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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin.M. Jan Irvine .D. . United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R. Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. J . D. Ronald Chaney ( artist) .R. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P .E.W.B. Dorothy Fryar . and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) .
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. 1 . . . . . . . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . 2. . . . 61 . _ 1 . . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . 2. .1 Historical Background . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . 2 . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . .9 The Measurement of Time .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . .. . . . . . . 2 . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations .4 Constants of the Motion . . . 2. . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . 93 . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . . . . 1 . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 01 . 1 . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . . .2 The NBody Problem . . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . .2 Coordinate Systems . . 1 . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . 1. . . . . . . .
. . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . .1 4.2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of References . . . 359 . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 6.6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . . . . . . 258 . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . .1 9. . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1 . . . . . 344 352 355 . . . 279 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List o f Re ferences . . 357 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 20 . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . Histor ical Background . . . List of Reference s . . . xi 5 . . . . . . Exercises .2 The Solar System . . . 7. . 3 84 . . . 380 . . . . . . . . . . 273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. 26 5 . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 27 . . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . .1 8. . . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . 321 321 3 22 . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . 25 1 . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . . . 333 . 8 . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 87 9. .5 . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . 379 . . . . . . . . . . . . Exerc ises . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 . . 277 6. . . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . 277 6.
. . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . .4 9. . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . 440 449 . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that.CHAPTER 1 TWO.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. the year Galileo died. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. Kepler.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. he might have been put into a quart mug. Tycho. 1 642 . He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. JarnesR. Newman! . the noble and aristocratic Dane.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. as his mother told him in later years. the poor and sickly mathematician. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day.
But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. It fit.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. Since the time of Aris totle . Finally . The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years.1 Still. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . therefore . not an explanation of planetary motion . Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. discoverer of Halley's comet. 2 1. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . One day in 1 685 . The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). Kepler's laws were only a description. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . TWO.1. with the sun at a focus .1 Kepler's Laws. The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. necessarily moved in circles. is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666.
Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . they speculated whether a force . Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. more simply.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. without mentioning the b et. or . were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. of course . in ellipses. casually posed the question. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances.Sec. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. when he recovered from his shock. t he Principia. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . Dissatisfied with this explanation. "Why. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . 1 . 4 1. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks.1. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force .
" Figure 1 . Note that equation ( 1 .1 .67Ox 1 0. 1 2) Fg = .G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia.. 1 . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 .1 . We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll. has the value 6. The universal gravitational constant.n ( 1 . • .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .12) t o equat i. 1. .4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch.1.1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system. / . .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. .1 ) (1 .11 Newton's Law of Motion .'�V .1 . . 1 . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. . G. .
. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. . thrust and solar radiation pressure . The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. propellants) to pro duce thrust.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation.�I '.Sec 1. In addition. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. j. or a planet). . 1. a lunar or interplanetary probe. An important force. At any given time in its j ourney. X I ..e. . I " '. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies.. etc. an earth satellite . f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body .II I I I " I I I I :.. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. ....2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. m2 • m3 m m. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. .2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(.e. I I I Figure 1.
rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities.. Y. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. 2. These effects.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . are discussed in Chapter 3 . Thus.1 ... variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies.���Y � X n 1. 1 equator. • • • z FOTHER . Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells.2' The NBody Problem Figure . Although small. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton.
The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . thrust.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . The v ector sum. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . . . perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. II 3 (1. Fg. F gn where =  Gm .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) .5 ) The other external force .2. Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . equation ( 1 . the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn .2.2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. . of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1.. solar radiation pr essure. etc .2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself. m'J JI 3 (rj j) .3) Obviously .2 ·1 is T composed of drag. (1.Se c 1.
1 + F OTHER ' (l . (1. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma.2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.F I dt TOTAL dt (1. y .27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'. In other words.28 would not be zero ..26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch... is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ... Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL.I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x ... . r·I = F TOTAL mj 0.I) and all other external forces . Thus. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 ... Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time . z coordinate system.
Sec 1 .10) ( . r JI. mn may be the moon.. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions.1 2) . Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le.29) reduces to = r· 1 n . vector. we get j = j � *i 1 3 . unpowered flight.G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth.G And for i = 0 . Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.2.11) 2. Then writin g equation 1 . ( 1. sun and planets .2..2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . Y. mi 0).. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .2. nonlinear. equation ( 1 . Equation (1 . F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form. m .1 0) for i = 1. expelling mass or relativistic effects.1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1.29) is a second order . m· J (�i) . The only remaining forces then are gravitational. Equation ( 1 .2.2.
2. n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.1 From equation ( 1 . Since r 1 2 = . .1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence..1 2) into equation ( 1 .10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch. 2 1 7 ) .2.2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1. 2.1 4) gives. . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .2 1 6) each bracket.2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.21 1 ) and ( 1 .22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .
To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. Howe ver .89 6x l 0 4 2.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 . 1 x l 0 10 3. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 . mi orbit about the earth.21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .2x l O 8 2.3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth.2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . 1. The bodies are spherically symmetric . Table 1 .Sec.1 Simplifying Assump tions. .9x l O 8 7 . There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . sun and planets on a near earth satellite .6x l O lO 1 . 1 .3.3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison.
Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Y'. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1. without relation to anything external. Let (X'. which "in its own nature.12 TWO. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . .GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 .BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch .1 . Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. Y. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 .3. 1 2. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it.3. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. " s However. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. 3 2 ) ..3. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. Let (X.1 ) (1 . let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . remains always similar and irrnovable. For the time being. Y'. Y'. 1 . N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Y' .2 The Equation of Relative Motion. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'.
Y. and acceleration in a nonrotating. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1.32) from equation (1. Z) with its origin in the central body. velocity. Note that since the coordinate set (X. Y'.y X' Figure 1 .. GIM+ml r Equation (1.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r.33) . noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. Z'). Y'. or space probes orbiting about 3 r .33). Z'). Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. ballistic missiles. Note that this is the same as equation (1.Sec. Y. 1. Y. (1 .33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'.31) we have = _ r .3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr.
" That is. If you think ab out the model we have created.14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. m. 1 some planet or the sun. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body." for another form called "potential energy .3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text.3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . called the gravitational GM. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . It is convenient to define a parameter. the mass of the orbiting body ." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . M. an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . 1. Then equation 1 . namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . 3 ·4 ) . "kinetic . will be much less than that of the central body . you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. If m is not much less than M. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion.
5.4.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. r 2. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements.4 frame (the large mass) does not change . N 0 tlcmg that . dt 1:L = O. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . then 1 .lL\I r dt JJ. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 .' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . 1.r ) = � r �(r . C. 1 . But what about the arbitrary co nstant .!!. Therefore.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O . which appears in . v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .Sec. ( 1 . v =r and v= f. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa .
In other words. rX . of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy.1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. therefore . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. Since in general a x a= 0.42) 1 .fL 3 . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. that the specific mechanical energy. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . dt . O. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . �. at what distance .4.iL (rxv) = O. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' .2 Conservation of angular momentum.g. If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. We conclude .  ( 1 .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . r. The expression for � is �. Noticing that . the earth. The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. 3 4) by r 2 . e .
41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . h. Therefore . But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. Therefore . of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. we have shown that the specific angular momentum." "Up" simply means away . We shall refer to this as the orbital plane .43) v I h = r x v. 1 . called specific angular momen tum.The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h.41 Flightpath angle . I Figure 1 . </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. (1 .
Ch.4274I+2. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . &.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. the zeni th angle .2778 J + 1 0 . The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. and the specific angular momentum.0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. ¢.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. h.8143 = 35. J and K are unit vectors.8143 r • v > 0 . c o s ¢=Jl.7 1 37J+O.4. In an inertial coordinate system. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.899 X 107 ft. however. V =5. 1 85 2 1 + 6. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. Also find the flight·path angle. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle .5936 1 + 5 . ¢. v. (4. respectively.420 . The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). Determine the specific mechanical energy . So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. • ( 1 . = 0. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma).4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. I h = rv c o s ¢. r = 12.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0.
. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity. While this equation (1. its complete solution is not.51) The left side of equation (1. (h xr) =.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. (1.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4.... we see that J!:. �t (B· . err.5. . 1 .( r) r.. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .3 3 r r r since r • i = f .33) is simple. Also note that J.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ.I.1!y r . A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.Sec. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. JJ.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. 1 .& . You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.
If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r.54) .54) . 5. we obtain = 1 h2 /g .53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle..1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . v. c and a .52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. . Equation (1.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. (1. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. in general.9 cos V (1. +(81J. + r o Since. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. h2 where vector r.53) 1 . a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. I r 1 + e cos V p (1.. V. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1.
51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem.44) 1 . Before discussing the factors . There is. ellipse. however. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. an exchange of energy between the two forms. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. As r and v change along the orbit.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 .51 illustrates an ellipse. not just ellipses.41 and equation (1 .5. 4 .53) and the equation of a conic section (1. the flightpath angle. (See Figure 1 . parabola. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. 5 . 2. must change so as to keep h constant. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. cp. 1. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8.Sec. 3. remains constant. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. Although Figure 1. potential and kinetic.
There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines .52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. If the plane cuts both nappes. the section is an ellipse. Figure 1. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . If. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. the section is a parabola. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone.5 2 illustrates this definition . these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. or a single point. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . 1 Figure 1 . we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general.
Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. The prime focus.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . F'. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. The secondary or vacant focus. Figure 1 . the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1.53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . F and F'. F.Sec 1 .53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections.
54)). In the parabola.55) p = a (1 ." "perihelion" or "aphelion. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". The dimension.5 3 . a. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . ( 1 . for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium." etc. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . is c�lled the semimaj or axis.e2). It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . Thus.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2.
tL r ( 1 .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e).4 The Eccentricity Vector.58) 1 . . 1 ( 1 .Sec . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe..52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. 1e ( 1 . the trajectory equation. B. ( 1 . In the derivation of equation ( 1 .= a( 1 +e) . e = BltL. since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis.59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 .53) and ( 1 . 53). Quite obviously.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 . 5. . 5. 1.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = .1 0) . which points toward periapsis. we encountered the vector constant of integration. By comparing equations ( 1 .
p. e = ( v v ) r . equation ( 1 . v ) v ... v)v.p.1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. is zero.p. th . Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth.5.1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. and that as h is . Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. By inspection. h. By comparing equation ( 1 . x v. e = V x (r x v) . we get • p.(r . ( 1 .54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum.6. 1 . Figure 1 . 1. Therefore.61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. of the satellite. v. e .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. r  r .6 RELATING &. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . r r p. ( 1 .53) and equation ( 1 . progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. is equivalent to increasing h. If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. /or any orbit.
of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .6. Figure 1 . I '. .1 ) predicts . = �.44). . is zero. (1 .  . ... as a corollary to equation ( 1 . 57) p rp = a(1 . We can then write. . .e ) . p. v.F �.increased the parameter. R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. r I . . �' " . 1 01) .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 ..61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle.� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . .�= � .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 .62) we obtain &.
zero.1 ) therefore p. of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy .63) misleading. a. &. Figure 1 . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive. This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a.a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . the energy of a satellite (negative . You should study it together with Figure 1 .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f .6. Many students find equation ( 1 . or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive .6. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). Thus. 1 and from equation ( l . while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).56) and equation (1 .28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 .
.0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. if & is positive . 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. if & is zero . = 6.5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . m i . 64) Notice again that if & is negative. 6 . For a given satellite . and semimaj or axis. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. & = 2 . m i . 9 n .. and specific angular momentum.Sec 1 . . R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit.7 n .1 and perigee altitude 200 n . e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . m i . Determine its altitude at apogee. Namely. p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 0 .  a=  '!:. r p = rES + 200 = 3643. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. specific mechanical energy.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. semilatus rectum. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . e is greater than I (a hyperbola). mi. e is exactly 1 (a parabola).897  e2 ) = 3.Jf5P. 2& = 3 .. The student should be aware of this pitfall. ra = 1 � e = 4453. A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. 3 n .
When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that.mi. 2a = r a + r = 8097. specifically r + 1 . Since an ellipse is a closed curve.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a.7·2) . 1 n.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. 1 . 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.7· 1 ) B y inspection. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. the distance between the foci is ( 1 .861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a .JpjJ. = 5.855 = 6 . Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa.m i .7· 1 . an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. ( 1 . 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.= 2. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 .7 .8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .r Ell = 1 009. h =. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period. I ( 1 .
If you refer to Figure 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll. Since r + r' = 2a.7.7 .7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 . when rearranged .72) and ( 1 .72. you will see that the . 2 b. 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.76) . e is defined as combine to yield da. in general. At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 . Using equation ( 1 .Sec. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v. r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 .73) ( 1 .7.1 .2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 .71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. 2 ( 1 .75) which. equation ( 1 .
is given by the expression So.77) dt 2 = 11 dA. swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle.76) as ( 1 . d v. we can rewrite equation ( 1 .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. Figure 1 .73 Differential element of area . d A. 1 Figure 1 .32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .
1 . Thus.8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 .79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . a.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit.1 ) 1 . 1 .8 . so equation ( 1 . the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. Of course.e2 ) = JaP and. 55) and ( 1 .Sec. the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. ( 1 . During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . 1 Circular Satellite Speed.75).8. since h = /JlP.79).8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . Equation ( 1 .c2 =) a 2 ( 1 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . Integrating equation ( 1 .77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period.78) b =) a 2 . incidentally. is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . From equations ( 1 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. Naturally.
9.1 Geometry of the Parabola. rCS' from the energy equation.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a. 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . F or a low altitude earth orbit. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 .34 TWO .000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 .000 ft/sec.1 ) . 1 . circular speed is about 26 . The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.9. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.9. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . Another is that. One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 .1 . The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know. the periapsis radius is just r 1 .
" The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. r.92) .Sec. first at a general point a distance . Theoretically. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity. Of course.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 ." 1 . as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero .E. from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � . its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse.9.57).2 Escape Speed.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 . We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. 1 .
000 ft/sec.Since the specific mechanical energy.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 .B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude .1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. the semimajor axis. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit.400 nm above the surface it is only 26. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. 8. As you would expect.92) =21 . 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic.1/2a. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.1 57. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . = j. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. 36 TWO . 5 7). 53374 106 ft = = 36. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. a..700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . b . a.
+ x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. 8n. m i . 1 .9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem .Sec. where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .8 n. 06748 106 ft 7087.amr iO. m i . rb i t P 7087.53374 106 ft 2 43.
then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. Obviously. If.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . F . The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). 1 0. instead. 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. 1 0. The parameters a. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). 1 1 . 1 . If we consider the lefthand focus.1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). (L l O. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . then the righthand branch represents the orbit.1 ) . 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field .
If.1 . 1 . 1 . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . 1 02) becomes ( 1 . If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. 1 0.for the hyperbola. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . The turning angle . The angle between the asymptotes. we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 .0." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. the smaller will b e the turning angle . we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . 0. V 00' . 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity.but since Sec. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . on the other hand.. 1 0.
a million miles) from earth.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. of course . we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. 1 0. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. for all practical purposes it has escaped. that once a space probe is a great distance (say .3 Sphere of Influence. 1 . 1 (1 . it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. In other words. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. It is a fact. however. It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. It is. Astronomers call thi� ' . e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . 1 . the concept is convenient and is widely used.
For other problems where the earth. r a' r p' . J." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. 1 The Reference Orbit.x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. 1 . p. 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. or other planet. earth. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 1 . moon. then the value of the gravitational parameter.Sec. e. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . 5 9362 5 . In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) .046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . 1 1 .l.1 . This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. 1 1 . will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. Using canonical units determine & . h.
42). 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 .1 . [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . Alt = . � = .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 67 D U �/T U � = . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . 5 D U e �2 _ /J.
Sec.. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.58) Find r p from equation (1. = 3. 5 D U ". 25D U EB = 4. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = . 5 D U = 9.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 .44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 1 . 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. = 2.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .61) Find h from equation (1.64) Find ra from equation (1.= 4 .5 7)  r a = 1 e p. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t.
.000 ft/sec and 4 . 2J AK IJK h = AI .1 . 6 J 1 . 1 .3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. (Answer : e = 1 . 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . 1 .1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . Find the specific energy of the trajectory. respectively.44 TW O. .2. b . 5 81) 1 . Find the eccentricity of the orbit. c. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite.000 n mi.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. 2K DU 2 /TU . 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. The orbit eccentricity is 0. Find the period of the orbit. in general. Why. 1 EXERCISES 1 . a. &= .
or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). &. V ft/sec.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. mi during descent? (Ans. D U /T U DU e.5 DU DU DU d. 1.Ch . 4K r r v = . 2K + . 1 . Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. p b. a a. hyperbolic. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . r v c. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. 7 Prove that d.9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300.000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. elliptical. 91 J space. (Ans. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 .123K = 1 . 0 1K v = l + l . What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. p 1. 354 10" r 1 . r x ft ) = 3. ¢ =3 = 1 . D U 2 /T U 2 = + .6 18 = 59° 58') .5 rpe r i gee = 1 .6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth.
p = 6. p = 3. e=O e = . (Neglect atmo spheric drag. P 1 . 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. c.000 ft. Determine the maximum altitude attained. p = 2. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. p = 2. derive values for e for circles.) 1 .6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 .46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . 1 . p = 6.2 e = . 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. d . ellipses and a hyperbolas. 1 2 Given that e = �. e. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = . sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. b .2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m .
* 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: .Ch .6. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans . 1 . 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. c. rc = at +b = 0. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. Show that : b.V O U EB /TU EB ) . What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . 207 1 . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit .Xw UK vectors.2. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart .4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. Yw '+. 2 . When describing a heliocentric orbit . Q and W respectively. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars.Sec. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. 2 . their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. you may use the same Figure 2. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system.
2 . time of periapsis passage . between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . i. e. Q longitude of the ascending node. 6. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. K I I . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis.3. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. if you know a and e you can compute p. w. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . Obviously . Instead of argument of periapsis. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. shape and orientation of an orbit .1 as follows : 1 . measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . Similarly. T. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. Another system. 2. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit .the time when the satellite was at periapsis. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . in the fundamental plane . 3 . 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. p. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. 4 . 5 . is substituted for a in the above list.the angle from to periapsis measured h. eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit .the angle . Frequently the semilatus rectum. a.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size .
3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.Sec. 2 .31 Orbital elements .
3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . then both w and Uo are undefined. '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) ." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle .60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . in the plane of the orbit. n=n+w. From Figure 2. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . Retrograde is the oppo site of direct.3. Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. in the plane of the satellite's orbit.32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 .1 ) . then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . w and va are all defined. 1 £0 £0 + ." Direct means easterly. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . (2 . earth. This is the dire ction in which the sun. 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. then b oth W and n are undefined. both of which are always defined .31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. to ' called the "epoch. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial.
43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product .4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . h. h.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. n. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . The node vector. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. vI vJ v K J (2 . To be perpendicular to h. To be perpendicular to K. 2. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. n an d e. n must be perpendicular to both K and h. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane .42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. t o . 2 . n and e. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . Therefore . 2. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector.4.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . n would have to lie in the orbital plane.
Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known .S . Now that we have h. The vector. We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: ." Specifically . The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . An understanding of it is essential to what follows .1 ) (2 .1 1 )). e. 2. We are only interested in its direction.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. h.3.1 . is obtained from (2 . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit.4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . Study this figure carefully . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . The parameter. n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. In general. between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . ex. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . p. the cosine of the angle .4.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements.46) Of course . 2 nodes. All three vectors.4.
