total range angle. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. .2.29) Now.2. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6. the required freeflight range angle./.T. ¢ro. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. A. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6.29) and (6. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . . also becomes known.284 . . (6.1 1) into equation (6. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. since p = a( 1 .
Now. it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . ¢bo.4 The FlightPath Angle Equation.2. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 .23 Ellipse geometry 6 . We could .In other words. In Figure 6 . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. Instead . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . is called r bo . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . Sec 6 . 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . F'. with a little algebra. Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal.
if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . It means.2.1 6) . This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . that. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. Qb o 2 2 (6. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 . 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .Qb o sin � .23) and r60 + rbo = 2a .1 3) (6. This is.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 .2. for example.2. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800.x) = sin (6.24." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . � + 'lr) = . d. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . shown in Figure 6. in fact. F' and the burnout point.I n 2 and also as rb (6.000 ) from equation (6. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering.2. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery.1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.
2.1 6) gives us . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory . sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .866.Sec. . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .9.2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = . 6.24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .
one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. If Q bo is exactly 1 . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . If Q bo is greater than 1 . With constant water pressure and nozzle setting.1 6) does not exceed 1 .288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. 2. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . Because a = . This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. Provided that 'l' is attainable. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . Figure 6 . the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. . Nevertheless. If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. Table 6.P/2&. The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . 2. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . equation (6 .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy.
2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories .Sec. 6 .
625 .1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. skims earth high only . what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :.5 DU.11 5 18 1 .21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'. During the test firing of a ballistic missile. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj .low traj .low traj . we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. hits earth 000 > 1 high only . vbo = 2/3 DU/TU. ha p og ee 0. cos ¢ b o == 0. hits earth Table 6 .
2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) .2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . 6. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . :. Notice or <P b o = :.2. 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. versus the flightpath angle . Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . ) (60 n m i ) =2.1 .4Deg. 6 2 1 .1 2) .025) = 1 . 26. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N.5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . 'IT. 60 0W . 6 . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39.08 1 7 DU/TU and .2. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. 36° . c os � = + N . 600 E. 08 1 7 ( 1 . 2<P b o + 64°20.. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again .Sec.025 DU respectively. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 .
� 90 Figure 6. en EO I .. 2. be the maximum range condition..1 6) equals exactly 1 . (2<P bO � ) 2 .. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution . One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.1 7) I (6..7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight .. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target.1 8) L__________________� . 0> <1> <1> � IJ..2.. then. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell . s 0> Q) 0 � c . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory.s..2. If the right side of equation (6.:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 .Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 .'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6. � 80 . . :.
The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. 'JI . We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6. VI 1 800 . This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. sin �= 2 2 .2. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .222) . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 .1 7 ). 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only.e cos 2 (6.1 9) for maximum range conditions./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. 6 . 220) for maximum range conditions.6 Time of FreeFlight.Sec:. the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 .7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). noting that l . but ..'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . By inspection. 2.cos 2 . 2.Qbo Qb o (6 . From the symmetry of Figure 6. 6 .2. 2 .8) . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.
The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24.1 1). In fact . 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . e. 23) and (6.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . 6 The semimajor axis.27 Time of freeflight (6. can be obtained from equ ations (6. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . a. 2.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. 28. Figure 6 . and the eccentricity. 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . since five variables have been plotted on the figure.
Sec.8 period vs.750 n m . It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.95 From Figure 6.884) ( 1 .075) == 0. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6.25 D U == 7 . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm. 6 .29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.000 nm.
: ' .� '" �� :.!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . . . :: :"/ N .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. . . : :/ .I ' : ' : : : : : : .. : : .. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free .9h Ir.CI�rie� v X I . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. ' . : : . .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 .. .aje. :: : J: : : . hi. : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: .
1 � 0.444 n m = 2. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. 957 Hsi 66. For a fixed burnout altitude .6X and .Sec.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ .77 0 = 0 . position. . we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories.2. 3 .3 . perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.OOO nm max = 3.933 D Urr U � 24. 6 . . F or purposes of this example. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . For brevity . These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed. 8.6C. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. 'l' From equation (6.6X.  Vbo 6. . There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first.6C may be / 9 57 1. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point.6C represents the cro ssrange error. suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target. 2 00 ft/sec . In Figure 6 .3 ° From equation (6. impacting at B. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. The arc length .6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north. 6 . the crossrange error.32 r ads = 1 33. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth .220) .
thought of as angles.3.3 . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. for example. the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . cos . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. 3. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center. 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation. if they are in degrees. we get (6. . I 1 . if the intended target had been the north pole . Equation (6.32) 2 X Figure 6. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point .1 ) to (6. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .1 ."2 to simplify equation (6 . In Figure 6 .1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles.
32 Azimuth error 6 . Figure 6 . �C. The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. a crossrange error. are as planned. P.'l1. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . 6(3. will result.3 . this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. 'l1. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 .33) . before .32 is the crossrange error . 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth.Sec. 299 Figure 6. 6 . If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount.2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth.
This ..3.0.x ' to simplify equation (6.oo a "'00 Fl ight .33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 . (6. <Pbo' In Figure 6. cos X � 1 .34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.\]I will represent a downrange . If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount . are shown by a solid line in the figure . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth. In other words.C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn . it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it .D.. \]I..3 .33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .path angle .� I a q. it will hit the target anyway . 6.3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point.\]I. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.0. 6 If we assume that both 43 and .4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle.. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.21 about the center of the Earth.0.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 .y I  : : i.
3.cot <P b o (6. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation. The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .36) (6.Sec.1 0) Qbo I i .8) (6.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .6. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target. 6 .3 .2.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .1 2) of this chapter . We could get an approximate value for . we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .
1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .3.c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) . _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6. a'l1 .sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 . Vb Substituting from equation (6.1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3.1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.3. 3.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6. acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate . Let us first express equation (6.3.
remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way .Sec. Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. 6 .3. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 .1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. In fact. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . particular burnout error . when used in the manner described above. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. angle errors.3 . a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot).600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . If this seems strange.1 3) This partial derivative . The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. While we need equation (6. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) .000 nm range. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. A plot of range versus burnout radius. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. Figure 6. Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . equation .33. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . 3 . the actual range error on a 3 .33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6.
3.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 . differentiating the range equation (6 . the missile falls short of the target in every case .6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .. is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended. if burnout occurs too low.2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ. Again. 6.3.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 4) for small values of .3.3. b o 'fJ ' (6 .1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation . too slow and the missile falls short.1 1) implicitly.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . The magnitude of the error is (6. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.3.3. the missile overshoots .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory . 6 however. .1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .
6V b o + a 'lr .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 .5 x 1 05 D U/TU . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .3.1 0. 6 .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . 1 D U . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error . An analysis of equation (6 . Total downrange error : . There is no crossrange error.9 0 5 D U !TU . ub o = 5 x 1 0 . like the other two influence coefficients.4 rad ians. 1 ) 2 . LW b o = . .6¢ b o = .905) 2 ( 1 . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.735 = 6 .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . 735 rad DU r b o ( . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 . We will need Q bo (. 649 r ad U D U/T . 3. r bo = 1 .4 D U .1 8) would reveal that.905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo .Sec.
306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .4 ) TOT =1 1 . 56x 1 0 .2 1 (. <p. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar.4. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. 0. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. v.735 ( 5x 1.649 (5x 1 O . its flightpath angle. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. 6. then all three . In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. for example).4 ) (3444) � 4 n .1 . m i .2sin 1 60 o 2 = .4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr .1 .S ) .4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 .56x 1 0.4 )+6. That is.1 0. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation.5 24 ft/sec. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . That is. The rotation is from west to east. and its azimuth angle. 6 =2. {3. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. both the launch point and the target are in motion. The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. ove rshoot 6.
41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. .1 ) . Hereafter. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . Like the observer on the moving train. 1>. an azimuth. of 900 (east). Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . A simple example should clarify this point. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. (6.5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction.. and a speed of. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . of train l \\�.000 ft/sec. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. of 45 0 .:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . say 1 .4." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel.4.I ·=<� • . 6 . an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 .000 ft/sec. we will refer to measurements of burnout . �. An observer at rest would not agree .Sec. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) .
