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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . Jan Irvine .R.M. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged. Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin.D. . J . D.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P .E. Ronald Chaney ( artist) .B. United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.W. Dorothy Fryar .
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83 . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . .2 The NBody Problem . . . . . . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . 2 . . . . . . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . _ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 09 . . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . 1 . . . . 14 . . 2 . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . 2. . . . . . 1 . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 1 . 1 01 . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . 1. . . 2. . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . 93 . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . 71 . . . . . . . . . 61 . . . . 2 .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . 1 . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of References . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . .4 Constants of the Motion . 1 . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . . . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . 1 . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . .1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . .1 4. . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . . .1 Historical Background . 7. . . . .1 8. . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . 5 . 3 20 . . . . . . . . . . 380 . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 .4 7. . . . . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . 333 . . . . . . 344 352 355 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. .5 . 273 . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . Exercises . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . . . . 3 87 9. . . 275 . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . Exerc ises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . Histor ical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . . . . . . xi 5 . . . . . . . . .2 The Solar System . . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . . . . . 357 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 . . . . . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . . . . . List o f Re ferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 6 . . . . 379 .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . . . . . 3 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . 390 . 3 27 . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . 297 6. .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . 27 1 . . . . . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . . . 25 1 . . . . . . . List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . List of Reference s . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . 440 449 . . . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . .
the noble and aristocratic Dane. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. Kepler. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power.CHAPTER 1 TWO. Newman! . This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. he might have been put into a quart mug. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. the poor and sickly mathematician. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. Tycho.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. as his mother told him in later years. the year Galileo died. JarnesR. 1 642 . who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler.
The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. with the sun at a focus . The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 .2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. 2 1. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . One day in 1 685 . is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. Kepler's laws were only a description. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666.1 Still. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life .1 Kepler's Laws. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). Since the time of Aris totle . Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. Finally . TWO. therefore . not an explanation of planetary motion .BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. discoverer of Halley's comet. But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. necessarily moved in circles. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. It fit.1.
Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.2 Newton's Laws of Motion." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. 1 . "Why. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. Dissatisfied with this explanation. casually posed the question. 4 1. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. without mentioning the b et. when he recovered from his shock. more simply. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. in ellipses. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation.1. t he Principia. of course . The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . they speculated whether a force . were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. or . advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke .Sec.
1 ) (1 .'�V .4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. Note that equation ( 1 .n ( 1 . 1. The universal gravitational constant. has the value 6.67Ox 1 0.11 Newton's Law of Motion .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system. .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them. " Figure 1 .1 . 1 . 1 . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . 1 2) Fg = . / . . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia.G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m..1.1 . • .12) t o equat i. . We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll. . G. .1 .
. I " '. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies .e. .. X I ..2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. a lunar or interplanetary probe. 1. . the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present.. . m2 • m3 m m. or a planet). y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. an earth satellite . solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. An important force. etc. I I I Figure 1.II I I I " I I I I :. propellants) to pro duce thrust. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}.. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body .12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . j. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag.�I '.. In addition. . At any given time in its j ourney..e.Sec 1. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. thrust and solar radiation pressure .2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. . the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion.
This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. • • • z FOTHER . These effects.1 . the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. Thus. 2. Y. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. 1 equator. Although small. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X.���Y � X n 1.. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. are discussed in Chapter 3 . variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2.2' The NBody Problem Figure ..6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch .. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion.
Fg.. .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r.Se c 1. The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . .3) Obviously . . thrust. The v ector sum. perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. (1.2.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) .2 ·1 is T composed of drag. II 3 (1. equation ( 1 . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . solar radiation pr essure.5 ) The other external force . the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn .2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself.2. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. m'J JI 3 (rj j) . etc . F gn where =  Gm .
I) and all other external forces .2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody. is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ. . z coordinate system. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma..26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion...28 would not be zero . Thus...I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x .... Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time .1 + F OTHER ' (l .F I dt TOTAL dt (1. In other words. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL.27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 . d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL.. y .8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. (1. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0.
29) is a second order .2.1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1.Sec 1 . equation ( 1 .2. mi 0). unpowered flight.2. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 . m· J (�i) .11) 2. The only remaining forces then are gravitational. F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . nonlinear. sun and planets .29) reduces to = r· 1 n .G And for i = 0 . r JI. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le.1 0) for i = 1. Then writin g equation 1 . m .10) ( . ( 1. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system .. mn may be the moon. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form.. we get j = j � *i 1 3 .2.1 2) . Y. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions. expelling mass or relativistic effects. Equation (1 .. Equation ( 1 . vector.G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth.2.
.22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.21 1 ) and ( 1 .1 From equation ( 1 .2 1 6) each bracket. Since r 1 2 = .2.2.1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .1 4) gives. 2 1 7 ) . .2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1. Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch. 2.G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth . n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence. .1 2) into equation ( 1 .
3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth.3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 .2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. mi orbit about the earth. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .6x l O lO 1 . There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 .3.9x l O 8 7 . .1 Simplifying Assump tions. COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite . The bodies are spherically symmetric . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies.89 6x l 0 4 2. This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. Table 1 .2x l O 8 2.Sec. Howe ver . sun and planets on a near earth satellite .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies. 1 . 1 x l 0 10 3.21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . 1. Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion .
r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. Y. Y'.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . " s However. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies.1 . he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. 3 2 ) . 1 . Y'. For the time being. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. which "in its own nature. N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'.12 TWO.3. Y' .3. Y'.1 ) (1 . without relation to anything external. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Let (X'. . Let (X.2 The Equation of Relative Motion. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M.. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . 1 2.3. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. remains always similar and irrnovable.
y X' Figure 1 . (1 . Z) with its origin in the central body. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. 1. Z').33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. GIM+ml r Equation (1. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'.31) we have = _ r . Y'.Sec. Y.33). velocity.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r. Y. Note that this is the same as equation (1.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. Y'. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. ballistic missiles.32) from equation (1. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. and acceleration in a nonrotating. Note that since the coordinate set (X. Y. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. Z'). or space probes orbiting about 3 r ..33) . Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites.
namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative .3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . M.4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. will be much less than that of the central body . Then equation 1 .3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. If you think ab out the model we have created. the mass of the orbiting body . then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). 1. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. 3 ·4 ) . It is convenient to define a parameter." for another form called "potential energy ." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . "kinetic ." That is. called the gravitational GM.14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. If m is not much less than M. m. 1 some planet or the sun.
41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. ( 1 .r ) = � r �(r . 5. then 1 . But what about the arbitrary co nstant . To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .4 frame (the large mass) does not change . Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . r 2. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . C.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O .Sec. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O . Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 .lL\I r dt JJ. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . N 0 tlcmg that . 1 . To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. Therefore. v =r and v= f. 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero.4. which appears in . I n the next two sections we will prove these statements.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. dt 1:L = O. 1.!!.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy.
do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. Cross multiply equation ( 1 .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . at what distance . Noticing that . Since in general a x a= 0.2 Conservation of angular momentum. that the specific mechanical energy. If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. In other words. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . �.iL (rxv) = O. therefore . O. The expression for � is �. the earth.fL 3 . e .42) 1 .4. neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. rX . dt .g. r. This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. We conclude . The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' .  ( 1 . 3 4) by r 2 .
we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space .43) v I h = r x v." "Up" simply means away . 1 . Therefore . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1.41 Flightpath angle . called specific angular momen tum. We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . (1 .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. I Figure 1 . of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. h. Therefore .The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. we have shown that the specific angular momentum.
and the specific angular momentum. &. c o s ¢=Jl. V =5. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle .4274I+2. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). In an inertial coordinate system. Determine the specific mechanical energy . (4.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.7 1 37J+O.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . J and K are unit vectors. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical.8143 r • v > 0 .0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.420 . Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y.8143 = 35.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. ¢. h. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. r = 12.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. = 0. ¢. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle .2778 J + 1 0 . the zeni th angle . however. v. I h = rv c o s ¢. Also find the flight·path angle. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . respectively. Ch.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. 1 85 2 1 + 6.4. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r.899 X 107 ft.5936 1 + 5 . • ( 1 .
(h xr) =. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity. err.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4.I... Also note that J.Sec.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.3 3 r r r since r • i = f . .1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. 1 .33) is simple..5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.. 1 . r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. While this equation (1. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .. its complete solution is not.1!y r .5.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .( r) r. �t (B· .51) The left side of equation (1. (1. JJ. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ. we see that J!:.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see.& .
.54) ..53) 1 .9 cos V (1. +(81J. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. h2 where vector r.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. V. c and a ." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. I r 1 + e cos V p (1. + r o Since. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. we obtain = 1 h2 /g .54) . in general. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation.. (1.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. v. 5. Equation (1. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B .52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle.
Sec. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. remains constant. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body.51 illustrates an ellipse. 2. parabola. ellipse. (See Figure 1 . cp. not just ellipses. 1. 3. There is. the flightpath angle. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . an exchange of energy between the two forms.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. must change so as to keep h constant.41 and equation (1 . 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. 4 . the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space.44) 1 . potential and kinetic.5. Although Figure 1. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. Before discussing the factors .51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . however. 5 . As r and v change along the orbit.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit.
5 2 illustrates this definition . The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. the section is a parabola. If. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. the section is a hyperbola having two branches.52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. 1 Figure 1 . The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . If the plane cuts both nappes. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . the section is an ellipse. Figure 1. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines . or a single point. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general.
53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. Figure 1 . F and F'. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. The prime focus. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. F.Sec 1 . The secondary or vacant focus.53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . F'. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit.
55) p = a (1 . the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . Thus. In the parabola.e2). The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a." "perihelion" or "aphelion. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 .5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses"." etc. is c�lled the semimaj or axis. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. The dimension. a.54)).5 3 . which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . ( 1 .
1 ( 1 . .53) and ( 1 .= a( 1 +e) .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). 1. 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe. 5.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 .59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . 1e ( 1 .4 The Eccentricity Vector. 53). Quite obviously.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . which points toward periapsis. tL r ( 1 . we encountered the vector constant of integration. By comparing equations ( 1 . In the derivation of equation ( 1 . e = BltL. B. ( 1 . 5.1 0) . since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis.52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. the trajectory equation.. .58) 1 .Sec .
61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). of the satellite. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. /or any orbit.p.(r . is equivalent to increasing h. v. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms..1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. ( 1 . If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired.p. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. 1 . By comparing equation ( 1 .6.5. we get • p. p. Figure 1 . v ) v . e . r  r . 1. v)v. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. Therefore. h.1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. e = V x (r x v) .6 RELATING &. e = ( v v ) r . ( 1 . r r p. x v. th . equation ( 1 . is zero.53) and equation ( 1 ..26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. and that as h is . By inspection. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth.
of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .F �.  .44).62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . . .. �' " . (1 . R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. Figure 1 . as a corollary to equation ( 1 .increased the parameter. 57) p rp = a(1 . is zero. . . p.. . We can then write.61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle.42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . r I .�= � . . v.62) we obtain &.1 ) predicts .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 .e ) . . = �. 1 01) .. I '.6.
You should study it together with Figure 1 .6. while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive.63) misleading. while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . &.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive .a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . the energy of a satellite (negative . 1 and from equation ( l . zero.56) and equation (1 .6. Many students find equation ( 1 . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 .63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis. a. of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative .e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . Thus. Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a.28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch .1 ) therefore p. Figure 1 . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &.
3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) .. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. m i . 64) Notice again that if & is negative. Determine its altitude at apogee. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . 9 n .897  e2 ) = 3. Namely. ra = 1 � e = 4453.. specific mechanical energy. semilatus rectum. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather.1 and perigee altitude 200 n . 0 .Sec 1 . & = 2 . r p = rES + 200 = 3643. e is exactly 1 (a parabola).. . if & is positive .0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. 2& = 3 .7 n . and specific angular momentum. 3 n . e is greater than I (a hyperbola). The student should be aware of this pitfall.Jf5P. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic.  a=  '!:.5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . m i . For a given satellite . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. if & is zero . R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. mi. = 6. and semimaj or axis. p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. 6 . m i .
7·2) .= 2. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period. = 5.7· 1 ) B y inspection.m i . I ( 1 . 1 .7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa. an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. 2a = r a + r = 8097. 1 n.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . specifically r + 1 .mi. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 .6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses.7· 1 .855 = 6 . 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.JpjJ.7 . Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the distance between the foci is ( 1 . h =. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. Since an ellipse is a closed curve. ( 1 .r Ell = 1 009.
r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since.72) and ( 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll. e is defined as combine to yield da.horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.76) .7. At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 .7 .1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . when rearranged .Sec.73) ( 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.7. in general.72. 2 b. Since r + r' = 2a. Using equation ( 1 . 1 . 2 ( 1 .1 . you will see that the . If you refer to Figure 1 . equation ( 1 .44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 .7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 . Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .75) which.
76) as ( 1 . Figure 1 . d A.32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. is given by the expression So.77) dt 2 = 11 dA. 1 Figure 1 .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. d v. we can rewrite equation ( 1 .73 Differential element of area .
Naturally.Sec. 1 Circular Satellite Speed.8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit. Thus.79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 .8 .78) b =) a 2 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 .1 ) 1 . 55) and ( 1 . proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. 1 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii.77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. incidentally.8. Integrating equation ( 1 . During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . Of course. The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. Equation ( 1 . so equation ( 1 . the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. ( 1 .8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . since h = /JlP. From equations ( 1 .c2 =) a 2 ( 1 .79).75). a. 1 .e2 ) = JaP and. 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 .77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit.
The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. Another is that. 1 .1 .1 Geometry of the Parabola.9.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 .9.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit .1 ) . An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again. rCS' from the energy equation.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. F or a low altitude earth orbit.000 ft/sec. the periapsis radius is just r 1 .9. circular speed is about 26 . 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know. One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 .34 TWO .
2 Escape Speed.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 . as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � . r." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.57).9. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.92) .91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l.Sec. Of course. Theoretically.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   ." 1 . its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory.E. 1 . first at a general point a distance .
1/2a.92) =21 . 5 7). b ..700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . = j.400 nm above the surface it is only 26.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . the semimajor axis.Since the specific mechanical energy. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 . the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. a. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude . of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . As you would expect. a.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.000 ft/sec. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. 8.1 57. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. 36 TWO . 53374 106 ft = = 36.
+ x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn.amr iO.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .53374 106 ft 2 43. 1 .Sec. 8n. m i .8 n.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21. m i . rb i t P 7087. 06748 106 ft 7087.
Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . then the righthand branch represents the orbit.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch .1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. 1 0. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). F . The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. 1 1 . If we consider the lefthand focus. A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 .1 ) . then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. instead. 1 . Obviously. 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. 1 0. If. The parameters a. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . (L l O.
is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . 1 0. The angle between the asymptotes." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity. is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . The turning angle . which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . on the other hand. the smaller will b e the turning angle .1 .. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . 1 02) becomes ( 1 . we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. If. 1 .but since Sec. 1 0. 1 . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed.for the hyperbola. 0. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed.0. V 00' . it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 .
Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. In other words. Astronomers call thi� ' . 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 .B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. It is. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. It is a fact. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. 1 . the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . of course .40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. 1 0. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. a million miles) from earth.3 Sphere of Influence. 1 . 1 (1 . the concept is convenient and is widely used. for all practical purposes it has escaped. however. we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO.
will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . For other problems where the earth. r a' r p' . 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. 1 . or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. h. p. e.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 .l.1 . Using canonical units determine & . If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. or other planet. 1 . earth. then the value of the gravitational parameter.Sec. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. moon. 1 1 . Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 1 1 . A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. 1 The Reference Orbit. J. 5 9362 5 . In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) .
1 . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . Alt = .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 .42). [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 1 67 D U �/T U � = . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. 5 D U e �2 _ /J. � = .
= 3.61) Find h from equation (1.. 5 D U = 9.5 7)  r a = 1 e p.58) Find r p from equation (1.Sec.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. = 2.= 4 . 5 D U ". 25D U EB = 4.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t.64) Find ra from equation (1.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft . 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = . 1 . 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 .
1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis.000 n mi. a. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system.2. &= .. 5 81) 1 . Find the specific energy of the trajectory.1 . 6 J 1 .44 TW O. (Answer : e = 1 . is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . c. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. Find the period of the orbit. 2J AK IJK h = AI . Why. Find the eccentricity of the orbit. Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. in general. . 1 EXERCISES 1 .000 ft/sec and 4 . is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. The orbit eccentricity is 0. respectively. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . 1 .4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. 1 . 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . b . 2K DU 2 /TU .3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi.
or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). p b.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. D U /T U DU e. ¢ =3 = 1 .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. p 1. hyperbolic. (Ans. 354 10" r 1 .000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. r v c. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. 7 Prove that d. V ft/sec.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. 91 J space. 2K + . 1. D U 2 /T U 2 = + .5 rpe r i gee = 1 . 4K r r v = . a a.Ch . 0 1K v = l + l . mi during descent? (Ans. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 .6 18 = 59° 58') . r x ft ) = 3. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 .123K = 1 . elliptical.000 ft) with a velocity of 25.5 DU DU DU d. 1 . &.
14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points. derive values for e for circles. 1 . p = 2. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = . ellipses and a hyperbolas.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . Determine the maximum altitude attained. P 1 . 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. p = 2. e. e=O e = .6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 .000 ft. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. d . p = 3.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . b . 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. p = 6.) 1 .2 e = . It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. (Neglect atmo spheric drag. c. p = 6. 1 2 Given that e = �.
1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans .V O U EB /TU EB ) . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v. When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. * 1 . rc = at +b = 0. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. 207 1 . What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. c.6. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. 1 .Ch . Show that : b.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. you may use the same Figure 2.24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the .Sec. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW.Xw UK vectors. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. When describing a heliocentric orbit . Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system.4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System.2. 2 . Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . 2 . Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . Q and W respectively. Yw '+. 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis.
2 . K I I . Obviously .3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size .the angle . inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors.the time when the satellite was at periapsis. 2. Frequently the semilatus rectum. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . Similarly. Q longitude of the ascending node. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. Another system. 6. i. in the fundamental plane . T. w. 5 . The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. measured in the direction of the satellite's motion.the angle from to periapsis measured h. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. a. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . p. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. e. if you know a and e you can compute p. time of periapsis passage . shape and orientation of an orbit .3. the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. Instead of argument of periapsis. 3 . 4 .1 as follows : 1 . A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit .58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . is substituted for a in the above list.
3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.Sec. 2 .31 Orbital elements .
then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . 1 £0 £0 + ." Direct means easterly. in the plane of the orbit. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . both of which are always defined . 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . Retrograde is the oppo site of direct.3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . earth. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. to ' called the "epoch.3. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. This is the dire ction in which the sun. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . w and va are all defined. n=n+w. then both w and Uo are undefined." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n.31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) .1 ) .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). From Figure 2. then b oth W and n are undefined. (2 .60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .
4. n. 2. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. vI vJ v K J (2 .42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. n and e.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product .Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . To be perpendicular to K. 2 . Therefore . n would have to lie in the orbital plane. h.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . t o . h. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. The node vector.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 .4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. n an d e. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . n must be perpendicular to both K and h. To be perpendicular to h. 2.
1 . In general.S .2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. 2 nodes.1 1 )).4. Study this figure carefully . We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: .62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . B cos a AB (see Figure (2 .4. The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. p. n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. h. The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . e. Now that we have h. The parameter.3. n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. is obtained from (2 . ex.46) Of course . The vector. 2. the cosine of the angle .1 ) (2 . An understanding of it is essential to what follows . If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . All three vectors. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2." Specifically . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . We are only interested in its direction. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see .
' (2. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4..) e.4 3 .:. c o s U o = !!. Since Vo is the angle between e and f. � � h. (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .48) 5 .1 0) 7 . 2 .) .Sec. (2 .47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .4. Since i is the angle between K and h. Since n is the angle between I and n..) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° .49) 6.1 1) . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.) c o S Po = � er (2 . 2.4.L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° . Since Uo is the angle between n and f . Since w is the angle between n and (2.
1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . look at the geometry of Figure 2 . If they don't make sense to you.1 and study it until they do . 3 . 2 z x 8 . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative).64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .4. With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v. The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. . Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2.
Figure 2. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 . VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.Sec.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. 5 DU e == .
66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .4 DU p == .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 . 2 3 Figure 2 .5 e == .\ .
44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: . 2.Sec.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .
From equation (2.. Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid. ) r .= 4D U = 13.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 .47) = .1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . e.4..1 ) p = .I:!:.. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. ml . Find p using equation (2 .48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system).i:. Using equation (2.l h2 .6. [ ( f. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. .1.68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node . using equation (2 . Find eccentricity.. n. EEl . 7 75 . i. Find inclination.(r .45 ) Since h =. f.7 4n .
:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . for this case .n = COS . 4 . 2 ..n.. can be determined in this case. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .  Find longitude of periapsis.49) W n · e W. II.!!. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . is undefined. = cos .41 0) v a c os. Find true anomaily .= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. II.Sec.1 (. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined .1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 . Find argument of periapsis. From equation (2 . va. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector . From equation (2. .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis.
The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� . EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2. 2 Find true longitude o f epoch. v)v] =.1 ) Find e. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=.85 n .33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM . From equation (2. = From equation (2..3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .m i .E)r(r . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch ..6.5 .  then from equation ( 1 ..25 EB EB D U EB 7748.
1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2. 2. .48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. From equation (2 .Sec.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .49) w: 0 W = cos.43) n Find the longitude of ascending node . va : From equation (2. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .4.11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .5 Find the inclination. From equation (2. I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 .5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.I Find the true anomaly .
first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. i. i .5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. 8. Of the se six elements. shown below.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. consists of two steps.ffe si n V (2.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. Let ' s assume that we know p. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. n.5 2) . v. 2 elements are given. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. 2.24): ro to. changes with time . This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time .5. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . The method. w and v.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .to.5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . that occurs in a given time . Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. w and va . n. . 8. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. lV.
Sec. 5P DU E9 (2. Before equation (2.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = . v �[. 2.54) r = J � [.25 45{) (2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).5 i= p 2. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.54) from equation r (2.
and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick ." 2. the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. east ." The phrase in quotes describes what the . Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. suppose you know the south. and it still represents the same thing. or what it represents. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . 2 2. direction .74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . such as position vectors. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. In other words. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . For example. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. east. have a definite starting point . namely. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. For example . vector represents. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. its fundamental (xy) plane .6. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin .6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. east a!1d up. suppose you know the south. but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. Certain vectors.
2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. y' and z ' axes. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.6. : r Y I ex a . V and W along the x ' . 2. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .y Y 75 . Figure 2. and extending along the x. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods.61) ." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite." In other words. 2.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite .61 illustrates the two frames. ���________� • . y ����. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. Let us imagine three unit vectors I. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame .Sec.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S . Figure 2.
64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 . 65) . J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2.1 ) yields I. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.6. 2 From Figure 2. (2.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch .63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.61 we can see that the unit vectors U.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.62) above and equating it with (2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).
69) '" axis.Sec.66) (2.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.67) yields the set of equations (2 . These are summarized belox:: .64) above . Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2. 2 . (2 .6.67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2. 68) B '" (2. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2. .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex . Rotation about the xaxis.
1 ).78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2. We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .7 . Figure 2. So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 .61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame .84 shows the angular relationship between two frames. Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation. 2 (2. a. Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch .6.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame .4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes.
61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e . if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. .cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.Sec.6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e .e.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose .61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. AB =1= SA ). Fortunately. denoted by D . 2. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . Hence . Now. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. The transpose of the matrix D .61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. We can write equation (2. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). Equation (2. (i. The inverse of any orth.1 . all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate.
By me mo C. tluee b . th. basis no ma t . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. sh ow n in F ig u " Th . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . gl " n i lly . to p' ter ho w co no.ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. anglo . Perifo ca l to th e G Th .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK ..".Eq to th e IJ K in at . mu " in cid 'n ce b . O c M ma t.6 . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce .. 6.sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . 62. a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. th' O ugh w hi ch on . n t rizing th .n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . d th yo u will b . d w . d wi th .." a ny mp licat e d . 5 Tmn . m1 " fo. 6.".1 2) Figure 2 . 2 (2. "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th ..". a bl . axes in to CO ham . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . 'o ta t.
Thus if a i ' aJ . aQ. 2 .. Figure 2.. a K and ap ... .63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry.63. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame .. For example .. then Sec .. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit . from Figure 2.The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . To .. R.
sin n sin w cos i .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .6.63 . Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. I • p I · Q J . Q I ' W J · W K .1 3) i. B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. ! • P.cos n sin w . Now a. 2 from their dot product .6. J and K Thus R = J . P K · P In Figure 2. the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. since I and P are unit vectors. a �.1 4) R23 = . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. Similarly.
7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix.5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. V. 2 .5 . Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both .7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. 2.Sec . . In this case either n or w or both are undefined. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical.1 ) and (2.
is measured clockwise from north . AZ . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . 7 . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite.7. 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.( N o rt h ) 2. 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. can also be measured. the rate at which range is changing. The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up .84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . The azimuth angle . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . E and Z shown in Figure 2 .2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. Az. EI.7 . the elevation angle . p. 2. The unit vectors S. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth.1 . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south.7 .
we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p.72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. /l!L.7 . as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. Thus.1 ) where . from the geometry of Figure 2.75) . Sec. From Figure 2.and EO/. We will express the po sition vector as (2 . 2. E I . E1 sin Az cos Az (2 .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. p.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.1 . = Ps PE = P cos Pz. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. Az. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .7.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2.73) E l (B I ).7 4) = + P (2 . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r.72 we see that r (2 .7 .
Unfortunately.72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2. 2 J topo centric frame . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v.76) . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth.
77) . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame . Therefore . 2 . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". EB x f. (2 .Sec.73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . Figure 2. v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed.73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite .
1 = [.6 1 2 .612) r = R + P = 2S .866 .612 .E + 1 .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 5Z (Given) [). 5 Z (units are DU). Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . 3535 . is 2 S E + .707 o .3535 . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Figure 2.707 . 300 N Lat . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.5 J . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 .
2.79) J. 332J  . • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . .. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. z). however. V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero .7.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . z) system (Figure 2 . if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . w) . We will denote this quantity by w.Sec. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I.75 ) . I =J =K=O.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. (2. The unit vectors D. (2.9 1 81 + 2. rotating with respect to the (x. v. y. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. y. Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • ..4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame .982K .
7.1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . Hence . The remaining terms of equation (2.79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . Hence .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . equation (2 .1 0) reduces further to . V = w x V and W = w x W . Similarly. . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. equation (2 . .7.71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . .
...1 2) .. �:. . ..75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA.. .... dt R I (2 ..7.LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 ...y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ .. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u....... . " F i xed " System ( x. y. v v. z) '.. W) Figure 2..Sec.... . 2 . Equation (2.71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u . .....7...1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q. .. ..
(2 . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .9!. (2 . Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.7 .7.1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest. 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch ." Ioox.1 3) into equation (2 .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.1 2) to the po sition vector r.7.7.71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration . The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .) .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .7 .7. 2 iLl F = .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 . Equation (2 .1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .7 .7.7.1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .
8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration .8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame .Sec. 2 .8. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. If the earth were perfectly spherical. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. ae . be' is just the polar radius of the earth. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. circles. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. In the model which has been adopted. It is known . "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. 2. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude.) 2. Sections parallel to the equator are . We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. however . a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. of course . The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . Therefore . The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation .
This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter . it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .8.8." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level.1 . The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point.2 The Measurement of Latitude. The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. it does complicate the concept of latitude. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) .3 Station Coordinates. When you are given the latitude of a place . 2. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . Consider Figure 2.785 0. The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field .94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2.8. the difference between L and is usually negligible ." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . 1 45 6356. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude .08182 == km km L La L .
" which is illustrated in Figure 2.82 . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal. c.!! o . Thus.8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . 4 km Figure 2. 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3...Sec. 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude . / (2. O . L .1 ) . the "reduced latitude ..82. 2 . The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e .8 ..
0 O D.. a2 . b e =a e V� = b2 + d.82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. I C.1:  (2 .and e = da. z . Ch . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. c:  0) x Figure 2.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But . 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 .. for any ellipse . / .82) .
8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = . 2 .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2. (2 .Sec:. Thus. (2. dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above .85) . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse .
98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .8. (2 . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time . The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . elevation above mean sea level. From Figure 2.83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. 2 ( 2 . {1. If the Greenwich sidereal time . {1 ' is known .86) L.8 8) . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) .8 7) 2. and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components. sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2.
89) ." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . 2 .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2.84 shows a spherical earth. the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . Although Figure 2.Sec . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time .8. L. Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t.
1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction . 2 j i Figure 2 .1 0) . From (2 . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.8 . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .
2. it will help to understand exactly how each is defined .1 . (2 . This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time .1 2) and a s ' a E . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. 2 .8. This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 . It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle .1 2) . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. a Z If a l . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . This should be made clear by F igure 2.9 equation (2 .9. The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day .9 .Sec. so . A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars.cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours.6. it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .
So far.1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2.91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . In early January. no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . when the earth is near perihelion. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 .09054 mean solar seconds .
9. 2. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . This relationship is illustrated on page 99. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa.2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. Thus. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day.3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . For example . If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . or Zulu (Z) time.is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . .Sec. Universal Time (UT). if it .9. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . 2 .
in addition. m i n . ° 229421 1. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If.104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 .4 Precession of the Equinoxes. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. Ephemeris and 2.9. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. 8 9=8 9 0 1 . To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . . we express time in decimal fractions of a day.
. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. 6 yrs I Figure 2.Sec . Due to the asphericity of the earth.." with a perio d of 1 8 . .000 year s .. As the earth' s axis precesses.6 years.6 year s ..9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun.. However .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . The period of the precession is about 2 6. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . 2 .. the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . the equatorial plane is not . the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic. 0 0 0 y rs " . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period.92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars.
00 1 + L= 0 . 5 7 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown .296 degrees west longitude .1 .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .6245 rad ians o 9 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. at 0600 GMT. The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. Day  = Long o 57 .74933340 = 1 .296° H = 6 . 25 8=8 g + A = .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 .378km = 0 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . 6 24 5 . 00 1 From section 2 . x= [ z= � ae + � . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 .
2D UES = (0. 2 .72) PE p Pz Ps = .346E + O. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .(0.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.74) .9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.From equation (2.6971 + . 00 1 c o s(S.7 1 SJ + OK Sec.6245) = .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 .4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O. 0.6245 )1 + 1 . 00 1 (S. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .
46 = 0.46 D U /T U (0.1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.346E + l .610. 1 08 Ch .3.4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .73 p + (O.0 1 . 0.46S .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .46 P =D1 .0588K) From equation (2 .1 .Ps = .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.061 .866 0.84J .0E + 1 . 3.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .433 .73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .25 0.1 .5 1 .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.1 .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .77) v = [� ] [ J 0. 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .73Z D U (T U r = 0.346J + 1 .�� lO.8 .0.1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.7·5 ) From equation (2 .(0.8 .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .
p . Ai.3. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . of course . 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . Ei. Gibbs is. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 .8J . but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . k.0. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . Figure 2. EI . EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. As Baker S points out . 2. f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J.Sec. and the orb it is uniquely determined. W.081 . may be lacking. 2 . it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics.
1 0. 1 06) Multiply (2 . 2 fine scholar . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p.r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. and the definition of a dot product . 1 0.1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. 1 0. equation ( 1 . Notice that C2 may now be divided out. Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 .1 ) successively by fl . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o .5 4).1 ) by (2 . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . (2 . 1 08) . (2 . 1 04) .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 05) (2 . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. 1 04) (2 .r. The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . Dotting (2 . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. Q and W. 1 02) gives (2 . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . then u sing (2 . 1 03) by f3 X r l . (2 . 1 05 ) and (2 . we can show that : e ' f = p .r 3 ) = 0 . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . 1 03) Cross (2.
N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. Since P. provided N . Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. i. D = N P = O' N (2 . 1 09) D. This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system.(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . 1 0. 1 0.1 5) . Therefore . 1 0 pD = N . . 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . 2 .1 4) (2 . (2 . (2. N and D have the same dire ction. then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec.e . (2 .1 3) : (2 . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. 1 0.1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) .1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . 1 0.Let the right side of (2 . 1 0. 1 0.1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . equation (2 .
1 0.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . 1 0. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 .1 8) N (2 . N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . (2. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. 1 0. 1 0. (2 .1 6) . Before solving the problem.r t ) f2 + ( rt . N and S vectors. 1 0.52) we can write i X h = p.1 7) to find e. 1 02 1 ) . check N * O and D . Q and W are orthogonal. 1 020) to find P. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. (2 .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. D and S ve ctors.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. 1 0. and (2 .1 9) Since P. ( f  r + e) . since NeQ = pS. 1 0. it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 2 Again using the relationship (2 .1 8) to find Q. However . Then use (2 . 1 0. Therefore.1 9) to find W. 1 020) Thus. N > o. (2 .1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . From equation ( 1 . (2 .1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 01 0) to find p.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . P = Q X W.
1 0. e) We can write h v v = . (h xr r = + (a .h = P. b) c O . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . = p. h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. 1 024) (2 .E./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. h X (h h ) v . so c) b . D X r + JJ{. 2 . v = eP.2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) .Sec . Using the identity .( a . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. v) h and h . 1 025) . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . ON (2 ..(h .
Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . 4 . N and S vectors. 2 L + LS (2 . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. Finally . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . This is not exactly true. to find any of the three velocities directly . = 0 for coplanar vectors. Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . possible two body orbit . 1 02 6) Thus. Form L = = 6. find v2 : 2. proceed as follows : For example . using the stated tests. v2 � + L S r2 • . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. This method . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . 1 . shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. Test: 0 10 . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. N=FO.1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination.
1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. r1 r2 r3 = 1 . and the timeofflight between these po sitions." Thus. period and the velocity vector at position two .000K = 0_700J .0774J 0. If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors.0471 O U = 0 . This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution .97 . the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.5000K Find : P. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. Form the D . P = 0= N  2. The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. r 1 and r2 . 9701 = 2.047 1 = . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units).0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . N . eccentricity. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) .8000K = 0.039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 .9000J + 0. and S vectors: D= N S 1 .Sec. Since 010. the semilatus rectum. 2 .
4 to solve for the elements.270J + 0. 2 S . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .963K N 1 .041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.0.0.960 DU/T U (4.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .97 o lP = a = 1 . = . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . 700J . .1 . 0408 1 1 .67 TU (89.270K W= N.497 9.0. 1r/{: 6.0804 e = = = 0 .657K D U /T U 2 0.963J . 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .576J .
:S :J: JS L K . Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . ° 2 . then ' . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only .1 ) (2 . (X1 ' < \ � . optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . = OJ + R j . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information.6 2 : 1 1 . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . In either case . 1 1 2) r .g . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. j = 1.7 2). 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . (2 . r = pL [�.Sec. 3. If we let L . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . 2. As a result .z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. 2 . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. 1 1 . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . L. the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. [:i:n :: :. S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background .
J V I . p. �J 1  . (2 . . \' P2 i �� G ". The vectors L./  L . f f.[. r u.. I . \ [L. 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . L. 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. p and r.. \ Figure 2... 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . ' ' :. . � .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 .. • ' I . . say the middle ob servatio n . R and R are known at time t2 . : '< ' . 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . p. �� I 1 " _ . .1  R ) r3 . however . are not known . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . ':. \ •. 0 (2 .1 .' ' " ': . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. • 00 . . \ . L. 1 1 3) (2 .
provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t 1 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t 1 ) ( t2 . t } . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L. 2 . 1 1 6) + 2t .t 3 ) ( t } .t } ) (t 3 .t2 L3 ( t 3 . t2 .t2 ) . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t 1 ) (t 3 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 3 ) L1 + 2t .three t�es.t 3 ) (t. we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t3 ) (2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t3 ( t 2 . 1 1 .t 2 .Sec. 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) L2 (2.t 1 ) ( t3 .t 1 ) ( t.t2 ) (t.t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t 1 .t 3 ( t 1 .t2 ) ( t} . t2 and t3 . Since we have the value of L at.t2 ) ( t 1 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 .
making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. p. in fact . better yet .L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . + . 1 1 6) and (2 . .u R Ir3 J + . 1 1 5 ) . It should be noted. 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f.u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. LI .ons (2 . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date .u R Ir3 I + . L J I (2 . I L . 2 . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. p. For the time being. 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 .u L 1 / r 3 L J + . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. p' and r.u L /r 3 ..1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . D reduces to L D =2 L I L . L K + .. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . This. however. L J .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column.. L L L K K K J . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . it is evident that L Dp = . that if more than three observations are available . 4 Equation (2 . .
1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r.1 2) . 2 . Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 .. The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section.1 0) into (2. Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. Substituting equation (2 . 1 1 . R . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. 2 .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 . 1 1 . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . .1 1) Op = . 1 1 5). 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . If we do this we find that .1 0) and (2 . L K .4 Solving for Velocity . .Sec . 1 1 . 1 1 . R R .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . O O. L K L J L I K (2. R J .1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I .. p and r. Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. 1 1 2). L J L I K J!. 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . .L L L J K I p . R R I . 0.
then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . D. a . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . Laplace ' s method fails .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . 1 1 .1 3) for p. 1 1 . such as P. I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. ° . 2 (2 . This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . 1 1 . E l .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. 2 .1 4) p 2. 1 1 . a3 . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. As a matter of fact . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . To obtain the velocity vector . El. one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. 1 1 . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. (2 . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . P. k. ° 3 . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t .2). A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 .
t4 . ts and t6 ' These predictions are . a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only .Sec. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. v Kl at t = to are correct. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . Assuming that the residuals are small. For example . 2. 1 21) . t3 . however ." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements.::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. 2. 1 2. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. The question then arises. .::"P 3 .::"P .::"P 2 ' . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. . Doppler rangerate. The six residuals are �1 ' . 1 Computing Residuals. It may happen .g. r K ' v " vJ . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . \ ' t2 . 2 The Differential Correction equations. p) will differ from the computed data. of course. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. 1 2.
. 1 2 . 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2. The inversion of equations (2 .Vj' D.3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. 1 2. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary.VK . r K " ' arl D.e. however.. i. by trial and error. NK. ap1 . reduce the residuals to zero . .:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. usually 6 for orbit problems) n . NI . The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method. All that is required is to introduce a small variation.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. Nj. . rj . Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically.r l " v K )p1 ( r l . to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations.VI . New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. equations (2 . Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . D.) Then. . With the aid of a digital computer. D. V K ) .1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. 1 2. for example .
This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. zero . = = n) . for 90% confidence . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. Solve equation (2 .. A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M).g . use 0. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a.. 2 .tb each of the elements measured. V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. 2 . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . for the exactly determined case (p or b. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. 3 . a and (3 are the elements (two here . .8 1 ) . In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . called the root me an square (RMS) . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. since p 2 below) . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. minimum as described above . 4.
Choo se ex and for the first estimates.:. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. the partial derivatives are : . ex VI. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3.2. 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2).Assume equal confidence in all data. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 .j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations.
1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. 2. Thus. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 .Sec. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J .
2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. To illustrate the method involved. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence .1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . corresponding to the given Xi and compute . This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0.360 = . This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. 6 orbit elements) would be used. we will use a simple . yet still overspecified number of measurements. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. In practice. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations.474 Xi 3 .474 and f3 = 3. large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small.
000 n = Vi 0.) 2 n .007 0.1 26 0.866 4 x .0 01 1 3.000 1 9. E ( V 1.000 50. 0 35 3.y._1. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2. 474 x 3 .934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .474 4 0 07 19. aa .1.Sec.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /. ( V i Yi ) 2 4. 2 .1 05 9. 3 .865 49. 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l . 969 ____  Vi .828 0 0.. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .. 934 = 1 . .500 8. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .Vi 2.
304 0.056 ""' T . 1 96 = 3. 0 18 0. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .2.733.z 10. 81 30 8.0.(X 26 3.001 07 33 b = 0. 1 75 ] 5.. 27 A WA = [12. 1 961 0.360.380708 A = 40. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'. which is larger than what we started with.474 + .670 3.l Now using (2 .3.4 1 69.36 ..021 070 20.1. so we iterate.062 .039 £::. 1 22) we have £::."""'" �T�� . {3 = {3 new .�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .027 12. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) . 105.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. Thus (X new = .. The second iteration yields: £::.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 0.304 = .031 8.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2. = 3.
1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. during orbital decay. 2 . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . 038 [3 = 3 . However. 2.4 Unequally Weigh ted Data.735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its.Sec . however. The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight .000 . Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. 1 2. 038 .5 8 1 . and finally. we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations.5 8 2 . In practice . in theory. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . 7 35 x 3 .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . 2 . This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. The next value s of the parame ter are : a = .00 1 . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. .
The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters.5 003. In addition. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. the precomputed 2. 1 4 . The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . 2 . The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. forming "clouds" of space debris. These detection radars with a range of 2. At present. and midcourse ICBM inter ception.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2 2. the White Sands Missile Range . and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. 1 Radar Sensors.500 miles make about 1 2 . spacecraft failure diagnosis. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). 1 The Spacetrack System. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . 1 3. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. antisatellite targeting.
2. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. the FPS43. Alaska. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second.Sec. and is on active spacetrack alert. Figure 2. is now on active Spacetrack alert.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. Greenland. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. Turkey. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. One FPS49 .141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. while three are located at Clear. New Jersey. One of the earlier detection radars.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings.