1 1) .' (2.1 0) 7 . � � h..) e.48) 5 .) c o S Po = � er (2 . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° . Since Uo is the angle between n and f . Since n is the angle between I and n. Since Vo is the angle between e and f. Since w is the angle between n and (2..49) 6.:.L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° . (2 .4 3 .) . (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° . 2 . 2.) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° .Sec. c o s U o = !!.4.4. Since i is the angle between K and h. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.
1 and study it until they do . look at the geometry of Figure 2 . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2. If they don't make sense to you. The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now.64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . .4. 2 z x 8 . 3 . With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v.
2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 . VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. Figure 2. 5 DU e == .Sec.
5 e == .4 DU p == .\ .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 . 2 3 Figure 2 .
2.44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .Sec.
Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 .45 ) Since h =.. Find p using equation (2 .6. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node . From equation (2..(r . f. [ ( f. e.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. .7 4n .4.68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . Find eccentricity. ml . n.48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane .1.. 7 75 .i:..= 4D U = 13. using equation (2 . ) r .l h2 .1 ) p = . i.47) = . Using equation (2. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. EEl .I:!:. Find inclination.
.n = COS . II.1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . Find true anomaily .:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However .41 0) v a c os. va. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. Find argument of periapsis.!!.  Find longitude of periapsis. 4 . = cos .. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .1 (. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis.. for this case . is undefined. From equation (2 .Sec. From equation (2. can be determined in this case.49) W n · e W.n. 2 . II. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined .1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 .
5 .m i .70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . From equation (2.\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.E)r(r .... 1 [6 \ h=rxv=. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p . 2 Find true longitude o f epoch.25 EB EB D U EB 7748.33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .85 n . EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� . v)v] =. First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) . = From equation (2.1 ) Find e.6.  then from equation ( 1 .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .
From equation (2.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .I Find the true anomaly . 2.Sec. va : From equation (2.49) w: 0 W = cos. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r . I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 .43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .5 Find the inclination.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. From equation (2 .5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.4. .
lV.5 2) . w and v. 2 elements are given. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. n.ffe si n V (2. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components.5. i .72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . v. changes with time . that occurs in a given time . 8. Let ' s assume that we know p.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =.24): ro to. consists of two steps. i. In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. w and va . The method. .5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. 2. n. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System.5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . Of the se six elements. shown below. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . 8.to. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2.
25 45{) (2.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 5P DU E9 (2. Before equation (2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).54) r = J � [. 2.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2. v �[. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .Sec.5 i= p 2.54) from equation r (2.
changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . 2 2. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame .6. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . suppose you know the south. such as position vectors." 2. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. In other words. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . have a definite starting point . namely. suppose you know the south. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. For example. Certain vectors. the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. vector represents. or what it represents. east . its fundamental (xy) plane .74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . east. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. direction . For example . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation." The phrase in quotes describes what the . and it still represents the same thing. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. east a!1d up.
the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.y Y 75 . 2. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . Figure 2. V and W along the x ' .Sec.61) . Figure 2. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . ���________� • .61 illustrates the two frames.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. Let us imagine three unit vectors I. y' and z ' axes. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 . 2.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S ." In other words. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis.6. : r Y I ex a . y ����. and extending along the x. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite.
(2. 2 From Figure 2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch .62) above and equating it with (2.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.6.1 ) yields I.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis.61 we can see that the unit vectors U. 65) . J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .
3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . (2 . derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. These are summarized belox:: . The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.64) above .Sec. 2 . . 68) B '" (2. Rotation about the xaxis.67) yields the set of equations (2 .66) (2. 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .6.69) '" axis.67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis.
Figure 2. 1 ). So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. a.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames.78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame . 2 (2. Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .6. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch .4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L .7 . Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.
is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e . In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. The transpose of the matrix D .6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . denoted by D . if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. (i. AB =1= SA ). Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.Sec.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative.61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. Now.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . 2. Equation (2.e. Fortunately.1 . . The inverse of any orth. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . We can write equation (2. Hence .61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates.
." a ny mp licat e d .. a bl . 2 (2. d w . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . tluee b .. axes in to CO ham . 62.". 6. y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce .". sh ow n in F ig u " Th .6 . 'o ta t. th. d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . basis no ma t . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . d th yo u will b . d wi th .Eq to th e IJ K in at . th' O ugh w hi ch on ..ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . Perifo ca l to th e G Th . anglo .".sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. 6.n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . O c M ma t.80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. mu " in cid 'n ce b . 5 Tmn . By me mo C. an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . n t rizing th . to p' ter ho w co no. a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. m1 " fo.2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK .1 2) Figure 2 . gl " n i lly .
6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit . .The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. Figure 2.63. aQ... aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems... a K and ap . from Figure 2...63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. Thus if a i ' aJ . For example . then Sec . 2 . To ... R. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame .
I • p I · Q J .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . since I and P are unit vectors.sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 . a �. 2 from their dot product . ! • P. The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A.63 .6. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . Similarly. P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. Q I ' W J · W K .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Now a. the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w . B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides.1 3) i.cos n sin w . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w.sin n sin w cos i . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w .1 4) R23 = . J and K Thus R = J .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .6. P K · P In Figure 2.
5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. V. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. In this case either n or w or both are undefined. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I.5 .7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . 2. . Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4.Sec . relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements.1 ) and (2. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. 2 . But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need .
p. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2.1 . It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south.84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . EI. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles. The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . the elevation angle . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . 7 . E and Z shown in Figure 2 . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . 2. Az. The unit vectors S.7.( N o rt h ) 2. The azimuth angle .7 . If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . is measured clockwise from north .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. the rate at which range is changing. The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. can also be measured.7 . AZ . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up .
From Figure 2. There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. 2. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El.1 .7. Az. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 . E I .72 we see that r (2 . sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 .75) . from the geometry of Figure 2. Thus.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame.and EO/.72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z.73) E l (B I ). as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. We will express the po sition vector as (2 .7 . Sec.7 4) = + P (2 .72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2. we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. /l!L.7 . = Ps PE = P cos Pz.1 ) where . p.
The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 .72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .76) . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2. Unfortunately. For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth. 2 J topo centric frame .
Figure 2. (2 .77) .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame .73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . Therefore . It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v.73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . EB x f. 2 . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .Sec.
Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates. 5 Z (units are DU). The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.612 . 300 N Lat .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .E + 1 . 5Z (Given) [).1 = [.707 .866 .3535 . 3535 . is 2 S E + .707 o .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 .6 1 2 . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth .5 J . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.612) r = R + P = 2S . Figure 2.
We will denote this quantity by w. V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero .. (2. Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. The unit vectors D. 332J  . Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . . then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . z) system (Figure 2 . rotating with respect to the (x.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2.Sec. w) . It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time .4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame .9 1 81 + 2. y.7. v.79) J. z).982K .75 ) . I =J =K=O. (2. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . 2. however.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial.. y.
. Hence .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . . . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . V = w x V and W = w x W . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . Hence .7. equation (2 .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . The remaining terms of equation (2. dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . Similarly.1 0) reduces further to .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. equation (2 .1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA.7.
.75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA. ...7.1 2) . W) Figure 2. ...71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector.....y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ . ... ... 2 . z) '. v v.. Equation (2. .....7. .1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q..Sec. y... �:... . .. dt R I (2 . � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u.. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u .....LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 .... " F i xed " System ( x.
7.1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.7.1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get . Equation (2 .9!.7.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .7. (2 . (2 .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame . The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .) ." Ioox.1 3) into equation (2 . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .7 .1 2) to the po sition vector r.F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .7.7 .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .7 .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 . 2 iLl F = .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.7. Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth. 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .
We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . In the model which has been adopted. Therefore . 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. 2 . "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. It is known . be' is just the polar radius of the earth. 2. of course .8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. circles. If the earth were perfectly spherical. Sections parallel to the equator are . To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. ae .8.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth.Sec. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis.) 2. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. however .
8. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter . 2. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid ." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . When you are given the latitude of a place .8. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) .8.1 . Consider Figure 2. 2. The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior.785 0.94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .3 Station Coordinates.2 The Measurement of Latitude. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .08182 == km km L La L . 1 45 6356. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . the difference between L and is usually negligible . it does complicate the concept of latitude.
c. the "reduced latitude .!! o .. 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 ..82.8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.Sec. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude .. 4 km Figure 2. O . Thus.8 ." which is illustrated in Figure 2..1 ) . L . 2 . The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e . / (2. It is convenient to introduce the angle (3.82 .
Ch .82) . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. z .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . c:  0) x Figure 2. 0 O D.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But .1:  (2 . / .. for any ellipse . I C. a2 ..and e = da. b e =a e V� = b2 + d.
Thus. (2. dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .Sec:. 2 .85) .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . (2 . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2.
86) L. elevation above mean sea level.8 8) . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame .8 7) 2. From Figure 2. {1.4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components. (2 . {1 ' is known . If the Greenwich sidereal time .8. The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below. 2 ( 2 . The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point .
The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time ." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2.Sec .84 shows a spherical earth.3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t.8. the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . 2 . Although Figure 2. L. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 .89) . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich .
2 j i Figure 2 .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch .8 . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth .1 0) . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components. From (2 . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .
Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time .8. It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle . a Z If a l . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 . A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. so . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined .6.9 equation (2 . (2 .9.1 2) . 2 . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day .1 2) and a s ' a E . This is the time kept by ordinary clocks.00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . This should be made clear by F igure 2. When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours.cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . 2.Sec. minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science .9 .1 .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6.
Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. In early January.09054 mean solar seconds .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. when the earth is near perihelion. So far. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at .
Sec.9. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also .3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . Thus.2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . Universal Time (UT). 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation .9. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. if it . For example . 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . . 2 . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . or Zulu (Z) time. 2. The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time .is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . This relationship is illustrated on page 99.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa.
we express time in decimal fractions of a day. in addition.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. ° 229421 1. 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . m i n . .9. To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent .4 Precession of the Equinoxes. 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. Ephemeris and 2. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . 8 9=8 9 0 1 . 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1. 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years.104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 .
Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic..6 year s . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period. the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year .000 year s . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 .92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars." with a perio d of 1 8 . However .Sec .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. 2 . As the earth' s axis precesses... 0 0 0 y rs " .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . Due to the asphericity of the earth. the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. 6 yrs I Figure 2. . The period of the precession is about 2 6.6 years. the equatorial plane is not . The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation ....
378 km above mean sea level on the equator.1 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . 5 7 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 . Day  = Long o 57 .00 1 + L= 0 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . 25 8=8 g + A = .296 degrees west longitude . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .74933340 = 1 .6245 rad ians o 9 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 . x= [ z= � ae + � .378km = 0 .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . at 0600 GMT. 00 1 From section 2 .296° H = 6 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. 6 24 5 .
346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.346E + O. At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .2D UES = (0.72) PE p Pz Ps = . 00 1 (S. 00 1 c o s(S.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 . 2 .74) .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 . Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .7 1 SJ + OK Sec.6245) = . 0.(0.From equation (2.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.6971 + .6245 )1 + 1 .
73 p + (O.1 .1 .84J .46 D U /T U (0. 1 08 Ch . 3.4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .1 .433 .0 1 .866 0.73Z D U (T U r = 0.610.(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .061 .(0.346J + 1 .0588K) From equation (2 .46S .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.Ps = .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .0E + 1 . 0.346E + l .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.46 P =D1 .3.�� lO.1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.8 .77) v = [� ] [ J 0.5 1 . 46 = 0.25 0.7·5 ) From equation (2 . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .0.8 .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .
but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . of course . 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. 2 . Ei. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . Figure 2. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . EI .081 .8J .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . may be lacking. 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . W. f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar).3. p . 2. and the orb it is uniquely determined. It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. As Baker S points out . Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . Gibbs is.0. k.Sec. Ai.
(2 . 1 03) by f3 X r l . 1 06) Multiply (2 . 1 05 ) and (2 .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . 1 0. 1 0. f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass.1 ) by (2 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I .r 3 ) = 0 . 1 05) (2 . 1 04) . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. Notice that C2 may now be divided out. there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o .r. (2 . (2 . Dotting (2 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. 1 04) (2 . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . then u sing (2 . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. 1 08) .1 ) successively by fl . 1 02) gives (2 . Q and W. we can show that : e ' f = p . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . 2 fine scholar .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. and the definition of a dot product .5 4). equation ( 1 . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 0. 1 03) Cross (2. Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar .
1 0. (2 .1 4) (2 . 1 0. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. D = N P = O' N (2 . (2. 1 0 pD = N .1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e.1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . 1 0. i. provided N . 1 0. 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. 1 0. 1 0. 2 . equation (2 . . Therefore . Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. Since P.1 5) . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. 1 09) D.1 3) : (2 .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 .1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . N and D have the same dire ction. 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b .e .Let the right side of (2 . (2 . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec.
( f  r + e) .r 3 ) f t + ( r3 .r t ) f2 + ( rt . N and S vectors. N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. (2 . 1 0. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N.52) we can write i X h = p. Therefore. check N * O and D .5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors.1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 0. since NeQ = pS. (2. N > o. (2 .1 8) to find Q. Before solving the problem.1 9) to find W. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . 1 02 1 ) . 1 0. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 .1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . Q and W are orthogonal. 1 0. P = Q X W. 1 01 0) to find p. Then use (2 .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. (2 .1 8) N (2 . 1 020) to find P. (2 . 1 0. D and S ve ctors. However . 1 0. 1 0.1 7) to find e. and (2 . From equation ( 1 . 1 0.1 6) . 1 020) Thus.1 9) Since P.
Using the identity . b) c O .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . h X (h h ) v . = p. 1 0.E. e) We can write h v v = .(h . ON (2 . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np.h = P. S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . so c) b . 1 024) (2 . 2 . D X r + JJ{.Sec . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . (h xr r = + (a . v = eP. 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb.( a .. v) h and h . 1 025) .
N and S vectors. to find any of the three velocities directly . 2 L + LS (2 . shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . 1 . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . using the stated tests. appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . N=FO. The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . proceed as follows : For example . = 0 for coplanar vectors. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. possible two body orbit . v2 � + L S r2 • . This is not exactly true. find v2 : 2. 1 02 6) Thus. There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . This method . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. 4 . Form L = = 6. Test: 0 10 . Finally . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s.1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination.
and the timeofflight between these po sitions.039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.0.9000J + 0. 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . the semilatus rectum. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . r 1 and r2 . P = 0= N  2. eccentricity. Form the D . If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. 9701 = 2.5000K Find : P.047 1 = . N . NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. and S vectors: D= N S 1 .0471 O U = 0 .Sec. Since 010. r1 r2 r3 = 1 .97 . 2 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . period and the velocity vector at position two .0774J 0.8000K = 0.000K = 0_700J . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units)." Thus.
657K D U /T U 2 0.4 to solve for the elements.963J . 700J .270K W= N.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .97 o lP = a = 1 .576J .67 TU (89.0. 2 S .0. 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.1 . 0408 1 1 .0.0804 e = = = 0 .497 9.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1r/{: 6.960 DU/T U (4.7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.963K N 1 . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 . = .270J + 0.041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.
1 1 2) r . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . 2 . 1 1 . If we let L .g . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. As a result . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . = OJ + R j . In either case .6 2 : 1 1 . r = pL [�. we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite .:S :J: JS L K . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. j = 1. and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . then ' . (2 . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. [:i:n :: :. 2. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 .1 ) (2 . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera.z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit .Sec. L.7 2). Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . 3. ° 2 . 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. (X1 ' < \ � . optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e .
 • ' I . .J V I . \ [L.1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . The vectors L. f f. .. 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . \' P2 i �� G ". � . I . .. �� I 1 " _ .. 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . p and r. 1 1 3) (2 . 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 .1 . L. (2 . 0 (2 . are not known . \ •. the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . L. : '< ' . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. r u..1  R ) r3 . p. . p. 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P.' ' " ': . say the middle ob servatio n . ':.. • 00 . \ Figure 2. . R and R are known at time t2 ./  L . �J 1  . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 .[. however . ' ' :. \ .
t } . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 . 2 .t2 ) . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t 3 ) L2 (2.t2 ) (t.t } ) (t 3 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t 1 ) ( t2 .three t�es.t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t2 ) ( t} . t2 and t3 . Since we have the value of L at.t 2 . 1 1 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 3 ( t 1 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t 3 ) (t.Sec.t2 ) ( t 1 . t2 .t 1 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 . 1 1 6) + 2t .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 1 ) ( t3 .t 3 ) ( t } .t2 L3 ( t 3 . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t3 ) (2 .t 1 .t 1 ) ( t. 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t 1 ) (t 3 .t3 ( t 2 .
L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . 4 Equation (2 . must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations.u L 1 / r 3 L J + . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . . p' and r. For the time being. L K + . in fact .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . better yet .u R Ir3 J + . 1 1 6) and (2 .u R Ir3 I + .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . p. This.. it is evident that L Dp = . . I L .. D reduces to L D =2 L I L .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . L J .u L /r 3 . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. L L L K K K J . + . It should be noted. p.ons (2 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. however. LI . L J I (2 . that if more than three observations are available . 2 . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati.. 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f.u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . 1 1 5 ) .
1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. 1 1 . 1 1 2). R . Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. r2 = pL RI = + p (2. Substituting equation (2 . 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. . L K .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 2 . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. 1 1 ...1 0) and (2 . 1 1 5).Sec . 1 1 . p and r. If we do this we find that . .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . R R I . L K L J L I K (2. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 0. is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r.1 1) Op = . 2 . 1 1 . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I .4 Solving for Velocity . R J . From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 .L L L J K I p . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. R R .1 2) . L J L I K J!. J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2.1 0) into (2. O O. 1 1 .
Laplace ' s method fails . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. ° . This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . P.2). Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . To obtain the velocity vector . D. As a matter of fact . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. such as P. 1 1 . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . 2 . 1 1 . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . 1 1 . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . a3 .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . 1 1 .1 3) for p.1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . (2 . 2 (2 . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. El. A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 .1 4) p 2. If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . E l . 1 1 . a . k. 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. ° 3 .
ts and t6 ' These predictions are .g. p) will differ from the computed data. . 1 2.::"P 3 .::"P . For example . 2 The Differential Correction equations. Doppler rangerate. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. Assuming that the residuals are small. however . 1 21) .::"P 2 ' ." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. The question then arises. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . r K ' v " vJ . the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . It may happen . . "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . t3 . 1 Computing Residuals. t4 . v Kl at t = to are correct. of course. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. 2.Sec. The six residuals are �1 ' . that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements.::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. 2. 1 2. \ ' t2 . A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit.
With the aid of a digital computer. by trial and error. NK.r l " v K )p1 ( r l . equations (2 . All that is required is to introduce a small variation.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. .1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. 1 2 . The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary.e. 1 2.Vj' D. 1 2. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method.VI . for example .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. Nj. rj . Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically.VK . . In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . NI . New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. . r K " ' arl D. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. usually 6 for orbit problems) n .. . V K ) . D. reduce the residuals to zero . Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . The inversion of equations (2 . D. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. i. however. 2.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc.) Then. ap1 .
4. 2 . for the exactly determined case (p or b. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. 2 . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 ..8 1 ) . a and (3 are the elements (two here . zero . 3 . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. called the root me an square (RMS) . . for 90% confidence .tb each of the elements measured. In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution .. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . use 0. Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem.g . = = n) . since p 2 below) . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. Solve equation (2 . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. minimum as described above .
== 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . Choo se ex and for the first estimates.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . the partial derivatives are : . lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . ex VI. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements.2. Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations.:.Assume equal confidence in all data. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch .
Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . 2. Thus. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 .Sec.