Vs (6 .43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. first. this will not be difficult. �. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . break up V into its components. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site .42) The true speed. v. It is. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. v at burnout which determines the missile ' s .44) �. finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. of course. Thus. We can obtain the south. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. east . Once you have the components of ve. flightpath angle . The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. and up components of the true velocity. lies.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . (6 . ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner .
represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . If the coordinates of the target are ( 4.43 is just 90 0 L o. so the arc length OA in Figure 6. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B.Sec.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . Rather . Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. Hopefully.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. when the missile arrives at point B.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . 6. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . In Figure 6 . the target will be there also. The term. then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI.4.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched .
0. These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. {3. we get c o s {3 = sin L t .triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth.0.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. we can solve for the required launch azimuth.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (.N. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. tA .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . (6 . Once we know the total range angle. . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . (6 . The longitude difference. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . then a value of . {3. The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.N + w ffitA ) .0. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target.0.0.47) Solving for cos {3. If you are firing the missile the "long way" around. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.N + wffitA' where . by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 . A. . and if. (6 .0.N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3.48) Again.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A .
By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . (3. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . and launch azimuth. 6 .Sec. tA But . In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. A. In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . Needless to say.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch .
9 s i n 300= . 87 9 30.312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . v = . 1 DU. 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . .. 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . 8° v n /3 = v = . 79 . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . 5 1 1 95 v . 33° ¢bo = v E = . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry.. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . 339 ) 2 + ( .3 ° W burns out at 30o N. 339 ) =. 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . using Q bo = .0 58 8cos290 = . 45 ) 2 = . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . 29 .9 DU/TU. what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( .. 1 ) 1 . 9cos3 00cos 3300= . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.. 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = ..42) through (6 . 85 From Figure 6 . 6 .675 s (J=333 . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of ...( .5022 ta .j( .4 5) : v= . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ .
334 TU boN = 135° . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = .80° . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. 29 .7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . 77° = . . 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . 2 5 TU :.we(3. 3709 �GG (3. 334)=135° . 6 70) =.4 .13 = 7. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 .3. 770 N re = 156. 334TU ) =123.203. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. tff=3. 6.7 8 0 .123 .85 and ¢bo = 3 0.Sec. w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 .
m i . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 .2.1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude. Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing.3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. r b o = 1 . . m i . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans.6 ft/sec) 6 .840. R = 6 0 n .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . v = 1 6 . = .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . 6 EXERCISES 6 . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 .926 D U /TU . and a spherical Earth. 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .1 9)? Why? 6 .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 .5 D U!TU 1 .05 D U = 1 0° .
400 n mi. Rtf = 4 . how large can .)(.0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 . an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 .06 DU. 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . Do not use charts.98 to 1 . A lateral displacement . 7 I n general. = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . . Using the equations si n iL. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 .6.02.2 1 2 run) 6.02. 1 0 During a test flight. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of .x and L¥3 be? . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. Rtf = 5 .000 run) 6 .6.j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8.'lr ). he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 . 6 .Ch. 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . (Ans.
ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range.31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 .. 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . b .800 nautical miles? (Ans. Is this a high.6888 n mi L:. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a.346 n mi long) b. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:.r = 0.0 DU for a ballistic missile. (Ans. c . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range .V = 25 .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . low. 6 . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . a. vbo = 0.642 DU/TU) . 6 6 . 7 . ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal.
700 n mi using a high trajectory.23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . at the same altitude . Q bo + . 6 .. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . 5 DU. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 . R t of 4.22 The range error equation could be written as: b. 1 5 00 E.6 . at an altitude of 2. i.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 .4 min) = 6. 3 0 0 E. �bo and analyze the result . 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.530 ft/sec. using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. 6.QL. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth ... 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 .e .¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. If the velocity at burnout was 28. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N.ri. 5 DU and whose perigee is . 6 . Do not use charts. b. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum. determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means.'I' = � b. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . tff 40. 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 .. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans.where e is the 6 . Ch . 1 2 00 W.
48966 = 3 1 5 . Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. (Ans. (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20. It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 . c.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high.6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed .1 0 . 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 . v bo = .5 0 .4 rad ian s a.0057 ° = . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . How far will the missile miss the target? 4. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.318 V bo =23.66E+20784. 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . b.2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of .25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . 1 200W . 92S1 0608.500 ft/sec=O.1 045 .905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . elevation . low. or maximum range trajectory? 6 .
1 2 ' .Ch .73 n mi. downrange displacement of burnout point . L t 54 0 3 1 '. in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. tff 3 2 . == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. . 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . 0 (Ans. 43e . site located 319 During the actual firing. 1. the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. What was the freeflight range. Assuming a symmetric orbit. (Ans. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . 5 7 min) == * 6 . ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . rotating. 1 20 OW .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . and r bo � r(fl.6 1 8 .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a.649 n mi . atmosphereless Earth. 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6.
Inc.3 . Los Angeles. Schwiebert. "Free Flight .29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . 1958. The MacMillan Company. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. NY. Praeger. Eric.800 n mi. Inc. V2 . 5 . * 6.3 1 The approximation : * 6.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . 3 . What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. New York . New York." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 .2. NY. 4. Albert D. (Hin t : See section 6. 1 962. New York. Vol 2. Gantz . ed . Wheelon . Publishers.6Vb o . altitude at bo ::: .S. 6 * 6. 1 960. NY. Frederick A. 1 965 . A History of the U. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. .02 DU. Space Technology Laboratories. R ff ::: 1 0.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 2) . Garden City. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). 1 95 5 . Doubleday & Company. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion.4) . Walter. Ernest G .2. How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . LongRange Ballistic Missiles . NY. Lt Col Kenneth. Calif. 2. Burgess. Dornberger . The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. The Viking Press.
2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . though principally attracted by the Earth. the 32 1 . . about which she moves. of all which. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. together with the Earth. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. The Moon is the more useful. and moving round it. when it is light anyway. when it is dark. the Sun or the Moon? .the Moon.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. move round the Sun once a year. have been discovered.. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . . since it gives us light during the night. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. and is. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . Proctor. does.
which are the subj ect of the next chapter. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time .322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system.in this case the Sun. 7. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . W. D'Alembert. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. Lagrange and Laplace . has given a full account. Brown . Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea ." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. . What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. 7 Author in this book. but because it comes close to being a double planet. Even interplanetary trajectories. W. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. Clairaut . with no less subtility than industry. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction.
According to one theory advanced by G. ��===c==Q.3 days. . the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. . . 7 .. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass.Sec. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition).3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. . .21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . As a result . This puts the center of the system 4. This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing.. . The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. in fact.: =j Figure 7.:.400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . . The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . Darwin. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. . H. . . the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. :.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. .3 04 of the mass of the Earth.
for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you.22 Lunar orbital elements 7. In the case of the Moon's orbit . due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane.2. the orbital elements are constantly . 7 Figure 7.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants.
their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time .054900489 .8 days.Sec. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. b. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. c. called "evection. This effect ." was discovered more than 2 .400 km. 7 . Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 .000 years ago by Hipparchus. The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes .3 1 66 1 days. The line of nodes.
23 ° 27' . for only then can Sun. where the Moon crosses from north to south. making one complete revolution in l S .000 years.2 Lunar Librations. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . d . The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. but more than a century later . The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis.9 years. rotates westward. in l S72. e .2. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. Thus. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . its mean value is 5 0 S ' . 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. is the descending node .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' .6 years. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . the other .6 years. If the Moon's orbit were = . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. From Figure 7." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse .326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26.
In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. As a result. solar perturbations. 7 . among other things.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions.Sec. we would see exactly half of its surface . The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. and 7. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . This permits us to see about 7 .Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. monthbymonth basis. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. at one time or another." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely.75 0 around each limb of the moon. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. daybyday. Actually we see . The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. solar pressure . Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . the computer time required could become prohibitive .3 .
this will not introduce significant errors. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions.3.400 km. 7. 2& e = y'1  pia . 7 . In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = .6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity..2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed.. With this thought in mind.. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. a = :l:!:. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. semimaj or axis. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem.0549 . and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions.Q. It is not important that the analytical method be precise. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.3 .
..i.. k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.3 . we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .:.r1 1. e r Figure 7. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH .g' .  I. In Figure 7. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10..c C/) ..2 10.0 S pe e d .31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly. 7 . II. 1 r1 1 .Sec.. We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.c " 0 .M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 . 60 \ \ I njection . if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit.. E i= . . we get c o s V = 2..9 I njection 1 1. j 80 . we can solve for va ...