Alaska.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. Florida. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. This BMEWS station at Clear. under the 140ft radome at the left. United Kingdom. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. In addition. Alaska. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is .142. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. 2 Figure 2.
The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site.14. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. 2. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry.Sec. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. When two or .143. 2. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy.2 Radio Interferometers. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2.
each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. Alberta. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. 1 4 . the semimajor axis. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . 2 . Canada . Considering the type of observational data received. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements.3 Optical Sensors. SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. is well established. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. and therefore . 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . In addition to these . two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal .
and the lighting correct. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. A separate optical system superimposes. 2. seeing conditions must be good. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object.145. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. length with a field of view 50 by 300 .14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. Alberta. As a result. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. it is . on the same strip of Cinemascope film.Sec. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable.400 miles. 1 0 Under favorable conditions.
I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. Further . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. in any case .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. 1 4 . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . . New Mexico site. 2 . takes time. I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. In any case . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . For detection radars. I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . Doppler rangerat e info rmation.000 meters. SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. on the other hand . 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. Massachusett s . 4 Typical Sensor Errors. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. is relatively accurat e . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere .1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 .
Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects.7 seconds in time would remain.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. 2. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects.14. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further.5 Future Developments. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) . The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein.146. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag.Sec 2. nonuniform gravitational fields. lunar attraction. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge.
the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . of the target . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . Operating in the SHF b and . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . In t he system under development . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . Theoretically . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory.1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . a continuousw ave . Many improvements . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . p. but it also record s target tracks for later playback . Now. This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . howeve r .
Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . o f the orbit . 1 5 .. 1 5 2 . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination .1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . F igure 2 . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . 18cP  2 . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . The arc CB which forms the • . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . 1 5 . respectively with a launch a zimuth . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance .Sec. i. One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . 2 .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. 1 5 . 1 5 .. For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 .
betwe en 00 and 1 80° . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . 1 5 . that the launch azimuth. 1 5 ·3 . 2. Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . L o?" If i is to be minimized . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . A direct orbit require s .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. i : c os i = . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude .e . For a due east launch equat ion (2 . therefore . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . 0 i. For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. f3 ' be easterly . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator .
Sec.2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . su r face . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . Figure 2 . 2 . 1 5 .
J . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .7071 + . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. i = 90° . Which takes longer .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . 2 EXERCISES 2 .89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. Englan d . 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. a solar day or sidereal day? b .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. e = .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU.2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . = u nd ef i ned ) = . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. = (partial answers : 2. Colorado ( 1 04. Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. 885.5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . 9 7 0 .7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U.
3<. 82 u a . i . OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. 1. Determine the orbital e lements. e. Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction.) Determine p. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . .8 2075 .8 I J P = . c .2K DU . 2 + b . 2. 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . (Answer [partial] e = . W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2.Ch.J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system.
circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU .3 1 065 1 5 0. F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . Units are earth canonical units. makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . Q. W. 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . r2 1 . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . 1 0 January 1 9 70.3 5 35 3995 0 1 .4 1 4225 1 1 1 . a. 2 .7 6) . 6464495 a. 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . 2. the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis.4 1 4202 0. (Answer : r = 1 .060668 8 3 1 . U se of a computer is sugge sted . p = 1 . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d .5 0 West . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . r3 r l I J K 1 . PST . b ut not nece ssary. Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . 1 7 1 . 1 0 2. equatorial . LST = 63 .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis .system along the unit ve ctor s P. C alifornia . 2.8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . b . b . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem.
8 0 .97 2 .0 2 .0 2 .094964 1 8 0.707 1 0 1 0 1 0.0 7 .2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.0 0 .94974 1 7 6 .0 0 .9 1 42 3467 2 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 .5 65 6808 1 0. A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.89497724 0 0 0 1 . . fl f2 f3 d.5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .8 0 0 .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 . DU * 2.20709623 0 .0 0 2 .0 1 .n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .1 . B . fl f2 f3 0 . C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.97 0 1 .62 1 34384 c.207 1 25 5 1 .Ch.7 0 0 e.9 1 420062 4 . fl f2 f3 3 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .0 7 .6 0. fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g. fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.0 0 2 .565 6808 1 0 0 .89497 879 0.2K with a velo city o f AI .6 0.0 1 .09497879 1 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct . 1 4  DU/TU.707 1 1 25 5 0.
__ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . ( A ns.17 p 0. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. east and zenith (up) component s? c.75 K D U /T U )  . d . 9 7 . Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates.0078 J 0. Express the coordinates. v = 0. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . * 2 . .1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. 2 a . has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. Obj ect c.1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . b. Obj ect vernal equinox direction. Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . ___ e. What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south.620 1 I 0. Obj ect b .
A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . Telescope . Baker ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. Jame s R . Forest Ray . Robert M . New York . E . 1 9 66. Jr . Inc. 7 . 1 96 3 . pp 1 08 . 4. Institute of the Aero space S cience s . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . New York and London . 1 965 . 1 9 1 4. Angus. Sky Publishing Corp . 9 . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . Navy Space Surveillance System. Inc. Pedro Ramon . G . U. Thomas Nelson and 3. London . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . 1 9 67 . . C ambridge . C . Sons Ltd . Carl Friedrich." in The World of Math ematics . Edmond Halley . John Wiley & Sons. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . NY . Moulton . Second Revised Edition ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . Mass. 1 962. Dover Publications . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . Space/A ero na utics . NY . Academic Pre ss. 1 0 . 1 95 7 . The M acmillan Company. Henize . Laplace . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. New York . 5 . New York . "The A erospace Vehicle s . November 1 9 67 . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . K. 2 . Pierre Simo n . Simo n and S chuster . New York . Armitage . Thoma s. C leeto n . NY.Ch. 8 . L. No 6 . NY . Gauss. D avis ." Vol 48 . Newman . E scobal. 1 95 6 . 6. Paul G .1 1 1 . "Space Traffic Surveillance . S . Vol 3 .
. 2 1 1 . Vo1 40. NY. 1 966. Thomas J. NY. SepOct 1 967. Davies. 1 4. NY. Carson." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. 1 962. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. 1 9 66. Colorado. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. Gerald C. Electronic . Journal of Oct 2." Satellite Control Facility. Briskman. 1 966. S. McGrawHill. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . No 20 . NY . Bate." The Vol 1 4. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. Sunnyvale. and Eller. Air Force Systems Command." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. New York. USAF Academy. R. Cheetham. "Future Radar Developments. R. 1 6. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Roger R. P.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . New York. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. 1 5 . New York." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Robert D . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. New York . 1 962. the A stronautical Sciences. No 5 . "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. 1 3 . 1 2 . 1 970. 17. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Inc. p 39 . 1 967 . California.
Goddard. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. as of 5 . Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. for the next 250 years. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . the idea seems to have been forgotten. 1 . according to their different velocity. ) 00 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. or variously eccentric. those bodies. 1 0. After that . Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights.000 or more miles. or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. and the different force of gravity in different heights. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight.
was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . However. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. still in its infancy . Manned spaceflight . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . On 4 October 1 95 7 . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . 3 . 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. particularly if it is manned . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. Project Orbiter. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. 3 . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I .research. since it contemplated the use of military hardware . Rather . 1 .
.... (I) CD � . 71... c.... mJ77/1/.J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E ... VI/II � V � ..n w .25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" ... c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .. YEAR a YEARS ..: fiD It: 0 It: <t . 11 L . . � . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N .. . � '" . . I MONTH I .rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION . � ee.. AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 . .+ :=.50K �.///11// ..::: 0(I) "" 20 10 .J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl ..' � S' (1) 0 .rrrj. .EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr..V'h WillI e: � . 20K (.J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION ...H O URS WEEK . .(/} � � (I) E � � .
Figure 3 . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . m .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . m . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . 1 .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . m . 1 . stated. 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . radiation and meteorite damage considerations.1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . Figure 3 . a p ogee 1 00 n .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . 3 . 1 ·2 .
Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. 1 2 . between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f.or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself.Sec. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. The vehicle is not allowed to coast . 3 . there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . as you can see from Figure 3 . The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad.. 1 3 . The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit.
successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. Figure 3 . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . As a result. The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. therefore. 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant.3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . 1 5 . This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . 3 . You . 1 . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be .
1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " ."� ill Q rn o I � fS .J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.. 3 .:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�..J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N . 1 > .�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.Sec.D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9. "::> Figure 3 .���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t..9 r�=r�rr.2 ..
I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .. 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch .J 5 "' C iii 0. 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0. "' "' .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 ..
It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 .60 . the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63. Figure 3 . The ascending node moves to the west . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . a.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . which also is due to oblateness.40 or greater than 1 1 6. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2.Q 360 ° per 90 days :. and oppo. With this perturbation .Sec.6 0 . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. What is the inclination of the orbit? b.6. The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. completing one revolution every 90 days.67 0 /day From Figure 3 . Therefore = . The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. 3 . A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit.40 and 1 1 6.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi .
000 nm altitude . 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS .6 earth radii above the surface . ground trace of a synchronous satellite. 3 Figure 3 . Of course. This. for example . There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. 1 2 this would be 2*. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important.inches from the surface. Figure 3. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. of course." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. 3 . not the case .300 nm or about 5 . 1 The Synchronous Satellite. This is. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. 1 . however.2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . 3 . If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. 2 .21 shows why. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. On the scale of Figure 3 .2. If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. unfortunately. The first stage booster climbs 3 . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned.
3. Dot ted grou nd trace . . This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit..� � Figure 3 . the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm ... Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr.. curve is \ " " .. intervals . .22 Ascent ellipse .21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically..Sec..2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 . burn """ " " . At apogee of the ascent ellipse. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more.
 fJ. /:.32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction .da a2 = fJ.3 . at appropriate points in the orbit. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis.33) or = da 2a2 vdv .1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . we get (3 . but . and flightpath angle. (3 . at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. for some other reason. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . = _ r 2a . a? v. speed. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. as they are called .31) If we solve for '. fJ. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. dv..34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. 3 . 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. 2vdv . We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 .v (3. (3. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . a very precise orbit is required. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. Usually this is not serious. we get a change in . 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height.
the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . a2 6. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits.3. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. 3 .35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. whose radius is r2 .V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. therefore . Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit .semimajor axis. whose radius is rl ." 3 . The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . Since the major axis is 2a. Since we know r l . 2 The Hohmann Transfer. to the large orbit.V v P P (3. For example .34). along the transfer ellipse. of the orbit given by equation (3 . 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. a 6. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6.v) .v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. 4 Jl. 3 .h a �  da.34) for small but finite 6.1 . We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. called Hohmann transfer orbits. Similarly. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse.
t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3.31 &. its speed is .31 (3./2 a . &.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch . since p. (3. 2at Figure 3 .36) = r i + r2 =  and.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. 3 the transfer orbit.37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.
The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . 3 . For the transfer traj ectory.1 0) (3 . Find the minimum /::.3.V implies a Hohmann transfer . & t = � = . i n our example . . to VI ' So . 3 I N.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3.39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it.3. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Although. it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . ra = 3 DU.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. Minimum rp = 2 DU.Sec.V required to double the altitude of the satellite .
� r 1 1 +e p p (3.3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits. Figure 3.346 ft/sec 3 . We can express this condition mathematically as r = . I::. 3 V cs 1 = (il = .3.VTOT == .577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .V1 = .313) . I t is obvious from Figure 3 .1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .3.JfF"= .707 DU /TU vi r. Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.061 DU/TU I::.068 D U/TU V cs =.V2 = .
Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. and the angular momentum.Sec.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. �. we can compute the energy. Knowing and e.3. / 2a . respectively . 3 . in the transfer orbit. p p p  = . p p (p.33) and interpret them graphically. I &.I' l l  e ' )l2 p.3. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. (3. ht. To satisfy both conditions. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r.1 5) . Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p.1 4) (3. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.
38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r . __ Figure 3.34 /::.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .39) The angle between v1 and va.v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.1 is just the flightpath angle . . Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit .. we get (3. p r2. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 . its speed is (3 .
and obtain directly for circular orbits.1 7) reduces to equation (3. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles.41 . 3.V using the law of cosines. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and.V.V.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3. 4 .41) 3. ¢l ' is zero. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . more simply. it is not surprising that equation (3 . b.310) when the flightpath angle .4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ". b. 3 . Or. We can solve for the magnitude of b. e.V required. as shown at the right of Figure 3 .3. This is called a simple plane change. the b.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. or it can rotate the line of apsides.4. form an isosceles vector triangle.31 6) Now. (3 . To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. b. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. If. A velocity change . since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3. together with the b.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . assuming that we know v and e.Sec. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . (3. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . 1 Simple Plane Change .1 .V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.3.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit.V.1 'I' . after applying a finite b.34. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . then only the plane of the orbit has been altered .
Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. A plane change of 60 0 . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized.vrequired to accomplish the mission.V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. DU circular orbit. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . . b . makes b. Therefore . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0.41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . calculate the additional b. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . Determine the total b. a. for example . The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. 3 Figure 3 .
1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 . 1 +� 1 . The given information is: h I = 0.Vl = V l .618 = 1 . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L. DU 2 1 Hence . .Sec.953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.__ = . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.V l 1 .Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' .0.1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) . 3. I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.270.1 = \1'1 .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit. v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .953 DU/TU L.. & t = = �= . Therefore at = r2 .
387 DU/TU = 1 0.2(.253 ft/sec .= 0 . 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .V22 v.447) (. 6.704 DU/TU 18.317) to determine 6.042 ft/sec Therefore v = . 2 + 0. 447)(. 3 and we must use equation (3. 1 5 DU/TU 6.447) 0.447 DU/TU 2 1 .626) = 0.2 .2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 . v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0. 3 87 .V2 = y'l'5= 0.(0.626 vcs2 = V't.4) (. + v�s2.626) = 0 . 31 7 + .4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0. 4 .V2 .3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.
1 ) t:::.078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( . 3.V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .4.4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .447 ) ( .Sec. F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .
. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.2 Calculate the total 6. 1 1 DU and e = 0.76.5 DU .2 DU and 4 DU respectively. What is the minimum 6. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of .21 . a plane change or an orbit transfer.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . 3.5 DU/TU.e. r p = 1 DU e = 0.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans. 0 .3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. 3 . i changedall other parameters remained the same. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.4 Refer to Figure 3 . 0. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2.449 DU/TU) 3. i.5 b. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . (Ans. Ch .1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . a. 3 EXERCISES 3 .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. a = 2.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . c.
using Hohmann transfers.Ch . .412 5 3 . At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. * 3 .7 3 .56 c. P = 1.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . 3 . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . C ompare this with the I::. 8 Compute the minimum I::. orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day .9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . The . 34DU2 (fU d. 5 & Design a satellite . 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. (Ans. parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 .1 DU 8 1 = 0. Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . 0 .v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU.3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . 9 Calculate the total l::. = 0.V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. 95 DU 8 = 0.
A cademic Pre'ss.1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 1 July 1 965 . Willy. DC . Baker. 1 96 1 . and Space Travel. Walter . New York . Missiles. Washington . Robert M . Newton . Space Planners Guide. V2 . Headquarters. 5 . NY. 2nd revised ed. New York and London .. 1 962. 3 . University of California Press. 1 95 5 . Berkeley and Los Angeles. The Viking Press. 4 . Rockets. The Viking Press. L. . Vol 2. Makemson. Sir Isaac. 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . 1 9 60. New York . Dornberger. Ley. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. NY . Air Force Systems Command . Principia. and Maud W. 1 .
of the heirs. or perhaps usurping them . was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. . .CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . the determination of the true movement of the planets.. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. including the earth . .2 1 77 . by taking the observations under my care . or lack of circumspection. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . . the solution of the second problem. Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. . . who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. This was Kepler 's first great problem. presupposed the solution of the first. I quickly took advantage of the absence. . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. Albert Einstein ! 4 .
1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. we not only forgive them. . "What matters to me. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. . When Christopher Columbus. but above all to convey to him the reasons. Thus. detour. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. whole grand entertainment would be lost. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the ." Kepler points out in his Preface. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . I + . It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. 1 . subterfuges.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion.
prick your ears. . that. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. almost with masochistic delight. again incorrectly . Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit.Sec 4. for now we are going to invade your territory. perihelion and aphelion. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. But then without a word of transition. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. as it were. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . since speed was inversely proportional to distance . This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. Moreover." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. His results. without benefit of any preconceived notions. . he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. never noticing his error. however. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. with the warning: "Ye physicists. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit.
. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner.. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg.2 Finally. a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. but analytical geometry came after Kepler..180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . as I shall prove further down . he settled on the oval. He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . 4 Figure 4 . after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. " Finally. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. He had . . 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before.
for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. are one and the same . which I had rejected .. . until I went nearly mad. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. along w�th th� naples he used to describe them.F L I G HT . I thought and searched. That is to say.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. Ah. .2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . believing that this was a quite different . . return e d by stealth through the backdoor. in a moment of despair.y it should move in an orbit at all. whereas the two . In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. . We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton.. .' " . time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end.Sec 4.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal.2 T I M EO F . . The climax to this comedy of errors. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits .. came when. 4. but he did not know how. mine] . made a mistake in geometry. In this chapter we will.and chased away. disguising itself to be accepted. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. . You: are . : . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. and velocity and the timeofflight. de rive the . . and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'.: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits.e . . hypothesis. have persisted to this day.
1 ) i s the area � .. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.2. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus. 4. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. 4 existed .l . P.. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. but more motivated. We will pursue a lengthier. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . A ' in Figure 4. say from periapsis to some general point. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . In going part way around an orbit.2..2. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. ''"'''"'. i. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use .2 .182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY .A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch ..'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. 7T a b .22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . ''' The only unknown i n equation (4.e .21 Area swept out by r . (4. where the true anomaly is v . We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse..1 ) .
Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . 2 T i M EO F .Sec 4 . From analytical geometry.Z x2 + . 22 Eccentric anomaly. the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q.F L I G HT .l. E E Circle : . A dotted line . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. perpendicular to the major axis. \/2 a2 _ .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse.
we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . A2 . It Tollows directly from equation (4. it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. 4 Hence . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V .22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae .�rea PSV minus the dotted area. Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 .a E) .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . . oos E and whose (4.
2 T I M EO F . which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). v.24) E .e sin E (4.we get � ( E . substituting into equation (4.22.27) (4." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E . minus the triangle .F L I G H T ." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion. Kepler introduced the definition M = It . E. we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.e si n Ai yields E) .28) .27) reduces to (4.T = 4 ( E .e si n E (4.e si n E ) I (4. Obviously . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally. cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .Sec 4.2 .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .24). and whose altitude is (a si n E ). whose base is (a CDS E). cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation . Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly. in order to use equation (4. to its corresponding true anomaly.1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' . From Figure 4.
The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4.29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.[ 2kn + (E . from Figure 4. In general we can say that t  to = 4.T o ) .24 right. If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .( t o .(to .24 left). so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .28).to = ( t .24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis. In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a .e Sin .( Eo  E) (4. E Figure 4 .T ) . when v is between o and n. we can say that t . + t . Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4. At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.to = lP (t . 4 E E.T) .T) .
1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.1 1 ) easily integrable .21 2).F L I G H T .Sec 4.2.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.7 . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here . we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 . .2.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.+ COS (4.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.2.2.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .2 T I M EO F.8 E ) dE (4.82 ( E .  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .2.2.82 f: ( 1 .21 6) V 1 .2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.1 2) (4. From equation (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .J1=82 d E (4. From equations in section 1 .8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.2.1 3) (4.8 si n E ) V r .
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
a. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. Equation (4 .4.1 2) is transcendental in x. 4.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e . If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . a trialanderror solution is indicated. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . ( 1 . Figure 4. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known .4.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4.4 4. Therefore . C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa.2 Solving for x When Time is Known . From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. But now we have a problem.Sec 4.4.1 3) ro va v t" .47) has been used to eliminate z. Fortunately . since equation (4.1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. (4 . In one sense . va' a and the trial value of x.
42. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z . we must then calculate the corresponding and v. the iteration may be terminated. and A and B are not colinear. B and C are coplanar vectors. 4 .fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.1 = x 2 C + x .3 The f and 9 Expressions.41 6) dx x . the four vectors fO ' (4.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 5) where t is the given timeofflight. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. 1 dt r (4. (4. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point. xn .4. Substituting for r in equation (4.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.32).z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) .1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane.4. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .41 9) . Thus A.4. With x known.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum.