This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.474 and f3 = 3. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. we will use a simple . This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . 6 orbit elements) would be used. large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. yet still overspecified number of measurements.474 Xi 3 . To illustrate the method involved. This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small.360 = . 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. In practice.
36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l . 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .1 26 0. 969 ____  Vi . E ( V 1.865 49.500 8..) 2 n . 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .007 0.1. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.000 n = Vi 0. .934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .1 05 9.866 4 x . 0 35 3. 3 . 2 .Vi 2.474 4 0 07 19. 934 = 1 .y.000 1 9. aa .000 50.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /. ( V i Yi ) 2 4._1.Sec.0 01 1 3.828 0 0. 474 x 3 ..
246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.360.027 12.733..304 0.4 1 69.001 07 33 b = 0. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 . so we iterate. 0.056 ""' T .474 + .0.. 0 18 0. 1 961 0. 105. 27 A WA = [12.380708 A = 40. Thus (X new = .2.(X 26 3.36 . = 3. {3 = {3 new ."""'" �T�� .. 1 22) we have £::.l Now using (2 .�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .z 10. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) . 1 75 ] 5.1. which is larger than what we started with.062 .031 8.3.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2.039 £::. 81 30 8.670 3. 1 96 = 3.304 = .021 070 20. The second iteration yields: £::.
2 .735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally .Sec . 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 . However.00 1 .5 8 1 . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. In practice .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. 2 . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its.000 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. 7 35 x 3 . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . 038 . during orbital decay.5 8 2 . The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . 038 [3 = 3 . 2. and finally. in theory. the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. 1 2. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . however. . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how .
it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . 1 The Spacetrack System. 1 4 . the precomputed 2. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. These detection radars with a range of 2.5 003. The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. 2 .500 miles make about 1 2 . The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. 1 3. forming "clouds" of space debris. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . the White Sands Missile Range . the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. At present. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. spacecraft failure diagnosis. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. 1 Radar Sensors. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. 2 2. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. and midcourse ICBM inter ception. antisatellite targeting. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. In addition. 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS ." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS).1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .
Turkey.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. Alaska.Sec. and is on active spacetrack alert. One FPS49 . Greenland. 2.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. Figure 2. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. One of the earlier detection radars. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. while three are located at Clear. the FPS43.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. New Jersey. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. is now on active Spacetrack alert. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans.
Florida.142. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. Alaska. under the 140ft radome at the left. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. United Kingdom. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. In addition. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. 2 Figure 2.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. Alaska. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. This BMEWS station at Clear. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear.
Sec. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2.14. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. 2. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. When two or . When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia.143. 2.2 Radio Interferometers. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite.
SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. Considering the type of observational data received. 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . In addition to these . and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake .3 Optical Sensors. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. the semimajor axis. Alberta. the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. and therefore . is well established. 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. 2 . Canada . SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . 1 4 . 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements.
A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake.400 miles. it is . and the lighting correct. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. Alberta.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. As a result. seeing conditions must be good. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. length with a field of view 50 by 300 .145. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. 2. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. A separate optical system superimposes.Sec.
I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. For detection radars. Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. Doppler rangerat e info rmation. These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. takes time. is relatively accurat e . in any case . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . 2 . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . . 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . 4 Typical Sensor Errors. Massachusett s . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. New Mexico site. Further .000 meters. (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . 1 4 . In any case . 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km.1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . on the other hand .
persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0.5 Future Developments.7 seconds in time would remain.14.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. 2. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .Sec 2. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag.146. lunar attraction. nonuniform gravitational fields. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects.
a continuousw ave . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . Theoretically . Now. but it also record s target tracks for later playback . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. Many improvements . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. howeve r . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. In t he system under development . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. Operating in the SHF b and . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . of the target . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . p. it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR .
As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . 1 5 .. For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i.1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . 2 . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. i. respectively with a launch a zimuth . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . F igure 2 . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. o f the orbit . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . 1 5 . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime .Sec. 1 5 2 . 18cP  2 . 1 5 .. 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . The arc CB which forms the • . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . 1 5 . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth .
therefore . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . betwe en 00 and 1 80° . f3 ' be easterly .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . i : c os i = . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . 1 5 . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive .e . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . 2. 1 5 ·3 .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . A direct orbit require s . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . that the launch azimuth. I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. 0 i. For a due east launch equat ion (2 . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . L o?" If i is to be minimized . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° .
Sec. 1 5 .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . Figure 2 . 2 . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . su r face .
Which takes longer . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2.2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . a solar day or sidereal day? b . 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. = (partial answers : 2. Englan d . e = .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . 885. i = 90° . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. 9 7 0 . J . = u nd ef i ned ) = .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. 2 EXERCISES 2 . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a .89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. Colorado ( 1 04. Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c.7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U.3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 .7071 + .
Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . 82 u a . 1. 3<. Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. i . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact.J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . (partial answer s : p = 8/9 .Ch. e.8 2075 .2K DU . . W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU.8 I J P = . (Answer [partial] e = . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . c . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . 2 + b .) Determine p. Determine the orbital e lements. 2.
the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis .system along the unit ve ctor s P. F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. p = 1 . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW.3 5 35 3995 0 1 . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans.8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . W. LST = 63 . 1 0 January 1 9 70.4 1 4225 1 1 1 . (Answer : r = 1 . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . r3 r l I J K 1 . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . b . 2 . U se of a computer is sugge sted . 6464495 a. Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le .5 0 West . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . 1 0 2. 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . 2. Q. b . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale .060668 8 3 1 . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . C alifornia . PST . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . r2 1 . b ut not nece ssary. 1 7 1 . Units are earth canonical units. 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis.3 1 065 1 5 0.4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. a.8 1 06 5 65 9 1 .4 1 4202 0. 2. equatorial . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis .7 6) .
fl f2 f3 0 .97 2 .0 0 .5 65 6808 1 0.1 .0 7 .89497 879 0.0 1 .0 1 . fl f2 f3 3 .94974 1 7 6 .6 0.1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .0 0 2 .2K with a velo city o f AI . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.565 6808 1 0 0 .Ch.62 1 34384 c.0 0 2 .0 2 .0 2 . fl f2 f3 d.9 1 420062 4 .094964 1 8 0.89497724 0 0 0 1 .7 0 0 e.207 1 25 5 1 .707 1 1 25 5 0. DU * 2. 3 6 395 5 26 1 . B .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .20709623 0 .707 1 0 1 0 1 0.n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .9 1 42 3467 2 . fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.09497879 1 .2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b. fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f. C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.6 0. 1 4  DU/TU. .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .0 7 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .8 0 .8 0 0 .97 0 1 .0 0 .
Obj ect c. 2 a .620 1 I 0.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0.1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates.75 K D U /T U )  . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. * 2 . d . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. 9 7 . east and zenith (up) component s? c. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . Obj ect b . b. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . ( A ns. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. Express the coordinates. Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . . Obj ect vernal equinox direction. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . ___ e. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 .17 p 0. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. v = 0.0078 J 0. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d .
A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . C ambridge . Henize . 1 95 6 . Sons Ltd . 1 96 3 . New York . 1 9 1 4. 4. London . U. Vol 3 . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . Simo n and S chuster . NY . Armitage . 8 . Inc." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . E scobal.Ch. 1 962. D avis . NY . S . "The A erospace Vehicle s . Thoma s." Sky and Vol 1 6 . The M acmillan Company." Vol 48 . 6. Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. Pedro Ramon . L. Inc. Academic Pre ss. Edmond Halley . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . Newman . Space/A ero na utics . New York and London . 1 965 . Gauss. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Mass. Jr . 9 . "Space Traffic Surveillance . Jame s R . E . Baker . Thomas Nelson and 3. 5 . Telescope . Angus. Laplace . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. Paul G . New York . New York . 1 0 . Sky Publishing Corp . Pierre Simo n . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . Second Revised Edition . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . Forest Ray . G . John Wiley & Sons. November 1 9 67 . . Robert M . 7 . K. Dover Publications . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . NY. 1 9 67 . C . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. 1 9 66. 1 95 7 . Carl Friedrich. 2 . pp 1 08 . No 6 . Navy Space Surveillance System." in The World of Math ematics . Moulton . New York .1 1 1 . C leeto n . NY .
17. McGrawHill." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Sunnyvale. S. Robert D . 1 967 . Bate. Gerald C. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. 1 4. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . 2 1 1 . NY. 1 5 . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Carson. Thomas J. P.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. 1 2 . R. . Vo1 40. NY . p 39 . Journal of Oct 2. No 5 . NY. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1 966. New York. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. USAF Academy. Roger R." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Inc. Davies. 1 962. 1 962. 1 966. 1 9 66. Briskman. R. Cheetham. 1 970. New York . NY. No 20 . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. and Eller. Air Force Systems Command. New York. California." Satellite Control Facility. "Future Radar Developments. SepOct 1 967." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. Colorado. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. the A stronautical Sciences. 1 3 ." The Vol 1 4. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. 1 6. New York. Electronic .
After that . and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . Goddard. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. and the different force of gravity in different heights.000 or more miles. or variously eccentric. 1 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. as of 5 . for the next 250 years. 1 0. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . according to their different velocity. or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. ) 00 . those bodies. the idea seems to have been forgotten. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight.
particularly if it is manned . to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . However. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. since it contemplated the use of military hardware . Rather . 3 . On 4 October 1 95 7 . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch .research. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . 3 . The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. Manned spaceflight . 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . Project Orbiter. The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 ." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . 1 . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. still in its infancy . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm.
.+ :=. � . . .///11// .J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl .50K �. I MONTH I ..' � S' (1) 0 . . c..rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION ......n w . (I) CD � . .(/} � � (I) E � � .. � ee.25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" .. I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 . VI/II � V � ....rrrj..... YEAR a YEARS . 20K (... . mJ77/1/...J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E ..::: 0(I) "" 20 10 .V'h WillI e: � . 11 L . � '" . 71.H O URS WEEK . .EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .: fiD It: 0 It: <t ..
Figure 3 . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . 1 ·2 . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . m . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . 1 . m .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . 1 . m .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . a p ogee 1 00 n . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. stated. 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . 3 . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. Figure 3 . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 .
there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . 1 2 . as you can see from Figure 3 . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. The vehicle is not allowed to coast . It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two..!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. 1 3 . 3 .or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit.Sec. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of .
Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. Figure 3 . 1 . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . 1 5 . You . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. therefore.1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. 3 .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . As a result. but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 .
1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " ..5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .Sec.D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9..J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N . 1 > ."� ill Q rn o I � fS . "::> Figure 3 .:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�..9 r�=r�rr..�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+. 3 .2 .
. I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch . 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .J 5 "' C iii 0.. "' "' .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 .
1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. and oppo. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. a. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. The ascending node moves to the west .67 0 /day From Figure 3 .Q 360 ° per 90 days :. which also is due to oblateness. the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63. Therefore = . A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. What is the inclination of the orbit? b.Sec. 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes.40 or greater than 1 1 6.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 .6.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi .6 0 . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. completing one revolution every 90 days. 3 . With this perturbation . It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days.60 .40 and 1 1 6. Figure 3 .
For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . 3 Figure 3 .2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse.300 nm or about 5 . There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . unfortunately. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. 1 . Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned.000 nm altitude . This is. Of course. On the scale of Figure 3 .21 shows why. however. 3 . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. 2 . If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. of course. The first stage booster climbs 3 . unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. Figure 3. 1 2 this would be 2*.1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . for example .1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .2. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . 1 The Synchronous Satellite.6 earth radii above the surface . This. not the case . 3 . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite.inches from the surface. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. ground trace of a synchronous satellite.
the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit....Sec.2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. Dot ted grou nd trace . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr. ..� � Figure 3 . This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit.. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more. burn """ " " . At apogee of the ascent ellipse. curve is \ " " .21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. . 3. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 ...22 Ascent ellipse . This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . intervals .
if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. = _ r 2a . at appropriate points in the orbit. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . but . a very precise orbit is required.v (3.3 . we get (3 . fJ.33) or = da 2a2 vdv . it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. dv. and flightpath angle. (3. for some other reason. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. 2vdv .  fJ. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 .34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed.. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. a? v. (3 . In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . Usually this is not serious. we get a change in .1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch .da a2 = fJ.32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . speed.31) If we solve for '. as they are called . This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. 3 . /:. 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis.
The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. For example . 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. of the orbit given by equation (3 . whose radius is r2 .semimajor axis.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. therefore .V v P P (3. to the large orbit. We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit.34) for small but finite 6. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . a2 6.v) . a 6.h a �  da. 4 Jl." 3 . Similarly.3. Since we know r l . Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. whose radius is rl . along the transfer ellipse. 2 The Hohmann Transfer.1 . called Hohmann transfer orbits. 3 . we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. Since the major axis is 2a. 3 .34).
(3. 2at Figure 3 .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. its speed is .t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3. since p./2 a . 3 the transfer orbit.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch .37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.31 &. &.36) = r i + r2 =  and.31 (3.
i n our example .3. & t = � = . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit .V implies a Hohmann transfer . Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 .39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. ra = 3 DU. to VI ' So .1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. Although. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . . 3 I N. For the transfer traj ectory.Sec. 3 .V required to double the altitude of the satellite . I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. Minimum rp = 2 DU. Find the minimum /::. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases.3.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion .1 0) (3 .
We can express this condition mathematically as r = . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 . Figure 3.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits. 1 29 DU/TU = 3.V2 = .1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .VTOT == .JfF"= .32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .3.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.068 D U/TU V cs =.� r 1 1 +e p p (3.V1 = .3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.313) .346 ft/sec 3 .061 DU/TU I::.707 DU /TU vi r. I t is obvious from Figure 3 . 3 V cs 1 = (il = .3. I::.
I' l l  e ' )l2 p.3. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits.1 4) (3. p p p  = .32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.1 5) . in the transfer orbit. To satisfy both conditions.33) and interpret them graphically. p p (p.3. Knowing and e. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. ht. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. �.Sec. 3 . (3. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. respectively . we can compute the energy. I &. and the angular momentum. / 2a .
v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer. . Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit . __ Figure 3. we get (3.39) The angle between v1 and va.. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 .1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . p r2. its speed is (3 . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r .34 /::.1 is just the flightpath angle .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.
1 Simple Plane Change . or it can rotate the line of apsides. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . If.V using the law of cosines. it is not surprising that equation (3 .1 .V required.1 'I' .41) 3.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ". ¢l ' is zero. b. as shown at the right of Figure 3 . (3. assuming that we know v and e.41 .3.310) when the flightpath angle .V. the b. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . form an isosceles vector triangle.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. more simply. This is called a simple plane change. b. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles.V. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.34.4.1 7) reduces to equation (3. and obtain directly for circular orbits. b. We can solve for the magnitude of b.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle .1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. together with the b. (3 . the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. 4 . then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . Or. A velocity change . 3 . after applying a finite b. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side .V. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3.3.31 6) Now. e.Sec. 3.
V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites.170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Determine the total b. Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . for example . calculate the additional b. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. a. DU circular orbit.vrequired to accomplish the mission.41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). . Therefore .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . A plane change of 60 0 . The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit .V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. b . Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . makes b. 3 Figure 3 .
.1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) .953 DU/TU L. The given information is: h I = 0. DU 2 1 Hence . & t = = �= .1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 .V l 1 . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.618 = 1 . I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.Vl = V l . .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' .0.1 = \1'1 .Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit. Therefore at = r2 .__ = .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.270. 1 +� 1 .Sec. 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0. 3.
v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch . 1 5 DU/TU 6. + v�s2.2(.= 0 .317) to determine 6.(0. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .447 DU/TU 2 1 . 6. 4 .2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .2 .253 ft/sec .447) (. 447)(.387 DU/TU = 1 0. 3 87 . 2 + 0.V22 v.626) = 0 .V2 = y'l'5= 0.626 vcs2 = V't. 31 7 + .042 ft/sec Therefore v = .704 DU/TU 18.626) = 0.447) 0.3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.4) (. 3 and we must use equation (3.V2 .
0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .1 ) t:::.447 ) ( .078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .Sec.V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .4.4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b . F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 . 3.
0. a. 1 1 DU and e = 0.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time ..2 DU and 4 DU respectively. i.5 DU .449 DU/TU) 3. 3 . lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 .4 Refer to Figure 3 .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r.2 Calculate the total 6. a plane change or an orbit transfer. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. (Ans. Ch .5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU.76. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a. 3 EXERCISES 3 . 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of . r p = 1 DU e = 0.5 b. What is the minimum 6. 3.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 .1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S .V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.e. 0 . c. i changedall other parameters remained the same.21 . a = 2.5 DU/TU.
C ompare this with the I::.V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . 5 & Design a satellite . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) .56 c. 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . 0 .v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU.3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . 34DU2 (fU d. 3 . This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. P = 1. using Hohmann transfers. The .1 DU 8 1 = 0. 95 DU 8 = 0.412 5 3 . = 0. 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation.7 3 . 8 Compute the minimum I::. 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. * 3 . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 .Ch . . 9 Calculate the total l::.9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . (Ans.
3 . New York . 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . Newton . 5 .1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The Viking Press. and Space Travel. Rockets. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. 2nd revised ed. Missiles. Baker. The Viking Press. Principia. 4 . Berkeley and Los Angeles. V2 . Ley. 1 962. New York . DC . University of California Press.. Walter . Dornberger. Makemson. Robert M . 1 96 1 . Air Force Systems Command . Sir Isaac. Washington . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. New York and London . Vol 2. Willy. and Maud W. L. 1 . . 1 95 5 . Headquarters. A cademic Pre'ss. Space Planners Guide. 1 9 60. NY. NY . 1 July 1 965 .
Albert Einstein ! 4 . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died.CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. the solution of the second problem. I quickly took advantage of the absence. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. This was Kepler 's first great problem.. or perhaps usurping them . of the heirs. or lack of circumspection. Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. . was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. including the earth . if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it .2 1 77 . the determination of the true movement of the planets. presupposed the solution of the first. . . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. . who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. by taking the observations under my care . . . .
whole grand entertainment would be lost. Thus. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. I + .1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . subterfuges. but above all to convey to him the reasons. detour. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. 1 . When Christopher Columbus. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. "What matters to me. we not only forgive them. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. ." Kepler points out in his Preface. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. .
Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. as it were. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. however. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. But then without a word of transition. prick your ears. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . Moreover. never noticing his error.Sec 4. again incorrectly . without benefit of any preconceived notions. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. . For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. with the warning: "Ye physicists. almost with masochistic delight." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . since speed was inversely proportional to distance . he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. His results. perihelion and aphelion. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. that. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. . for now we are going to invade your territory.
Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . but analytical geometry came after Kepler. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse.2 Finally. the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e .. . as I shall prove further down . But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg.. . 4 Figure 4 . after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. he settled on the oval. a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. " Finally. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. He had .
an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. . and velocity and the timeofflight. The climax to this comedy of errors. . . but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. have persisted to this day.y it should move in an orbit at all.F L I G HT . time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb.2 T I M EO F . he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did.: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits.Sec 4. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . . disguising itself to be accepted.e . return e d by stealth through the backdoor. . hypothesis. believing that this was a quite different .. You: are . 4. until I went nearly mad. In this chapter we will. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. de rive the .. whereas the two . I thought and searched. . .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal.and chased away.' " . : . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. but he did not know how. are one and the same . In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits.. mine] . in a moment of despair. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . That is to say. . We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. Ah. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . which I had rejected . made a mistake in geometry. came when.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on.
. P. 7T a b . the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. 4..21 Area swept out by r . but more motivated.l . ''"'''"'.e . In going part way around an orbit.2. We will pursue a lengthier.2. say from periapsis to some general point. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4... where the true anomaly is v . 4 existed .'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use .2 .1 ) . (4.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments.1 ) i s the area � . I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY . We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse.A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch .2. A ' in Figure 4. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use .. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically. i.