As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours. In Figure 7... We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed . \ 0 �� ' earth " . : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 . For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point. 7 .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . Actually...3 . 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory .. the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection. 7 an injection altitude of . then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. ..330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .: / :1 . to parabolic.32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape ...32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP..J! ..')'. .. . : .. .
3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . 82 km/sec. if we keep reducing the injection speed . From Figure 7 . this minimum injection speed is 1 0. 3 . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. In general the sweep angle . which we can call 1/1. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. In such a case . 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . Moon from our assumed inj ection point . as the injection speed is decreased. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. 1 8 8 km/sec. due to errors in guidance or other factors. We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . if we try to take longer by going slower. 7 .966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . is a function of . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. 7 .32 we see that. the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind.32. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. Assuming an inj ection altitude of . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example.Sec.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon .we will never reach the Moon at all. Assuming no lunar gravity . Eventually . .
7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. that is. so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. and wrrft. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. the initial velocity is too high. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted .332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . But. for example . . If. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. Neglecting lunar gravity.. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. This may be seen from Figure 7 .33 . the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj.
p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. for all practical purposes. only are interested in determining ap. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. 5 However. . it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle.1 ) .4.3 00 km.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . 7 . the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. 7.encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. In effect. There is. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . R s' given by the expression Sec. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. however. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 .It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 ." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance .arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace .0 km/sec.
7 .1 ) yields the value Rs = 66.) Then. Figure 7 . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame. A full derivation of equation (7 .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.4 .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth.4." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .1 ) can be found in Battin .) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon. a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h . 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin.4. the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.4.
44) . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. 1 . 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. the radius.42) (7 . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence.r h V 1 I (7 .Sec. The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 . at lunar arrival is (7 . Finally.46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee .43) From the law of cosines. r 1 .45) COS <P I . r 1 . from geometry . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables.
4.47) 2& e = ".336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . p=� (7 . t l .49) (7 .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight. JJ. 1 p ia  a = :l!.1 0) . 7 Figure 7. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p.48) (7 .to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.
to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .1 5) 2. Eo and E1 from Finally.3 rad/TUEIl (7 .to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .4.1 2) Next.649 2. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .1 1 ) (7 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.1 3) (7 .1 6) The phase angle at departure. 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually. we can determine the eccentric anomalies.e 1 r1 __ (7 .Sec.4. the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 . 7 .4.4.6 rad/sec 1 0 . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. Wm = = t 1 . 1 37 X X 1 0. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .4.4. .
If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon .4. (7 .48) through (7 . is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . at arrival is completely determined by \ .45).1 9) .2 Conditions at the Patch Point . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. The geocentric radius. Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 .0 1 8 k m/sec.4. In Figure 7 . We will do this in the sections that follow.4. The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. 7 .4.1 6) above .42 : V m = 1 . The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO .4.which we chose arbitrarily . r2 . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail. then the selena centric radius.1 8) (7 .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center.1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. (7 . r 1 . 7 .
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
50 � � c 0 i e 1.348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 . «>  0.30 .40 .20 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .
Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .5 0 .5. Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . However.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . It should be obvious from equation (7 . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . If lunar declination at intercept is specified. if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. 54.Sec.52) and Figure 7 . we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7. 7 . Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28.5 3) . those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. If lighting conditions are important. Figure 7 . For this condition any launch azimuth is correct.5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. if we add a coasting arc.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. From Figure 7 . 5 4 worth noticing.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . As a result .5 0 and 28 . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. sir! 0 1 . 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. b oth of which are undesirable.si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 .
1 5 28 34 1 0. 7 . 1 9 173.460 1 67 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . 5 9 28 34 33 .85 1 1 66 .05 28 33 1 1 .385 1 67 .89 28 24 29 .88 28 33 3 5 . 1 7 2 1 67 .97 28 3 1 47 .862 1 65 . 1 3 .1 44. 1 1 28 22 1 7 .3 1 28 29 48 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .90 28 33 5 3 . 5 8 67.3 1 9 3 . 1 4 1 06. 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.3 3 3 1 67 .44 28 2 1 1 8 . 267 1 67 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.44 22.963 1 8 27 5 5 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON . 1 969 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 .3 1 8 5 . 2 1 28 34 42 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .7 1 54.35 28 1 6 08 . 1 6 +1 6 1 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .45 8 0.46 1 1 67 .9 8 9 8 .56 .00 28 28 1 5 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.3 1 + 1 48 .87 28 34 22.949 1 8 05 42.07 47.203 28 1 8 49 . . 24 . 078 1 66 .4 1 3 1 66 .737 18 1 9 36 .766 1 7 43 23 .97 1 1 9.020 1 8 1 6 49.95 7 1 7 37 48.424 1 67 .27 3 5 .32 1 1 67 .78 1 3 1 . .08 28 29 08 . 24 28 23 34 .41 7 1 67 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39. 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .34 28 32 1 7 .695 1 8 02 54 .970 1 66 . 973 FIgure 1 65 .998 17 5 7 20.97 29. 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .76 28 3 1 09 .308 1 8 22 22. 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.23 1 23 .47 28 25 3 8 . 8 0 1 36.39 28 3 0 34.374 1 8 00 07 .72 1 1 8 25 08.58 73.84 60. 624 1 7 3 5 00.376 1 67 . 1 0 1 6. 1 90 1 67 .254 1 67 .63 1 1 1 . 1 0 28 27 29 . 7 1 7 1 66 .85 4 1 . 86 28 26 29 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .445 1 67 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .05 8 1 65 .3 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .449 1 67 .97 28 34 3 9 . 8 1 28 32 47 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .435 1 65 . 5 7 1 1 66 .242 1 66 .38 + 9 .
I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 .Sec. we get cos 6a. 84). \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept .9 . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 ." 8. the total time .53 . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . 5 4). This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. 7 . it is possible to adjustt l . 5 3 . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch.57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . c o s 1/1 t . 1/1 c ' Thus.54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . is the same as the "local sidereal time . The difference i n right ascension .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. slightly (7 .5 . ao' at this launch time . !::lX . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time .3 . at the launch point (see Figure 2. The launch time. This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . tt ' is (7 .89) : (7 56) . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . which may be computed from the injection conditions. �.ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . and may be obtained from equation (2. The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE.
The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7. .3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . 7.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 .3 224 .4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = . 7. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. 7 . � .t I ES Ch .426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . and the exact We now know the injection conditions. 000 k m 33 .V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon.54) agree. r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier.300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. What additional 6.2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.
Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. Determine the /:. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec . a . .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. 7 . 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon.6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. b.. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit.400 k m : a . What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384.Ch . What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby.
1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . <1>0 = = = * 7 . 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. 7 7 . 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 .354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . . 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) .) * 7 . select ro ' vo ' to meet this . Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. Specifically. vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. Use h bo l OO n mi . Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. requirement. 1 2 cannot really be used in practice.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude .
New York. Fisher. 4. Academic Press. 3 . November 1 95 9 . Berkeley and Los Angeles.Ch. University of California Press. Doran and Company. The Story of the Moon . Makemson. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. New York. A stronautical Guidance. 1 943 . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. 1 964. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 2. 1 9 5 9 . Inc. Gamow. an d Maud W. NY. Richard H . Abelard Schuman. L." ARMA Document DR 220. NY. . Second Edition. Principia . Doubleday. Clyde . 6. Baker. Garden City. The Moon .1 6. George . Isaac . 5. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. McGrawHill Book Company. London and New York. 1 962. Newton. 1 967. Battin. Robert M. NY.
.
two luminaries. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . two eyes. such as the seven metals. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. C opernicus. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. At first it was not understood . which it were tedious to enumerate . two ears. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. two unpropitious. By 1 507 he was 357 . From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . two nostrils. and a mouth . Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . etc. indeed. But the tide of opinion ebbed..
add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. the members of the solar system. Venus. . With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. indeed. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. In addition. diameter. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . and Pluto .358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 6. 1 2 . Mars. 8. Uranus. 1 Bode's Law. some of which pass near the Sun. comets. 8.1 . The "law. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. Earth. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. . Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature." as may be seen in Table 8 . 3. are spread much more widely throughout the system. at the age of 70. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic .2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. Jupiter . If we write down the series 0." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. nevertheless. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. . predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. Neptune." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system.2.2. Saturn. .