.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w . if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .420) This equation shows that f . g . O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 . we will derive an interesting relationship between f.. = fg.4. x. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates.where f.1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h ... g . f and g. g.. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q. f.. First. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities.. Crossing equation (4. the left side of the O .4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4.1 9) gives Sec 4 ..4. in equation (4.. f and 9 are not independent.1 8) into equation (4. however. We can isolate the scalar .4.
x wYw .425). Xw . .4.1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ . ) . From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .423) (4. x + Co cos v = .4.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.w o Yw h (4.426) .e2 )  r . yw x .1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . 4 h (4. .4.1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw .E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .a l e + Sln Y.34) and (4. (4. o . (4.42 1 ) We can isolate (4.425) Combining equations (4. we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x.
a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum.426) and (4... x + co h = .... x =� cos x + c r .4.43 0) f (4. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4..428) yw . x = 0 at t = o .. (4.429) into equation (4..42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4. ro .. e quation (4. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .Sec 4 ...43 0) 0 1 f C a = .a  mitions of z.a Va 2 = 1 9. 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.427) and using the definition of the universal variable .42 1 ) c /Ii. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C ..(e sin � + cos � ).32).Va • W .sin r  � (4. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4. e quation (4. ro ro .426) through (4 .429) Substituting equations (4... r.43 1 ) .1 ) .
vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .1 ) and (4 ..4.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .] � a ..433) (4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.4.202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .435) (4.32) (4.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 ..4·3) � r o . 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.436) .
[ i + x + c 0 ] Va .4. Also. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero). Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. 5 . From and determine r and a. but we have not said what and z represent.4. The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter.420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. Obviously . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . to 4.1 9) . in any of the equations where z appears. the expression (t would replace 4 . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos .43 6) .4 . 5 .34) (4. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. note that equation (4. Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4.1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit . Va x (4. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4. 4 . Si n va = Va =  c o s . its definition. Note also that if were not zero .1 ) Va = _ E .43 5) and (4.1 8). 1 .5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation.4. can be used. if we are going to use equation (4. la . x + Co cos [ � .Sec 4.4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. then compute v from equation (4. 2 . 3 .43 1 ) and (4. then compute r and r from equation (4 .5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. 1 The Physical Significance of and z.x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 .e E). 4 .434) .
4. (4 . (4 .5 4) (4.55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .56) la.65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).57) . we can conclude that = V'ii I F . therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.F 0 1  Va I E .53) from (4 . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.53) Subtracting equation (4.204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E .52) whenever is negative . a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.1 3) .E o l .3 4) and (4. 1 (4. 5 ·1) at time x = 0. since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ . we get x= D . (4 . Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f.Do . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.
so Sec 4. In computing the semimaj or axis. 5 .5 9) .5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . 5 .8) Figure 4 . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem.F a ) '· z is zero.to 4 . Therefore .5. If imaginary.1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4. from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer.when z is positive . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4. a. 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. I z = I F .
. convergence will be extremely rapid.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . / ( .fZi3 = q . Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number.a � eFz ± 2x 3 . so s i n h fi . a = ± x 3 . If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly..v y� ( . then Z will be a large negative number . if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. we get for elliptical orbits.cosh . is large. .e .P)/ 2.All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result.a vG ) . Furthermore . X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 .. In the case of elliptical orbits. Use this for a first guess ..5 . C = 1 . wherever it occu rs. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X.:z.ji11...6F.. with £X. and . When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4.5. so S � V0r eFz 2 . since X = foE. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. ( t a to) .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .
Therefore. Thu s . 4 .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before.5. vice versa .t o ) � ( 1 . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the . recognizing that X will be positive when (t .tohATci ( l . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t . . 5 .L ( t .t o ) Fa .a eFz sign ( t . X will be positive and . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4. so Sec 4 .t o ) #a ( 1 ] .Q) eV La 2J. we get � S .tJ is positive .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.to is positive. 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .. for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence . where appropriate .sign (t .a . 5 .£.sign in the above expression . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.r� ) ] J The use of these approximations. Anytime t .t o ) 2x 3 � + t . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.t o ) x ::::: sign (t .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .t o ) sign (t .r:z .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.1 1 ) .
.7! + .1 1 ) . w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive.4.1 2) and (4 . Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.1 3) COS . use equations (4.(1  .4.Ji .1 0) (4..cosh . .0 6 + .1 0) as C where = i C = .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. we can write equation (4.4. if z is negative . 1 .1 1 ) We can write equation (4.1 3). Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .s i n i V} = i si n i B . s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 .1 0) and (4. 4 (4 .5.51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .4. = Similarly.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 . use equations (4.5. . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch . (4.1 1 ) as But i v:z . so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .4.4.5.". z cos i � .5. If z is near zero .
2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z . 0 . (611)2 etc. (4Ir) 2 ..Ji! + Ji!.Sec 4. .... The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z . The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 . . .5.+ .� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4. 0 'j (4.5. Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 ...1 4) ·· 1 .
4 functions . 2& .( 1 . and v at = t=2 T U .[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .[i) z ] (4 . r a . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x.c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . we get I � = fz. va > � a= :l = 1 . it is not surprising that the derivatives.1 6) Differentiating the definition of S .21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . va = Therefore & = 1. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.zS .s i n z dz 2z [ 0. 1 .3S ) . 1 K . t=2 T U9 ra = I. Find r.1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM.)] P (4.12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. dC /d z and dS /d z . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . I dS = _ ( C .266  . Differentiating the definition of C.5 .5. 39 5 .2C ) . Given ra = I D U va = 1 .
279 1 . solving for t . xn tn fit After three iterations. 58+ . we can make a 2 __ = 1 ..8 1 6 1 . we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.222 = 1 .277 dXn 1 .58 1 .000 1 .821 1 .Since x = and .1 . 58+.58) 2 1 .222 Repeating the process.8 2 1 1 . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.4. 2 2 x 3 ' etc.007 2. 705 .4.705 2 . y'ii"(t .12.1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 . we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: ..266 ( 1 . 1 .. X l Zl y"""a6E or x .t o x_ 21Tya lP :. using a slide rule ...1 .58 1 .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.t. 24 1 = 1 ..973 a Using equation (4.82 1 1 .t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .222 1 .8 1 6 1 . tn toward t = ZTU.1 4) and (4.8 1 6 x n+1 .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.
2. for the parabola.1 ) From Figure 4. But first some useful identities will be presented. E or F.6.6.. f.. 4 4.6.8801 Ch . g = 1 . 880 1 1 . 1 24. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. and 9 = 0.321 . 4. we will derive expressions for xw . E and F. D. f = 0.Then from the definitions of f. f = 0. Finally. But .1 7). 236K g.1 we can see that X w = r cos v .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0..6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies.. v. r = _. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly.6 .JPt::.0.2) .0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. g._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . yw and r in terms of D. (4.32 1 1 + 1 . ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D. as D = v'P tan � 2 . E and F. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit. since e = 1 .
(4.6.61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4. the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.1 ) .65) .63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system.1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.Sec 4 .6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 .62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .
in Figure 4 . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .1 ) .62 Perifocal components of r . w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known. Using r • r = and equation (2. For the eccentric anomaly .6. (4. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system.s i n p v = ffp ta n v .66) v . r • v. 4 rr. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .J7!.
we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle . we can say that I yw = Q.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. yw Just as we did for the parabola.62.24) . (4. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .67) (a si n E ) a But . 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4. I Substituting from equations (4. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4.6. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .6. (4. M  (4.Sec 4 .8) and simplifying. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) .1 0) e sin E also. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . e illS E we get another useful  �.67) and (4 .
. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4..216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .. solving this equation for • v .e Si n r E Finally .6. is given by e si n rr = r = $a .1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.6.1 3) ..6.22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words. e cos E from equation (4.6.1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E .:. when E is a real number. v.. when F is a real number . The . E is imaginary .1 0) .!. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4. we obtain E = . F is imaginary.
Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system.e ) . The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning. may be written as (4.6 . 6. But l cos i F = cosh F . Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. 6.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4. From equation (4. so Yw = a � sinh F. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.67) we can write Sec 4 .1).2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.Il a •v (4.1 8) .a r  (4.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F . The rectangular components of a general position vector.el = a (cos i F . r. In Figure 4 . 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . Similarly.e) .61 6) r e cosh F = 1.range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. 4. 6.6.6.  But i si n iF = si n h F. so (4.
A F U N CT I O N O F T.vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf ..: o s /:.6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4. V..c o s tv ) (4.. .V _ 2 1 . and note that h = . 623) ..42 1 ) .624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) .. the rectangular components of the velocity vector .:. are yw = r sin v (4. (4. ( .x". tan p /:. 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:. 626) .I M E Ch . r0 · = 1 ... 62 1) (4.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) . ...V. 4 +. where tv = v .p .625) (4._ c��V P IW (4..c os I 9 ' = v'f. Figure 4. so 1 � L (I .P ( 1 ..1 ...JiLP.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y .ji! sin v p (4. we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = .
1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .cos L'!.6.67) and (4.a E sin E . the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .� ( 1 . 627) But.a ( 1 .63 0) (4.68) .1 (4. (4.e 2 ) cos E .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.e2 ). = .(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .E ) .Ji!.e cos E o ) .4.I Jlla sin E. r (4.6.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 . From equations (4.!Ji8 sin L'!. o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4. Similarly.e) v! fJa( l .1 0). (4.E ) f = .E .a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l . yw 9 and (t . E rr ..to ) . Thus Xw Sec 4. Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .sin L'!.cos L'!.( L'!. 629) f = 1 .63 1 ) (4.6.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .e2 ) = 1.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly . we get f = a( cos E . using equation (4.E) 9 r _ 0 j.e2 ) v.63 2) .
63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch .  E.t o ) . A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .63 6) 4. and Sma1l4 tells us: " But.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself.2k7T + M o . The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia . � V a3 ( t . (4.6. Kepler himself realized this.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) . of course . cosh 6F ) .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable ..26) Even though equation (4. 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4. . with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true. ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign .6F ) .634) (4. (4. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it. M can be obtained from = (4. the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .(1 E . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly . In classical terms.2 6) is one equation in one unknown .to) .629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.
E n+ l E + M .Sec 4 . M n . We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. of course . 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. ' (4. that results from this trial value . � Figure 4.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4.638) n dM/d E I E=E n . Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. E It would. but this is not very accurate. compute the mean anomaly. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next .Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. select a new trial value.63 7) Now.
Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence.2. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits.4 0) EXERCISES 4. 2. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 .when e is nearly 1 . Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. Solve for V if needed. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r.1 9). the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. 1 .1 2) . The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation.t ' are given. where d M / d E l E = En En. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem.4.5 + . 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value. 4 .  . e. It can be used for LW or�E .e cos En (4.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 5. t . Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(.5 cos V DU .6. e. d M = 1 e cos E .636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . va and the timeofflight.4.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . Once E i s determined by any method.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. even when e is nearly 1 . equation (4. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). dE Therefore. From fa and va determine r 0' a. p and va· 2 . however. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. Determine f and V from equations (4. 3 .1 8) and (4.
one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P.85 TU) 4. find r and v for . 625) .348J +  1 .5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead..6 For the data given in problem 4. TOF = 5. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. Explain why this must be so . x. V = 3481 . find the universal variable.Ch .2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. (Ans. i. how should the area of search for x be limited. 4. Find the values of f. (partial Ans. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. f = 4 .e. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4.3 Given l:J) = ffP. corresponding to l:J) of 600• . 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. glven fO' vO' and t.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead.3. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans.4 If. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa.
Va and w and will solve for f. e = . then . 1 1 For problem 4. Va and t .51 0) and (4.1 1). Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . with a perigee above the north pole. e = .73 TV) 4. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. 4 4 . 2.9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. 1 0.to and solve for f and v. 5. g. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. 4 . and give your analytic reasoning behind. f and g.. Le. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. 7 The text.99). Do the same for problem 4.10 rp 4 . a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . == 1 .5 . 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. in equations (4. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. 5 DU. 4 . (Ans. Develop. 4 . 9 At burnout.5 DU. TOF = 2. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . ra == 2. if X == x (t ) .
. NY. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. Wise. r3 fJ. 1 95 9 . r. . Philosophical Library. NY. 2.2 . Madison. LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . equation (4. o 4 . Richard H. 1 963 .630) through (4.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . New York.16 * 4. A New York.43 6). 63 2). 1 964. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. Battin. See equations (4.1 8).( t . = .r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. f and 9 in terms of (t . 1 7 Derive the expression for g . 2. New York. NY...0 + .I:!:. The Sleepwalkers. 1 95 1 .6 TU) . A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. The University of Wisconsin Press. L'. 4. Small. Kepler.43 5) and (4..to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. Einstein. 4 . g. 4. Koestler. Guidance . f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly.. Arthur. Company. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. Albert. Stahlman.E. Robert. The Macmillan 3 .
pp 1 05 . "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. 1 1 . W. 1 965. pp 1 08.ach. W . Bate. Herrick. N. Mathmatica. Vol 70. Sundrnan. Moulton. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. 9. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. A n Introduction York. pp 1 89. California. Redondo Beach. Lemmon. Roger R. New 6. 1 965." A stron. 1 96 1 . Brooks. E. The MacMillan Company. K. Unpublished notes. Forest Ray. Vol 3 1 . J.1 79. Sperling. 1 9 1 4. and 1. S." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. Vol 275 . .1 28 ." ARS 1." A str. to Celestial Mechanics. Goodyear. Vol 70. Stumpff. W. pp 3093 1 5. J." A cta Vol 36. pp 66066 1 . "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. F . 1 965 . H. 1 2. "Universal Variables. United States Air Force Academy . 4 5 . Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. 1 0.1 92. H. K. . 1 9 1 2 . 1 947. 8. H . 7.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch ." A stron.
1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. in 1 7 8 1 . 227 5. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. Uranus. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . But. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet.. in the first year of the 1 9th century. a 24yearold German mathematician.
they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . no more . The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems."the Gauss problem. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. 5. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. and the direction of . no less. and for convenience in referring to it later. If they paid some attention to philosophy . but for a different reason.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. The object turned out to be Ceres.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. exactly 1 year later. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. Because of its importance. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. Hegel asserted.
".. but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. or the "long way. f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. particularly if the parameter. Sec . We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . . It is not surprising.motion." through an angular change greater than 7r..1 ." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. Obviously . the orbit is a degenerate conic. p.. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. therefore. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M .. 5 . the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. appears in the denominator of any expression. / . the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible... / I I I I I Figure 5 . . The relationship between the four vectors f l . .. 2. If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations.21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way.SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ ..
2.y'ii8 . 23) and (5 .cos �E ) f = 1 . bv .2.r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . (5 .26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . 3. (5 .( 1 .24) arid (5 . Consider equations (5 .cos �v) = 1 . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . r2 P p rI . a or �E. but the first four are known. Use equations (5. so 2 . There are seven variablesf1 . r .24) Si n �E (5 .1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f. a and �E.cos �V .. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. Test the result by solving equation (5 .cos �E ) . 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . From equation (5 .cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . 27) .25).23) Actually. n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E .1 ) (5 . a 9 = 1 . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns.22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f... g. t. what we have is three equations in three unknowns..( 1 .25 ) (5 .( 1 . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. g.22) r2 a ( 1 .27) and (5 . We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 .23). the solut �on to . f and g. so a trialanderror solution is necessary . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. 2. p. 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 .sin �E ) � JJ. p.= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. (5 .230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . f. (5 .
A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. p. and would enable us to use the universal variables.:t x3 S. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter.1 ) (5 . since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. a and L'£ or 6F. 5 . let's write the expressions for f.Sec. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. = 1 . This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . 3 . including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. r1 (5 . g . Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. This last step is perhaps the most important of all.( 1 .3 2) .. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. x and z. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. In each case . Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. introduced in Chapter 4. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem.c x2 y.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. however.
c o s b.34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.v) • 9 = = IE.j A equation (5 . 5 X2 (5 .( c o s b.i n b.33) and cancelling vwp from both sides. as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant..v) (5 . p r1 j .31 ).1I 1 � ..37) I y = r 1 + r2 .. ( 1 .33)  (5.v ) 1 c o s b..jE: .A .. we get r 1 r 2 (1 . rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b. such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.v (5 .35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 . 1 .36) may be written (5 .viI x ( 1 zS) \ .V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch .232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 . A y= . we obtain A.( 1 c o s b.v y.39) ..v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 . P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b. ( 1 c o s b..38) y.. yields X C.
can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.r I (5 . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 .on simplllw.35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 . y.38). 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .ff.1 0) (5 . 5 .LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ.qr::oo . From equations (5 .31 7) . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .37 ) and (5 .420).34).32) and (5 . 3.". we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.3. 3.3.3.Sec.31 3) (5 .31 5) (5 . +. . the last term of this expression may be simplified. 3 We can also express X in equation (5 . 32).1 4) 1 The velocity. and the auxiliary variable . so that (5 ..31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I .: r I . I" � \ ·1 fr .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant . we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 .1 ).=1' Ig =r2 =. rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 . by using equations (5 . thi 't "p.1 6) (5 . A. (5 .
234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .0. 5.37). 5. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . From f ' f and the "direction of motion.3.31 5).S + X 3 _ + .0. 5 1 .dz dz dz 2yy dz . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. Determine the auxiliary variable. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point.31 7)." evaluate the I 2 constant. The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .1 0) .1 2) (5 . such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. evaluate t.31 9) .4. The derivative. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5. Determine x from equation (5 . y. 4. Although any iterative scheme .= 3 x 2 . Pick a trial value for z.3 . a Newton iteration. 3.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i .4.1 4) and (5 .31 6) and (5 . (5 .1 1).31 3).E2 and z = .31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. 2 . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . using equation (5 .1 0) and (4.31 8) ( ) (5 . When the method has converged to a solution.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 .39). necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4. dt / dz. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. 3. 9 and 9 from equations (5 . from equation (5 . 6.P .3. Since z = . this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly . If it is not nearly the same . A. 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. 7 . which converges more rapidly.
i n section 4 .Sec. 3 . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . we get ( 1 .320) (5 . . 5 .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .32 1 )  . we showed that y.39) for dy = dz  But.z S) dS _ .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .=  dS (C . 5 .
+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . 5 so.324) _  (5 .236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .v) .322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .318).4. These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 . There is only one path for a given direction of motion. 51 r2 = 1." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.+ 5! 7 ! _ _ . the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z. D M � si g n (1T L'>.41 1 ). Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0.326) . equations (4.322) into equation (5 .+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .  (5 .7K DU.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit).323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . ill rl . Using universal variables. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.320) and (5 .01 + + O.1 0) and (4.319) and (5 . "direction of motion": rl =0.OK DU. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S.6J + 0.
0488008482 OU r2 = 1 .1 5) .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .Sec.1 . 23287446 yT12 vm . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 .39). I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . A A l ong way =1 . For ease of numerical solutions. Now following the algorithm of section 5 .321 radians Using (5 . 86474323 = 1 . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 .. 327) r1 = 1 .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = . from equations (4. 0000 + 1 . a convenient form of equation (5 . 0000 1 .5. 5 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (. 0488088482 + 1 .3 : Step 1 : LW (5 .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = .0.28406 = 1 . 0488088482 + 1 .1 4) and (4. 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .37) does when . 28406 ( __ = 3 .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).962 radians LW long way = 21T .6V > 1T).6V is small.6V short way = 5. 5 .327).
1 3 min = 0445 z .. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 .05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now. the desired time o f flight is : .. Y l o ng = 3.3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 ... 1 . Step 5: Using equation (5 .28406 y'0. (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way..23287446 t l o ng = 0.0 we do not normalize.672625 1 6 TU + through 6.... 0432z = 1 3.1 0).3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 ..28406 y'3.23287446 0.86474323 = 1 .) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : .444689 m 0.3. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .. from the given data. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.489482706 (6") .780 1 9540 1 /2 0.86474323 2.9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off.
989794 D U/TU 0.3. 7499473 9 t = 0.314). (5.6 1 856634 = 0.6009 1 852 . 1 7866539741 + 1 .0. 5 .79852734 v2 = 1 . (5 .5288 97 1 4 = 2.0.3 .0.5544 1 39777J 0.76973587J . 1 1 39209665J  0.8826885334K v2 = 0.28406 Y = 0.50634848K v2 = 0.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .t .63049 1 80961 1 . 74994739 VI = 0.31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .96670788 z = x 0.9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.1 6) and (5 .28406 Y = 4.1 5).554824 D U /T U f = 3. W e have : � 104 (within 0.842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.36 1 677491 + 0.1 3).83073807 v 2 = 1 .58 1 43981 VI = 0.83236253 Using equations (5 .02234 1 8 1 1 .3.4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.60 1 874421 .94746230 A = 1 .035746 D U/T U 9 = 0. (5 .t solved .Sec.
There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of.2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . yet equation (5 . the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths.39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .31 . the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on.zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation . In other words. and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position). The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 . 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4.39). there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. where f::1) is less than 7T.38) and (5 . From equation (5 .1 O} VC .9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.= 0.52). For "short way" trajectories. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 .076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell .636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0.