A dotted line .l.Sec 4 . \/2 a2 _ . 22 Eccentric anomaly.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse. perpendicular to the major axis. From analytical geometry.F L I G HT .Z x2 + . 2 T i M EO F . E E Circle : . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle .
22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . oos E and whose (4. .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse .a E) . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . A2 .�rea PSV minus the dotted area. It Tollows directly from equation (4. 4 Hence .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) .
whose base is (a CDS E).24).we get � ( E . v.T = 4 ( E .26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly. in order to use equation (4. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.2 T I M EO F . and whose altitude is (a si n E ). Kepler introduced the definition M = It .1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' .e si n Ai yields E) .24) E .2 . cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4. From Figure 4.Sec 4. to its corresponding true anomaly.e si n E ) I (4. Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) . substituting into equation (4. minus the triangle .e sin E (4." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.e si n E (4." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally. E.27) reduces to (4.27) (4. cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v . Obviously .F L I G H T .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .28) .22.
29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.( Eo  E) (4. E Figure 4 . The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane . 4 E E.( t o .28).to = ( t .T) . from Figure 4. + t .[ 2kn + (E .(to . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.to = lP (t . In general we can say that t  to = 4. we can say that t .24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.24 left).24 right. when v is between o and n.T ) .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.T) . In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .T o ) . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .e Sin .
2.2 T I M EO F.1 1 ) easily integrable .+ COS (4.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.82 f: ( 1 . From equations in section 1 .2.2.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.1 2) (4.8 E ) dE (4.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.21 2).2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .7 .T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .Sec 4.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4. From equation (4.2.2.8 si n E ) V r .1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.2.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.1 3) (4.21 6) V 1 .82 ( E .  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .2. Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here . .J1=82 d E (4.F L I G H T .
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
2 Solving for x When Time is Known .Sec 4. Therefore .47) has been used to eliminate z. But now we have a problem. Figure 4. a. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. In one sense .4.4. since equation (4. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign .42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. Equation (4 . C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. 4.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4.1 3) ro va v t" . a trialanderror solution is indicated. 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa.1 2) is transcendental in x. ( 1 . (4 .4 4.4. va' a and the trial value of x. Fortunately .
and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z . Thus A.4. (4.41 9) .4.1 = x 2 C + x .4. B and C are coplanar vectors. 1 dt r (4. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar. the iteration may be terminated.41 6) dx x . we must then calculate the corresponding and v.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . 4 . An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. and A and B are not colinear.42. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 .1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r. With x known. xn . it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. Substituting for r in equation (4.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .3 The f and 9 Expressions. the four vectors fO ' (4.32).41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x.
.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w . First. g . g.. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 .4..420) This equation shows that f . in equation (4. x.1 9) gives Sec 4 . f.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4.. the left side of the O .where f.4. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates.1 8) into equation (4.4.. f and 9 are not independent.. Crossing equation (4. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q. however. f and g. g .1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h . t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities. = fg. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. We can isolate the scalar .. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable ... if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity.
o .34) and (4.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x. we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x. (4.E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .w o Yw h (4.42 1 ) We can isolate (4.1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4. From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 . . .425) Combining equations (4.426) .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .a l e + Sln Y.425). yw x . ) .e2 )  r . 4 h (4.4. x + Co cos v = .4. Xw .423) (4. (4.1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw . x wYw .4.
4. x =� cos x + c r .32).429) into equation (4.1 ) . 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4...a Va 2 = 1 9.a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum. e quation (4..a  mitions of z.428) yw .42 1 ) c /Ii.426) and (4.Va • W . x + co h = .429) Substituting equations (4. (4.427) and using the definition of the universal variable .. r... \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C .Sec 4 ..426) through (4 . ro ro .43 0) f (4. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4. ro ..... x = 0 at t = o . e quation (4.43 1 ) .(e sin � + cos � )..42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4.sin r  � (4.43 0) 0 1 f C a = .
4·3) � r o .436) . vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY ..] � a .4.4. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a ..4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .32) (4.1 ) and (4 . r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .433) (4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.4..435) (4.1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.
5 . Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. 1 The Physical Significance of and z. Si n va = Va =  c o s .4.1 ) Va = _ E .434) . rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. Va x (4. note that equation (4. can be used.1 9) . 3 .43 1 ) and (4. 4 . 4 . Note also that if were not zero . the expression (t would replace 4 .34) (4. Also. The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . la . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4.43 5) and (4.4. 5 .[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . to 4. 2 .1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit .5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. x + Co cos [ � . then compute v from equation (4.4. Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4.e E). Obviously . its definition. if we are going to use equation (4. From and determine r and a.43 6) .420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions.5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation.Sec 4. in any of the equations where z appears. 1 .1 8). but we have not said what and z represent. then compute r and r from equation (4 . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos .4 .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem.
we can conclude that = V'ii I F . therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f. 1 (4.53) Subtracting equation (4. since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ .Do .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).56) la.66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.52) whenever is negative . 5 ·1) at time x = 0.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE. a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 .1 3) . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .3 4) and (4. we get x= D . (4 .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 . (4 . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.E o l .4.204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .5 4) (4.57) .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.53) from (4 .F 0 1  Va I E . (4 .
a. I z = I F . Therefore .1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . 5 . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem.5 9) . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.5.5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . In computing the semimaj or axis. If imaginary. A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. so Sec 4.to 4 .F a ) '· z is zero. the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.8) Figure 4 .when z is positive . 5 . from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer.
:z. is large.ji11. so s i n h fi .. wherever it occu rs. Use this for a first guess .. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 . then Z will be a large negative number . C = 1 .6F. since X = foE.5.v y� ( . When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. . ( t a to) . 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. with £X.a � eFz ± 2x 3 ..e .cosh ..All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. convergence will be extremely rapid. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. and . where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. we get for elliptical orbits.. Furthermore ..fZi3 = q . In the case of elliptical orbits. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X.a vG ) . so S � V0r eFz 2 .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z . / ( . can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result.P)/ 2.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .. a = ± x 3 .5 .
where appropriate .L ( t . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4. 5 .t o ) � ( 1 .tohATci ( l . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .to is positive.to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .a eFz sign ( t .£. Thu s .sign (t .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.r:z . .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.a .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.t o ) Fa . X will be positive and . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.sign in the above expression .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before. so Sec 4 .t o ) 2x 3 � + t .Q) eV La 2J.5. for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the . recognizing that X will be positive when (t .t o ) x ::::: sign (t . Anytime t . vice versa . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .t o ) sign (t . 5 .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4. we get � S .tJ is positive . Therefore.1 1 ) .t o ) #a ( 1 ] . 4 ..
(4.5.".cosh .1 2) and (4 . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .Ji . z cos i � .1 1 ) as But i v:z . the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.4.4. 4 (4 .. we can write equation (4.5.1 3) COS .(1  .4. s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive.5.B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0. .5.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 . use equations (4.1 1 ) .1 0) (4. use equations (4.1 0) as C where = i C = . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .1 3).208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz.7! + . so an equivalent expression for S is S � s . 1 .s i n i V} = i si n i B .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 ..1 0) and (4. if z is negative .4. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 . . = Similarly.4. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .0 6 + .1 1 ) We can write equation (4.4. If z is near zero .
1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity . (611)2 etc.52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z . .+ . 0 'j (4. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .1 4) ·· 1 .Ji! + Ji!.5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z .� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4.. The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 .....5. Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . . (4Ir) 2 .5. 0 . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ . ..Sec 4.
[i) z ] (4 . I dS = _ ( C . dC /d z and dS /d z . 39 5 .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0.)] P (4. 2& .3S ) .s i n z dz 2z [ 0. we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . it is not surprising that the derivatives.1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. Differentiating the definition of C. 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . 1 .( 1 . and v at = t=2 T U . Given ra = I D U va = 1 .5. 4 functions .zS . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x. va > � a= :l = 1 .2C ) . we get I � = fz.5 .21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . Find r.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s . t=2 T U9 ra = I.266  . r a . va = Therefore & = 1. 1 K .
2 2 x 3 ' etc.Since x = and .58 1 .12.007 2.821 1 . we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.. X l Zl y"""a6E or x . solving for t ..1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 .82 1 1 . we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .705 2 .279 1 .222 1 .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.6E first approximation for x: Sec 4. Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.8 2 1 1 .t o x_ 21Tya lP :.266 ( 1 .58 1 .t.1 .. tn toward t = ZTU. 58+ .8 1 6 x n+1 .277 dXn 1 .4.58) 2 1 .. 58+.8 1 6 1 . 1 .973 a Using equation (4. 24 1 = 1 .1 4) and (4. y'ii"(t .000 1 .222 = 1 . we can make a 2 __ = 1 . xn tn fit After three iterations..8 1 6 1 .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit..1 .4.222 Repeating the process. using a slide rule . 705 .
ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4.1 7).6. 236K g..1 ) From Figure 4.Then from the definitions of f. since e = 1 . 1 24.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0.6.0. we will derive expressions for xw . we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . 880 1 1 . 4 4. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. g..321 . 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. But first some useful identities will be presented. and 9 = 0. v.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. for the parabola. D._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. yw and r in terms of D. But . Finally. r = _. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v.. E and F. (4. 4.6 . f = 0.2) . as D = v'P tan � 2 . we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F.32 1 1 + 1 .8801 Ch .0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . f. E and F. E or F..JPt::. g = 1 .1 we can see that X w = r cos v .2. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly.6. f = 0.
r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .6.1 ) .1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .Sec 4 .61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4. 2 If we substitute from equation (4.65) . (4. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r. the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 .
62 Perifocal components of r . r • v.J7!.1 ) . 4 rr. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4. The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown.s i n p v = ffp ta n v .62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. Using r • r = and equation (2.66) v .6. (4. in Figure 4 . w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known. For the eccentric anomaly . 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .
67) (a si n E ) a But . M  (4.Sec 4 .67) and (4 . yw Just as we did for the parabola.1 0) e sin E also. 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E .62.6. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. (4.6.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4.8) and simplifying. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) .24) . (4. I Substituting from equations (4. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r . we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle . To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E . t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . we can say that I yw = Q. e illS E we get another useful  �. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4.
6. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.. is given by e si n rr = r = $a .22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words. when E is a real number.1 0) .Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E . For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E. e cos E from equation (4. v.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4.:. The ..6.6.6.e Si n r E Finally .216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation..!..28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4.1 3) .. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4. we obtain E = . relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly. solving this equation for • v . F is imaginary. when F is a real number . E is imaginary .
may be written as (4. From equation (4.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.6. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .Il a •v (4.e) .6. Similarly. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. But l cos i F = cosh F . so (4.61 6) r e cosh F = 1. r.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F .67) we can write Sec 4 . The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning.1).  But i si n iF = si n h F.el = a (cos i F .1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v .1 8) .range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. 4. so Yw = a � sinh F.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation.e ) . Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. 6.a r  (4. 6. The rectangular components of a general position vector. 6.6 . Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic. In Figure 4 .
( ..:. the rectangular components of the velocity vector . so 1 � L (I .c o s tv ) (4. where tv = v .63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) ..624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . Figure 4.V._ c��V P IW (4.c os I 9 ' = v'f.P ( 1 .A F U N CT I O N O F T...42 1 ) . 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:. 62 1) (4..JiLP. 623) .x". 4 +. V..6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4.vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf . .p .1 . are yw = r sin v (4.. tan p /:. we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = .V _ 2 1 ....218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y . and note that h = .625) (4..ji! sin v p (4..: o s /:.I M E Ch . r0 · = 1 . (4. 626) .. .
1 (4. Thus Xw Sec 4.e2 ) = 1. o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.6.E ) .I Jlla sin E.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .6. we get f = a( cos E .68) .. Similarly.63 2) . (4. 629) f = 1 .e cos E o ) .4.E .42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 . E rr .Ji!. r (4.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .e 2 ) cos E .� ( 1 . From equations (4.cos L'!.e2 ). using equation (4.67) and (4.1 0). 627) But.63 0) (4. Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .to ) .e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .E) 9 r _ 0 j. (4.sin L'!.6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .!Ji8 sin L'!.cos L'!.a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .6.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .63 1 ) (4.E ) f = .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.a E sin E . yw 9 and (t .( L'!.e2 ) v. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.a ( 1 . = .e) v! fJa( l .
634) (4. cosh 6F ) . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable . (4. 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4.4 Kepler Problem Algorithm. Kepler himself realized this.t o ) . � V a3 ( t .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . In classical terms..to) .6F ) .63 6) 4. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . M can be obtained from = (4. and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it.629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true. ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) . . The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .2 6) is one equation in one unknown .(1 E .  E." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself.220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch . (4.26) Even though equation (4. A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t . of course . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .6.2k7T + M o .
' (4. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. E n+ l E + M . We will resort again to the Newton iteration method.Sec 4 . 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M.63 7) Now. select a new trial value. but this is not very accurate.638) n dM/d E I E=E n . compute the mean anomaly. that results from this trial value . � Figure 4. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. M n .64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . E It would. of course .
It can be used for LW or�E .5 cos V DU .e cos En (4. The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r.6. e. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits.5 + . The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a.when e is nearly 1 . t .222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . equation (4. 3 . 2.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . even when e is nearly 1 . p and va· 2 .  .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . where d M / d E l E = En En. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. however. 5.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.1 2) . d M = 1 e cos E .4. Solve for V if needed. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(.4 0) EXERCISES 4. dE Therefore. 4 . Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. e.2.4.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. 1 .1 8) and (4.1 9).t ' are given. From fa and va determine r 0' a. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. Determine f and V from equations (4. va and the timeofflight. Once E i s determined by any method.
corresponding to l:J) of 600• . find the universal variable. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee.6 For the data given in problem 4. (Ans.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. Explain why this must be so . it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa..5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead.3 Given l:J) = ffP. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. find r and v for .e. x.348J +  1 . a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU.5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. (partial Ans. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P. 625) . f = 4 . Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting.3. 4. TOF = 5.85 TU) 4. how should the area of search for x be limited.4 If. i. Find the values of f. glven fO' vO' and t. V = 3481 .Ch .
51 0) and (4. Va and t . ra == 2.10 rp 4 . 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa.5 DU. Develop. if X == x (t ) . gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. e = . (Ans. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans.to and solve for f and v. 5. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude.5 . and give your analytic reasoning behind. 4 4 . 7 The text. 4 .1 1). fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . TOF = 2. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory.99). 5 DU. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. 4 .. Va and w and will solve for f.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. Le. e = . 4 . 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . in equations (4.73 TV) 4. g. with a perigee above the north pole. Do the same for problem 4. 9 At burnout. then . 1 1 For problem 4.9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . f and g. 1 0. == 1 . 2. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0.
Robert. 1 963 . equation (4. Albert.43 6)..43 5) and (4. A New York.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . L'. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. 2. r. 1 964. Kepler. See equations (4.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � .0 + . 1 7 Derive the expression for g . LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t .. Einstein. Wise.E. 2.. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters.2 .r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. The Macmillan 3 . Small. The Sleepwalkers. Company. f and 9 in terms of (t . 4.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression.630) through (4. NY. NY. 1 95 1 .1 8). NY. 1 95 9 . Philosophical Library. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. Battin.16 * 4. 63 2).and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9.I:!:. 4. . Guidance . A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. g. Richard H.6 TU) . 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f. r3 fJ. Koestler. New York. Stahlman. = .. The University of Wisconsin Press. o 4 . Arthur..( t . f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. 4 . Madison. New York.
Redondo Beach. Mathmatica. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. J. H . 8. H. N. Vol 275 . Moulton. California. W . 7. Bate. Brooks. Unpublished notes." ARS 1. pp 1 05 . Vol 70. F . 1 2." A stron. W. pp 66066 1 . Vol 3 1 . K. W." A cta Vol 36. Lemmon." A stron. 1 0. pp 3093 1 5. S. . 1 965 . Goodyear. to Celestial Mechanics. 1 947. pp 1 08. Herrick. Vol 70.1 79. 4 5 . Sundrnan. 1 9 1 2 . Stumpff. "Universal Variables. H. United States Air Force Academy . 1 9 1 4. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps.ach.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 9. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. Sperling. 1 965. 1 1 . . 1 96 1 . "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. K. The MacMillan Company.1 28 . J." A str." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. New 6. 1 965. Forest Ray.1 92. pp 1 89. Roger R. E. A n Introduction York. and 1.
Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars.. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 227 5. in the first year of the 1 9th century. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. in 1 7 8 1 . before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. But. a 24yearold German mathematician. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. Uranus.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND .
Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. no more . Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . Because of its importance. If they paid some attention to philosophy . 5. but for a different reason. Hegel asserted. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. The object turned out to be Ceres. and the direction of . To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them."the Gauss problem. no less. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. and for convenience in referring to it later. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. exactly 1 year later." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name.
21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M .. If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). .. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. Obviously . / I I I I I Figure 5 ." through an angular change greater than 7r. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion.SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ . If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). particularly if the parameter. 5 . find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. .. therefore.1 ." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. / . appears in the denominator of any expression. that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. the orbit is a degenerate conic. but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. The relationship between the four vectors f l .. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. Sec .. p.motion. 2. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. ..". or the "long way... It is not surprising.
27) and (5 .23) Actually.cos �v) = 1 .2. but the first four are known.25 ) (5 . Use equations (5. n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . 23) and (5 . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. g.26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . 2. a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. so 2 . r .22) r2 a ( 1 .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . t. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. r2 P p rI . (5 . (5 . (5 . 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight .23). Test the result by solving equation (5 .1 ) (5 ..( 1 .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f. f. There are seven variablesf1 . 2. f and g. 27) . so a trialanderror solution is necessary . what we have is three equations in three unknowns.cos �E ) f = 1 . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . g. the solut �on to .y'ii8 .230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .. p.25).24) arid (5 .24) Si n �E (5 .cos �E ) . Consider equations (5 .cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . (5 . p. a or �E.sin �E ) � JJ.( 1 . 3. The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 ..= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. From equation (5 .cos �V .( 1 ..1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f. a and �E. a 9 = 1 . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. bv .
:t x3 S. In each case . including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. however.Sec. r1 (5 .3 2) . a and L'£ or 6F. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution.c x2 y. This last step is perhaps the most important of all.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f .1 ) (5 . a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. introduced in Chapter 4. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. x and z.( 1 . since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. = 1 . If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. p. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. 3 . and would enable us to use the universal variables. 5 . g . let's write the expressions for f.. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns.
p r1 j . A y= .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange. P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b..39) . 5 X2 (5 ..38) y. 1 .j A equation (5 . we obtain A.( 1 c o s b.i n b.viI x ( 1 zS) \ . we get r 1 r 2 (1 . yields X C...A .232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 . ( 1 c o s b.36) may be written (5 . as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.jE: .v) • 9 = = IE.31 ). rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch ..v (5 ..33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.v y.v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.( c o s b.35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 ..c o s b.33)  (5. ( 1 .37) I y = r 1 + r2 ..v ) 1 c o s b.v) (5 .1I 1 � .
Sec.LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ.1 ).ff.=1' Ig =r2 =.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .3. the last term of this expression may be simplified. I" � \ ·1 fr .32) and (5 . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . thi 't "p. A.31 5) (5 . +.: r I . 5 . can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.qr::oo ..38). (5 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant . we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 . 3. rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 . 3. so that (5 .37 ) and (5 .34).on simplllw. From equations (5 .420). and the auxiliary variable .1 6) (5 .31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . 32).3.35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 .r I (5 .". .1 0) (5 .3. 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .31 7) .31 3) (5 . y. we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.1 4) 1 The velocity. by using equations (5 . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: . 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .
4. Although any iterative scheme .31 8) ( ) (5 . 5. a Newton iteration.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 . 6.4. 3. this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly . dt / dz.P . 2 .3. Determine x from equation (5 . evaluate t.37).dz dz dz 2yy dz .0. Determine the auxiliary variable. Since z = . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .3 ." evaluate the I 2 constant. necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 .31 9) . 7 . The derivative.1 0) .S + X 3 _ + . (5 . Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . From f ' f and the "direction of motion. When the method has converged to a solution. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained.= 3 x 2 . 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 .1 0) and (4.1 2) (5 . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . A. 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. 9 and 9 from equations (5 .1 1). Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.4. If it is not nearly the same . 5.31 6) and (5 . which converges more rapidly. y. Pick a trial value for z.3. from equation (5 . using equation (5 . Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4. 5 1 .31 3).1 4) and (5 .0. may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i .31 7).31 5). such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation.31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. 3.39).E2 and z = .
__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . i n section 4 . 5 .Sec.3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .32 1 )  .z S) dS _ .39) for dy = dz  But.=  dS (C .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . we showed that y. 3 . 5 .320) (5 . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 . we get ( 1 . .
the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.+ 5! 7 ! _ _ . Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit).318).325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.  (5 . To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM.v) . 5 so.323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 .320) and (5 .319) and (5 . D M � si g n (1T L'>. we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 .7K DU.1 0) and (4.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 . ill rl . "direction of motion": rl =0. 51 r2 = 1.6J + 0.01 + + O.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . equations (4. determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .322) into equation (5 . From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.41 1 ).236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .4. There is only one path for a given direction of motion. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way. These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .OK DU.324) _  (5 . we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 . Using universal variables. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S. At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0.326) .
5 .6V is small..321 radians Using (5 . from equations (4.962 radians LW long way = 21T . 28406 ( __ = 3 . 0000 + 1 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . For ease of numerical solutions. 0000 1 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = . 23287446 yT12 vm . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (.0488008482 OU r2 = 1 .39). A A l ong way =1 .5.1 4) and (4.1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).Sec. Now following the algorithm of section 5 .1 .6V short way = 5.0.327).37) does when . 0488088482 + 1 .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = .3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . 327) r1 = 1 . 5 .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = . 86474323 = 1 . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . 0488088482 + 1 .1 5) .6V > 1T). a convenient form of equation (5 .28406 = 1 .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .
3.. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 . 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.28406 y'0.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : . (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way. 1 .0 we do not normalize.672625 1 6 TU + through 6.444689 m 0..238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch ....23287446 t l o ng = 0.. Y l o ng = 3. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative. the desired time o f flight is : .780 1 9540 1 /2 0. 1 3 min = 0445 z .. 0432z = 1 3.86474323 2. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off..28406 y'3...86474323 = 1 .3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .489482706 (6") .23287446 0.3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 . Step 5: Using equation (5 .1 0).05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0. from the given data.
1 1 39209665J  0.50634848K v2 = 0.554824 D U /T U f = 3.3 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.6 1 856634 = 0.0.Sec. (5 .1 6) and (5 .28406 Y = 4.6009 1 852 .83236253 Using equations (5 .36 1 677491 + 0.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.58 1 43981 VI = 0.02234 1 8 1 1 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.989794 D U/TU 0.9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .3. (5.4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .3.28406 Y = 0. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.t solved . 1 7866539741 + 1 .314). 5 .76973587J .8826885334K v2 = 0.0.96670788 z = x 0.1 3). 7499473 9 t = 0. (5 . W e have : � 104 (within 0.1 5).63049 1 80961 1 .94746230 A = 1 .31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .83073807 v 2 = 1 .79852734 v2 = 1 .5288 97 1 4 = 2.t .5544 1 39777J 0.250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.60 1 874421 . 74994739 VI = 0.0.
96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell .39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. For "short way" trajectories. yet equation (5 .38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative. From equation (5 .9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions.52). The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .31 .1 O} VC . This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .= 0. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. In other words.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0.38) and (5 .39).zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation . where f::1) is less than 7T. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 . the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position). 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive.076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.
cos ""V ( 1 . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve . The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.)2 cos .6V COS . (sin xl i .1 ) and si n  COS . we get  .4. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.4. hence.4 TH E p.4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. we can solve for a and get 1 . The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive .c o s x =.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.4.6V p � .j1 . A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.va si . 5.v.23). a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .. 5.?S. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 .cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) .. From equation (5 .V ) a (5 .25).42) into equation (5./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity . This check is only necessary when is positive.Sec. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity. for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity.6V V 1 .. and 2 solving for p. a and ""E.cos !:::.c o s ""E si n ""E . we obtain 5.
5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.45) ± Using these same definitions. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 . a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.E Q ± y'2ni C O S .J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll. (5 .E) •  k = k Ll. The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information. and noting that � c os '2 .48) k .c o s bJ)) (5 . (5 .2 Expressing a as a Function of p.v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .E ( k .E CO � = ± p= k = .46) Ll.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.45) and simplify.Q p ) 2 (5 .43) 5. we get Ll. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 ..43) as Ll. 2 Ll.Qp y'2ni p . we obtain m p a= (5 .4.E .44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.E Solving for cos2.
Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight .41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . we need to determine � (or .4 .. The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later .1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr. First .where k. Sec.4. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 .4 T H E p. 2. 5. Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. however. The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). .!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter .3 Checking the Trial Value of p.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . 5 . 5.F in case a is negative).6. a may not be smaller than some minimum value .. Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic.
If we look at "long way" trajectories.6. p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like . If a is positive.6.Tar (si n h .E a If yield is negative.6.4.From the trial value of P and the known information. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .6.41 1) c o sh .. we see that the limiting case of .6." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .41 2) (5 .6. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.E ) (5 .F: (5 .6.E .E from equations (5 .25). The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.4. 9 and f from equations (5 . 5 c o s . If (.6. F . the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .23) and (5 . we can determine .6.1 3) .4.F (5 . (5 . we can compute f.s i n .49) Since we always assume .24) or the corresponding equation involving .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .23). let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way. To get a feeling for the problem.1 0) = = 1 . let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 . F ) ..a r1 (1  f) (5 . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.vi.( 1 .F is positive. In Figure 5. there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.6. Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p.25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .4 The t vs P Curve . although t approaches infInity for this orbit.24) and (5 . F 1 .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.
. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 .I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse ..zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight.. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 .. t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j . we should first compute P j or P j j . for t:sv greater than IT. lie within the prescribed limits... P must lie between P j and infinity. Since it is important thar the first trial value.43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. Sec.42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 . P must lie between o and P j j . as well as all subsequent guesses for p.. From the discussion above..4 T H E p...... In Figure 5 . 5 . For l'J) less than IT. P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case .
. and one that gives too large a value.1 5) 5 . � " . In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p. The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution.4. . • . I .yLri1 (5 .. Several simple methods may be used successfully. . . from equation (5 .43 k p a rameter . '" E 0> '" . 0 Q + y2in k  (5 .5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. The solution is then bracketed and. b .46). . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. p )0 p" .4. 5 1 :co .4. one that gives too small a value for t. by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two .1 4) Q ..246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . ell . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5.� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi).
...... ... .... ...4.1 ) (t n .Sec.. .4. . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it.1 6) This scheme can be repeated. . .. . .P n .44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration . If tn.1 ) (5. then a better estimate of p may be obtained from . .. 4 T H E p.1 and Pn . .... .t n ) ( P n .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p.....I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. . tn t . . . O��_4o P n. . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5...I Figure 5 . .. . . . . . ..1 6). ... but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p... then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t . . .t n . .. It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer. ... 5 ..
1 7) I t =9 viIZ.24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . fl3  fJ. (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .iri equati �n (S. we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g .r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . ( � . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative . 41 9) .41 8) (S .41 7).si n L'> E l .1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point. � ( S .4.4.
47).Sec.k2 ] 2 [ (2m .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .2mk2 Qp 2kQp .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE . from equation (5 . that ( k .E / dp and noting.420) From equation (5 . bE d�E .4 T H E p.47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .( k . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .2 dp k ( k . 5 .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .4 8) .Qp ) Q.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb. we obtain .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .
.= .� (6E . _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + ..4.6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9. (5 .1 8) from (5 .4.42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .423) .1 9).si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .Qp) si n 6E JJ.6E JJ. which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 . 5 (5 .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F . (5 .. p(k h JJ. and (5 .
22). 7 . We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 . Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 .422) or (5 . Evaluate the constants k. 4 .6E or Ll.4.49) and (5 .E or Ll.2·3). 3 .4. 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES .1 2) or (5 . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained.4.4. (5 . Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola. 5 .24) and (5 . r and Ll. 5 . 9 .44).27) and (5 .1 5). of p. we will develop and use the f and 9 series. The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. Using the trial value. as appropriate . 2. Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . Pn .1 4) and (5 .F obtained from the trial value. 5 251 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .4. 8 .1 1 ) .II using 2 . t and .4.1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. the values of g. Solve for Ll. Solve for f. 6.1 0) or equation (5 . Solve for t from equation (5 .To evaluate the slope at Pn . using equations (5 . The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a. Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.8). Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. As stated earlier . the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. 5 . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . equations (5 . solve for a from equation (5 4 . 9 and f from equations (5 . 2 . Sec.423). should be used in equation (5 . Q and m from r] . a.F. 25).
5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . (5 . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 2) (5 .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . Therefore.u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn .57) (5 . 5 9) . (5 . 5 4) for n = O. 5 . we write equation (5 . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.54) we have the following recursion (5 . 5 5) r r (5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v.1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 .
1 Development of the Series Coefficients . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 . p. this can be (5 .and the equation of motion f  (5 . We define them as follows : O. 5 .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .515) =  ur. q. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. as we shall u .51 6) (5 . 5 . p and q which will be useful later .5W)  (r . v are known . 5 .51 2) u .5.5 11 ) (5 . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .5. 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .1 7) . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. u L.51 3) rr and the definition of p.Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u.
. Summarizing: (5 . _ [1 1  2 (v . v) _ 1 u.254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .r . . = . 5.23 r· (V) r   u.3u p (5 . 1 1 1 1 . 5. 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . d q = d t .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = .(v) 2 .p (u + 2q ) .1 8) Using the definition of P.u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . r) (v) 2 . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .57) and (5 . r r (5 . ) .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. ) _ 24 (r . 5 .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . 522) q = . 5 20) (5 . (5 .U . .
2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u . F3 = F . Fs = F4 .u r = ..r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .3 u p ( u .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing. ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue. p and q.6 u 2 p = .u G 4 = u ( u .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .54) for n = 1 . = F 1 r + G 1 .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . = .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. 5.30p p + 3 q ) . = .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .3p ( u + 2q ) .u G = .t!:. = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .1 5u p ( u .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . = r 0.1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .Sec. Writing equation (5 .6 u 2 p = .
524) (5 .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .tao Comparing with equation (5 .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u . Vo (5 .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 = U (u . . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 .Gn n.52) and (5 .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .1 .5. ) . therefore.51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o . Referring to equations (5 .523) .526) . .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .
Sec.6q . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 . G = 30up(1 4p2 .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.30q .28q .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) . 5 . G = O.94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .3q .1 5p 2 + 3q + U). F = 3up 3 F = u(. G 1 = 1 .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .51 .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O. F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 . F 1 = 0.7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) . G = u.90q .2 1 q . F 2 = 'U.u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .
5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . From equation (5 .f (r I . r I . (5 . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 .5·27) + ' (5 .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u . f I .5·29) . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. p.6. Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. 7) (5 . The f and 9 series may be used . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. 5. The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . 7) r I g (r I .0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . 5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . 5. 2·5).2 Solution of the Gauss Problem.51) + 9= 7  1 .2·3).24) and (5 .
1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA. becomes dt (1 . so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y.Sec. . As. This . L£ .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6. thus Figure 5 .6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . 5.61 Sector and triangle area (5 .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly.
43) and using the identity.2 The First Equation of Gauss. 4 � c o s b.62) (5 . let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information.' l'2 2 2 (5 .6. E ) .2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b." + l( 1 .c o s b. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 .6. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.2E ) 2 .260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 . If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio. . 5. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 .
£Q.1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .s i n l:>E ) .. 3 The Second Equation of G auss.JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression. so .(5 .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J. Using the identity.67) 1 cos l:>v =.= . L ( l:>E .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.. .2 2 L (5 .L .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.24) and (5 .61).L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 .61 ) becomes si n l:v . si n l:v cos � .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 .65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .. From the first of these equations. 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .2 ( 1 r1 r . Si.. ( . equation . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .6 ...Sec. t/y. 5 .65).23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .s i n l:>E ) . n l:> E ) . (5 . Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 .
we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = .cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) .1 0) .from (5 . recall that we started with three equations. and one more unknown. 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations.6. When convergence has occurred. p. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 .69) cos f = 1 .6. 24) and (5 .2(� . 23). (5 . Next. We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E.6.43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. Unfortunately.1 ) = W (LE . (5 ." 5 . pick a trial value for y. equations (5 . s and w. y. the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 .64) and solving for y.Si. The first step is to evaluate the constants.25). from r I ' r2 . using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 .69) are transcendental. y and LE .64) and (5 . 22) completes the solution. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary.262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .si n LE ) we may write. y 2 ( y . a and LE.1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. 6.1 ) . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. 27) and (5 .s) . !:JJ and t. S + 1 . (5 . To review what we have done so far. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. and so on. a good first guess is y � 1 . n = 2 si n 3 LE . more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. which is known as "the second equation of Gauss. (5 . we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . in three unknowns.4 Solution of the Equations . We then added another independent equation. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE .
)� s + 1 . F s i n h 3 "2 . i sin i.cE.6. 6.c:.c:. S. If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.c:.E s i n 3 . 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . F = si nh .6.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.6.F is real.c:.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.F whenever the right side is greater than one .c:. they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.cosh 2 . equation (5 . E = i .F and COS i . then .F .E .S ) y (5 . Using the identity.1 2) = X = .F are close to zero.F . the righthand side of equation (5 .1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .c:. For this reason.c:.0.69) and · (5 .F 2 ) · (5 . equation (5 .s i n .c:. as y2 = W S + x .c:.F will be zero and both equations (5 .c:.1 2) become indeterminate.69) and to determine y.c:. 6. Noting that .E is imaginary.69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .F = rush .c:.c:. If the given timeofflight is short.c:.E and .1 0) may also b e written as Sec. indicating that�.F .c:.c:. 5 .1 1 ) s i n h .c:. F. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables..c:. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs. difficulties may be anticipated any time . Since we already know that when . E or .1 0) may become greater than one.Since the equations above involve .E is imaginary.c:.6. .c:. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .
6 .1 (5 .26). 3 . g . or hyperbola according to whether x is positive.1 0) or (5 .1 1). /:. E as a power series in x.]) and t using equations (5 .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 .E or 6. Compute the constants.22).1 4) Now.6.. zero.24).F from equation (5 . problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . (s + x ) · 1 (5 . and then expressing 6. Evaluate f. 2. and 9 from equations (5 . E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. f.6.6 ..27) and (5 .6. from rl .264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. Depending on the type of conic. or negative. The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . (5 .1 4).1 5) 1 . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . Determine p from equation (5 .43). 7 .. 2 . Determine X from equation (5 .Y:i. r2 .1 3). X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . the orbit being an ellipse. (5 . which is developed by Moulton.6. is .6. determine 6.63). the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s.25) and (5 . 1� = 2 3 1.61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . . it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 .62) and (5 . . s and w. ( 1 + §. .23). replacing CDs 6. 4. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &.2 Ch . The result. 2 6.6. ) . 5 . parabola.
Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. and ballistic missile interception. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. The £:." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. 72. 5 . then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination.Sec. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. Usually. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 ." In all but the simplest cases. ballistic missile targeting. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. To avoid generalities. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . To make the problem even more specific. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . �atellite intercept and rendezvous.
1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .\.f. at t.. I n . ". ��y V \" _ ..' ':. ".266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .".� ...1 . r.. e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary. 7 . 5 i nterceptor .." \ t a rg e t / \ .. \ •• • • • • • .. fI }/ \ \ .. I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 ... �/ �/ ".. .. ..�: :...� ' .7. ) / ot t.
which is when the intercept will occur.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 .Sec. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. 5 . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily.
. . Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. 5 them. .238 km/sec. " . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. �v? �v . . the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. \ \ \ Figure 5 . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . . . . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. launch vel. . 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight.268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. .
This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . In summary . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . Because of earth rotation. The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t .7 .7 . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. 5 . One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec.2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site .5 . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. the better . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . In Figure 5 . the launch site will have moved eastward . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. 5 . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. From Figure 5 . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit.
4 /':.270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ..V plot for example intercept problem .) z :J « .J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 . 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .7..F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.O F .
85) (5 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 .Sec. v2 • P I ' P2 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. 82) t2 so (5 . another method will be develope d . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5. now that we have develope d the f and 9 series.e.8 .84) (5 . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 .86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . P3 . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. t2 .1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. P3 · .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . the three components of r2 . Although we have examined a very specific example . i.8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. 5 . (5 .
Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c.R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a.8) (5 . the components of f2 and V2 .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x. 5 to (5 . 526) and (5 .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. 8. L3 . i.8. y and z . ' r2 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 .e. 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . and eliminating the K components. Estimate the magnitude of f2 . y. the components of Vz be X. in fact only six of the equations are independent. L2 .8·7) (5 .8. f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . R1 . b .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . � into equations (5 .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . Rz . y and Z .
5 Z. Limitations. Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a.32). Usirlg specific numbers. .522).39).527). Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 . EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter.423) for hyperbolic orbits.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. Z.41 . c. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . and (5.31 3) through (5 . What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6.31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . f. which are the components of f2 and v2 . using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy.t2 and t2 t } are not too large.526) and (5 .31 ). f2 I + J DU). 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04. b. e .6 Derive equation (5 . I I I I  x. 5 .3 Verify equations (5 . Accuracy. Ease of computation.2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6.Ch . but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. Y. =: =: 5 . Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 .V required for intercept? 5. The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer. (5. 5. 5.1 5.4 Verify the development of equation (5 048).1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l.
b. 5 Given two position vectors rI .8 using the universal variable. d. r2 .t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . although a few iterations can be made by hand. 5 .009 (.274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch .t l determine v2 using a.J + K). The original Gauss method. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value.tl = 1 . d. rl r2 p. p 1 + J + K DU DU 5.9 Repeat problem 5 . t2 . which will contain both position vectors. r2 'and the distance between them. 5 . The piteration technique.0922 TU.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . (Ans.7 . c. Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. The universal variable method . as a function of rI r2 .8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . (Ans.00256 (J + K» . h = 1 . 5. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . vI = 0.
Herrick. 1 . 1 9 1 4. New York. A stronautical Guidance. 1 956. Bell.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. Dover Publications. Simon and Schuster.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . r 1 = 41 t 2 ." in The World of 1 . Moulton. Davis. NY. Forest Ray. Liu. Richard H. 1 963. 1 965. New York.0. 2 . S. Inc. New York. r 1 = I t 2 . 3. and A.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 .4804847 1 1 2 +0.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. r 1 = 2I t2 . Eric Temple . Vol 5 . NY. Carl Friedrich. McGrawHill Book Company. NY. NY. Appendix A.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. John Wiley & Sons. f 1 = 1 .7K D U t 2 . c . (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. New 6. Methods of Orbit Determination.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. Battin. Escobal. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. Gauss.Ch . d . a.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. 4. A n Introduction York. 1 9 59. to Celestial Mechanics. f l = 0 . Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. Mathematics.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . (Answer : v = 0. the MacMillan Company. . Inc. 1 964.t 1 = 0. Pedro Ramon. 51 + 0. New York. "The Prince of Mathematicians. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H.6J + 0. 2I D U t2 .66986 9921+0 .