28 3 0. is its path .72 1 .76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. 0 is presented in Table 8 . Except for Mercury and Pluto .8 5 .22. 1 7 39. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.Sec.8 77. 8.20 9.0 1. The size.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.52 2. compared with the total mission duration. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune .6 3 8 .52 1 9. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.21 Actual Distance 0. Table 8 .23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.65 5.0 1 9 .3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. 8. 8. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .39 0.6 2. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. The sixth orbital element.2 1 0.4 0.2 Table 8. Only for brief periods.2.7 1 . Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .00 1 .
m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 . 3 97 1 09 ° .203 9.423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c. 1 1 1 326 ° .850 1 ° .7233 1 ... 5 68 3 1 ° . 8 94 341 ° ..828 1 7 1 °. 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° .400 276 ° .394 0° .5 24 5 .306 2 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° . 074 1 83 ° .0539 . 0 1 67 . 0934 . 1 42 1 02 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .405 undefined 49 ° .275 222 ° . 38 7 1 . 7 73 1 ° . 1 3 6 47 ° .322 1 00 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a .773 1 7° .225 237 ° .970 7 6 ° . 000 1 °.) 00 .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 0482 .684 93 ° .2583 7 ° . 2056 .004 3 ° .005 0 . 76 ° .5 1 9 1 9 .497 1 3 ° .489 0° .000 1 .. 0068 . 5 1 3 5 2 ° .28 3 0. 5 73 1 75 ° .76 ..441 73 ° . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (. 1 39 1 1 3 ° . 1 7 3 9 .096 1 88 ° .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .870 L. 05 1 4 .
795x 1 0 7 5 .8 8 1 1 1 . 1 1 49 .268x 1 0 B 3 .04 29.9? 1 .79 24.80 5 .6 1 5 1 .820x 1 0 6 6 .232x l 0 4 3 ..2 1 4." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .257x l O s 3 . 1 08 3 1 8 .7 5 7 .74 2 .000 1 .896x 1 0 6 3 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .000 .46 84. 0 1 1 64.986x l O s 4.8 6 29.24 1 . 5 227." .49 4.l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .6 1 7 .87 3 5 .8 1 7 1 .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto ..3 05x 1 04 1 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .3 .05 6 .8 247 .65 6.0 95.06 9 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J. 1 4 1 3 .9 1 08 .
3 . While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. from the standpoint of /:. 8. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . this consideration is important.3l . For transfers to mo st of the planets. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. was the Hohmann transfer. The Hohmann transfer.v required. however. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. if continued past the destination planet . it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . Just as in lunar trajectories. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered.
V. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.u o_____+. 8. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / . Therefore . .v required for an interplanetary mission.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit. \ _. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by ..d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit.. Nevertheless.' .Sec. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::." .
32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. then.l 0 (8 .3 and should be reviewed . 3 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. B (8 .31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.33) In Table 8 .l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . In any case .1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system.3.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3 .78 kIn/sec. the difference between the heliocentric speed. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 . The heliocentric speed. • . r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit.where f. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time. for the Hohmann transfer. From Table 8.
From Table 8 .74 6. it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.9 1 6 1 .Sec. rE9> are respectively : .\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .5 1 46 . 1 2 5 8 .04 1 6. t2 .28 27. In other words . 1 6 30.295 1 . r d = 1 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun. VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight .524 A U From equation (8 .379 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.099 1 .3 9 1 1 . 40. Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.07 4 1 .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence. Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.73 38. rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.05 4 1 .9  2 .78 46.345 1 . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .42 4 1 .57 .397 22.60 Table 8.31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .748 . 8.31 1 05 .28 32.
and is illustrated in Figure 8 .7088 years = 258.73Km/sec .4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8. Thus. From equation (8 .3.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .35) wt (t2 .t1 ) wt . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.t 1 = 1T = 4.34) __ (8 . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4. The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . where is the angular velocity of the target planet.VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected. the phase angle at departure . The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points.3. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.9 d ays 8. vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .099A U/TU 0 = 32. v .2 Phase Angle at Departure. 8 From equation (8 .32 for a Mars trajectory.32) the heliocentric speed .
.Sec. .3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . .32 Phase angle at departure. . Figure 8. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun...36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place .1 76 . 367 . ... Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself.. . . 8.. If we miss a particular launch opportunity. . pp 1 60. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 'Yl (8 . and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct.. .
04 1 .32 In a time .2 1 7 3 .w t I (8 . Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.01 1 . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again. 1 3 1 .v 1 determined. 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.213 .530 . 8.07 1 1 0. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.3. 3 ·2. yrs 0.60 2. the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long. 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. so W EfJ7 s .03 8 .00 Table 8. 340 .W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km.025 Synodic Period.32 1 . we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.07 5 .0 1 1 . rad/yr 26 . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth.368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .09 1 . Thus.37) (8.38) .3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. Mars and Venus.
r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<.Sec. . . ". � Figure 8. .. we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. . 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . .:V. . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . . . . �. . '?... .. f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola.39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 .. (8 . .33 / .310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in .. . 8 .. . . '\ . � _ i t_ r b_ .
34 we see that the angie . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola.1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. the angle . the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8. km/sec. we may write .the injection speed .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . For transfer to one of the outer planets. fI. C but since e = da for any conic.1 1 ) becomes = 2 . fI.6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . so equation (8 .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . This may be seen by solving equation (8 .33 . 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 .3. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola.2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. From Figure 8. is given by cos fI =  §. 3.
3 T H E PATC H E D. 8 . 3.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. conditions : = (8 .1 2) e.Sec.3. is obtained directly from the injection (8 .3.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .1 e where the eccentricity .34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .
72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . At arrival.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector .3. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. 8. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . cfJ as shown in Figure 8. Generally.36. however. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 .3.35 Interplanetary launch (8 . then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.3.4 Arrival at the Target Planet. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur.
36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 . sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 . 3. 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.Sec. 8 .1 6) (8. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 . (8 .3.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. 3 .1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines.1 8) .
32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. From Figure 8 . then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . 3.s i n if> 2 v (8 . 3 7 we see that  (8 . in Figure 8. It also means that the relative velocity vector.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. . e.3 . 'Yl should be selected from equation (8.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. In Figure 8. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . will be directed toward the center of the planet. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . 8 . the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. 3 7 .The angle .320) y = x si n e (8. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence .36).
Sec. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f.37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.lt/ 2 X _ .322) . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8. (8 . 8 .
326) Because angular momentum is conserved.(8. 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance. 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 .327) for y Yields (8 . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the speed at periapsis is simply . Solving equation (8 .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . we obtain . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . 324) (8. y.
It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . then a much smaller target must be considered. V2 + 2fJ.329). the "inwact parameter.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. b.Sec. only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b .05 DU. 8.329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . The. rt This particular offset distance is called b .33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 .39. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .328) we 'get (8 . The given information is . " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission.t 3  rt (8 .
energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .1 VI = 1 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .099 A U/TU 0.05 D U 1 .099 A U/TU = :. 6V 1 = 1 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.099 .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.1 :: 0. 3 .
the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.v (8 .905 = = 379 37 .1 ) . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .044 8 . t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.v = 2v si n L 2 /::. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept. 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic. 1 39 + 1 . 8 .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.1 . Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .4.Sec. From Table 8 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic.43 DU/TU . departure Figure 8 .07 6 ft/sec 2 .4.
380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .32.1 ) .8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer. 8. 8.2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun . " . 5 for the planet Jupiter.3 . 8 . 8.. 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .. 7.1 )) .. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8.7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years..3..3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 .6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units. 8. EXERCISES 8 .4. (Ans.62 DUJTU� 8. 8. _  /' . 8 as derived in equation (3 .5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .
v = 1 5 . .l:.�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i.000 ft/sec. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. It can be shown that . 1 00 ft/sec) c. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 .V = 0.l:. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. 1 DUE[) radius. vesc = 1 . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .l:..9 In preliminary planning for any space mission.V required? (Ans. Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .l:. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission. v = 39 . If c = 9 . What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the .394 DUe/TU� b .v ? (Ans.V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.Ch. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years.348 DUe/TUE9> .000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans.900 ft/sec. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.l:. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit . 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . a. M = 5. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . where 8.35) ITbo no .