This check is only necessary when is positive. for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. hence.)2 cos .v.c o s x =.4. From equation (5 .cos !:::. a and ""E. we get  . a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .23).4.6V p � .j1 .1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 .?S. 5.1 ) and si n  COS . (sin xl i . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E. and 2 solving for p.6V COS ...42) into equation (5. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive ./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity . 5.25).va si .V ) a (5 . The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.cos ""V ( 1 .. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.4.c o s ""E si n ""E .cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.4 TH E p. we can solve for a and get 1 . we obtain 5. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::. The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .6V V 1 .Sec.
45) ± Using these same definitions.E Q ± y'2ni C O S .J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.E Solving for cos2.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .Qp y'2ni p .4. 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.E .43) 5. we get Ll.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 . The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.45) and simplify.46) Ll. (5 .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.Q p ) 2 (5 .48) k .43) as Ll. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 . We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 . (5 .E ( k . and noting that � c os '2 . 2 Ll.E CO � = ± p= k = . we obtain m p a= (5 . a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.2 Expressing a as a Function of p.E) •  k = k Ll.44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.c o s bJ)) (5 ..
4. 5. Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). First . . a may not be smaller than some minimum value . 5. Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic.!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . 5 .3 Checking the Trial Value of p.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr. we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 .4 .41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 .F in case a is negative).I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 .. Sec. 2. The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. we need to determine � (or .4 T H E p.. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048).6. however. The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later .where k. am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 .
vi.6. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.6.25).41 2) (5 .6.E ) (5 . F ) . there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .4. Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. F 1 .41 1) c o sh .6. the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving . let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.F (5 . To get a feeling for the problem. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like . In Figure 5.E a If yield is negative.E .6.24) and (5 .s i n .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.4.( 1 .F: (5 . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.6. we can compute f. we see that the limiting case of .F is positive.Tar (si n h .6. F . we can determine .4.6.4 The t vs P Curve ." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .49) Since we always assume . although t approaches infInity for this orbit.23) and (5 .1 0) = = 1 .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 3) .6. 9 and f from equations (5 .a r1 (1  f) (5 . If a is positive. If (.E from equations (5 . If we look at "long way" trajectories.6... (5 . let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .From the trial value of P and the known information. 5 c o s .24) or the corresponding equation involving .23).
... for t:sv greater than IT.. P must lie between o and P j j .. P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case .zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 . In Figure 5 . 5 . P must lie between P j and infinity.. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight. For l'J) less than IT. Since it is important thar the first trial value..4 T H E p.. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 . Sec. we should first compute P j or P j j . From the discussion above...42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 .43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. as well as all subsequent guesses for p.I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse . lie within the prescribed limits.. t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j ...
.43 k p a rameter .. 5 1 :co . The solution is then bracketed and. . one that gives too small a value for t. 0 Q + y2in k  (5 . p )0 p" .46).5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. .yLri1 (5 . .. from equation (5 ..246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . I . '" E 0> '" .4.4. b . • . Several simple methods may be used successfully. Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5. In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p. we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value.1 4) Q . and one that gives too large a value. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution.1 5) 5 .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. ell . � " .4.
If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t .1 6).4. . then a better estimate of p may be obtained from . .. . ....... . .4.... . ..I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. .1 ) (5.. .. .Sec.P n ..1 ) (t n ....t n ) ( P n . .. 4 T H E p. . . .1 and Pn . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5.. O��_4o P n. .t n .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p. .. .. . . tn t .. ... ... . 5 . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. . .44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration . It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer..1 6) This scheme can be repeated. ....... . . If tn..I Figure 5 . .
iri equati �n (S. 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . ( � .r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S . � ( S . 41 9) .41 8) (S . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative .4. fl3  fJ.24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  .4.41 7). From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S . (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.si n L'> E l .
Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE .2mk2 Qp 2kQp .E / dp and noting.420) From equation (5 .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .47). from equation (5 .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .2 dp k ( k . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .4 T H E p.Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m . that ( k .( k . we obtain .Qp ) Q.47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 . bE d�E .Sec. 5 .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .4 8) .
42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .� (6E .COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + . and (5 . (5 . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .1 8) from (5 .420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 . p(k h JJ.4.si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .4. _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2..= .1 9)..250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .Qp) si n 6E JJ.42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k . 5 (5 .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F ..6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9. which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.423) .6E JJ. (5 .
9 and f from equations (5 . should be used in equation (5 .E or Ll. r and Ll.1 4) and (5 . Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . equations (5 . t and . The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a. 5 251 . of p. Using the trial value. Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 .4. Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.422) or (5 . 5 .44).22).1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. 25).1 1 ) . we will develop and use the f and 9 series. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector.8). 5 . G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. Solve for t from equation (5 . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. (5 . Q and m from r] . the values of g. 3 . As stated earlier .F.24) and (5 . Evaluate the constants k. 7 .To evaluate the slope at Pn . as appropriate .4.27) and (5 . Solve for Ll.4.4. Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola. Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. solve for a from equation (5 4 .1 0) or equation (5 . Pn . 2.6E or Ll.1 5). 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . 6. If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . Solve for f.F obtained from the trial value. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. 8 . 9 . 5 .423). using equations (5 .4.1 2) or (5 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 . Sec.2·3). We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .II using 2 .4. a. 4 . 2 .49) and (5 .
1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . 5 4) for n = O.u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . (5 . 5 5) r r (5 . 5 2) (5 . 5 9) . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n .54) we have the following recursion (5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v.252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . (5 . 5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . Therefore.57) (5 . we write equation (5 . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.
5 .51 3) rr and the definition of p. 5 . 1 Development of the Series Coefficients . p and q which will be useful later . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .5 11 ) (5 .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u.and the equation of motion f  (5 . We define them as follows : O. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec.515) =  ur. p. 5 .5W)  (r . this can be (5 .1 7) .51 6) (5 . as we shall u . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .5. v are known . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr .51 2) u . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .5. u L. These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. q.
(5 . ) . r r (5 .(v) 2 .3u p (5 .1 8) Using the definition of P.58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = .57) and (5 . ) _ 24 (r .U .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . . 5 20) (5 . .p (u + 2q ) . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .23 r· (V) r   u.p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 . . v) _ 1 u. = .r . 5. 522) q = . 5 . Summarizing: (5 . _ [1 1  2 (v . r) (v) 2 . 1 1 1 1 . 5.U = 22 r2 r  Similarly.254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . d q = d t .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r .
2 we have : ) r( 1 = .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .u G = . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue. p and q.2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u . = F 1 r + G 1 .u r = .u G 4 = u ( u .6 u 2 p = .54) for n = 1 ..1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .3 u p ( u . = .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u . F3 = F . Writing equation (5 . = r 0.30p p + 3 q ) .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing. = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q . = .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .6 u 2 p = . 5.r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .Sec.1 5u p ( u .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . Fs = F4 .t!:.3p ( u + 2q ) .
Vo (5 .523) .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .Gn n.256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 . ) .tao Comparing with equation (5 .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 . therefore.t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u . Referring to equations (5 . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t.5.526) . 5 = U (u .1 .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .524) (5 .52) and (5 .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious. .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t . .
1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) . G = 30up(1 4p2 .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 . 5 .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .2 1 q .3q .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (. G 1 = 1 .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .30q .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .6q . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u). F = 3up 3 F = u(.30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .28q . G = O. 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) . G = u.51 .Sec. F 1 = 0.90q . F 2 = 'U.
The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 .51) + 9= 7  1 .6. In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 .f (r I .5·29) . (5 . 7) (5 .0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . 5 .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u . p. From equation (5 .24) and (5 . 5.2·3). to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods.5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. 2·5). In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious.2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . 7) r I g (r I . f I . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large.5·27) + ' (5 . Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. 5. r I . The f and 9 series may be used .
h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . L£ .6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y.Sec. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA.61 Sector and triangle area (5 . becomes dt (1 .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . 5. As. This . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6. . thus Figure 5 .
If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.6. E ) .' l'2 2 2 (5 .V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .c o s b.43) and using the identity.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.6.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression. . but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 .2 The First Equation of Gauss. 5.2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b.260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ." + l( 1 . we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one. 4 � c o s b. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y.2E ) 2 .63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss.62) (5 . A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 .
3 The Second Equation of G auss.Sec.. (5 .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .£Q.L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J. Using the identity. . 5 . L ( l:>E .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.. n l:> E ) .= .6 . Si. si n l:v cos � .1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .s i n l:>E ) .(5 . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .61).6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .L . Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 . so .2 2 L (5 .65).cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .. ( .L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 .. equation .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .2 ( 1 r1 r .s i n l:>E ) ..jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J. t/y. From the first of these equations.24) and (5 ..67) 1 cos l:>v =.61 ) becomes si n l:v .
(5 .1 ) . We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. a and LE. 23). When convergence has occurred.6. the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 .6. s and w. equations (5 . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. and one more unknown. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE .262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. n = 2 si n 3 LE . !:JJ and t. y. Unfortunately.69) are transcendental. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . S + 1 .64) and solving for y. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . To review what we have done so far. a good first guess is y � 1 . (5 .s) . we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. recall that we started with three equations.69) cos f = 1 . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. y 2 ( y .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. and so on. We then added another independent equation. from r I ' r2 . in three unknowns. p.Si.si n LE ) we may write. 6. y and LE .cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . 22) completes the solution.25). using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . (5 .1 ) = W (LE .2(� .6. pick a trial value for y. By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. Next. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . 27) and (5 .1 0) .from (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary. 24) and (5 . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E.43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated." 5 . which is known as "the second equation of Gauss.64) and (5 .4 Solution of the Equations . (5 . The first step is to evaluate the constants.
c:.c:.c:.6. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .F = rush .F .1 2) = X = . Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables. )� s + 1 .69) and to determine y. F.F are close to zero.F whenever the right side is greater than one .c:.c:. 5 . The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section.cE.c:. equation (5 .c:. they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.F is real.0.Since the equations above involve . E = i .s i n .c:.c:. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . Noting that .c:. i sin i.E and . For this reason.cosh 2 .1 1 ) s i n h .F will be zero and both equations (5 .F .1 0) may also b e written as Sec. as y2 = W S + x . indicating that�. F = si nh . 6. S. 6.c:.1 2) become indeterminate.c:. equation (5 .c:. Since we already know that when .69) and · (5 .1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .F and COS i .1 0) may become greater than one.E . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.E s i n 3 . If the given timeofflight is short.6. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.6.S ) y (5 .5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit. then .. the righthand side of equation (5 . .c:.c:.E is imaginary.c:.E is imaginary.c:. F s i n h 3 "2 .F .c:. Using the identity. difficulties may be anticipated any time . E or .6.F 2 ) · (5 .69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .c:.c:.
5 . it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. is . 2 6. (5 . (s + x ) · 1 (5 . 3 .6. ) . from rl .43). 7 . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 .63). Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. Depending on the type of conic. Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . r2 .24). determine 6.1 5) 1 .1 1). parabola.. which is developed by Moulton. Evaluate f. replacing CDs 6. 2. and then expressing 6.61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . g .23).1 0) or (5 .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . s and w. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s.26).E or 6. E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. 2 .6. and 9 from equations (5 .27) and (5 .1 4) Now.2 Ch .1 (5 . zero.. .. or negative.22).1 3).6 . Compute the constants. or hyperbola according to whether x is positive.264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . ( 1 + §. Determine X from equation (5 .62) and (5 . /:.Y:i. the orbit being an ellipse. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &.]) and t using equations (5 . .6. . 4.25) and (5 .6. E as a power series in x.6. problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . Determine p from equation (5 . the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 .1 4). f.F from equation (5 . 6 . (5 . 1� = 2 3 1. . The result. The type of conic orbit is determined at this point.6.
ballistic missile targeting. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity." In all but the simplest cases. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. To make the problem even more specific. The £:. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning.Sec. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. Usually.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . and ballistic missile interception. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. �atellite intercept and rendezvous. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. 5 ." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . 72. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time .v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. To avoid generalities. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8.
� . I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 ... ... I n . e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.." \ t a rg e t / \ . ��y V \" _ ...".� ' . fI }/ \ \ .\.. \ •• • • • • • .266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . r. �/ �/ ". ". ) / ot t. ".' ':. at t..7..1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .. .....�: :.f.1 . 7 .. 5 i nterceptor .
the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . which is when the intercept will occur. The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. 5 .Sec. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island.
1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . . . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. . . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . . " . . . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. . . But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . \ \ \ Figure 5 .238 km/sec. we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. �v? �v . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. 5 them. launch vel. The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would .
Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . From Figure 5 . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . the launch site will have moved eastward . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . 5 . 5 . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V.7 . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions .5 .7 . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . Because of earth rotation. In Figure 5 . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. In summary . the better . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself.72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) .
J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .4 /':.7.V plot for example intercept problem .270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .) z :J « .. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.O F ..
86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . 5 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . t2 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2.8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .8 . i. L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . the three components of r2 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry.84) (5 . 82) t2 so (5 . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.e. another method will be develope d . P3 · . P3 . v2 • P I ' P2 . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. (5 .1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L.Sec. Although we have examined a very specific example .85) (5 .
' r2 . f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. the components of f2 and V2 . y. L2 .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. i.1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x. 526) and (5 .8) (5 . Rz .8.8·7) (5 . y and Z . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . and eliminating the K components.T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch .e. these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . 5 to (5 . the components of Vz be X.8. L3 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . b . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . y and z . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . R1 .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . in fact only six of the equations are independent. � into equations (5 . 8. Estimate the magnitude of f2 .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a.
527). b. Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 . and (5. Usirlg specific numbers. =: =: 5 . Ease of computation.V required for intercept? 5.32).4 Verify the development of equation (5 048). but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times.31 ).423) for hyperbolic orbits.41 .\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. 5 . Z. c. Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 .t2 and t2 t } are not too large. using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy.522). Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. e . f.31 3) through (5 . 5 Z. f2 I + J DU). 5. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . Accuracy. 5. EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6.Ch .6 Derive equation (5 .1 5. . which are the components of f2 and v2 . (5. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 .39).3 Verify equations (5 . 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04. Limitations.1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l.31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 .2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. Y. I I I I  x. The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.526) and (5 .
r2 'and the distance between them.9 Repeat problem 5 . The original Gauss method. although a few iterations can be made by hand. rl r2 p.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 .7 . Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. (Ans.009 (. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. The universal variable method .J + K). Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value.0922 TU. The piteration technique.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 . as a function of rI r2 . 5 . which will contain both position vectors.tl = 1 .00256 (J + K» . (Ans. h = 1 . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5. d. 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5. 5 Given two position vectors rI .8 using the universal variable.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . c. r2 .t l determine v2 using a. b. t2 . 5 . 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. vI = 0. d.
1 965. Appendix A. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. Davis. NY. r 1 = 2I t2 . 2 . to Celestial Mechanics. A n Introduction York. c . d . McGrawHill Book Company.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. 4. Dover Publications. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . r 1 = 41 t 2 . Methods of Orbit Determination. Forest Ray.7K D U t 2 .t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. NY. Battin. f 1 = 1 . Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. .0. (Answer : v = 0. A stronautical Guidance. New York. John Wiley & Sons. New 6. a. New York. 1 956. "The Prince of Mathematicians. Escobal.4804847 1 1 2 +0. Vol 5 . 1 964. Simon and Schuster. 1 963. 1 9 59. 2I D U t2 .t 1 = 0.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . and A. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . Richard H. New York. Bell. 3.Ch . Liu.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. f l = 0 . S.66986 9921+0 .6J + 0. 1 . 1 9 1 4. r 1 = I t 2 .t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. Moulton.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. Gauss. the MacMillan Company. New York." in The World of 1 . Herrick. Inc. NY. Carl Friedrich.J D U Use "long way" trajectory.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . Pedro Ramon. Mathematics. NY. 51 + 0. (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. Eric Temple . Inc.
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longrange ballistic missiles.000 V2's had been fired in anger . The result is well known. Efforts. 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . World War II as "too late . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. ironically . have a very short history . the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . . which concern us in this chapter. Napoleon I 6. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery .
Brigadier General 3 . They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. After all. California. Trevor Gardner .000 pounds thrust. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . No German was permitted to enter this separate building. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority .278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . In July 1 95 4. 4 Accordingly. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. According to Dr. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. in June 1 9 53 . 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless.
After three unsuccessful attempts. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. Blasingame . the program had. Atlas was a reality. 6 . the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact.Sec. While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants.000 people participating directly. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. 6. Progress was rapid. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . by mid· 1 95 9 . Otherwise. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout.
ji1Tr. 6 from launch to burnout. (6 . however. Q .2.. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 ...2. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. Figure 6. such terms as "height at burnout. 6 . This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations.2 The Nondimensional Parameter. Since Va:." etc.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions." "flightpath angle at burnout. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories." "height of apogee.22) . Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. 6 .2. need not be redefined. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . It will not be discussed in this text. 1 defines these new quantities. There are. =. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 1 Geometry of the Trajectory . Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere .2.
6.21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .Sec .2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .
It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit.23) or IQ=2�·1 p . (6. 24) 6 .2. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 . When Q is equal to 1 . 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit.3 The FreeFlight Range Equation .26) .2. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 .O/r from equation (6. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point.the expression p.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . and substitute for V. If Q is greater than 2 .1 ) .25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.
be written as (6. 'l'.22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) . 2 Equation.co s v b o .Sec.f6. 6 . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 . lies on each side of the major axis. and co s � = . half the freeflight range angle .27) .26) above can. therefore.
be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1. = r Q C O S2 cp .1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6. (6. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. the total range angle.2. also becomes known. .284 . the required freeflight range angle.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6.28) p. h = rv cos cp. A.2.T.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q.1 1) into equation (6./. . ¢ro.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions.2.29) Now. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. since p = a( 1 . . If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry.e2 ).29) and (6. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target. e. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. what should the flightpath angle.
Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. ¢bo. Sec 6 . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . We could . is called r bo .23 Ellipse geometry 6 . the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . with a little algebra. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . Instead . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . In Figure 6 . F'.2.4 The FlightPath Angle Equation.In other words. The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. Now.
d.2.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a .2.Qb o sin � .000 ) from equation (6. F' and the burnout point. in fact.2. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .24.2.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . Qb o 2 2 (6. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. � + 'lr) = . that. light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. This is. shown in Figure 6. for example.1 6) . we can express d as 'i' d = o S ." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal.1 3) (6. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering.x) = sin (6. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery.I n 2 and also as rb (6. It means. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse .
9.2. . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 .866.24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 . 6.1 6) gives us . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .Sec. sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .
If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . Because a = . . An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. Table 6. If Q bo is exactly 1 . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. 2.25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . 2. so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 .P/2&. the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. If Q bo is greater than 1 .1 6) does not exceed 1 . With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . Nevertheless. equation (6 . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . Figure 6 . This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences.21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. Provided that 'l' is attainable. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable .
Sec. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6. 6 .25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories .
skims earth high only . hits earth Table 6 . range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj .11 5 18 1 . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU.625 . ha p og ee 0.low traj . we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM.low traj .5 DU. During the test firing of a ballistic missile. hits earth 000 > 1 high only .21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. cos ¢ b o == 0. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :. Assuming a symmetrical trajectory.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . vbo = 2/3 DU/TU.
Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . ) (60 n m i ) =2.08 1 7 DU/TU and .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. 2<P b o + 64°20. 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 6 2 1 .5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . 600 E. 'IT. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. Notice or <P b o = :. 08 1 7 ( 1 .1 2) . We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . versus the flightpath angle .2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . 6 . Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . 6. :. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = .4Deg.025 DU respectively.1 .2. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 .2. 26. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39.Sec. 60 0W . 36° .. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. c os � = + N . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.025) = 1 .
.pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition . A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target.26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory.1 7) I (6. 0> <1> <1> � IJ..2.. If the right side of equation (6. s 0> Q) 0 � c .2. be the maximum range condition.'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6.1 6) equals exactly 1 .. en EO I . � 80 .. . 2.292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell .7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight . we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must...1 8) L__________________� ..Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 . One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero. (2<P bO � ) 2 .� 90 Figure 6.s. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution . :. then.:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .
'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . 6 . By inspection. 2.e cos 2 (6. We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6.2./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. but .1 7 ). 6 . From the symmetry of Figure 6.Qbo Qb o (6 . 2. 220) for maximum range conditions. due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified.cos 2 . the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . 2 . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o . sin �= 2 2 . VI 1 800 .Sec:.2.6 Time of FreeFlight. 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only.222) .8) .1 9) for maximum range conditions. noting that l . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). 'JI .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4.
a. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 .27 Time of freeflight (6. 6 The semimajor axis. and the eccentricity.1 1). 23) and (6. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . e. 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . can be obtained from equ ations (6. Figure 6 . 28. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. In fact . The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. since five variables have been plotted on the figure. 2.