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. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . Napoleon I 6.000 V2's had been fired in anger . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . have a very short history . 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in .CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . Efforts. begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . World War II as "too late . The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. ironically . which concern us in this chapter. The result is well known. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . longrange ballistic missiles. culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used.
Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. According to Dr. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood.000 pounds thrust. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. Brigadier General 3 . Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. Trevor Gardner . 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . in June 1 9 53 . California. In July 1 95 4. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. After all. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. 4 Accordingly. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. No German was permitted to enter this separate building.
000 people participating directly. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. the program had. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. by mid· 1 95 9 . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. Blasingame . Progress was rapid. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . Atlas was a reality. 6 . Otherwise.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. After three unsuccessful attempts. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . 6. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. From 2 main contractors at the beginning.Sec.
1 Geometry of the Trajectory .ji1Tr.2. 6 . Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Since Va:. however. (6 .. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. =. 1 defines these new quantities. need not be redefined. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 .22) . This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point." etc.2." "flightpath angle at burnout. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range.. 6 from launch to burnout. Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . It will not be discussed in this text.2.2 The Nondimensional Parameter. Figure 6. such terms as "height at burnout. Q ." "height of apogee. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory.. There are. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here .2. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . 6 .
6.Sec .2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .
the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. If Q is greater than 2 . the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.O/r from equation (6. 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit.3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 .282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. and substitute for V.26) . (6. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6. 24) 6 .1 ) .25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 .2.2.the expression p.23) or IQ=2�·1 p . When Q is equal to 1 . rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .
f6.22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) .Sec. lies on each side of the major axis. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 . 'l'. 2 Equation.co s v b o . be written as (6. 6 .26) above can. half the freeflight range angle . therefore. and co s � = .27) .
2.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6. . ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 .1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. since p = a( 1 . and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1. A. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter.T. e. = r Q C O S2 cp .1 1) into equation (6. also becomes known. (6. . ¢ro.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions.2.29) and (6./. what should the flightpath angle.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. h = rv cos cp.28) p. the total range angle. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target. .e2 ).2. the required freeflight range angle. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry.284 .29) Now.
F'. ¢bo. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . is called r bo . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . Instead . Sec 6 . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . with a little algebra. Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. We could . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . Now. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo .23 Ellipse geometry 6 . it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo .In other words.2. The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus.4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. In Figure 6 .
This is. shown in Figure 6. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering.2. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � .1 6) .1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . � + 'lr) = ." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. d.2. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . for example.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . that. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal.24. It means.1 3) (6. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.Qb o sin � .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. Qb o 2 2 (6.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . F' and the burnout point.I n 2 and also as rb (6. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .x) = sin (6. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.2.000 ) from equation (6. in fact.2. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . the basis for the so called "whispering gallery.
sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals . 6.Sec. 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 .866.2.1 6) gives us . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .9. . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .
equation (6 . there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. 2. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . Because a = . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Figure 6 . An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. Nevertheless. Table 6. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range .1 6) does not exceed 1 . If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences.21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. This would not be a very practical missile trajectory.25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible .P/2&. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. . If Q bo is greater than 1 ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. If Q bo is exactly 1 . Provided that 'l' is attainable. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . 2.
6 .25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.Sec.
During the test firing of a ballistic missile. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max.11 5 18 1 .290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . skims earth high only .low traj . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. hits earth 000 > 1 high only . cos ¢ b o == 0.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1.625 . vbo = 2/3 DU/TU.5 DU. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :.21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'. ha p og ee 0. hits earth Table 6 . Assuming a symmetrical trajectory.low traj .
Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 600 E.Sec.1 2) .025) = 1 . 'IT. 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . ) (60 n m i ) =2. 6.1 . 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. 2<P b o + 64°20. versus the flightpath angle .2. :.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . 60 0W .4Deg. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2.5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . 36° . Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. c os � = + N .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT.2. 08 1 7 ( 1 . 6 2 1 . 26.08 1 7 DU/TU and . 6 . Notice or <P b o = :. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39.025 DU respectively. 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 .
.. ..26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition . If the right side of equation (6. (2<P bO � ) 2 . en EO I . s 0> Q) 0 � c .7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight . A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target.1 6) equals exactly 1 .pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 . be the maximum range condition. 0> <1> <1> � IJ. :.Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 . One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero..s.. � 80 ... we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.1 7) I (6.'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6.1 8) L__________________� .2.292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell ..2.:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .� 90 Figure 6. 2. then.
2./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory . VI 1 800 .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. 220) for maximum range conditions.Qbo Qb o (6 .1 7 ).e cos 2 (6. We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6. 2. due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .8) . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . From the symmetry of Figure 6. 6 .7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). noting that l . 2.cos 2 . but .Sec:. 6 . This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle .1 9) for maximum range conditions.2.222) . the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . 'JI .6 Time of FreeFlight. sin �= 2 2 . 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. 2 ..'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . By inspection.
223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . since five variables have been plotted on the figure. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. and the eccentricity. 28. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24.1 1). Figure 6 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? .27 Time of freeflight (6. The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. a. 6 The semimajor axis. can be obtained from equ ations (6. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . 2.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . e. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . 23) and (6. In fact .300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively.
075) == 0.8 period vs. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.000 nm. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.95 From Figure 6.884) ( 1 .750 n m .29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 6 .Sec. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.25 D U == 7 .
: : . : : . : ' .9h Ir. . � ren I ("') !XI r » Free . hi..!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . :: : J: : : . ' . : :/ . .I ' : ' : : : : : : . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. .. .� '" �� :.aje.. :: :"/ N .CI�rie� v X I . .
2. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. 8. For brevity . we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.6C may be / 9 57 1. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. In Figure 6 . 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant.933 D Urr U � 24.32 r ads = 1 33. For a fixed burnout altitude . The arc length .1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point.444 n m = 2. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point. 957 Hsi 66.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north.6C represents the cro ssrange error. .Sec.6X. 6 .6X and . impacting at B.  Vbo 6.77 0 = 0 . It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.3 .3 ° From equation (6.220) .1 � 0. F or purposes of this example. suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first. 3 .1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . . If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. the crossrange error. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. . position. 'l' From equation (6. 6 . and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.OOO nm max = 3. 2 00 ft/sec .6C.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed.
the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. I 1 ."2 to simplify equation (6 . cos . we get (6. if they are in degrees. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 .400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane .3. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .thought of as angles.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . if the intended target had been the north pole . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn.32) 2 X Figure 6. for example.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center.3 .31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation. Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. Equation (6. In Figure 6 .1 ) to (6. .1 . 3.
P. The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . �C. 299 Figure 6.32 is the crossrange error . Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. Figure 6 . will result. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range .Sec. 6(3.3 . If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. before . the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth.32 Azimuth error 6 . are as planned.33) . this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . 6 . 'l1. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C.'l1. a crossrange error.2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth.
(6.. \]I.3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point.\]I. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it . <Pbo' In Figure 6.path angle . are shown by a solid line in the figure .0.D.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 .oo a "'00 Fl ight .33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn ..x ' to simplify equation (6. In other words. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6..C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation..3.34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.3 .21 about the center of the Earth. This .0.300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . <Pb o IM� Figure 6 . it will hit the target anyway . 6. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.y I  : : i.33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 . cos X � 1 . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.� I a q. if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.\]I will represent a downrange .4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. 6 If we assume that both 43 and . If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount .0.
The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .cot <P b o (6. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.6. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation.36) (6.Sec.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.2. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.3 .1 0) Qbo I i .'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .3. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3.1 2) of this chapter . We could get an approximate value for . 6 .8) (6. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .
3. Vb Substituting from equation (6. 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 . a'l1 .1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .3.3.1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( . _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.3.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo . 3. Let us first express equation (6.302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .
We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . 6 . angle errors. particular burnout error . Figure 6.Sec. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories.33. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. the actual range error on a 3 .1 3) This partial derivative . Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot.33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. when used in the manner described above. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height.1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. If this seems strange.000 nm range. 3 . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 .3 .600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 .3. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. A plot of range versus burnout radius. equation . The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . In fact. While we need equation (6. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) .
1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6. Again. Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots .1 4) for small values of . .1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = . the missile overshoots .1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout ..3.3.6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler . b o 'fJ ' (6 . 6 however. if burnout occurs too low.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 . too slow and the missile falls short.3.3.3.2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ. is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended. differentiating the range equation (6 . The magnitude of the error is (6. the missile falls short of the target in every case . 6. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 .1 1) implicitly.3.
4 rad ians.6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range . 1 ) 2 .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error . There is no crossrange error.905) 2 ( 1 . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . 6 . 649 r ad U D U/T . r bo = 1 . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high.6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . ub o = 5 x 1 0 .4 D U . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = .5 x 1 05 D U/TU .Sec.9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . An analysis of equation (6 .735 = 6 .6¢ b o = . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 . 3.9 0 5 D U !TU .1 8) would reveal that.3.6V b o + a 'lr . 1 D U . LW b o = .1 0. Total downrange error : . We will need Q bo (. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better. 735 rad DU r b o ( . like the other two influence coefficients.
Relative to this inertial XY Z frame .4 ) (3444) � 4 n .2 1 (. its flightpath angle.S ) .1 0. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . If we know the timeofflight of the missile .4 ) TOT =1 1 . {3. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 .1 . 56x 1 0 . <p. That is. v. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target.4. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation.1 . it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. m i . for example). 6. The rotation is from west to east. 0.5 24 ft/sec. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. 6 =2. The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character.56x 1 0.2sin 1 60 o 2 = . In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . and its azimuth angle. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives.4 )+6. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. That is. both the launch point and the target are in motion.649 (5x 1 O .306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . then all three . ove rshoot 6.735 ( 5x 1.
5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle.4.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . A simple example should clarify this point. 6 . .000 ft/sec. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . and a speed of. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . Like the observer on the moving train. Hereafter. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel.000 ft/sec. �.I ·=<� • . we will refer to measurements of burnout . An observer at rest would not agree . If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it.4." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6.1 ) .. an azimuth. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . of 900 (east). (6. of train l \\�. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . of 45 0 .Sec. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . 1>. say 1 . Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 .
east .44) �. Thus. and up components of the true velocity.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. Once you have the components of ve. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. (6 . by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. v. We can obtain the south. It is. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. first.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . of course. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site .42) The true speed. flightpath angle . break up V into its components.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. lies. Vs (6 . then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . �. v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . this will not be difficult.
In Figure 6 .4. The term. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . the target will be there also. 6. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate .43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 .2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. so the arc length OA in Figure 6. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. Hopefully. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. when the missile arrives at point B. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight .4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory.43 is just 90 0 L o.Sec. Rather . then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched .
0. then a value of . Once we know the total range angle.0. . and if.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . (6 .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. tA . we get c o s {3 = sin L t . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 .43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.47) Solving for cos {3. (6 . this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . (6 .N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point.N + wffitA' where . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.0.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth.0.N + w ffitA ) . If you are firing the missile the "long way" around. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . we can solve for the required launch azimuth.N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3.48) Again. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. A.0.N. . {3. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 . The longitude difference. The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point.0. {3.
6 . " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . (3. In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. A. and launch azimuth. tA But . By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . Needless to say.Sec. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff .
8° v n /3 = v = .. v = . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited.5022 ta .42) through (6 . 1 ) 1 .3 ° W burns out at 30o N. 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . using Q bo = . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . 79 ... Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry.675 s (J=333 . 29 .. 339 ) 2 + ( . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. 5 1 1 95 v . 6 .j( . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.. 9cos3 00cos 3300= .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . 339 ) =. .0 58 8cos290 = .. 87 9 30.. 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of .( . 9 s i n 300= . 85 From Figure 6 . 1 DU. what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .4 5) : v= . 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . 33° ¢bo = v E = .9 DU/TU. 45 ) 2 = .
3. tff=3. 6 70) =.we(3. w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 .4 . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0.203. 77° = .7 8 0 . 334TU ) =123. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 6. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. 29 . 3709 �GG (3. 770 N re = 156. . 334 TU boN = 135° . 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . 2 5 TU :. 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = .7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � .Sec.85 and ¢bo = 3 0. 334)=135° .123 . 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1.80° .13 = 7.
75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. m i . m i .926 D U /TU . = . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6.05 D U = 1 0° . r b o = 1 .840. 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . .6 ft/sec) 6 .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . v = 1 6 .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude.1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .5 D U!TU 1 .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.1 9)? Why? 6 . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .2. 6 EXERCISES 6 . and a spherical Earth. R = 6 0 n . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans.6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 .
In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 .'lr ). A lateral displacement . 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of .2 1 2 run) 6.400 n mi. 6 . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .6. 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0.000 run) 6 .98 to 1 . an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . Using the equations si n iL. 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. .Ch. (Ans. he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . Rtf = 5 . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. how large can .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. Do not use charts.0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 .02. 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . Rtf = 4 .02.6. What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory .06 DU.)(. 1 0 During a test flight.83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . 7 I n general. .x and L¥3 be? .
V = 25 . How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 .r = 0. vbo = 0.936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 ..6888 n mi L:.31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Is this a high. 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. 6 .0 DU for a ballistic missile. c . ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range .642 DU/TU) .800 nautical miles? (Ans. b . 7 . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 .. 6 6 .346 n mi long) b. (Ans. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 . low. Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . a.
530 ft/sec.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 . Ch .ri. 6 .QL. b. using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ).22 The range error equation could be written as: b.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. i.700 n mi using a high trajectory. Do not use charts. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . If the velocity at burnout was 28. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi.. tff 40.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. 5 DU and whose perigee is .where e is the 6 . 5 DU. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.. 6. 3 0 0 E.. 1 5 00 E.. at an altitude of 2. Q bo + . 1 2 00 W. R t of 4.'I' = � b. �bo and analyze the result .6 .e . What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth .600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 . using a minimum timeofflight trajectory .4 min) = 6. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. 6 . at the same altitude .23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 .
v bo = . 1 200W . (Ans. 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44.25 An ICBM is to be flight tested. Do not assume a nonrotating Earth.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. b.500 ft/sec=O.4 rad ian s a. elevation . (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N.5 0 .66E+20784. How far will the missile miss the target? 4.1 045 . 92S1 0608. c.3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 .0057 ° = . 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.318 V bo =23.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20. 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of . low. It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 .1 0 . or maximum range trajectory? 6 .48966 = 3 1 5 .
43e .400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . . N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 .Ch . 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain .649 n mi .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . Assuming a symmetric orbit. the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth.6 1 8 . in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. site located 319 During the actual firing. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N.73 n mi. 1. downrange displacement of burnout point . tff 3 2 .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . atmosphereless Earth. What was the freeflight range. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. and r bo � r(fl. rotating. 1 20 OW . == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. (Ans. 0 (Ans.1 2 ' . 5 7 min) == * 6 . L t 54 0 3 1 '. 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d .
6Vb o . A History of the U. Lt Col Kenneth. 5 . V2 .3 . Gantz . ed .1 2) . Dornberger . The MacMillan Company. Garden City. Walter. * 6. How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . Inc. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. NY.S. 3 . (Hin t : See section 6.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . New York. Frederick A. 2. Doubleday & Company. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. The Viking Press. Burgess. and truncate all terms third degree and higher).2.800 n mi. Space Technology Laboratories. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. Publishers. Vol 2. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. 1 960. 1 95 5 . Eric.02 DU. altitude at bo ::: . Los Angeles. Calif." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. "Free Flight . New York . Wheelon . 6 * 6. Ernest G . R ff ::: 1 0. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . . NY. New York. 1 962. 1 965 . What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts.3 1 The approximation : * 6. 1958. Inc. NY.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 .1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . Schwiebert. 4.2.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . NY.4) . Praeger. Albert D.
the Sun or the Moon? . together with the Earth. and is. and moving round it. . does. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 .CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. about which she moves. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A.the Moon. of all which. the 32 1 . Proctor. move round the Sun once a year. . "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . when it is light anyway. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. when it is dark. have been discovered. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. though principally attracted by the Earth. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . The Moon is the more useful.. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. since it gives us light during the night.
.in this case the Sun. 7. W. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. Clairaut . Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. D'Alembert. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . has given a full account. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. Brown . A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. 7 Author in this book. The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. with no less subtility than industry. W. Even interplanetary trajectories." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. but because it comes close to being a double planet. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. Lagrange and Laplace .322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .
As a result . . the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. :. These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. 7 . The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . . . .Sec. son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. ��===c==Q. .67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. According to one theory advanced by G. . . the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 .21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. . 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing.3 days. . in fact.3 04 of the mass of the Earth. H. Darwin. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward .: =j Figure 7.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. This puts the center of the system 4. ..400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .:.. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation.
for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. In the case of the Moon's orbit . the orbital elements are constantly . In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 Figure 7.22 Lunar orbital elements 7.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun.2.
The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 .8 days. c. b. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours." was discovered more than 2 . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. This effect .000 years ago by Hipparchus. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. The line of nodes.054900489 . called "evection. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . 7 .400 km. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 .3 1 66 1 days.Sec.
" in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . but more than a century later . The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I .000 years. e . The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. is the descending node . in l S72. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node .2. When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . If the Moon's orbit were = . The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670.6 years. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. for only then can Sun. rotates westward.6 years.2 Lunar Librations. d . making one complete revolution in l S . 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. its mean value is 5 0 S ' . 23 ° 27' .9 years. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . Thus. so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. the other .326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . From Figure 7.5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . where the Moon crosses from north to south. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference .
among other things. SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee.Sec. the computer time required could become prohibitive . at one time or another. we would see exactly half of its surface . daybyday. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . and 7. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. solar perturbations. 7 . about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. This permits us to see about 7 .3 . 5 0 to the plane of its orbit.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs.75 0 around each limb of the moon. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . and the terminal attraction of the Moon.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. As a result. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H ." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. solar pressure . monthbymonth basis. Actually we see . taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth.
In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit .. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter.3.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed.400 km.0549 . semimaj or axis. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ. 7 .328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384.3 . 2& e = y'1  pia . 7.Q. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . a = :l:!:. It is not important that the analytical method be precise. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. With this thought in mind. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions.6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. this will not introduce significant errors. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit...
j 80 .. . e r Figure 7.. 60 \ \ I njection . we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit. we get c o s V = 2..9 I njection 1 1. 7 .3 . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression... 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH .c " 0 . E i= .31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10.Sec. 1 r1 1 .r1 1.. We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.0 S pe e d . we can solve for va .g' .c C/) .2 10...M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly.:. In Figure 7.i. II. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit..  I.
to parabolic. 7 . As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed . \ 0 �� ' earth " .. For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.3 .J! .. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' .. 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory .. Actually. In Figure 7. .. .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds.')'..: / :1 .. It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours..05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . . : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 .330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . : .. 7 an injection altitude of . the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection.. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP. .32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape ...
. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. if we try to take longer by going slower. if we keep reducing the injection speed . Assuming an inj ection altitude of . Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity .we will never reach the Moon at all. due to errors in guidance or other factors. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . this minimum injection speed is 1 0. the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . 7 .32. as the injection speed is decreased. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. 7 . Assuming no lunar gravity . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission .4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. which we can call 1/1. 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. In such a case . is a function of .966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht.32 we see that. In general the sweep angle . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . Eventually . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . Moon from our assumed inj ection point . 3 . If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 .Sec. The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . 82 km/sec. We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . 1 8 8 km/sec. From Figure 7 .