V at apogee or perigee? 8. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans.0. What is the 6. 6.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.0. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 . 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . v=' (Ans. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. 0. � = 0.28 AU2 /TU2 . 1 DUe/TUEl1. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. a.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. 09 DUe/TU$) = . What is the 6.which results if the same 6. a. = 0. Find the 6. v= 0. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . so work carefully and follow any suggestions..V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d.046 DU� /TU � b ..? (Ans. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans..9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b .. 8.5 DUEI1 circular orbit. 0. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6. Find the hyperbolic excess speed...382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . (Ans. 0.. What is the 6.0.9 00 ft/sec) 8 ..458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0.254 AU/TU� . 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. 8 8 . 1 3 (This problem is fairly long. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .73 1 DU8TU� b . (Ans. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. 3 . 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c.V is applied at perigee. The mission will begin in a 1 .V of .Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars.
c. (Ans. For a given planet.5 AU? (Ans. 1 . Compute the phase angle at departure. for the above transfer.87 TU� b . 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. O o) 8.) (Ans. 0. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 .5 AU.Ch. called the turning angle .3 9 DU oITU& 2 . The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 .2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount.2 AU/TU� d. (Ans. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . 0. P. then find h.373 AU/TU � f. Vrrw = 0. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. 1 . Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. 8 . 'Y1 . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans.867 AU/TU� e . What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. <P2 and vll1II in that order. 1 4 a. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars.050 ft/sec) 8 . 3 .What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0.
1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. Fimple . 8 8. London. p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. What would be an estimate of the return b. D C . LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . 1 963. * Ch . "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. Vol 2. Newman. 1 969. James R.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. 4 . The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . 1 . Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 1 95 6 . U S Government Printing Office . Washington. pp 430434. 3 . 1 96 1 . The World of Mathematics. . transfer time. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Assume circular. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet .V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. New York. R. Simon and Schuster. NY.V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . No 2 . 1 967. Vol 1 ." AIAA Journal. coplanar planet orbits. W . and the angular rates of the planets.
There is always some variation 385 . Macroscopically .CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. it is found that there seem to be distinct. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. " Webster 9 . Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). and at times unexplainable ." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented.
many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. 6 . The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. meteoroid collisions. solar radiation effects. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. Fortunately. except the motion of the perigee. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. atmo spheric drag and lift. In fact. Then. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. The wind gust was a perturbation. and relativistic effects. which had not been treated by Newton . mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. 9 . The power and all directional controls are kept constant. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. E. M. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. Brown 's papers of 1 897. magnetic. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. about a century later. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 .from the norm. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. etc.
H. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . the Cowell. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . 9 . It was developed by P. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. a section discussing methods and errors is included .Sec. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. Encke. See section 1 . Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. In particular. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common .2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. 9. With the capability for orbital flight . knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations.
388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . F or numerical integration equation (9 . 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. For the twobody problem with perturb ations.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. the equation would be (9 . y = vy (9. the equations would be . and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . Sun and planets.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration.22) would be further broken down into the vector components. r=Y �r (9 . including all the perturbations. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body.2.
Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . and he would be correct . In spherical coordinates (r.23). The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings.22).3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. Classically. It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . 8 . Intuitively. 9 .'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 . Even in double precision computer arithmetic. When motion is near a large attracting body .25) . the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to.Sec. 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff.  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error .24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . There are some disadvantages of the method .Il m ( 3 . ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2.
Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . and .g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . 9 (9 .3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. Presumably . In the Encke method . this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. in our case . 9. In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere .31 The osculatil. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory.25) As a reminder.'l. The term connotes the sense of contact. reference or b i t Figure 9.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch .
 (9 .32)  Sr. 3 .33) Sub stituting equations (9 . neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 . Let r and p be the radius vectors to . respectively . the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.1 ) .1 ) and (9 . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .3. Now w e will consider th. r + � r3 r = a t . be defined as (see Figure and . = p ( tb ) p p to = 0.. Note that at the epoch..3. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration. 9 . or epoch.3 . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits.33) we obtain .to ) ' p (9 . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . At that time .1 ) . This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path.Sec.3 2) into (9 . 9.32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors.1 ) and for the osculating orbit. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch).e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method.
6. == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r .t) can be calculated numerically. so r can be obtained from 6r and p.was to obtain more accuracy. p is a known function of time . but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .35) 3 3 r _ (9 .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation .3 / 2 (9 . 6r (to + .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch ..34) then becomes (9.. 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r . So . For a given set of initial conditions.6r] r3 r (9 . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:.6r ) .392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .3 6) Equation (9 .37) . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object .. 6r. one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method. However. theoretically.
OZ are the cartesian components o f or. 9 . Now some ways of calculating q must be found.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. however. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . o y . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved.Sec. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / ./  Our problem is not yet solved . Expanding. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . In terms of its components Figure 9.
at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. /) y2 .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.38)  1 . 3. but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .( 1 . There are two methods of solution at this point .38) and (9 .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ .3. The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation . (9 . .37). 9 From equation (9 .37) becomes (9 . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9.(1 .2q So q =  Now.39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .31 2) .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 . . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .1 0) (9 .
calculate (jr (to + t:.3.01 ).3 8) 3. g. p(to + t:.t to get (jr{ to + kt:. Integrate another t:. Rectification should be initiated when . Go to step c with t:.3. although the use of equation (9 . p 229). For an integration step.t) from equation (9 . q (to ) O. rectify and go to step a . d .t . It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. If equation (9 . care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. e . a. k.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. Vol 2. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit .does not remain quite small.> a specified constant. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .t ) from equation (9 . Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body.39) is recommended for use with the computer. Then the tables could be u sed to find f . c. f. Otherwise (jr p .t where k is the step number.t) . t:. If. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . 9 . (jr 0. and 5r 0 at this point. Knowing 5r(to + t:.t replaced by kt:. b. The method using equation (9 .1 2) is used.t). but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . but of the order of magnitude of 0.3.t) calculate 1 . r (to ) .1 2) may be slightly faster. q( to + t:. = = = = = p continue.1 0).nowing p (to ) . 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . v = p + (jr. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. f(to + t:. so larger step sizes can be taken. In (jr p v as described earlier.t) 2 .Sec. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. Calculate r = p + (jr.
Thus. this method may seem more difficult to implement. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . a . For instance.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time .6. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . See equation (9 .6. they would remain constant. etc . Though. at the outset. if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. = . one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces ./l m {m s .cSr ) (9 . A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six .3. Similarly. One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. e eccentricity. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . In the absence of perturbations. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . Then e � . from the Encke method 9.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. A similar check could be made on i .t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of .
4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. Vol 2 . or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M .4 .I OOS . This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. i. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. Therefore . The standard orbital elements a. n.. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. r. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. e. The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. p 246. for a table of parameter sets).g. 9 . It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity .To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary.n (t . . . w and. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations .tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for .variations (e. The axis S is . along the instantaneous radius vector. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. 9 . R (unit vector R).T (or M) will be used.and dM ?.Sec. � . Eventually . The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis..
42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt . The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.43) . 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.4. = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly . is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . W. The third axis.1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9.
45) To express this in known terms.49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.1 0) . (9 .o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .4 and . Differentiating the conic equation Qr.43). 9.4. This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.46) and F S (9 . dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 . expressions for found.45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .1:!:.Sec.!I=8!" nr from (9 .44) (9.46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.44).48) Substituting in equation (9. (9 .48) we find da dt = (9.� 2& ' = 399 (9 . the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.
r hW + h da S dt (9 .) Since h = hW. 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.2 )% a = (1 .�) % J.1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .lae dt h $) a dt .la _ (9 04.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .4. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.