95 From Figure 6.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.075) == 0.884) ( 1 . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6.25 D U == 7 . The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.Sec.750 n m . It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8. 6 .8 period vs.000 nm.
N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. .aje. : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: .. : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C.I ' : ' : : : : : : . : ' ..9h Ir. . hi. : : . . : :/ .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 .. . : : .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . ' .� '" �� :. .CI�rie� v X I . � ren I ("') !XI r » Free . :: :"/ N . . :: : J: : : .
OOO nm max = 3. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal. .6C. 6 .444 n m = 2. 8.  Vbo 6. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . impacting at B. 957 Hsi 66.32 r ads = 1 33. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north.3 . we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.6C represents the cro ssrange error. 2 00 ft/sec . There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first.6X.77 0 = 0 . the crossrange error.2. 3 . 6 .Sec.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. In Figure 6 . F or purposes of this example. position.6X and .6C may be / 9 57 1. suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . For a fixed burnout altitude . and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. . The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . 'l' From equation (6. .933 D Urr U � 24.3 ° From equation (6. The arc length .220) .1 � 0. For brevity . 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point.
3. we get (6. if they are in degrees.thought of as angles."2 to simplify equation (6 . . If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. if the intended target had been the north pole .1 ) to (6.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .32) 2 X Figure 6. 3.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. Equation (6. cos .1 .400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . for example.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation. Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. In Figure 6 . I 1 .3 . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center.
32 Azimuth error 6 . this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section.33) . 'l1. 6(3. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. Figure 6 . are as planned.3 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. 299 Figure 6. �C. before .2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. 6 . will result. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. P.Sec.'l1. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range .32 is the crossrange error . a crossrange error.
x ' to simplify equation (6.3 . An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn .3.oo a "'00 Fl ight .\]I will represent a downrange .33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 ..� I a q. 6 If we assume that both 43 and .C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation.0.D. \]I.y I  : : i. (6.3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount . if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.0.0. This . 6. <Pbo' In Figure 6. cos X � 1 .34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended. are shown by a solid line in the figure . <Pb o IM� Figure 6 ..21 about the center of the Earth. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.path angle ..\]I.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . In other words.. it will hit the target anyway .
6 . If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3.1 0) Qbo I i .8) (6. The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.cot <P b o (6.2. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 . The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .6. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o . 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.3.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory.Sec.3 . We could get an approximate value for .36) (6.1 2) of this chapter .
1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6. a'l1 .3. 3.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .3. 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 . _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .3.c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants. Vb Substituting from equation (6. Let us first express equation (6.3.
5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. If this seems strange. In fact. Figure 6. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. when used in the manner described above. equation . Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . 6 .3. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . A plot of range versus burnout radius. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 .600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 .Sec. While we need equation (6.3 .1 3) This partial derivative . The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0.33. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case.1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. the actual range error on a 3 . particular burnout error . 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6.33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. 3 .000 nm range. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. angle errors.
1 1) implicitly. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . the missile falls short of the target in every case .1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .3. too slow and the missile falls short.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = . if burnout occurs too low.31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory . the missile overshoots . b o 'fJ ' (6 .6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .3. .3.3.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended. Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . The magnitude of the error is (6.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .1 4) for small values of . 6.3.1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6. differentiating the range equation (6 ..2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 .3. Again. 6 however.
6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .735 = 6 .6V b o + a 'lr . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = .1 0. 3.4 rad ians. LW b o = . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error . 1 D U . An analysis of equation (6 .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . r bo = 1 .3.1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range . 6 .9 0 5 D U !TU . There is no crossrange error. 649 r ad U D U/T . Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.1 8) would reveal that. like the other two influence coefficients. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 735 rad DU r b o ( . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � .Sec. a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high.9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . We will need Q bo (.5 x 1 05 D U/TU . Total downrange error : . ub o = 5 x 1 0 .6¢ b o = . 1 ) 2 . .4 D U .905) 2 ( 1 .
1 . we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 . v.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . 6 =2. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . then all three . In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another.4. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar. <p. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed.5 24 ft/sec.2sin 1 60 o 2 = . and its azimuth angle. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. ove rshoot 6.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .S ) . 0.1 . {3. That is.649 (5x 1 O .2 1 (.735 ( 5x 1. 56x 1 0 . We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. The rotation is from west to east.4 )+6. for example). its flightpath angle. That is. 6. m i .4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. both the launch point and the target are in motion. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation.56x 1 0.1 0.4 ) TOT =1 1 .4 ) (3444) � 4 n . If we know the timeofflight of the missile .
say 1 . �.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . of 45 0 . 1>. Hereafter. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e.4. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . This frame is called the topocentric horizon system.Sec.000 ft/sec. an azimuth. .000 ft/sec. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) ." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. An observer at rest would not agree .5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. Like the observer on the moving train. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . 6 .. A simple example should clarify this point. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 .4. and a speed of. of 900 (east). an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . of train l \\�.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 .I ·=<� • .1 ) . (6. we will refer to measurements of burnout .
v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. (6 . 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site .43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. It is. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . Once you have the components of ve.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. We can obtain the south. Thus.44) �. lies. break up V into its components. and up components of the true velocity. Vs (6 . east . One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. flightpath angle . �. first. of course.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . this will not be difficult. v.42) The true speed.
2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. the target will be there also. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . In Figure 6 . represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. The term.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . when the missile arrives at point B. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . Rather .4. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . Hopefully.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. so the arc length OA in Figure 6.Sec. 6. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched .43 is just 90 0 L o.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory.
we can solve for the required launch azimuth.0. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. {3.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . (6 . . The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point.48) Again. Once we know the total range angle.0. by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions. These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (.N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3. and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . and if. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . then a value of .0.N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. we get c o s {3 = sin L t . A.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . (6 .47) Solving for cos {3. If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.N + wffitA' where . this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 .46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 .N. . we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .N + w ffitA ) .triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. (6 . If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. {3.0. The longitude difference. tA .0.0. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.
A. 6 . Needless to say. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch .Sec. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . and launch azimuth. By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. (3. tA But .
. 1 ) 1 . 339 ) 2 + ( . 5 1 1 95 v . 33° ¢bo = v E = . 9 s i n 300= .. Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . 45 ) 2 = ..42) through (6 . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 .5022 ta . 9cos3 00cos 3300= .9 DU/TU. 8° v n /3 = v = . using Q bo = . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .3 ° W burns out at 30o N. 339 ) =. 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of . 29 . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . v = . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. 85 From Figure 6 .4 5) : v= . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . 87 9 30.0 58 8cos290 = .. 1 DU..( . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . . 79 . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( .675 s (J=333 . 6 .j( .. 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 .. A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.
13 = 7.4 . 770 N re = 156.85 and ¢bo = 3 0.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1. 3709 �GG (3. 29 .we(3. . 6 70) =.Sec.123 . w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . 2 5 TU :. 77° = . tff=3. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 .7 8 0 .80° . 334TU ) =123. 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = . E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. 6. 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = .203. 334 TU boN = 135° . 334)=135° . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0.3.
Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing.840. r b o = 1 .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude.3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6.5 D U!TU 1 .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .6 ft/sec) 6 . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . m i . = . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . R = 6 0 n . v = 1 6 .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.2. What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. m i . 6 EXERCISES 6 .05 D U = 1 0° .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 . .1 9)? Why? 6 . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . and a spherical Earth. 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .926 D U /TU . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6.000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal .
he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N .98 to 1 . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 .02.6. 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. . Using the equations si n iL.2 1 2 run) 6.0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .02.6.)(. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . Rtf = 4 . 7 I n general. 6 . A lateral displacement . Do not use charts. 1 0 During a test flight. (Ans.000 run) 6 . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. how large can .'lr ). how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 . an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + .x and L¥3 be? .400 n mi. What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of . Rtf = 5 .06 DU.83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. .Ch.
ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . c . 7 . 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:.6888 n mi L:. 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. low.. b .0 DU for a ballistic missile. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. Determine the error at the impact point in n mi.r = 0. or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 .31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 .. Is this a high. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . vbo = 0.800 nautical miles? (Ans.642 DU/TU) . a. 6 6 . 6 .346 n mi long) b. (Ans.V = 25 .
23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. at the same altitude .6 . 5 DU and whose perigee is .. at an altitude of 2.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. 6 .e . 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . 3 0 0 E. determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity. Q bo + . 6.530 ft/sec.where e is the 6 . what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 . If the velocity at burnout was 28. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum. i. Do not use charts.QL.ri. �bo and analyze the result . 1 2 00 W. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 .¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. R t of 4.'I' = � b.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. b. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi.22 The range error equation could be written as: b. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi.4 min) = 6.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N.700 n mi using a high trajectory. Ch . tff 40. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range ... 1 5 00 E. 6 . 5 DU. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 .
24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of .48966 = 3 1 5 . It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 .0057 ° = .6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed .4 rad ian s a. or maximum range trajectory? 6 . low.1 045 . 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . 1 200W . v bo = .500 ft/sec=O.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. (Ans.1 0 . Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. elevation . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O. c.66E+20784. 92S1 0608. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44.318 V bo =23. 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . b.25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.5 0 . How far will the missile miss the target? 4. (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .
0 (Ans. 1 20 OW . L t 54 0 3 1 '.73 n mi. == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. What was the freeflight range.8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . 43e .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. 1. atmosphereless Earth. site located 319 During the actual firing. What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . downrange displacement of burnout point . 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . Assuming a symmetric orbit. 5 7 min) == * 6 . (Ans.Ch .649 n mi . In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain .400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . .6 1 8 . tff 3 2 . rotating. 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . and r bo � r(fl.1 2 ' .
4) . The MacMillan Company. ed . Garden City.6Vb o . Inc. NY. 1 965 . Eric. Dornberger . Albert D.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . 3 . Walter. A History of the U. Publishers. New York. LongRange Ballistic Missiles .320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .S.3 .2. 1 962.02 DU. R ff ::: 1 0. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. Burgess. New York. V2 . Vol 2. 5 . . Gantz . (Hin t : See section 6. Lt Col Kenneth. The Viking Press. NY. Frederick A.3 1 The approximation : * 6. Schwiebert.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . NY. Praeger. Ernest G . A ir Force Ballistic Missiles.1 2) . Space Technology Laboratories.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . 2. 1958. Calif. 4. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . NY. altitude at bo ::: . 1 95 5 ." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). New York . 6 * 6. Wheelon . "Free Flight .800 n mi. Inc. Los Angeles.2. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. * 6. 1 960. Doubleday & Company.
the Moon. the Sun or the Moon? . It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . together with the Earth. when it is light anyway. . whence arise several irregularities in her motion. and is. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. though principally attracted by the Earth. when it is dark. of all which. move round the Sun once a year. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. does. the 32 1 . "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . The Moon is the more useful.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For.. about which she moves. and moving round it. Proctor. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. have been discovered. . since it gives us light during the night.
Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. W. 7." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . . Even interplanetary trajectories. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . Clairaut . 7 Author in this book. W. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. has given a full account. D'Alembert. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 .322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. Brown . Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more .2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. but because it comes close to being a double planet. with no less subtility than industry. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. Lagrange and Laplace . The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction.in this case the Sun.
��===c==Q. H. .. . The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . . . According to one theory advanced by G. :. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. .67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. 7 .. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27.400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . .Sec.: =j Figure 7. . . Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). As a result . Darwin. These periodic fluctuations in longitude were.3 04 of the mass of the Earth. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . in fact.3 days. . The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. .3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system.:. This puts the center of the system 4.
324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .22 Lunar orbital elements 7. In the case of the Moon's orbit .2. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements. due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. 7 Figure 7. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. the orbital elements are constantly .1 Orbital Elements of the Moon.
2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. called "evection. their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. 7 . This effect .8 days.3 1 66 1 days. The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. b. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 .000 years ago by Hipparchus." was discovered more than 2 . The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. c. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes .054900489 .400 km. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . The line of nodes.Sec. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' .
The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. in l S72.9 years. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . making one complete revolution in l S . e . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . Thus. the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. the other . From Figure 7. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . where the Moon crosses from north to south.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . its mean value is 5 0 S ' . d . 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic.2. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction.2 Lunar Librations.000 years. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. rotates westward. If the Moon's orbit were = . the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. but more than a century later . When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory .6 years. 23 ° 27' . for only then can Sun.6 years. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670.23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . is the descending node . Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur .
Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . and 7. solar perturbations. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . monthbymonth basis.Sec. SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. As a result. daybyday.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. solar pressure . This permits us to see about 7 . At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. we would see exactly half of its surface . the computer time required could become prohibitive ." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. at one time or another. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. 7 . 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date .3 . If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. among other things. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . Actually we see .75 0 around each limb of the moon. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit.
In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions.3. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed.3 . With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. a = :l:!:. semimaj or axis. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. 7.400 km. It is not important that the analytical method be precise.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . With this thought in mind. this will not introduce significant errors.0549 .Q.. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ. 7 .. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions..6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit. 2& e = y'1  pia . We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = .
1 r1 1 ..2 10. II.i.0 S pe e d .r1 1. we can solve for va ..:.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH ..Sec.g' .. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit. .  I.. E i= . We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit. j 80 . F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10.31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly. In Figure 7.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 ...3 . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.c " 0 . 60 \ \ I njection .c C/) .. e r Figure 7. we get c o s V = 2..9 I njection 1 1. 7 .
3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory .. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP. For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . to parabolic. the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection.05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 .. Actually.. . .330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .. then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit..32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape .')'. : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 . 7 an injection altitude of .: / :1 . For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point. 7 .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds.. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero. In Figure 7.3 . \ 0 �� ' earth " . . As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic ..J! . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed .. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' .. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. .. : ..
966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity .32. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . . the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . Moon from our assumed inj ection point . this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . In general the sweep angle . Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . In such a case . resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. Assuming an inj ection altitude of . the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. 82 km/sec. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . Assuming no lunar gravity . which we can call 1/1. if we keep reducing the injection speed .4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. 1 8 8 km/sec.32 we see that. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. 7 . is a function of . If we are trying to minimize injection speed.Sec. Eventually . 3 . this minimum injection speed is 1 0. as the injection speed is decreased. The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. From Figure 7 .we will never reach the Moon at all. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . due to errors in guidance or other factors. if we try to take longer by going slower. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. 7 .
that is. the initial velocity is too high.. and wrrft.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. But. for example . the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. If. Neglecting lunar gravity. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. . where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. This may be seen from Figure 7 . 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7.33 . so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t.
It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. R s' given by the expression Sec. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations.1 ) . which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . only are interested in determining ap. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. for all practical purposes. 5 However.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 .arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . ." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle.3 00 km. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. however.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact.0 km/sec. 7 . In effect. 7. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . There is. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the .4. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 . This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius.
4 .4. 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. Figure 7 .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . 7 .1 ) can be found in Battin .334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch ." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h .) Then. 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit. A full derivation of equation (7 . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.4. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon. consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.1 ) yields the value Rs = 66.4.
42) (7 . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . the radius. r 1 . 1 . at lunar arrival is (7 .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee .43) From the law of cosines. Finally.45) COS <P I . from geometry . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables.r h V 1 I (7 .Sec. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. r 1 . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 .44) .
7 Figure 7. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 . 1 p ia  a = :l!. t l . JJ. p=� (7 . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p.49) (7 .48) (7 .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 0) .47) 2& e = ".41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.4.
e 1 r1 __ (7 .1 3) (7 .1 6) The phase angle at departure. 7 .to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .3 rad/TUEIl (7 .Sec. Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.1 2) Next. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .649 2. Wm = = t 1 . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually. we can determine the eccentric anomalies. 1 37 X X 1 0.4.4.1 5) 2.4.4.to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence . Eo and E1 from Finally. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ . the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .4. . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.1 1 ) (7 .6 rad/sec 1 0 .4.
is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch .1 9) .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth.45). It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. In Figure 7 .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. We will do this in the sections that follow. The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed.which we chose arbitrarily . then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is.2 Conditions at the Patch Point .4. 7 .4. r2 . (7 . Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 .0 1 8 k m/sec.4. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO . (7 .48) through (7 .42 : V m = 1 .4. r 1 .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail. The geocentric radius. then the selena centric radius. If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft . 7 .1 6) above . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . at arrival is completely determined by \ . If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 .1 8) (7 .4.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
40 .50 � � c 0 i e 1.30 . «>  0.20 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .
Sec. 54. 7 . 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 .5.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . It should be obvious from equation (7 . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. if we add a coasting arc.5 3) .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. 5 4 worth noticing. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 .52) and Figure 7 . b oth of which are undesirable.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . sir! 0 1 . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . Figure 7 . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. As a result . we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. However. From Figure 7 .5 0 and 28 .5 0 .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon.si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . If lunar declination at intercept is specified. If lighting conditions are important. Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination . For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28.
23 1 23 .424 1 67 .97 28 34 3 9 . 1 0 28 27 29 . 2 1 28 34 42 .76 28 3 1 09 .460 1 67 . 7 1 7 1 66 . 267 1 67 .44 28 2 1 1 8 . 1 3 . 624 1 7 3 5 00. 1 5 28 34 1 0.2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.695 1 8 02 54 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .242 1 66 .4 1 3 1 66 .35 28 1 6 08 . 5 7 1 1 66 .97 29.95 7 1 7 37 48.05 28 33 1 1 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 .374 1 8 00 07 .203 28 1 8 49 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .3 1 28 29 48 .34 28 32 1 7 .72 1 1 8 25 08. 973 FIgure 1 65 . 5 8 67. . 1 7 2 1 67 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .46 1 1 67 .3 1 8 5 . 078 1 66 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 .9 8 9 8 . 1 0 1 6.020 1 8 1 6 49. 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .44 22. F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch .07 47.3 1 + 1 48 . 86 28 26 29 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .3 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40. 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 . 8 1 28 32 47 .737 18 1 9 36 .32 1 1 67 .97 1 1 9.1 44. 1 969 . 5 9 28 34 33 .7 1 54.39 28 3 0 34. 24 .445 1 67 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26. 1 4 1 06.385 1 67 .87 28 34 22.998 17 5 7 20.6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8. 1 9 173.47 28 25 3 8 .3 3 3 1 67 .45 8 0. 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .89 28 24 29 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 . 8 0 1 36.08 28 29 08 .862 1 65 .00 28 28 1 5 . 7 .63 1 1 1 .84 60.56 .90 28 33 5 3 .254 1 67 .308 1 8 22 22. .78 1 3 1 .05 8 1 65 .41 7 1 67 .435 1 65 .38 + 9 . 24 28 23 34 .949 1 8 05 42.58 73.449 1 67 .376 1 67 .970 1 66 .963 1 8 27 5 5 .88 28 33 3 5 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .27 3 5 .85 4 1 .85 1 1 66 .3 1 9 3 .766 1 7 43 23 .97 28 3 1 47 . 1 90 1 67 .
to' and the right ascension of the launch site . slightly (7 .9 . 84). This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. is the same as the "local sidereal time . 7 . c o s 1/1 t . 1/1 c ' Thus. 5 3 . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. and may be obtained from equation (2. the total time . at the launch point (see Figure 2. Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 .54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . we get cos 6a. = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch.Sec. it is possible to adjustt l . The difference i n right ascension .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . tt ' is (7 . �.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. ao' at this launch time . !::lX . The launch time. The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE.3 . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 .5 . 5 4).89) : (7 56) . which may be computed from the injection conditions. To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 .53 ." 8.
426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 7 . The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier. 000 k m 33 . 7.54) agree. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. � . 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I.t I ES Ch .V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. and the exact We now know the injection conditions. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. . 7 30 EXERCISES 7 .(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . What additional 6.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. 7.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0.3 224 .
9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. a . At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. . Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. Determine the /:. Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. 7 . On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit.Ch . 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 .400 k m : a .I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° .6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A.. b.
CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. requirement. Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. Specifically. 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. <1>0 = = = * 7 . Use h bo l OO n mi . given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters.) * 7 . 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. 7 7 . 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. . select ro ' vo ' to meet this .
University of California Press. an d Maud W. Fisher. 5. NY. Berkeley and Los Angeles. New York. Academic Press. London and New York. Principia . Doran and Company. L. Gamow. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. 4. November 1 95 9 .Ch. Makemson. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. George . NY. Isaac . 1 9 5 9 . Richard H . Garden City. Battin. 1 943 . Robert M. .1 6. Baker. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . The Story of the Moon . Inc. McGrawHill Book Company. Newton. Clyde . 1 964. A stronautical Guidance. NY. The Moon . Second Edition. New York." ARMA Document DR 220. 1 967. 2. Abelard Schuman. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. 1 962. 3 . Doubleday. 6.
.
we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . C opernicus. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. etc. two unpropitious.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. two eyes. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent .. indeed. such as the seven metals. and a mouth . two ears. But the tide of opinion ebbed. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. By 1 507 he was 357 . which it were tedious to enumerate . two luminaries. two nostrils. At first it was not understood . Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century.