.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft.33 .. and wrrft. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. If.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. This may be seen from Figure 7 . Neglecting lunar gravity. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. for example . But. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. that is. the initial velocity is too high.
which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . 5 However.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. . We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon.arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . only are interested in determining ap.0 km/sec. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. 7. the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. for all practical purposes.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . There is. 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 . In effect. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . R s' given by the expression Sec. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . however. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the .3 00 km. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. 7 .4.1 ) . The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation.
6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.) Then. the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.4.4. 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.1 ) yields the value Rs = 66. a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h . 7 .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth.4.4 . Figure 7 . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.1 ) can be found in Battin .334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch ." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . A full derivation of equation (7 .
at lunar arrival is (7 . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 .43) From the law of cosines. Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration.44) . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit.46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee .r h V 1 I (7 . from geometry . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 .45) COS <P I . 1 . r 1 . Finally.Sec. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence.42) (7 . r 1 . the radius. This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables.
to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 . 7 Figure 7.47) 2& e = ".41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight. p=� (7 .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .49) (7 .4.48) (7 .1 0) . JJ. 1 p ia  a = :l!. t l . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p.
'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.4. Wm = = t 1 .e 1 r1 __ (7 . 7 .4.3 rad/TUEIl (7 .1 1 ) (7 .4.4.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 . .1 2) Next. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ . 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = . the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.4.4. where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.6 rad/sec 1 0 . Eo and E1 from Finally.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .1 5) 2.Sec.1 3) (7 .to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence . we can determine the eccentric anomalies. 1 37 X X 1 0.649 2.1 6) The phase angle at departure.
If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. 7 . at arrival is completely determined by \ .45). result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 .0 1 8 k m/sec. The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed.45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails.4. We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft .which we chose arbitrarily . Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. We will do this in the sections that follow.2 Conditions at the Patch Point . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . In Figure 7 . r2 . r 1 . 7 . it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . The geocentric radius.42 : V m = 1 .4.1 6) above .4. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO . then the selena centric radius.1 9) . a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . (7 . (7 . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center.1 8) (7 .4.4. the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 .48) through (7 . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body.42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.40 .50 � � c 0 i e 1. «>  0.348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .30 .20 .54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .
52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. As a result . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . if we add a coasting arc.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . There are several interesting features of Figure 7 .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth.si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. However.5 0 and 28 . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.5.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. Figure 7 . we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . If lunar declination at intercept is specified.5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . If lighting conditions are important. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. b oth of which are undesirable. 7 . From Figure 7 . 5 4 worth noticing.Sec. sir! 0 1 .5 3) . It should be obvious from equation (7 . 54.52) and Figure 7 . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 .5 0 .
1 1 28 22 1 7 .58 73. 1 0 1 6. 1 969 .970 1 66 .63 1 1 1 . 1 0 28 27 29 .78 1 3 1 .203 28 1 8 49 .05 28 33 1 1 .449 1 67 .44 22.424 1 67 .00 28 28 1 5 .242 1 66 . 267 1 67 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .44 28 2 1 1 8 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .05 8 1 65 . 1 90 1 67 .376 1 67 . 8 0 1 36.27 3 5 .87 28 34 22.76 28 3 1 09 .23 1 23 . 7 .3 .46 1 1 67 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch .32 1 1 67 .89 28 24 29 .38 + 9 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.95 7 1 7 37 48.435 1 65 .998 17 5 7 20. 1 67 1 7 29 26 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .374 1 8 00 07 .85 1 1 66 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.39 28 3 0 34.3 1 + 1 48 . 1 5 28 34 1 0.949 1 8 05 42.3 1 28 29 48 .695 1 8 02 54 .90 28 33 5 3 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .1 44. 973 FIgure 1 65 . 5 9 28 34 33 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26. . 1 3 .97 1 1 9. 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.08 28 29 08 . 1 7 2 1 67 .97 28 3 1 47 .47 28 25 3 8 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.56 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .3 3 3 1 67 . 5 7 1 1 66 .3 1 9 3 .84 60.020 1 8 1 6 49. 1 9 173. 86 28 26 29 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .07 47. 078 1 66 .35 28 1 6 08 . 624 1 7 3 5 00. 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .460 1 67 .385 1 67 .41 7 1 67 .3 1 8 5 .85 4 1 . 2 1 28 34 42 .4 1 3 1 66 .97 29.445 1 67 . .254 1 67 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . 1 4 1 06.97 28 34 3 9 .862 1 65 . 8 1 28 32 47 .308 1 8 22 22.45 8 0.737 18 1 9 36 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 . 7 1 7 1 66 .88 28 33 3 5 . 5 8 67.7 1 54.766 1 7 43 23 .963 1 8 27 5 5 .72 1 1 8 25 08. 24 .9 8 9 8 .34 28 32 1 7 . 24 28 23 34 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .
3 . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 .5 . �. slightly (7 . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . The difference i n right ascension .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch.89) : (7 56) . we get cos 6a. c o s 1/1 t .54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . !::lX . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . at the launch point (see Figure 2. and may be obtained from equation (2. it is possible to adjustt l . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . The launch time.53 . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . which may be computed from the injection conditions.ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . 1/1 c ' Thus. 5 3 . 5 4). This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. tt ' is (7 . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. the total time . 84).9 . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. 7 ." 8. is the same as the "local sidereal time . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 .Sec. ao' at this launch time . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 .
(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier. � .2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth.3 224 .54) agree.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.t I ES Ch .426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7. What additional 6. . Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. and the exact We now know the injection conditions.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 .3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. 7 . 000 k m 33 . 7.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . 7.
7 . Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . . What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 .6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec . b.9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7.400 k m : a . What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c.v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn.. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth.Ch . 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. Determine the /:. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . a . The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 .
1 2 cannot really be used in practice. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). . (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . There are several orbits that may meet the criteria.) * 7 . Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. requirement. 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. 7 7 . Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . select ro ' vo ' to meet this . vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . Specifically. Use h bo l OO n mi .Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. <1>0 = = = * 7 . 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters.
Second Edition. Abelard Schuman. Baker. University of California Press. 2. an d Maud W. 3 . Gamow. Newton. NY. Battin. New York. . Fisher. 5. The Moon . 1 967. Academic Press. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. Richard H .1 6. Berkeley and Los Angeles. NY. 1 943 . Inc. New York. Makemson. Doubleday. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Principia . McGrawHill Book Company. A stronautical Guidance. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori." ARMA Document DR 220. Isaac . George . The Story of the Moon . Clyde . 1 964. 4. November 1 95 9 . 6. London and New York. 1 962.Ch. Doran and Company. NY. Garden City. Robert M. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. L. 1 9 5 9 .
.
C opernicus. two ears. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. But the tide of opinion ebbed. and a mouth . two eyes. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. At first it was not understood . who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . which it were tedious to enumerate . two nostrils. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . two luminaries. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. such as the seven metals. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. etc. two unpropitious. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. By 1 507 he was 357 . indeed. compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe .. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance ." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system.
Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . 1 Bode's Law. Mars. and Pluto . Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. If we write down the series 0. 6. 8. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. The "law. . . the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . Jupiter . during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. Uranus. . 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . ." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. Neptune. nevertheless.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies.2. Earth. 1 2 . at the age of 70. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. 3. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. some of which pass near the Sun. the members of the solar system. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. Saturn.2. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. Venus. In addition." as may be seen in Table 8 . Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . 8. comets. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in.1 . indeed.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . are spread much more widely throughout the system. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . diameter.
2 1 0.00 1 .2 Table 8. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune . compared with the total mission duration. Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .7 1 .22.6 3 8 . 8.6 2.2.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.0 1. 0 is presented in Table 8 .23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.20 9. 8. is its path . 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . 8. Only for brief periods.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.8 77.21 Actual Distance 0.39 0.8 5 . 1 7 39.4 0. Except for Mercury and Pluto . changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Table 8 . shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets. The size.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 . which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.28 3 0.52 1 9.72 1 .52 2.0 1 9 .Sec.65 5. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. The sixth orbital element.
7 73 1 ° .096 1 88 ° .773 1 7° .441 73 ° .000 1 . 0 1 67 . 0934 .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° . 1 1 1 326 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° . 0068 .497 1 3 ° ..970 7 6 ° .203 9.004 3 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .850 1 ° ..0539 . 0482 . 000 1 °.400 276 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° .489 0° . 1 3 6 47 ° .828 1 7 1 °..394 0° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 5 73 1 75 ° . 1 7 3 9 .225 237 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .7233 1 . 2056 .. 074 1 83 ° .322 1 00 ° ..306 2 ° . 1 39 1 1 3 ° . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 05 1 4 .405 undefined 49 ° .76 .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . 8 94 341 ° .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.870 L. [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.2583 7 ° .) 00 . 1 42 1 02 ° .5 24 5 .5 1 9 1 9 .275 222 ° .28 3 0. 38 7 1 .005 0 . 76 ° .684 93 ° .
0 95.8 1 7 1 .49 4.257x l O s 3 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.9 1 08 .2 1 4.896x 1 0 6 3 .. 00 3 3 3 43 2 .8 247 . 1 08 3 1 8 ." .05 6 .79 24.8 8 1 1 1 .8 6 29.795x 1 0 7 5 .000 .80 5 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .986x l O s 4." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .65 6." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .74 2 .232x l 0 4 3 .3 . 1 1 49 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .268x 1 0 B 3 ..06 9 . 1 4 1 3 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .6 1 5 1 .87 3 5 .6 1 7 .7 5 7 .24 1 .46 84. 0 1 1 64.000 1 . 5 227.04 29.820x 1 0 6 6 .3 05x 1 04 1 .9? 1 .
the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission.3 . S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . 8. the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. from the standpoint of /:. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent.v required. this consideration is important. was the Hohmann transfer. For transfers to mo st of the planets. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . if continued past the destination planet . While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. Just as in lunar trajectories. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . The Hohmann transfer. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference .3l . it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. however. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible .
. Nevertheless. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip.d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit. Therefore . 8. .u o_____+. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / . Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.v required for an interplanetary mission. \ _.V.Sec." . The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .' ..
The heliocentric speed.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. In any case .where f. B (8 . If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time.3 . From Table 8. 3 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. the difference between the heliocentric speed.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.l 0 (8 .33) In Table 8 . for the Hohmann transfer. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. • .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion.3. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit.1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. then.78 kIn/sec.3 and should be reviewed . VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .
VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth. In other words .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .9  2 .5 1 46 .07 4 1 .748 .73 38. Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars. rE9> are respectively : . 1 6 30.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .78 46.22 the radius to Mars from the Sun.345 1 .295 1 . t2 .9 1 6 1 . rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun. 40.Sec.31 1 05 . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer . Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.379 1 .60 Table 8.04 1 6. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence.28 27.28 32.57 .05 4 1 . 1 2 5 8 . 8. r d = 1 .42 4 1 .524 A U From equation (8 .3 9 1 1 .397 22.099 1 .74 6. From Table 8 .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .
8 From equation (8 . The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 .32 for a Mars trajectory.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .34) __ (8 .4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.3. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.t 1 = 1T = 4. where is the angular velocity of the target planet.7088 years = 258.32) the heliocentric speed . v . the phase angle at departure .VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected. 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.3.73Km/sec . From equation (8 .2 Phase Angle at Departure.099A U/TU 0 = 32. and is illustrated in Figure 8 . Thus.9 d ays 8. vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .t1 ) wt .3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 .35) wt (t2 .
. ..Sec. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet. . 367 . 8. 'Yl (8 . . The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Figure 8. If we miss a particular launch opportunity. . pp 1 60.32 Phase angle at departure.. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct. .1 76 . ... Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself... .36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . .3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun..
Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km.60 2.01 1 .213 . 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.w t I (8 . we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .09 1 . then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated.2 1 7 3 .07 1 1 0. Thus. 1 3 1 . 8.0 1 1 . rad/yr 26 .v 1 determined.00 Table 8. yrs 0.3.368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .07 5 . 340 . Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.38) . so W EfJ7 s . if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.04 1 .37) (8.32 1 . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again. 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �. 3 ·2.03 8 .025 Synodic Period.W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth.32 In a time . Mars and Venus.3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence.530 .
. . .. . �. . ".. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� .. (8 . . . .:V. .310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . .. we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo.r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<.. � Figure 8..39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 .33 / .Sec. . '\ . . . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. '?. � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . . . 8 .. � _ i t_ r b_ .
fI.33 . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola.34 we see that the angie . For transfer to one of the outer planets.1 1 ) becomes = 2 . the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.the injection speed . the angle .3. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 . km/sec.1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars.2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. so equation (8 . fI. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola. From Figure 8. 3. C but since e = da for any conic.6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . we may write . is given by cos fI =  §. This may be seen by solving equation (8 .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 .
3.Sec.1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. conditions : = (8 .1 e where the eccentricity . is obtained directly from the injection (8 .3.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = . 8 .1 2) e. 3.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 . 3 T H E PATC H E D.34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .
2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.3.35 Interplanetary launch (8 . The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth. cfJ as shown in Figure 8. 8. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 . however. Generally.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .4 Arrival at the Target Planet.36.3.3. At arrival.
3. sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. 3 .36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 .Sec. 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.1 6) (8. 8 . 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 . 3. (8 .1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines.1 8) .
8 . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . From Figure 8 . then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet.320) y = x si n e (8. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. In Figure 8. 3.The angle . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. e. 3 7 we see that  (8 . It also means that the relative velocity vector. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. 3 7 .36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . will be directed toward the center of the planet. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. .s i n if> 2 v (8 . where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance .36).3 . in Figure 8.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . 'Yl should be selected from equation (8.
37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit . (8 .322) .lt/ 2 X _ .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f. 8 . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.Sec.
(8. 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance. 324) (8.327) for y Yields (8 .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the speed at periapsis is simply .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 .326) Because angular momentum is conserved. Solving equation (8 . y. 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . we obtain . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .
rt This particular offset distance is called b . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. the "inwact parameter.05 DU.Sec.329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . 8.328) we 'get (8 . only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . The.39.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. The given information is .launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . " since any offset less than this will result in a collision . V2 + 2fJ. b. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. then a much smaller target must be considered.t 3  rt (8 .329).
099 .1 :: 0.099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.05 D U 1 .099 A U/TU 0. 6V 1 = 1 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 . 3 .099 A U/TU = :. energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.1 VI = 1 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .
t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.4.1 .Sec. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept.43 DU/TU .1 ) . the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.905 = = 379 37 . 1 39 + 1 .07 6 ft/sec 2 .044 8 . departure Figure 8 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 . 8 .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.v = 2v si n L 2 /::.4. 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8. From Table 8 .v (8 . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .
7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years. 8. 8 .3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 .8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 . 8. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. 8. 7. 8 as derived in equation (3 . " .3 .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.62 DUJTU� 8.380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 5 for the planet Jupiter. EXERCISES 8 . _  /' . Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) . (Ans. 8.1 ) ..1 )) . 8..3.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units...32..4.
V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.348 DUe/TUE9> . vesc = 1 . Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 .l:. It can be shown that ..V = 0. v = 39 . 1 00 ft/sec) c. M = 5. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission. a. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years.l:.Ch.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the .V required? (Ans. . What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the . 1 DUE[) radius. If c = 9 .9 In preliminary planning for any space mission.v ? (Ans.35) ITbo no .l:. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j . P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit . Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i.�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i.v = 1 5 . h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.l:.000 ft/sec. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.900 ft/sec.394 DUe/TU� b . where 8.l:. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj .
Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6.V at apogee or perigee? 8. = 0. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. What is the 6. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 ... Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units.254 AU/TU� .28 AU2 /TU2 . Find the 6.73 1 DU8TU� b . 0.0. 0. so work carefully and follow any suggestions. The mission will begin in a 1 .5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. v= 0.. What is the 6. v=' (Ans.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .5 DUEI1 circular orbit.Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b .0. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. 09 DUe/TU$) = . 1 3 (This problem is fairly long.V of . What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans. a.which results if the same 6. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans. 3 .458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0.. 8.0. What is the 6. Find the hyperbolic excess speed.. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. 8 8 .. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 .. (Ans. 1 DUe/TUEl1.9 00 ft/sec) 8 . (Ans. 6.? (Ans. � = 0.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. Is it more efficient to apply a 6.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 .. 0.046 DU� /TU � b . a. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a.V is applied at perigee. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .
What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . then find h.5 AU? (Ans. 'Y1 . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. For a given planet. <P2 and vll1II in that order. c. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. 8 . P.2 AU/TU� d. for the above transfer. 3 .What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0.3 9 DU oITU& 2 . Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . called the turning angle . O o) 8.373 AU/TU � f.Ch.867 AU/TU� e . Compute the phase angle at departure. 1 . (Ans. (Ans.) (Ans. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . 1 .87 TU� b . 1 4 a. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit.050 ft/sec) 8 .2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans.5 AU. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. Vrrw = 0.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. 0. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. 0. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount.
D C . "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. 1 963. 8 8. p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. R. 1 967. New York. Vol 2. Newman. transfer time. 4 . Washington. Simon and Schuster. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. James R. Fimple . 1 96 1 . coplanar planet orbits. London. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet ." AIAA Journal. 1 969. . What would be an estimate of the return b. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. The World of Mathematics. Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . NY.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. * Ch . 3 . Assume circular. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. 1 95 6 . Vol 1 . W . pp 430434. 1 . No 2 .V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . and the angular rates of the planets. U S Government Printing Office .
" "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. There is always some variation 385 . The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. it is found that there seem to be distinct. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. and at times unexplainable . We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. Macroscopically . " Webster 9 .
The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. 6 . Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. The wind gust was a perturbation. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . about a century later. which had not been treated by Newton . magnetic. solar radiation effects. M. etc. atmo spheric drag and lift.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . 9 . Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . meteoroid collisions. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . Then. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account.from the norm.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. except the motion of the perigee. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. and relativistic effects. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. In fact. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. Brown 's papers of 1 897. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. Fortunately. E.
A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . 9. With the capability for orbital flight .2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . See section 1 . Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . This is the main emphasis of this chapter. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . 9 . Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. the Cowell. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . and variation of elements techniques are discussed. It was developed by P. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. H. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. In particular. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. a section discussing methods and errors is included . Encke. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite.Sec. This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques.
ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. the equation would be (9 .23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. Sun and planets. including all the perturbations. r=Y �r (9 . and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically.22) would be further broken down into the vector components. y = vy (9. the equations would be .388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. F or numerical integration equation (9 .2. For the twobody problem with perturb ations.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body .
22). ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2. Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . Classically. Even in double precision computer arithmetic. the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. 9 .23). roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small.3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. 8 . When motion is near a large attracting body . Intuitively.25) . This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error .24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . In spherical coordinates (r.'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 . and he would be correct . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 .Il m ( 3 . It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . There are some disadvantages of the method .Sec.
Presumably . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. 9.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . The term connotes the sense of contact. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. in our case . 9 (9 . contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed .25) As a reminder. In the Encke method .31 The osculatil. reference or b i t Figure 9. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. and . it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known .'l.