4.4.Sec.sin QL = dt . 1 e2 (9 .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.4.1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .. 4 .4. so = h ( rF sWrF W S) . K) � (9 .1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .4.1 8) .n di dt (9 .1 6) we obtain . K .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r). 9 . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .4.h cos i rF s h2 .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
vt .45 1 ) . . • .2 (at + C)2  . 4 where c will be the parameter.Sec.v {at + c ) c (9 . VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P. ] (9 .4..at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 . .2 p.. allowing c to vary with time .e .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . From equation (9 .45 1 ). but more practically we would consider � = v .5 1 ) correct to first order in J.4.J.2p.45 0) should be small.450) and solving for e we find (9 . The constant of integration. . Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion .v 2p.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v. and V are small. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. Since p. 9 . {at + c) + 3p.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p.v which can be easily solved for c.45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. .vt 2p.4. c = ve 2 p. the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 .2p.v = .454) + 2p.vc .2p. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics. C. (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.vat a+v a . .
or has not carefully selected. storage and complexity. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . should be the criteria. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or.. 5 .e. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. accuracy. In theory. his integration method. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. not expediency. Unfortunately. 9 . d. such as the disturbing function. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. 9 . at best. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. c. efficiency. 9 in detail. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. . 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. highly questionable. b . economical in computing time. allow as large a stepsize as possible. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c.
The larger the . The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the .388. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. 2 Integration Errors.476. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ .5 (9. 9 .86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. 4. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. For instance .Sec. In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . Baker (v 2.accumulated roundoff error . Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . 9 . It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation. The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. In fact.276 + 3 .28 + 3. Obviously . suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4.388.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s .5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. They are roundoff and truncation errors. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. 5 . 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. and f. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error.567 = 7. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.864.57 = 7 . but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method .476.843. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation.
x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors.62) (9. 9 . Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. h. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. Of course . Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. 6 . The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change .414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. Gill.63) dx dt (9. We will treat the first order equation .= f(t. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods.1 ) . EulerCauchy and Bowie . In general. There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). 9. AdamsMoulton.6. 9 stepsize. the larger the truncation error. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . Thus. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . 1 RungeKutta Method. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes .
X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .6. 9 . X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . easy to implement .yry.2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method.) k2 6 3 l2 (9.k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.k +. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . x n .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h . x n + k 3 ) (9. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . have a relatively small truncation error.64) 1 1 + . It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors. In general.h ) k3 +. 9 .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 . so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .. and stepsize is easily changed . they are faster than the singlestep methods.% ] + k 2 [ 1 .yV:.63) and n is the increment number.( 1 . One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. They are relatively simple .( 1 + y. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + .Sec. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .
The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell .6. .\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods.3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. 3 /8 .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . 1 /2 . . 5 / 1 2 .beginning and after each stepsize change. . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 .1 f . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 . In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor .67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0. 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. 3 9. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). 25 1 /720.\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + .
x n+1I I (P 270 (9. for instance.6. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. In equation (9. This method. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis). It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.x n + (5 5 f ri .1 + 37 f n2 .9 f n 3 ) 24 (9.59 f n . The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . the error terms are not generally known. .Sec.69). 9 . The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9.
6 . 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ".418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ".1 ' etc.° n + . requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n . It is. The GaussJackson method is one of the best. 9 like other multistep methods. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. .2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods.1 f(t n h) 2 2   . The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. though it also includes a corrector.1 f(t n + h).6. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. 9.° n 60480 (9.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. though.h ) . n + 1 2 n i \.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . x.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n.1 . n + � 84 "x. "x. and most used.8 k . numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods.
6. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. V.6. according to Vinti. 9 . However.Bashforth) methods are preferred. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic.7. Some of them become quite complex. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. but only the simpler forms will be treated. the accelerations can be found from (9.5 Numerical Integration Summary .1 The Nonspherical Earth . flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. p/r. If the potential function.e presented in this section. 2 .The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . is known. 9. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques.1 ) One such potential function. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. ¢.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. is ¢ = � [1 .72) .l 005). 2 and NASA C R.7. 9. 9 . Table 9.I n=2 r (9. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references.
Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � . 9 CI) . it could be very fast. Vol t .z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. very difficult to determine proper size.' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 .
.30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�..] (9 .�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> . r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .J s � ( � ) (35� .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 . if> = I!:.2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 .J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .74) .where J.42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .  I..e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .2.L = gravitational parameter Sec. 9.. = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .
8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .5)x 1 0. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.6 6 (0.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 . Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 .75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2. which are slightly in variance . y.6 J4 = (1 . .422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr.44 ± O.64 ± O.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 . The first term in x..2205 2" 6 16 r r (9. l )x 1 0. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.l ( �) 3 ( 3 . l )x 1 0.57 ± O. I )x 1 0. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.5 ± O.03)x 1 0.6 ± O. 1 5 ± O.3003 ""6 ) + .70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J .6 . Vol 1 . These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. .6 J = (0.
.. but will not be presented here. Thus. The equations are formulated in the geocentric . equatorial coordinate system. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . Therefore . frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). p 147). There are a few ctmtiol).. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. by definition.Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere .s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . term) to the RSW sy stem.Sec.7.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. To do this. However.2 Atmospheric Drag. the drag coefficient. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . s 9. 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . 7 Drag. and other parameters. simply use r3 r= where . A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). 9 . Vol 1 . care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation .
z refer to the geocentric. 9 m p C O A .t b ae ==ic.7 . Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here.ie.7 .ilc coffc. y . equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9.78) z . 9 .3 Radiation Pressure. equatorial coordinate system. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. etc.lli. In the geocentric. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude .424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . . Radiation pressure. but the reader can find this in other documents. Equation (9 . though small. altitude above an oblate Earth.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).
9 .5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates. the variation of eccentricity. 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . . 9 where A = cross section f = 4. Prove this assertion .1 5) . iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation.4. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. . See equation (9. z directions. m (9.Ch.3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. 7 .79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters.2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . 9 . but a major force .4 Thrust. y. EXERCISES 9.4349 0 x .25). 9. 9 . m = mass of vehicle (grams) .
John Wiley and Sons.l 005 .426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . * 9 . D. LIST OF REFERENCES 2. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. C . R. Inc. 4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Moulton . Washington. M. Vol VI. Planetary Coordinates for the. New York. 1 96 1 . 1 . S . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Blackford. Guidance. Academic Press.ittouck. . 5 . A. G. Mendez. 6.000 n mi. 9 9 . Feb 1 968. A. New York. M.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . Robert M . DC.445). 3 . 1 960. The Macmillan Co . 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. and Clemence. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. Academic Press. 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. Years 1 9601 980. J . Brouwer. L.. New York. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Baker. F . Allione . Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. M. New York. M. * 9 . * 9. A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. 1 9 1 4. . Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization." NASA CR. . 9 . L. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . London . and Wl). and Wilf. Jr . Ralston . 1 967.
P . New York. 1 5 . E . Methods of A strodynamics. John Wiley and Sons. 1 967. L. 1 4 . 1 968 . Celestial Mechanics. New York. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. Inc. New York. 9 . M. 1 1 . Maud W. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. John Wiley and Sons. Dubyago . Part 1 . . Jr and Makemson. McGrawHill. Th e Determination of Orbits. Escobal. Vol 1 . M . Dynamical A stronomy . R . Escobal. Inc. C. McGrawHill. F .Ch . 1 2. The Computation of Orbits. G. NASA SP33 . P. The Macmillan Co. Robert M. . 1 3 . DC . Orbital Flight Handbook. A stronautical Guidance . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. New York. A . Hildebrand. 2nd ed. Plumber. Michigan. New York. 1 96 1 . D. 1 96 5 . R. Baker. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . R.. Academic Press. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). Cambridge University Press. 1 95 3 . 1 6. New York. Washington. Paul. Published privately by the Author. 1 963. Ann Arbor. 1 0. 8 . New Yark. W . 1 964. 1 95 6 . Smart. B . Battin. Longmans. 1 948 . New York. H. Townsend. Methods of Orbit Determination. Herget. Jr.
.
1 .092567257 x 107 ft 3963 . 3.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. 2506844773 deg min 7.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 . Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter.05883 36565 � TV. 1 Center. r. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter.9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec . 'Derived from those values of Il . r..9053682 8 km' . 44686457 min 6378. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4.24764 11sec 806 . 1 328 2 1 days 9.. I DU� TUi..908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .922786 NM 1 3 . and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 . 1 97 5 . we 0. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. Ile Angular Rotation.. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29. . English Units Metric Units 2.68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . Canonical Units I DU.77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .. Speed Unit I� TU.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 .. 2593 6.