An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. are spread much more widely throughout the system. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture.2. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . and Pluto . diameter." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false .358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . The "law. 8." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. nevertheless. 6. 8. comets. Mars.2. Uranus. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0.1 . at the age of 70. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. the members of the solar system. Venus. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772." as may be seen in Table 8 . indeed. Neptune. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. . or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. Saturn. . 1 2 . Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . If we write down the series 0. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. 1 Bode's Law. Earth. 3. In addition. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. . some of which pass near the Sun.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. Jupiter . .
00 1 .2 1 0. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune . The size.Sec.0 1. compared with the total mission duration.21 Actual Distance 0.65 5.0 1 9 . is its path .28 3 0.6 2. Only for brief periods.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.8 77.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. Except for Mercury and Pluto .6 3 8 .20 9.52 2. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.72 1 .22.52 1 9. 8. 0 is presented in Table 8 . The sixth orbital element. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.4 0.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune . the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.39 0.2. 8.7 1 .2 Table 8. Table 8 . 1 7 39. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 . 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . 8.8 5 .
400 276 ° .225 237 ° .441 73 ° .) 00 . 5 1 3 5 2 ° .773 1 7° . 5 73 1 75 ° .76 .005 0 .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° . 05 1 4 . 0934 .684 93 ° . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 0068 .7233 1 .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .394 0° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .489 0° . 76 ° . 1 3 6 47 ° ..405 undefined 49 ° .004 3 ° .. 1 39 1 1 3 ° . 1 42 1 02 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28.870 L. 38 7 1 . 1 1 7 265 ° .203 9.5 24 5 .306 2 ° .. 000 1 °.2583 7 ° .497 1 3 ° .000 1 .28 3 0.096 1 88 ° .275 222 ° . 8 94 341 ° .850 1 ° . 0 1 67 . 0482 ..322 1 00 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° . 1 7 3 9 . 1 1 1 326 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° .828 1 7 1 °. 074 1 83 ° .0539 .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.5 1 9 1 9 .970 7 6 ° . 7 73 1 ° .. [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (. 2056 .
8 1 7 1 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.8 6 29.000 1 .3 .268x 1 0 B 3 ..8 247 .795x 1 0 7 5 .2 1 4. 1 08 3 1 8 .0 95." . 1 4 1 3 .820x 1 0 6 6 .79 24.46 84.06 9 .6 1 7 .232x l 0 4 3 .9 1 08 .257x l O s 3 .8 8 1 1 1 .3 05x 1 04 1 ..04 29." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .7 5 7 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » . 0 1 1 64.65 6.3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .74 2 .87 3 5 .05 6 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .49 4.000 . 1 1 49 .24 1 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .896x 1 0 6 3 . 5 227.986x l O s 4.6 1 5 1 .9? 1 .80 5 .
was the Hohmann transfer. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference .362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . For transfers to mo st of the planets. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure.v required. from the standpoint of /:. this consideration is important. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. The Hohmann transfer. Just as in lunar trajectories. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . would not provide a suitable return traj ectory.3l . 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit.3 . The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). however. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. 8. if continued past the destination planet . For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method.
V. Therefore .. 8.Sec. Nevertheless. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip. .u o_____+. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by . the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit.' ." .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / . Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8. \ _..d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit.v required for an interplanetary mission.
1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit.33) In Table 8 .31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity. B (8 .3 and should be reviewed .78 kIn/sec.3. • . From Table 8. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29. the difference between the heliocentric speed. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity.l 0 (8 . 3 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. The heliocentric speed.where f. then.3 .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time. In any case . for the Hohmann transfer. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit.
379 1 .78 46.73 38.74 6. t2 . 8.42 4 1 .9 1 6 1 .Sec.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .04 1 6. 40. rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.9  2 .524 A U From equation (8 .397 22. rE9> are respectively : . VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.07 4 1 .5 1 46 .60 Table 8.295 1 .28 27.31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .3 9 1 1 .31 1 05 .748 . 1 2 5 8 . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.099 1 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun.03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence. From Table 8 . r d = 1 .28 32.05 4 1 . 1 6 30.345 1 . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure . In other words . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.57 .
4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .7088 years = 258. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight. 8 From equation (8 .t1 ) wt . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.32) the heliocentric speed .366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .t 1 = 1T = 4. v .2 Phase Angle at Departure.3.9 d ays 8. and is illustrated in Figure 8 .73Km/sec . From equation (8 . The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . where is the angular velocity of the target planet.099A U/TU 0 = 32. the phase angle at departure . The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4. vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.35) wt (t2 .3. Thus. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 .32 for a Mars trajectory.34) __ (8 .
The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. . .1 76 . Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun.Sec. 367 . . . .3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " .. 8. Figure 8. 'Yl (8 .32 Phase angle at departure.. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct.36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place ... If we miss a particular launch opportunity. .. .... pp 1 60. . how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet.
340 . so W EfJ7 s . we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .07 5 . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again.37) (8.025 Synodic Period.00 Table 8. Mars and Venus.3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.v 1 determined.W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km.368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 3 ·2. 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.32 1 . the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.01 1 . rad/yr 26 . Thus. 1 3 1 .09 1 .3. Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.60 2. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.w t I (8 .530 .07 1 1 0.32 In a time . then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth.38) . 8.2 1 7 3 .04 1 .0 1 1 . yrs 0.213 .03 8 .
310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . '\ .. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� ...33 / . � _ i t_ r b_ . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . �. . . . . . .. '?.r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. . . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. .. . . � Figure 8... (8 . . 8 .:V. we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo.39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . ".Sec. . . .
so equation (8 . km/sec.33 . From Figure 8.2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed.34 we see that the angie .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 .1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars.3. we may write . is given by cos fI =  §.6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . This may be seen by solving equation (8 . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.1 1 ) becomes = 2 . fI. C but since e = da for any conic.the injection speed .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 3. For transfer to one of the outer planets. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola. fI. the angle .
3 T H E PATC H E D. conditions : = (8 .3. 8 .3.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = . is obtained directly from the injection (8 .Sec.1 e where the eccentricity .1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. 3.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .1 2) e.34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .
1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector .4 Arrival at the Target Planet.3. 8. then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. At arrival.3.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . however. cfJ as shown in Figure 8. Generally.3.35 Interplanetary launch (8 . the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 .36. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.
3 . 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 . sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .1 6) (8.1 8) . (8 . 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 . 3.1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines.Sec.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. 8 .3.
8 .s i n if> 2 v (8 .320) y = x si n e (8. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. will be directed toward the center of the planet. the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. in Figure 8. e. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if.The angle . where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . .1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. In Figure 8. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. 3 7 we see that  (8 . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory.3 . S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch .38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. 3 7 . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . It also means that the relative velocity vector. 3. From Figure 8 .36).
(8 . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8. 8 .37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.lt/ 2 X _ .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .322) .Sec.
W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .(8. we obtain .327) for y Yields (8 . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . Solving equation (8 . y. 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance.376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the speed at periapsis is simply .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . 324) (8.326) Because angular momentum is conserved.
328) we 'get (8 . If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. The given information is .329). EXAMPLE PROBLEM. only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . the "inwact parameter. rt This particular offset distance is called b .Sec.329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . V2 + 2fJ. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision . This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section.t 3  rt (8 . then a much smaller target must be considered. 8. b. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun .33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 .39. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. The. The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed.05 DU.
6V 1 = 1 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .05 D U 1 .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .099 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.1 :: 0. energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .099 A U/TU = :.39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .099 A U/TU 0. 3 .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.1 VI = 1 .
4. the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude. 8 . 1 39 + 1 .Sec.07 6 ft/sec 2 . This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.v (8 . Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic. departure Figure 8 .044 8 . t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.905 = = 379 37 .4. From Table 8 .v = 2v si n L 2 /::. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept.1 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .1 ) .43 DU/TU .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.
8. 5 for the planet Jupiter. 8.2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun ..3 .7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years. 8 . 7.1 )) .380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . _  /' .4.. EXERCISES 8 . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel. 8.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units. 8. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. " . (Ans.. 8 as derived in equation (3 .62 DUJTU� 8.1 ) ..32..3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 . Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .3. 8.8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.
If c = 9 . 1 00 ft/sec) c. where 8.v = 1 5 . v = 39 . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 .l:. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i.V = 0.l:. 1 DUE[) radius. vesc = 1 .9 In preliminary planning for any space mission.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit .l:. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . .V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =. M = 5.l:.900 ft/sec. r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j . P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years.l:. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.348 DUe/TUE9> . 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.v ? (Ans.Ch. It can be shown that .. a. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i.35) ITbo no . What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .V required? (Ans.000 ft/sec.394 DUe/TU� b .
1 DUe/TUEl1. 0.V of .V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.046 DU� /TU � b .V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long. 0.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. Find the hyperbolic excess speed. Is it more efficient to apply a 6.. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans. a.0..V at apogee or perigee? 8. 8.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans.Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit.. Find the 6. v=' (Ans.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . 8 8 . The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 . 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .0.254 AU/TU� .which results if the same 6. = 0. (Ans. a.0. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans.5 DUEI1 circular orbit.V is applied at perigee. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . The mission will begin in a 1 . 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee.? (Ans. What is the 6. v= 0.73 1 DU8TU� b . 3 . 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. 0.28 AU2 /TU2 . � = 0.. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . What is the 6.. What is the 6. so work carefully and follow any suggestions. (Ans. 6... Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c.9 00 ft/sec) 8 .382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 09 DUe/TU$) = .. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units.
show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . 0. called the turning angle .Ch.5 AU? (Ans. For a given planet. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. 1 . 0.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0.2 AU/TU� d. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans.050 ft/sec) 8 . (Ans. 1 . 1 4 a. P.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. 3 . then find h. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity.87 TU� b .373 AU/TU � f. for the above transfer.867 AU/TU� e . 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. Compute the phase angle at departure.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans.3 9 DU oITU& 2 . Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. c. (Ans.5 AU. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. 8 . 'Y1 . Vrrw = 0. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. O o) 8. <P2 and vll1II in that order.) (Ans.
* Ch . 1 967.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . coplanar planet orbits. NY.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. Washington. Vol 2. London. James R. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. . New York. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. The World of Mathematics. What would be an estimate of the return b. 3 . D C . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. Vol 1 . and the angular rates of the planets. U S Government Printing Office ." AIAA Journal. 1 96 1 . 1 969.V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . pp 430434. Newman. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . 1 . 8 8. p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. R. 4 . "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. transfer time. W . 1 95 6 . Assume circular. No 2 . Simon and Schuster. 1 963. Fimple .
Macroscopically . irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . and at times unexplainable . There is always some variation 385 . it is found that there seem to be distinct. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. " Webster 9 . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm .
etc. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. magnetic. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . which had not been treated by Newton . Fortunately. E. In fact. The wind gust was a perturbation. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. 9 . mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. meteoroid collisions. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. M. atmo spheric drag and lift. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. and relativistic effects. except the motion of the perigee. 6 . about a century later. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . The power and all directional controls are kept constant. solar radiation effects. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit.from the norm. Then. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. Brown 's papers of 1 897.
This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text .2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations.Sec. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. the Cowell. 9 . knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. 9. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. a section discussing methods and errors is included . There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. Encke. H. It was developed by P. See section 1 . In particular. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations .2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. With the capability for orbital flight . This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation.
including all the perturbations.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . Sun and planets. r=Y �r (9 .2. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. F or numerical integration equation (9 . 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. For the twobody problem with perturb ations. y = vy (9. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon.22) would be further broken down into the vector components.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration. the equation would be (9 .388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . the equations would be .
roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. 8 .25) . There are some disadvantages of the method .'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 . 9 .Il m ( 3 . Classically. When motion is near a large attracting body . smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. In spherical coordinates (r.24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . and he would be correct .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2.3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates.23).22). 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . Intuitively. Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time .Sec. Even in double precision computer arithmetic. This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings.
This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . and . 9 (9 . Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. reference or b i t Figure 9. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 .'l. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . in our case . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . In the Encke method . The term connotes the sense of contact.25) As a reminder.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. Presumably . this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit.31 The osculatil. 9.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch .
At that time . 3 . 9. be defined as (see Figure and . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 .3 . respectively . the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.1 ) .1 ) and for the osculating orbit. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. Note that at the epoch. and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .  (9 . Now w e will consider th.3 2) into (9 . = p ( tb ) p p to = 0. Let r and p be the radius vectors to .33) we obtain .3. the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . r + � r3 r = a t .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. or epoch.32)  Sr.32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit ..Sec.to ) ' p (9 .1 ) and (9 .3. The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration.33) Sub stituting equations (9 .1 ) .. Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. 9 .
3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation .37) . so r can be obtained from 6r and p.t) can be calculated numerically.. 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . So . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:. For a given set of initial conditions.35) 3 3 r _ (9 ..3 / 2 (9 .6r ) .392 6r == a ) p + IlL p . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) . theoretically. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object .6r] r3 r (9 . one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method. However.was to obtain more accuracy. 6r (to + . 6r.6..3 6) Equation (9 .34) then becomes (9. p is a known function of time .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch .
since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. In terms of its components Figure 9. 9 . OZ are the cartesian components o f or. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit ./  Our problem is not yet solved . we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . o y . Now some ways of calculating q must be found. Expanding.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. however.Sec.
1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ .37) becomes (9 . (9 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .( 1 . There are two methods of solution at this point .2q So q =  Now. /) y2 . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9. <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9.3.39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .(1 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . . 9 From equation (9 .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation . 3.38) and (9 .38)  1 . .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .1 0) (9 .31 2) .37). It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.
g.01 ). It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits.t where k is the step number. rectify and go to step a . Rectification should be initiated when .3 8) 3. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary.1 2) is used. For an integration step. q (to ) O.t replaced by kt:.Sec. t:. 9 . and 5r 0 at this point. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r.t . a. f(to + t:. If equation (9 .3. v = p + (jr. If. but of the order of magnitude of 0. Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . c. so larger step sizes can be taken.t).t to get (jr{ to + kt:. p 229).39) is recommended for use with the computer. d . k. Knowing 5r(to + t:.> a specified constant. r (to ) . Go to step c with t:.1 2) may be slightly faster.t) calculate 1 . Integrate another t:. calculate (jr (to + t:. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows .nowing p (to ) . Vol 2.3. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) .t) from equation (9 . p(to + t:. (jr 0. Otherwise (jr p .t) .3. Then the tables could be u sed to find f .does not remain quite small. The method using equation (9 .t) 2 .is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. although the use of equation (9 . care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. e . Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . = = = = = p continue. q( to + t:. f. Calculate r = p + (jr. b. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .t ) from equation (9 . In (jr p v as described earlier.1 0).
it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. Though. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. Thus.6. a . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. In the absence of perturbations.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. See equation (9 . so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time .3.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. For instance. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . A similar check could be made on i . from the Encke method 9./l m {m s . etc . In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration .cSr ) (9 . this method may seem more difficult to implement. they would remain constant. e eccentricity. Similarly. at the outset. Then e � .6.t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of .4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs. = .
1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements.variations (e. The standard orbital elements a. 9 .and dM ?. p 246.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature .. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. e. 9 . it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. n. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time .4 . Therefore . . 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . Vol 2 . The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . i. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. � . 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations.n (t .. The axis S is .tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . for a table of parameter sets). . or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. r.g. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. Eventually .Sec.I OOS . It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity .T (or M) will be used. along the instantaneous radius vector. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. R (unit vector R). w and. 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M .
rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly . The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G. The third axis.43) . = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .4. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9.41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9. W.
V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .4 and .Sec.1 0) .44) (9.!I=8!" nr from (9 . Differentiating the conic equation Qr.48) we find da dt = (9. 9. expressions for found.49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.48) Substituting in equation (9.45) To express this in known terms.� 2& ' = 399 (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system. (9 ..1:!:. dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:. (9 .46) and F S (9 .43).4.44). the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.
9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .4.�) % J.lae dt h $) a dt . the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.la _ (9 04. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04..1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904. r hW + h da S dt (9 .) Since h = hW.400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .2 )% a = (1 .1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0). so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .
1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .h cos i rF s h2 .1 8) . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h. K) � (9 .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).sin QL = dt .4. 9 .n di dt (9 . 1 e2 (9 . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .4. K .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.4.1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 ..si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .4./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .1 6) we obtain .4.4.Sec. 4 .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. Since p. . is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.4.v = . ] (9 . and V are small. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P. but more practically we would consider � = v . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence .2 (at + C)2  . allowing c to vary with time .J.2p. 9 .vat a+v a .e .45 1 ). .vc . c = ve 2 p.2 p.Sec.450) and solving for e we find (9 . The constant of integration.45 0) should be small.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.v {at + c ) c (9 . so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 .4.2p. which is a common method of expression of the perturbation.v 2p. . From equation (9 .4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.454) + 2p.. Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion .5 1 ) correct to first order in J.vt .4.vt 2p..2p. C.v which can be easily solved for c.5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 . {at + c) + 3p. . • . 4 where c will be the parameter. the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 .45 1 ) .
such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. . The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. 5 . at best. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c.e. 9 in detail. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. such as the disturbing function. Unfortunately. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. his integration method. 9 . In theory. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. d. or has not carefully selected. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. storage and complexity. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. c. b . The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. should be the criteria. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. highly questionable. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. not expediency. efficiency. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. 9 . 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. accuracy. allow as large a stepsize as possible.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter.. economical in computing time.
accumulated roundoff error . Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved .5 (9.388.276 + 3 . For instance . all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . 9 . but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . 2 Integration Errors. In fact.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. 4.843. and f. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2.864. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. Obviously . Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as .476. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (.57 = 7 . Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . Baker (v 2. 9 .567 = 7. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree.5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations.28 + 3.388. They are roundoff and truncation errors. The larger the . It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors.Sec. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error.476. 5 .
Of course . Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes .6. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. We will treat the first order equation . Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method.1 ) . in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . 9 . EulerCauchy and Bowie . errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. 6 .= f(t.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here.63) dx dt (9. 9. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. In general. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth.62) (9. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . Thus. 9 stepsize. AdamsMoulton. h. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. Gill. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. the larger the truncation error. 1 RungeKutta Method.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch .
6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 . so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .( 1 .yV:. It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.( 1 + y. easy to implement .) k2 6 3 l2 (9. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method.Sec. They are relatively simple . In general. x n .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n . x n + k 3 ) (9.64) 1 1 + .% ] + k 2 [ 1 . This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. have a relatively small truncation error. 9 . x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . they are faster than the singlestep methods.65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . 9 ..k +. The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .yry. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods . and stepsize is easily changed . X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step .63) and n is the increment number.6.h ) k3 +.
3 9. In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . 3 /8 . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . 25 1 /720. . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 1 /2 .\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + .1 f .\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9.beginning and after each stepsize change.3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas.\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 . Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0. Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. 5 / 1 2 . . 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell .67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart.6.
for instance. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. This method.69). so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired.x n + (5 5 f ri .1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. the error terms are not generally known. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula. In equation (9.Sec.1 + 37 f n2 . The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +.6. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis). 9 .x n+1I I (P 270 (9. . It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l .59 f n . fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas.
n + � 84 "x.° n + .8 k . and most used. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn.6.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n .° n 60480 (9.1 . x. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type.1 f(t n h) 2 2   . n + 1 2 n i \. The GaussJackson method is one of the best. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.h ) .1 ' etc. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ".LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. "x.2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k. though. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. 9 like other multistep methods. though it also includes a corrector.1 f(t n + h).6 . 9. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. It is. .
e presented in this section.1 The Nonspherical Earth . 9.7.7. 9 .5 Numerical Integration Summary . The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. according to Vinti. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods.1 ) One such potential function. ¢. but only the simpler forms will be treated. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. is known. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. 9 . Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. is ¢ = � [1 .7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec.72) . is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. 2 and NASA C R. V.I n=2 r (9. 9.6.Bashforth) methods are preferred. 2 . However. the accelerations can be found from (9.l 005). the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. Some of them become quite complex. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. If the potential function. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion .1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. p/r. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker.6. Table 9.
Vol t .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . it could be very fast. 9 CI) . **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. very difficult to determine proper size. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � . * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t.
 I. if> = I!:..42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r . 9. r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.J s � ( � ) (35� .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P. = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .where J.2..74) ..�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .L = gravitational parameter Sec.2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 ..] (9 .
Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 .5)x 1 0.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .3003 ""6 ) + .75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .6 J = (0.44 ± O.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .6 .64 ± O.6 ± O. . Vol 1 .03)x 1 0.57 ± O.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 . There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.6 J4 = (1 . l )x 1 0. . but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).. which are slightly in variance .422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. 1 5 ± O. I )x 1 0. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9. The first term in x.1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J .6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .6 6 (0. y.5 ± O. l )x 1 0.l ( �) 3 ( 3 .
equatorial coordinate system. Vol 1 . There are a few ctmtiol).s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation .. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). simply use r3 r= where . However. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). s 9. Therefore . The equations are formulated in the geocentric . then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . 9 .. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. but will not be presented here. p 147).. A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. Thus. by definition. To do this. 7 Drag. C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. term) to the RSW sy stem. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w.2 Atmospheric Drag. and other parameters. Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker.Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 .77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point .7. the drag coefficient. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric.Sec. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation .
9 . equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9.ie. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo). In the geocentric. 9 m p C O A .3 Radiation Pressure. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . etc. but the reader can find this in other documents. altitude above an oblate Earth.ilc coffc.lli.t b ae ==ic. Equation (9 .424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y .7 . Radiation pressure.78) z . y . equatorial coordinate system. . This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. z refer to the geocentric.7 .7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. though small.
Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. m (9. 9 .Ch. 9 .2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . 7 . the variation of eccentricity. m = mass of vehicle (grams) .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates.4. 9. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . 9 .3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method.4 Thrust. . Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming.1 5) .25). See equation (9. but a major force . z directions. EXERCISES 9. y. 9 where A = cross section f = 4.4349 0 x . 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . Prove this assertion .5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. . Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x .
6. Feb 1 968. Academic Press. 1 9 1 4. and Wl). Academic Press. Mendez. M. 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. New York.000 n mi. Allione . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. * 9 . London . 1 96 1 . LIST OF REFERENCES 2. Planetary Coordinates for the. Inc. 3 . L. Vol VI. 9 . Ralston . John Wiley and Sons. Guidance. M.ittouck. S . New York. The Macmillan Co . L. R. D. Blackford. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. DC. Brouwer. F . New York.445). 1 967. Robert M .. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Baker. 1 . A. J . * 9 . 9 9 . 1 960. . . New York. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers." NASA CR. A. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . Washington. . 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. and Clemence.l 005 .9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . Years 1 9601 980. G. 5 . * 9. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. and Wilf. Moulton . Jr . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. C . M. 4. M.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office.
C. Washington. New Yark. 1 1 . P . 1 967. New York. Published privately by the Author. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. McGrawHill. M . Inc. Th e Determination of Orbits. 1 963. New York. McGrawHill. Dubyago . 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). New York. Ann Arbor. John Wiley and Sons. Escobal.. R. Cambridge University Press. New York. 9 . Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. 8 . F . 1 964. Smart. 1 95 3 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. The Computation of Orbits. 1 5 . R. Jr and Makemson. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . New York. New York. The Macmillan Co. Methods of Orbit Determination. 1 96 5 . H. . Inc. D. 1 0. John Wiley and Sons. Hildebrand. Robert M. Dynamical A stronomy . Academic Press. 1 6. Part 1 . DC . Plumber. 1 95 6 . 1 948 . Orbital Flight Handbook. Herget. Longmans. Michigan. W . 1 96 1 . M. 1 968 . P. 1 3 . Battin. Methods of A strodynamics.Ch . E . G. Paul. New York. . 1 4 . L. A stronautical Guidance . Vol 1 . B . R . 2nd ed. Baker. Celestial Mechanics. Maud W. A . Jr. Townsend. NASA SP33 . Escobal. 1 2.
.
Canonical Units I DU.77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .. 3. 2593 6.. 1 Center.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 .9053682 8 km' . English Units Metric Units 2. Ile Angular Rotation. I DU� TUi. 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4. 1 97 5 .24764 11sec 806 .APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter. 44686457 min 6378. 1 328 2 1 days 9.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 . 2506844773 deg min 7. r. we 0.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. 'Derived from those values of Il . Each of the two sets is consistent within itself. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 .0226757 x 1 06 sec 29.922786 NM 1 3 .68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4..4959965 x 1 0' km 5 . r. . Speed Unit I� TU.05883 36565 � TV...092567257 x 107 ft 3963 .292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance. 1 .407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7.
4 3 .3 14 .e .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0. there is no roundoff or truncation.01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown.07 1 0 1 50424 4 . .08 1 52366 0 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.8 9. 1f = 3 . i. foot = 0.239446309 x 1 0. 1 2 64963205 0 .2342709 5 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .
If A i s a vector . W). Thus. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. force and acceleration. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. C. time or any real signed number. J. Examples are displacement. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . length of a vector . speed. 43 1 . In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . (Example : 3 or A).APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . Examples are mass. temperature . Unit Vector. Q. I DEFINITIONS Vector. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. Scalar. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. not a null or zero vector. velocity . In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . K) and (p.relationships involving vector quantities.
432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. B and C are coplanar vectors. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). If A. Coplanar Vectors. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. and A and B are not collinear. regardless of the position of their origins. 1 Similarly. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel.. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . .
C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors.1 ) I AI cos B . is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin.C.2. Scalar or Dot Product. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : .2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors..B which is the same as A + (B).l ) C. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A . denoted by A • B. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. e I I l (C . l . B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B.
22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.24) (C. K are unit orthogonal vectors.. B and C form a right handed system.(B + C) = A .J =K . The cross product of two vectors A and B.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I .8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C .K= 1 I . J .B + A .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A . < 180° ) AxB =C . 23 ) (C. then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them. sma l lest ang le ( L e . denoted by A x B . That is.434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A .1=J . . if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible .J = J o K=K o I = O where I . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. A o A = Aft.
then A X B = O. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . e < In fact A x B = .C. K are unit orthogonal vectors. J.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le.
29) Scalar Triple Product. from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) . BI C1 . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C.A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .
3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 . denoted b y A x (B x C) .1 2) (C.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.2.C.3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity. Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.B3 C) + A ( B3 C .(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .2. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 . 2. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B . The vector triple produce.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.2.21 4) C. The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .l 3) (C.(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .
. .........with itself. then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + .. K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P.. .... x J Then the velocity relative to the (I.. thus .....9..438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o . dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ....YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of ... .. . v C P K y .. " ...
VE LOCITY 439 which. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P.= .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .3 b. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T .C. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w.. dr v = . the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector.= . In this special case then. v = wT . The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path.
Az. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. p. The input to SITE should be latitude. EI. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . and of the satellite (R and V). They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. azimuth rate. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). positive to the east) of the launch site. elevation rate . Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). Use standard unit conversions given in the text. From the 440 . elevation. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . longitude. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . The radar determines p. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . The input to TRACK should be range. range rate . AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. azimuth. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . latitude of the launch site. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. D . EI. Its geodetic latitude. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site .APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text .
.08 30. 3 315 .. 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . INTEGER DAY. UT. GST. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . 2 2 29.57 76.5 . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 .7 . . 5 7 5 for data set 3). BEGIN REAL D.5 1 35 .05 1 9 5238) . 6 . : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 .7 .75 components are : (. y. . LST _ LST MOD (2®PI).775 1 80 1 9.74933340. . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. Input UT as a decimal (i. LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . LST) .7 5.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . 6 8 2. 1 4923608. 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. If the above program is used.3 . 5.2045 72 1 6 .5 3 4 ON 4 5.62624920) = (. LST and LONG are in radians. LST. PI. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. . Following are five sample sets of data for site location. .D. REAL LONG. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . E 7 2 .27907 599.MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT . 22 1 0. observation time and radar tracking data.63745829) z = . GST. PI . . e .5 90 . GST _ 1 .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 .05 1 37.74933340.75 1 003 9 1 . 8 0. UT.8 S 1 7 5. END OF LSTIME . An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . 007 N 1 04 .8 N 7 8 . .26347 1 9 8 . DAY. . . 0) = (.07 1 05 . 040075. 9 W 0 1 9 05. = (.0027379093®2®PI®D .044 1 8440.01 2035 7 5 .48 201.5 3 0 . Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .
49 0 . 0) (. elliptical. . 00001 . 0 1 7 45 . 1 0 0 2 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity.6 0 . 01 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 .2 VI .9 1 . hyperbolic). The type of trajectory (circular. 5 . b .001 1 0 .4 1 4 2.998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29.8 . Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 .1 .293 . parabolic. 7 0 3 VK . .01 . . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.4 1 3 59 3 1 7 .1 .4 1 722472 . d.5 0 .1 0 22. Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth. 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). 1 29579 1 9 . 48 4 0 2.. From this information you are required to fmd : a.703 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . 49 0 0 2. rectilinear.9 0 2 0 . 05 . c.4 1 4 0 0 65 . 6 2 .85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.001 5 30 0 .9 1 046 1 80.707 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix.
write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . If your iteration process is efficient. RJ 61 .5 0 0 . you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time .7 . c. If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods.5 . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4.3 D. Also for an ellipse. 1 38878 .5 . Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. 1 5 0689 1 .025 9 1 7 . 61. x should never be greater than 2m.3 1 0 . Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. b. To determine when convergence has occurred.8 . a . To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 .4 of the text for guidance . The following data is given in e arth canonical units.0. 61 (calculated) . You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). and dt/dx for each iteration. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x.jiL d. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds.
bt.. It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11').5 1 . Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z. 0. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations... 1 65 08 . Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. 1 06 1 0.00006057 .. 3. For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 .444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.. 0003 6 1 .. I t . One of the data sets tests this situation.70655823. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. I�I :::. t :::.9 20 . For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points..002 1 7 7 1 . 1 8 1 . and sign (7T . 00 1 074 ...4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. Given r l ' r2 . You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives. R2 V2 = (0.1 .. 0 .. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem.6 for 1 :::.1 .t c l :::. 1 0. For instance note that y can never be negative .999 o 1 03 D. .. 1 362596) = (0.6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight.01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 .w).
1 2298 1 44.3 .6 .5 . .1 .7 0 1 0 20 1 .4 .2 . . location of the tracking site .6 . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM .4 .3 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.3 .66986992. 1 92 1 62 1 2 ..2 .9378 1 789) = 4. t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.66993 1 97 .6 .1 . See section 5 . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target.4804847 1 .6 . y.201 . and the location of an interceptor launch site .0 . print out a message and go to the next data set . . Check for this case .4 .1 specifies the long way.S = (0.2 . The following data i s i n canonical units. 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .8 5 +1 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT. The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the . a message printed and you should go to the next data set . so a check should be made for that condi tion. 1 .6 .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (. = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . time of radar observation.7 .2 1 .4 1 .5 . Also print t:J) and a for each data set . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program.6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .0001 +1 .7 0 1 0 1 . 7 for further discussion o f this project . x. This i s not specifi cally required in this problem.
When you point out your arrays. KEPLER and GAUSS. Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. f. This will aid you in verifying your solution . b . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . e . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . the desired increment size for reaction time . all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. g. Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . Make some provision to print out all of your input data. Times should be read in as minutes.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . d. and the number of timeofflight increments desired . Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . To make your program flexible . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . the number of reaction times desired .3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. TRACK. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time .45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. c. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor.
038 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .0. You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .6 1 3 km EI = 56.44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4. 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .1 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .338 **** **** **** 10 8 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.5 p = 1 86.74.92 deg/sec 1 . 844 **** **** **** 35 7 . of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 .
LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site . LATL.448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL.
INDEX .
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INDEX Acceleration comparison. 3 2 5 . 297299 451 . 3 2 3 masses. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 109 B akerNunn camera. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 20. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 4 gravitational h armonics. 4043 Celestial equator. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 84.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 54 fundamental plane. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 1 5 . 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 9498 transformations. 2 1 . 74 geocentricequatorial. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 2 1 2 B asis. 6. 4 3 0 Conversions. 5 3 . 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 429 Astronomical Unit. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 24 Apparent solar time. 1 4. 5 7 principal direction. 7483 Coordinate systems.9 8 gravitational constant. 84 ecliptic. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 3 5 8 . 4 1 . 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 422 gravitational parameter. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 1 8 8 . 2 3 4. 296 geometry. 3 4 Collision cross section. 2427 Apogee. 1 09 Angular momentum. 246 Brahe. 423 Azimuth. 5 5 heliocentric. 60 Argument of periapsis. 3 8 9 . 203 Aphelion. 9 3 . 5 3 . 27 Angular velocity of Earth. B urnout. 3 9 0 station. 1 22. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 1 00. 28 1 B arker's equation. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 5358. Tycho. 1 620. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 279 C anonical units. 94. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 1 8 3 mean. 56 Celestial sphere. 54 orbit plane. 3 3 period of. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 349 Angle of elevation. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum.1 3 1 G auss problem. 102 Apoapsis. 429 lunar distance. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 1 09. 24 height adjustment. 8 4 Copernicus. 5 8 Aristotle. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 1 8 5 true. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 57 perifocal. 60 and universal v ariables. 84. 429 flattening. 374 Computer projects. 74 BMEWS. 277320 computation chart.
1 8 8. 4 G alileo.1 5 5 Direct motion. 9. 94 . 1 8 8 . 1 54. 6 1 Elevation angle. 60 Dot product. 2 1 ff. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 26. 2 3 0 f and g series method.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 3 1 . 2 4 . 1 8 2. 1 4 0 . 1 60 low altitude. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 1 42. 9 4 Geoid. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 2 0 . 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 2 1 . 8 7 . 1 04 Escape speed.3 3 pe.1 90. Carl Fredrich. 62 vector. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 2 1 2. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 264 eccentric anomalies. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 4 Newton's law of. 20 1 202 f and g series. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 7 G ravitational constant. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 2 1 2. function o f true anomaIles. 3 22 trajectories. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. apparent. 54 Elements of orbit. 1 0 3 G round track. 227 418 ( y ) . 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 3 5 .1 4 3 . 444 algorithm. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 5 8 .93 .1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 4 G ravitational parameter. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 2 8 2 time. 8 0 f and g expressions. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 4 1 9. 3 6 8 local. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 1 0 9 Ellipse.3 9 6 Energy. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 1 7 equations.1 3 1 Direct ascent. 3 0 . 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. Elliptical orbits. 221 hyperbolic.452 Declination. 25. zenith angle. 1 8 1 . 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 1 0 6 mean. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 1 0 twobody. 1 0 9 . 3 89 nbody. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 2 3 3 . 58 from position a n d velocity. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 306 EarthMoon system. 22827 1 . G auss problem.1 1 6 Gravitation.riod o f . 297299 I N DEX in plane. 1 1 7. 1 22. 25 1 . 4 3 3 Drag.3 0 6 numerical integration. 423 424 Earth oblate. 25 1 258. 62 Ecliptic. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 56. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 2 3 0 . 2 9 . 84. 1 0 6 precession. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 2 9 7 . 60 true longitude at. 3 5 0 Epoch. 3 90 . 40. 26 ff.2 1 2 parabolic. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 3 00 launching. 3 5 .
1 3 Moving reference frame. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 3 27. 1 80 third.3 05. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 1 0 twobody. 2 7 7 . 1 1 7 Latitude.8 9 derivatives i n . numerical rotation of. 1 4 1 . 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 207 I nclination. 4. 2 1 . 1 8 5 . 3 59374.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 1 0 1 . 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. Isaac. 2. 1 02 Mean solar time. 94 reduced. 3 69. 1 56 vector. 2 H alley's comet. Greenwich. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 54 Heliocentric transfer.9 3 Mu ( � ) . 94 geodetic. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 3. 1 . 1 4 2 Inertial system.1 6 6. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 60 Latus rectum. 7. 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 3 62 . 3 9 6 constraints. 3 1 Manned flight. 234. 2 6 5 27 1 . 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 3 9 6 M otion. 1 5 6. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 3 5 0 free return. 22. 6. true at epoch. 1 5 1 . 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . Edmund. 3 0 3 .3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 2. 3 44 . 1 25 Librations of Moon. 3 89 trajectories. 3 64. 8 Node ascending. 62 . 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 8 9 .3 8 4 general coplanar. argument of at epoch. 1 Kepler's equation. 58 regression. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 3 8 . 247 Newton's laws. 3 1 Moon. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 1 8 Influence coefficients. equations o f nbody. 5 8 Longitude. 22 1 . 3 26 orbital elements of. 1 03 Minor axis. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 1 5 6. 3 69 . 3 7 0 Integration. 6 rotation of. 238. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 220 Mean motion. 1 0 2 Meridian. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 5 Newton.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 2 Heliocentric constants.I N D EX H alley. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 3 80 Kepler. limitations. 1 52 Mass of planets. 1 57 Line of nodes. 1 9 8 . 3 24326. 1 6 3 . 2 8 8 . 2. 1 4 1 . 5 1 . 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 3 7 9 . 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 3 57 . 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 1 7 Local sidereal time.1 8 1 first.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. J ohann. gravitational parameter. 2 second. 1 1 7 derivatives. 1 8 8 . 60 Lunar trajectories. 3 1 6 Injection. 3 65 noncoplanar. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 20 Least squares solution. 9 9 . 3 9. 3 24 . 62 longitude of ascending. 1 7 7. 8 6 . 6 . 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 2.
3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 3 24 .3 7 9 lunar.1 59 examples. 57 Perigee. 1 62 O rbit. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 3 4 1 Period. 1 09 . 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 1 1 7. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 2 4 . 2 4 Periselenium.1 22 from position and velocity. 420 c riteria for choosing. 1 6 Potential function. 1 1 7 . 3 9 0 Parabola. 423 due to the moon. 6 1 o f moon. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 5 1 . 3 60 physical characteristics. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation.1 50. 1 69 Orbit determination.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 6 1 from sighting directions. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 3 90 . 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 20. true anomaly. 4 1 2425 errors. 425 Phi ( � ) . 443 algorithm. 5 symbols. 2 1 2 computer solution. 203. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 424 thrust. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 24 height adjustment. 3 3 Perturbations. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 3 1 . 56. 2427 argument of. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 4 1 9 . 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 3 6 1 shape of. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 3 59 . 26527 1 Residuals. 3 8 6 general. 94 Potential energy reference. 22727 1 Orbit plane. 20 Polar radius. 4 1 9 radiation pressure.1 1 6 from two positions and time. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on.3 44 Periapsis. 3 3 3 . 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 1 1 7 . 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 4 1 4 sum squared.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits.3 9 0 Encke's method. 3 24 . 83 from optical sightings. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. two body. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 34. 60 Right ascension. 9 3 . 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 440448 Q parameter. 2 1 . 2 1 . 3 9 0 Relative motion. 1 0 9 Rectification. 3 8 7 . 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 3 8 9 Earth potential.454 Nu (v ) .1 76 inplane changes. 1 5 6 . 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 1 9 3 . 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. flightpath angle. 1 0 3 P rojects. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 3 44 . 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 1 62 .9 8 Optical sensors. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 220 classical formul ations. 1 90 Numerical integration. 1 3 Rendezvous. 58 determination from position and velocity.1 22. 1 5 1 . 2 0 .
9498 Sum square d numerical method. 4 3 1 Velocity. 2 3 5 evaluations of.4 3 9 Velocity components.1 0 9 apparent solar.8 9 derivatives in.1 8 8 .1 6 6 True anomaly. 99. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 9 3 . 1 9 1 development of. 3 6 1 Solar time. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 1 0 1 . 1 6.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 8 1 . 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 40 Unit vectors. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 2062 1 0 use of.9 8 of planets. 1 60 Synodic period. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 9 9 . 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 4.1 4 assumptions. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 1 6 Sputnik. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 3 27. 2 1 at epoch. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 1 1 . 1 3 8 optical. 9 9 . 23. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. canonical. 1 0 3 universal. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 1 52 Station coordinates. 4 3 7 . 1 9 1 . 1 9 1 225. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 23.1 40 Selenocentric. 1 9 high. 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 3 60 physical characteristics. 425 Thrust perturbation. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 287 low. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 1 3 1 . 1 03 local sidereal.4 3 9 d o t product. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 1 3 5 ellipse. 1 8 8 universal variables. 4 3 7 . 30. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 6. 8 4 . 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 1 3 2. 1 02. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 5 radio interferometers. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 1 3 1 . 40. 425 Time. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 1 6 3 . 1 8 8 . 44 1 mean solar. 9 Sidereal time. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 5 8 Time zones. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions.1 0 4 Solar system. Universal gravitation. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 8 6 . definition of. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 2 8 7 maximum range. 4 3 7 unit.1 9 8 Time o f free flight.1 69 Hohmann. 4 3 3 triple product.1 9 0 if. 1 8 1 . 3 1 Sensors. 60 True longitude at epoch.1 40 errors. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 1 1 Units. 99. 2 8 8 . 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 1 5. 1 6 6. 9. 1 3 6 radar. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 1 0 1 . 58 Semi minor axis. 2 1 7 parabola. 3 5 8 . 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 20 Semimajor axis.3 59 orbital elements. 1 8 (see Nbody . 7 Universal time. 20. 85 Traj ectory equation.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 1 7 5 general coplanar.
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