.344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .2342709 5 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .239446309 x 1 0.2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. 1 2 64963205 0 . there is no roundoff or truncation.4 3 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.8 9.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A. 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.07 1 0 1 50424 4 . foot = 0.e .01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 . i.08 1 52366 0 . 1f = 3 .3 14 .
then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. 43 1 . Q. force and acceleration. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. speed. Examples are displacement. K) and (p. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . time or any real signed number. not a null or zero vector. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. temperature . If A i s a vector . (Example : 3 or A). J. Thus. W). The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. length of a vector . velocity . A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . Unit Vector.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . Examples are mass. C. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. I DEFINITIONS Vector. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. Scalar. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible .relationships involving vector quantities.
they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear.. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. regardless of the position of their origins. Coplanar Vectors. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . and A and B are not collinear. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. 1 Similarly. B and C are coplanar vectors. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. . If A.
From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : .2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . denoted by A • B. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .1 ) I AI cos B . is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.2. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B.C. Scalar or Dot Product.. C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. l . e I I l (C .B which is the same as A + (B).l ) C. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .
(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . denoted by A x B . K are unit orthogonal vectors. if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible .. That is.1=J .B + A .24) (C. then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . < 180° ) AxB =C . .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . A o A = Aft.(B + C) = A .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . B and C form a right handed system. J . 23 ) (C. sma l lest ang le ( L e .J = J o K=K o I = O where I .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A .J =K .K= 1 I . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them. The cross product of two vectors A and B.
C. J. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where .27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . then A X B = O. e < In fact A x B = . K are unit orthogonal vectors. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C.
A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C. BI C1 . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .29) Scalar Triple Product.
3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.l 3) (C.C. The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.21 4) C. The vector triple produce.(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .2. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 . The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .2.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.1 2) (C. denoted b y A x (B x C) .2.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .B3 C) + A ( B3 C . 2.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .
.YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of .. dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 . K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P......438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o ... thus ....... " .. then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + ...... .. . x J Then the velocity relative to the (I. . ... v C P K y ..with itself.....9.
T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. dr v = .3 b. In this special case then. v = wT . from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .= .= . Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector.C. VE LOCITY 439 which..
The input to SITE should be latitude.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . Az. The radar determines p. range rate . The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . and of the satellite (R and V). altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. elevation. azimuth rate. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). The input to TRACK should be range. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. positive to the east) of the launch site. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. latitude of the launch site. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . Its geodetic latitude. AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. elevation rate . EI. longitude. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). p. It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . EI. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . From the 440 . Use standard unit conversions given in the text. D . azimuth. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time .
01 2035 7 5 . LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). = (.05 1 9 5238) . observation time and radar tracking data. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . . 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . 1 4923608. 5.5 . LST. . .74933340. 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. LST _ LONG + GST + 1 .7 5. . GST.ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 .0027379093®2®PI®D . Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .7 . REAL LONG.8 N 7 8 .D.08 30. END OF LSTIME . GST. 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . LST) . LST and LONG are in radians. DAY. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) .05 1 37. 3 315 .7 . If the above program is used.5 1 35 .57 76. 22 1 0.5 3 0 .07 1 05 . 9 W 0 1 9 05. PI .3 .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .74933340.26347 1 9 8 .8 S 1 7 5.5 90 . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. 6 8 2. UT. ..62624920) = (. 8 0. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. GST _ 1 . UT. PI. E 7 2 .1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST.27907 599.2045 72 1 6 . BEGIN REAL D.5 3 4 ON 4 5. 040075. . .48 201. . Input UT as a decimal (i. Following are five sample sets of data for site location. 2 2 29.75 1 003 9 1 . y. 007 N 1 04 . .75 components are : (. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . 5 7 5 for data set 3).775 1 80 1 9. 6 . W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 .044 1 8440. . 0) = (.63745829) z = . e . INTEGER DAY.
2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. 01 .1 0 22. 0 1 7 45 .001 1 0 .9 1 . 49 0 0 2. Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . rectilinear. 1 29579 1 9 . 5 .5 0 .4 1 4 0 0 65 . d.442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. From this information you are required to fmd : a. hyperbolic). 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . c. . 48 4 0 2. parabolic. .1 . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 . 6 2 .4 1 4 2.9 1 046 1 80.2 VI . 00001 .4 1 722472 ..998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29. . 0) (.1 .6 0 .85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.707 .001 5 30 0 .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . 7 0 3 VK .49 0 . elliptical. Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach.8 .703 . 1 0 0 2 .01 .293 . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth. It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. 05 .9 0 2 0 . b . The type of trajectory (circular.
If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. c.025 9 1 7 .3 1 0 . When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used.5 . To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x.7 . Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. and dt/dx for each iteration.3 D. 1 38878 . The following data is given in e arth canonical units. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z).jiL d. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. RJ 61 . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4.4 of the text for guidance . 61. b. 61 (calculated) .0. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. a .8 . x should never be greater than 2m. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations.5 . Also for an ellipse.5 0 0 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 . If your iteration process is efficient.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. 1 5 0689 1 . To determine when convergence has occurred.
1 06 1 0.002 1 7 7 1 . and sign (7T ...01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. 3.70655823. 1 8 1 . 00 1 074 ..6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. For instance note that y can never be negative ...1 . find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. R2 V2 = (0. 1 0.. It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11').5 1 . bt. 0 .9 20 . Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 ..1 .6 for 1 :::. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives..00006057 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.999 o 1 03 D. Given r l ' r2 .. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . t :::. Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. I�I :::. 0.t c l :::.. I t . 1 362596) = (0.w).. One of the data sets tests this situation.4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later..444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory. In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z. 0003 6 1 . For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points. 1 65 08 . . If there is no convergence in 50 iterations.
3 .4 .7 0 1 0 1 .7 .4 . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.1 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT.4 .2 1 .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. Check for this case . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration. = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D. The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.2 . 1 . y. 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = . x. The following data i s i n canonical units.66993 1 97 .3 . . .8 5 +1 .6 .5 .0 .66986992.9378 1 789) = 4.1 specifies the long way. 1 92 1 62 1 2 .6 .5 .6 .S = (0.2 . Also print t:J) and a for each data set .6 . time of radar observation. so a check should be made for that condi tion. Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. print out a message and go to the next data set . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .4804847 1 .2 .6 . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. See section 5 .1 .0001 +1 . The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the ..4 1 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . .7 0 1 0 20 1 .201 .3 . location of the tracking site .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 . 1 2298 1 44. D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. and the location of an interceptor launch site . 7 for further discussion o f this project .
the number of reaction times desired . Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. and the number of timeofflight increments desired . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . Times should be read in as minutes. read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. c.446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. g. Make some provision to print out all of your input data. The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. KEPLER and GAUSS.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . the desired increment size for reaction time . Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. f. e .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. TRACK. This will aid you in verifying your solution . d. assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 .45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . To make your program flexible . When you point out your arrays. b . the starting value of timeofflight increment size.3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out .
The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.5 p = 1 86.44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4. of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .038 .338 **** **** **** 10 8 .0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .6 1 3 km EI = 56.0.1 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .74. 844 **** **** **** 35 7 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.92 deg/sec 1 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .
448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site . LATL.
INDEX .
.
9 3 . 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 423 Azimuth. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 3 4 Collision cross section. 109 B akerNunn camera. 1 8 8 . 279 C anonical units. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 5 7 principal direction. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 5 3 . 57 perifocal. 7483 Coordinate systems. 1 09. 74 geocentricequatorial. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 84. 429 Astronomical Unit. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 1 09 Angular momentum.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 3 8 9 . 422 gravitational parameter. 4043 Celestial equator. 2 1 . 296 geometry. 24 height adjustment. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 3 9 0 station. 54 orbit plane.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 84. 374 Computer projects. 5 3 . 74 BMEWS. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius.1 3 1 G auss problem. 4 3 0 Conversions. 54 fundamental plane. 349 Angle of elevation. 5 8 Aristotle. 4 1 . 429 lunar distance. 3 2 5 . 1 620. 102 Apoapsis. 429 flattening.9 8 gravitational constant. 5358. 56 Celestial sphere. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 1 4. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 84 ecliptic. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 1 5 . Tycho. 2 3 4. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 60 Argument of periapsis. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 3 5 8 . 3 3 period of. 2 1 2 B asis. 1 8 5 true. B urnout. 28 1 B arker's equation. 1 8 3 mean. 94. 6. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 9498 transformations. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 20. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 246 Brahe. 3 2 3 masses. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 297299 451 . 56 Circular satellite orbit. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 203 Aphelion. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 8 4 Copernicus. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 2427 Apogee. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 60 and universal v ariables. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 24 Apparent solar time. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 1 00. 1 22. 5 5 heliocentric. 277320 computation chart. 4 gravitational h armonics.
221 hyperbolic.3 0 6 numerical integration. 3 5 0 Epoch. 4 Newton's law of. G auss problem. apparent. 1 8 8. 2 1 ff. 84. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 1 04 Escape speed. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 56. 1 54. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 3 22 trajectories. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 4 G alileo.1 90. 4 G ravitational parameter. 2 1 . 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 26. 3 00 launching. 3 89 nbody. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 2 9 7 . 4 1 2 Euler angles. 3 0 . 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 2 3 0 .3 9 6 Energy. 62 vector. 264 eccentric anomalies. 1 7 equations. 25. 3 90 . 6 1 Elevation angle.riod o f . function o f true anomaIles. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 5 8 .93 .1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 3 5 Escape trajectory.1 1 6 Gravitation. 8 7 . 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 62 Ecliptic. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 7 G ravitational constant. 227 418 ( y ) . 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 3 1 . 1 8 2. 2 4 . 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 60 Dot product. 3 6 8 local. 444 algorithm. 20 1 202 f and g series. 25 1 . 1 0 6 mean. 54 Elements of orbit. 2 1 2. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 2 8 5 Freeflight range.452 Declination. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 1 0 6 precession. 60 true longitude at. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 1 4 0 .3 3 pe. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 4 1 9. 58 from position a n d velocity. 4 3 3 Drag. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 2 0 . 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 2 1 2.1 5 5 Direct motion. 25 1 258. 9. 1 8 8 . 26 ff. 1 0 3 G round track. Elliptical orbits. 22827 1 . 9 4 Geoid.2 1 2 parabolic. 2 8 2 time. 3 5 . 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian.1 3 1 Direct ascent. 1 0 twobody. 1 1 7. 1 0 9 . 8 0 f and g expressions. 3 5 . 2 3 0 f and g series method. 2 3 3 . 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 1 42. 306 EarthMoon system. 40. 2 9 . Carl Fredrich. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 94 . 1 60 low altitude. 423 424 Earth oblate. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. G ibbsian orbit determination method.1 4 3 . 1 8 1 .2 1 4 Eccentricity. 1 22. zenith angle.
3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 1 6 3 . 3 89 trajectories. 62 . 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 3 8 . 4. Greenwich. 1 7 7. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 94 geodetic. 3 1 6 Injection. 3. 3 9 6 constraints. 1 02 Mean solar time.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile.3 8 4 general coplanar. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 1 8 5 . 1 0 twobody. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 3 44 . 1 1 7 Latitude. 1 8 8 . 238. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 3 24 . 8 Node ascending. 207 I nclination. 1 5 6. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 3 64. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 3 1 Manned flight. 2. 3 9 6 M otion. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 2 8 8 . 3 62 . 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 58 regression. 1 9 8 .I N D EX H alley. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 7. 1 5 6. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 2. 220 Mean motion. 3 57 . J ohann.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 22. 1 0 2 Meridian. 8 6 . 3 26 orbital elements of. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 3 24326. 1 03 Minor axis. 60 Lunar trajectories. 3 0 3 . true at epoch. 6 . 1 80 third. 1 56 vector. 5 Newton. 247 Newton's laws.1 8 1 first.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 2 H alley's comet. 3 27. numerical rotation of. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 1 . 3 7 0 Integration. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 3 5 0 free return. 9 9 . 62 longitude of ascending. 3 69 . 1 4 1 . 3 80 Kepler. 2 7 7 . 234. 3 59374. equations o f nbody. 5 1 . 1 1 7 derivatives.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 2. 1 52 Mass of planets. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 2 Heliocentric constants. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 2 1 . 54 Heliocentric transfer. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 3 1 Moon. 5 8 Longitude.8 9 derivatives i n . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 1 4 1 . 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 94 reduced. 1 5 1 . Isaac. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 3 7 9 . 1 57 Line of nodes. 22 1 . gravitational parameter. 2 6 5 27 1 . 1 0 1 . Edmund.1 6 6. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 60 Latus rectum. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. limitations. 3 69.9 3 Mu ( � ) . argument of at epoch. 2. 2 second. 3 9. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 6. 8 9 .3 05. 3 65 noncoplanar. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 1 Kepler's equation. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 6 rotation of. 20 Least squares solution.
3 90 . 3 44 . 3 8 9 Earth potential. 60 Right ascension. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 3 9 0 Parabola. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 4 1 2425 errors. 1 1 7.1 76 inplane changes.3 44 Periapsis. 3 8 6 general. 3 24 . 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 20 Polar radius. two body. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 2 1 2 computer solution. true anomaly. 3 3 3 . 1 62 O rbit. 440448 Q parameter. 1 6 Potential function. 2 0 . 2427 argument of. 1 3 2 outofplane changes.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 420 c riteria for choosing. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 3 59 . 83 from optical sightings. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 1 69 Orbit determination. 9 3 . 6 1 from sighting directions. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 1 09 . 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 58 determination from position and velocity. 423 due to the moon. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model.1 59 examples.3 9 0 Encke's method. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 3 24 . 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion.1 22 from position and velocity. 3 3 Perturbations. 2 1 . 57 Perigee. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. flightpath angle. 3 60 physical characteristics. 4 1 4 sum squared.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 1 9 3 . 26527 1 Residuals. 56. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 220 classical formul ations. 424 thrust. 1 1 7 . 424 R ange and rangerate data. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 4 1 8 RungeKutta.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter.454 Nu (v ) . 3 9 0 Relative motion. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 34. 4 1 9 . 1 62 . 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 3 1 .1 22. 5 1 . 1 0 9 Rectification.3 7 9 lunar. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 1 1 7 . 443 algorithm. 24 height adjustment. 1 5 1 . 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 2 1 . 1 5 6 .9 8 Optical sensors. 3 8 7 . 425 Phi ( � ) . 58 Perifocal coordinate system.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 3 4 1 Period. 20. 6 1 o f moon. 1 3 Rendezvous. 203. 2 4 . 5 symbols. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 22727 1 Orbit plane. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 1 90 Numerical integration.1 50. 94 Potential energy reference. 3 6 1 shape of. 1 0 3 P rojects. 2 4 Periselenium.
1 8 8 . 23. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 99. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 2 8 7 maximum range. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 3 5 8 .1 9 0 if. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes.4 3 9 Velocity components. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 1 9 high. 44 1 mean solar. 30. 99. 4 3 7 unit.1 0 9 apparent solar. 8 6 . Universal gravitation.1 40 errors. 9 9 . 85 Traj ectory equation. 425 Thrust perturbation. definition of. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 1 9 1 . 4 3 7 . 4 1 8 Surveillance. 1 1 . 7 Universal time. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 1 0 3 universal. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 1 02. 9 Sidereal time. 20 Semimajor axis. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 1 3 1 . 5 radio interferometers. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 4 3 1 Velocity. 1 03 local sidereal. 4. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 3 6 1 Solar time. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 4 3 4 derivative o f .1 69 Hohmann.1 0 4 Solar system. 1 1 Units. 8 4 . 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 2 1 7 parabola. canonical. 9 3 . 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 1 6 3 . 60 True longitude at epoch. 40 Unit vectors. 2062 1 0 use of. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 5 8 Time zones. 1 3 2. 40. 20. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 1 6 6.4 3 9 d o t product.9 8 of planets.1 40 Selenocentric. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 1 8 1 . 3 1 Sensors. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 9. 3 60 physical characteristics. 1 8 (see Nbody . 1 3 8 optical. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 4 3 7 . 287 low. 58 Semi minor axis. 1 0 1 Spacetrack.8 9 derivatives in. 1 0 1 . 4 3 3 triple product. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 6. 1 3 5 ellipse. 1 3 6 radar. 1 9 1 225. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 1 0 1 S o l a r day.1 4 assumptions. 1 0 1 . 2 1 at epoch. 1 52 Station coordinates.3 59 orbital elements. 23. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 1 8 1 . 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 1 9 1 development of. 425 Time. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 3 1 . 1 6 Sputnik. 1 8 8 universal variables. 2 8 8 . 1 6. 9 9 . 3 27. 1 5.1 6 6 True anomaly. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 1 8 8 . 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day.