1 ) and (9 .3 2) into (9 . the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . Let r and p be the radius vectors to .to ) ' p (9 . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. 9 . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit.  (9 .3.1 ) . be defined as (see Figure and .1 ) and for the osculating orbit.Sec.. Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. = p ( tb ) p p to = 0.3. Note that at the epoch. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch).1 ) . Now w e will consider th.32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit . 3 .3 . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it.33) we obtain .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. 9.. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration. At that time .33) Sub stituting equations (9 . or epoch. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit. respectively . neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 . r + � r3 r = a t .32)  Sr.
t) can be calculated numerically.lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . However.3 6) Equation (9 .3 / 2 (9 . theoretically. we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object .6r ) .6.37) .34) then becomes (9.. 6r.. 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:.lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method.was to obtain more accuracy. p is a known function of time . So . so r can be obtained from 6r and p.3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .6r] r3 r (9 .392 6r == a ) p + IlL p . For a given set of initial conditions.35) 3 3 r _ (9 . 6r (to + . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) ..
/  Our problem is not yet solved . Expanding.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. o y .Sec. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . 9 . we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . however. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . In terms of its components Figure 9. since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. OZ are the cartesian components o f or.
/) y2 . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .3.2q So q =  Now.38) and (9 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. (9 . There are two methods of solution at this point .(1 . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.( 1 . .1 0) (9 . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . 3. The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .31 2) .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates. .38)  1 .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .37).37) becomes (9 . 9 From equation (9 .
> a specified constant. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . and 5r 0 at this point. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . Then the tables could be u sed to find f .t). care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. q (to ) O.39) is recommended for use with the computer. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .1 2) may be slightly faster. calculate (jr (to + t:. f(to + t:.nowing p (to ) .t where k is the step number.t ) from equation (9 .1 0). d . The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. If equation (9 . e . c. q( to + t:. p(to + t:.t) calculate 1 . f.3. t:. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . g.3 8) 3. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit .t) 2 . = = = = = p continue.3.t to get (jr{ to + kt:. Vol 2. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits.01 ). but of the order of magnitude of 0.t replaced by kt:. although the use of equation (9 .is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used.t) . Go to step c with t:. r (to ) . (jr 0.t) from equation (9 . 9 .1 2) is used. b. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. Calculate r = p + (jr. If. In (jr p v as described earlier. p 229). v = p + (jr. Otherwise (jr p . a. Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. For an integration step.Sec.t . Integrate another t:. Rectification should be initiated when .does not remain quite small. so larger step sizes can be taken.3. Knowing 5r(to + t:. rectify and go to step a . k. The method using equation (9 .
The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories./l m {m s . A similar check could be made on i . it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. See equation (9 . In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v.6.6.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. For instance. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . at the outset. 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . Thus. from the Encke method 9.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. Similarly. Though. The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. In the absence of perturbations. one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . = . A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six .r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r .3. a . etc .cSr ) (9 . they would remain constant. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. this method may seem more difficult to implement. e eccentricity. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time .t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of .4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. Then e � . so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time .
3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis.. 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. R (unit vector R). The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature .variations (e.g. .To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. n.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations.and dM ?. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. 9 . The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . for a table of parameter sets). w and. . along the instantaneous radius vector. Therefore . but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . Eventually . Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations.T (or M) will be used. The axis S is . The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity .I OOS . � .4 . it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . r. p 246. 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. e..n (t . The standard orbital elements a. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired.Sec. 9 . i. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. Vol 2 . In this section two sets of parameters will be treated.
The third axis. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9. = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly . W.4. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .43) .
V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .4 and .1:!:.43).!I=8!" nr from (9 .Sec. (9 . Differentiating the conic equation Qr.46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:. 9.o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .44). the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed. dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .4.44) (9.45) To express this in known terms.� 2& ' = 399 (9 .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations. expressions for found..48) Substituting in equation (9.48) we find da dt = (9.46) and F S (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system. (9 .1 0) . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .
) Since h = hW. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation. 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .4.2 )% a = (1 .400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.�) % J. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.la _ (9 04. r hW + h da S dt (9 ..1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.lae dt h $) a dt .
but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i . K) � (9 .1 8) .Sec.1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .4. K . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) . 9 .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .4.1 6) we obtain .h cos i rF s h2 .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 . 1 e2 (9 ..4. 4 .4.�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.4.n di dt (9 .sin QL = dt .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).4.
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
v which can be easily solved for c.4. Since p. (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l ..454) + 2p.e . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 .4. {at + c) + 3p.2p. . • .4. but more practically we would consider � = v ..2p. 9 . and V are small. . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation.45 1 ). c = ve 2 p.45 0) should be small.2 p. From equation (9 . allowing c to vary with time .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. The constant of integration.vc . VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.5 1 ) correct to first order in J. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics. C.450) and solving for e we find (9 . so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . . .5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. ] (9 .v {at + c ) c (9 .v 2p.vat a+v a .Sec.vt 2p. .J.45 1 ) .2 (at + C)2  .v = . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence . 4 where c will be the parameter. Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion .2p.vt .
b . if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. 9 in detail. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. such as the disturbing function. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed.e. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. or has not carefully selected. efficiency. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. . accuracy. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. 9 . Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a.. at best. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. 9 . allow as large a stepsize as possible. highly questionable. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. Unfortunately. should be the criteria. d. storage and complexity. economical in computing time. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. not expediency.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . his integration method. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. In theory. c. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. 5 . 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent.
Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. They are roundoff and truncation errors. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (.Sec. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e .476. Obviously . The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . 9 .accumulated roundoff error .5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations.388.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2.843. The larger the . 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2.57 = 7 . Baker (v 2.388. 9 . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . and f. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error.5 (9. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. 2 Integration Errors. For instance . Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. 4. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree.476.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ .567 = 7. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation. 5 .864.28 + 3.276 + 3 . In fact. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.
AdamsMoulton. 1 RungeKutta Method. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. Thus. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . 6 . in the equivalent Taylor series expansion.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared).62) (9. the larger the truncation error. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. h.1 ) . EulerCauchy and Bowie .6. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 .= f(t. We will treat the first order equation . A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. Gill. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. Of course . In general. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. 9.63) dx dt (9. 9 .6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes . Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. 9 stepsize. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne .
though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 . have a relatively small truncation error. x n + k 3 ) (9.63) and n is the increment number.6.. x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. they are faster than the singlestep methods.Sec.( 1 .h ) k3 +. It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors. 9 . x n .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .) k2 6 3 l2 (9.% ] + k 2 [ 1 . In general. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step .( 1 + y.65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .yry. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize . X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .64) 1 1 + .yV:. and stepsize is easily changed . easy to implement .k +. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. 9 . Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula. They are relatively simple . X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9.
. Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. 3 9.6. . 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0.beginning and after each stepsize change. 5 / 1 2 .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 .\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9.3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . . 3 /8 . In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas).1 f . 1 /2 . 25 1 /720.67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart.\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + .\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + .
Sec.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term.h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. for instance. In equation (9. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations. .68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. This method.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. 9 .59 f n .x n+1I I (P 270 (9. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.6. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see.x n + (5 5 f ri . the error terms are not generally known.69). The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .1 + 37 f n2 .
° n 60480 (9.h ) . It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". 9 like other multistep methods. though. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. x.1 f(t n + h). requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type.1 ' etc.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .6.1 f(t n h) 2 2   . 9.1 . x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". "x. .4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations. and most used. It is. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. n + � 84 "x.8 k .2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k.° n + .2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n. n + 1 2 n i \.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n . though it also includes a corrector. The GaussJackson method is one of the best.6 .
V. Some of them become quite complex. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric.6. 2 and NASA C R. If the potential function. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. p/r. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. 9 . Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize.l 005).5 Numerical Integration Summary . They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion .7. 9 . However. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. is known. including some which were not discussed in this chapter.7. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. Table 9. ¢. 9.1 The Nonspherical Earth . the accelerations can be found from (9.1 ) One such potential function. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. 2 .e presented in this section.Bashforth) methods are preferred.6. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth.72) . but only the simpler forms will be treated. is ¢ = � [1 . 9.I n=2 r (9. according to Vinti. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods.
**GaussJ ackson is for second order equations.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. very difficult to determine proper size. 9 CI) .z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. Vol t .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. it could be very fast. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .
if> = I!:.�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S . = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 . r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  ..7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .  I.L = gravitational parameter Sec..74) .2.� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 .J s � ( � ) (35� . 9.] (9 .945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.where J..30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) ..( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .
6 J = (0. y.44 ± O. which are slightly in variance .l ( �) 3 ( 3 . l )x 1 0. .422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .64 ± O.1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J . These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75). 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .6 6 (0. I )x 1 0.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9. l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .6 ± O.57 ± O. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.03)x 1 0. 1 5 ± O.75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 . .5)x 1 0. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. l )x 1 0.3003 ""6 ) + . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . The first term in x.6 J4 = (1 . Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 .6 . Vol 1 .5 ± O.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 ..
The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . by definition. care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation .2 Atmospheric Drag. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. However. 9 . Thus. 7 Drag.7. term) to the RSW sy stem. C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . the drag coefficient.. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . The equations are formulated in the geocentric . and other parameters. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). To do this.. Vol 1 . s 9. Therefore . The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. equatorial coordinate system.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. but will not be presented here. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). p 147). so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point .Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 .Sec. There are a few ctmtiol). simply use r3 r= where .s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) ..
424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x.t b ae ==ic.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . 9 m p C O A . but the reader can find this in other documents. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density.lli.3 Radiation Pressure. In the geocentric. z refer to the geocentric. though small.ilc coffc.7 . y . Equation (9 .7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects.ie. Radiation pressure. equatorial coordinate system. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude .7 . etc. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).78) z . Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. . equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. altitude above an oblate Earth. 9 .
1 Verify the development of equation (9 . y. .Ch. 9 . iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . z directions. 9. See equation (9.4349 0 x .79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters.4 Thrust.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates. 9 . Prove this assertion .1 5) . EXERCISES 9. the variation of eccentricity. Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. m (9.25). Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. 9 . 7 . m = mass of vehicle (grams) .2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} .3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. 9 where A = cross section f = 4. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . but a major force . .4.
M. 9 . Robert M . L. Baker. The Macmillan Co . New York. 5 . New York. Guidance. Academic Press. . 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. M.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. London . 9 9 . Years 1 9601 980. Allione . "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. R. Feb 1 968.. M. L. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. Blackford. A. Planetary Coordinates for the. Methods of Celestial Mechanics. 1 96 1 . 1 . and Wilf. Academic Press. and Clemence. Ralston . J . 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . * 9. . DC. C . A. Moulton . 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. 3 . Mendez. A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. F .ittouck. Inc. D." NASA CR. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. Jr . John Wiley and Sons. M.000 n mi.445). 1 960.l 005 . * 9 . New York. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. S . G. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. New York. * 9 . 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. 6. Washington. . 1 9 1 4.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . LIST OF REFERENCES 2. 4. Brouwer. Vol VI. and Wl). 1 967.
New York. Inc. Paul. 1 967. 1 968 . Townsend. Herget. B . L. McGrawHill. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1 95 3 . W . E . 1 5 . Methods of Orbit Determination. New York. Escobal. 1 963. 1 2. A . Ann Arbor. New York. 1 964. Th e Determination of Orbits. Baker. 1 95 6 . Plumber. Dubyago . 1 948 . The Macmillan Co. P . 8 . New York. Michigan. McGrawHill. C. F . A stronautical Guidance . New York. 1 6. Battin. NASA SP33 . R. G. Methods of A strodynamics. Robert M. John Wiley and Sons. John Wiley and Sons. Celestial Mechanics. Jr and Makemson. Published privately by the Author. New York. Orbital Flight Handbook. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. New Yark. Vol 1 . Washington. M. Academic Press. P. 9 . The Computation of Orbits. R. D. Longmans. Inc. 1 96 5 . 1 1 . New York. M . . 2nd ed. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover).. Part 1 . 1 96 1 . Cambridge University Press. . Hildebrand. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. 1 4 . R . 1 0. Smart. DC . H.Ch . Jr. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . Dynamical A stronomy . Maud W. Escobal. 1 3 .
.
APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. Canonical Units I DU. we 0.. 'Derived from those values of Il .327 1 5 44 x 1 0 . 1 97 5 . English Units Metric Units 2.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec . Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4.092567257 x 107 ft 3963 . Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7.05883 36565 � TV. 1 328 2 1 days 9. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 . r.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 .. 3.24764 11sec 806 .. 1 . I DU� TUi. .292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter..784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. r.68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . Ile Angular Rotation. 2593 6. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4..9053682 8 km' . 44686457 min 6378. Speed Unit I� TU..922786 NM 1 3 .77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 . 1 Center. 2506844773 deg min 7.
there is no roundoff or truncation.07 1 0 1 50424 4 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 . i.2342709 5 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .e .4 3 .08 1 52366 0 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii. .239446309 x 1 0.3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .8 9. 1 2 64963205 0 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 . 1f = 3 .01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .3 14 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.903665 5 64 x 1 0 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 . foot = 0.
J.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. Scalar. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. (Example : 3 or A). Q. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . K) and (p. temperature . force and acceleration. If A i s a vector . velocity . time or any real signed number. Examples are mass. not a null or zero vector. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. Examples are displacement.relationships involving vector quantities. C. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . 43 1 . length of a vector . Thus. Unit Vector. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. W). speed. I DEFINITIONS Vector.
since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors).. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . 1 Similarly. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. If A. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. Coplanar Vectors. and A and B are not collinear. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. B and C are coplanar vectors. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . .432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. regardless of the position of their origins.
. Scalar or Dot Product. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .l ) C. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B.2.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A . B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B. e I I l (C .C. From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . l .2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.1 ) I AI cos B . C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors.B which is the same as A + (B). denoted by A • B. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin.
if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible . K are unit orthogonal vectors.C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A .. A o A = Aft. B and C form a right handed system. .1=J . denoted by A x B . J .8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . The cross product of two vectors A and B. sma l lest ang le ( L e .J = J o K=K o I = O where I .B + A .(B + C) = A . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. That is. then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product. is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them.K= 1 I . < 180° ) AxB =C . 23 ) (C.J =K .24) (C.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I .
27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical.C. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . then A X B = O. J. e < In fact A x B = . In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. K are unit orthogonal vectors. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C.
Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then. BI C1 .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .29) Scalar Triple Product.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C.
l 3) (C.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C . is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.2.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .C.1 2) (C.2.B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 . The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.21 4) C. 2.2. denoted b y A x (B x C) .B3 C) + A ( B3 C .C2 B3 C3 A3 (C . The vector triple produce.
.438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o .... .....9.. v C P K y .... ..... dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ..YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of ...... then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + . " . ... x J Then the velocity relative to the (I..with itself. thus ... . K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P...
v = wT . This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) . the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w..C. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path. VE LOCITY 439 which.= . In this special case then.T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. dr v = .= . the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector.3 b. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T .
AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . D . EI. EI. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . Its geodetic latitude. range rate . The radar determines p. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . azimuth. and of the satellite (R and V). From the 440 . The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . latitude of the launch site. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). p. The input to SITE should be latitude. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . longitude. It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . azimuth rate. The input to TRACK should be range. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. elevation rate . positive to the east) of the launch site. Az. elevation. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT).
UT.26347 1 9 8 .74933340. LST) . PI . . LST _ LST MOD (2®PI).7 .0027379093®2®PI®D .57 76. 9 W 0 1 9 05.5 3 0 . BEGIN REAL D. 5. REAL LONG.5 3 4 ON 4 5. If the above program is used. An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. 8 0. 0) = (.D. = (. LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . . GST.5 . . .775 1 80 1 9. 6 .75 1 003 9 1 . D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . 007 N 1 04 . UT. PI. 2 2 29. 22 1 0. LST and LONG are in radians.05 1 9 5238) . y.63745829) z = . LST. 1 4923608.8 S 1 7 5.07 1 05 . . 040075. 3 315 .74933340. Input UT as a decimal (i.75 components are : (.5 90 . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 .5 1 35 .7 . GST.08 30. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. Following are five sample sets of data for site location. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . .1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 ..044 1 8440. INTEGER DAY.2045 72 1 6 .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT . : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . E 7 2 .48 201.05 1 37.62624920) = (. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . observation time and radar tracking data.8 N 7 8 . . . 5 7 5 for data set 3).01 2035 7 5 . GST _ 1 . e .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . . 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 .3 . END OF LSTIME . DAY. 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4.27907 599. Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .7 5. 6 8 2. .
9 0 2 0 . 0 1 7 45 . 00001 . The type of trajectory (circular. 49 0 0 2.. The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29. 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 .1 0 22. 7 0 3 VK . 1 29579 1 9 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. rectilinear.6 0 . Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 .9 1 046 1 80.703 .49 0 .707 .4 1 4 2. 01 .4 1 722472 .4 1 4 0 0 65 . parabolic.4 1 3 59 3 1 7 .001 1 0 . d.001 5 30 0 . c. Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth.442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. 1 0 0 2 . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (.8 . b . 05 . 5 . 6 2 .2 VI . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity.5 0 . From this information you are required to fmd : a. 0) (.85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.1 . . For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). elliptical. .01 .293 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix.9 1 . .1 . hyperbolic). 48 4 0 2.
3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4.4 of the text for guidance . a . RJ 61 .7 . If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods.5 .0.3 D. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. If your iteration process is efficient.5 0 0 . When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. x should never be greater than 2m. 61. b. To determine when convergence has occurred. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 . you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. 1 38878 . c. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61.5 . To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. 1 5 0689 1 .8 . you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time .jiL d. 61 (calculated) . use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. and dt/dx for each iteration.3 1 0 .025 9 1 7 . Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. Also for an ellipse. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z).
.. bt.. For ellipses limit z to (211')2 .5 1 ..6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem.6 for 1 :::.70655823. I�I :::. . One of the data sets tests this situation.999 o 1 03 D.. 0003 6 1 . 0 . 1 65 08 .w).. t :::.4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 .. Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text..1 . and sign (7T . find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives. 1 0..9 20 . For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points. Given r l ' r2 .002 1 7 7 1 . 3. 00 1 074 . I t . R2 V2 = (0.00006057 .. 1 06 1 0. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations.01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 .1 . 1 362596) = (0. 1 8 1 .. 0.444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.t c l :::. For instance note that y can never be negative .. It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.
7 0 1 0 1 . See section 5 . . .5 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.9378 1 789) = 4. 1 2298 1 44.7 .4 .6 .4804847 1 . and the location of an interceptor launch site .1 .0001 +1 . Check for this case . so a check should be made for that condi tion.66993 1 97 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. This i s not specifi cally required in this problem.5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . Also print t:J) and a for each data set . 1 ..2 . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .6 . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM .2 .3 .1 .1 specifies the long way.3 . location of the tracking site .6 .S = (0. The following data i s i n canonical units. y. print out a message and go to the next data set . time of radar observation.5 .3 . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.4 .66986992.7 0 1 0 20 1 .2 .0 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight. 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.6 . x. The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT. 7 for further discussion o f this project . The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .2 1 .201 .4 1 .4 .8 5 +1 .6 .
45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . the desired increment size for reaction time . b . Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . To make your program flexible . the number of reaction times desired .3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . and the number of timeofflight increments desired . The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. Times should be read in as minutes. Make some provision to print out all of your input data. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. e . f.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . When you point out your arrays. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. KEPLER and GAUSS.45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. c. Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. d. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . g. This will aid you in verifying your solution . TRACK. Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 .
You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.0.338 **** **** **** 10 8 .1 .92 deg/sec 1 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4. When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 . of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .5 p = 1 86. 844 **** **** **** 35 7 .0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .74.038 .6 1 3 km EI = 56. 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .
LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LATL.
INDEX .
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3 9 4 Bode's law. 2 3 4. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 94. 1 00. 4043 Celestial equator. 374 Computer projects. 1 4. 4 1 . 1 8 3 mean. 5 3 5 8 spherical. Tycho. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 56 Celestial sphere. 84. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 5 8 Aristotle. 6. 57 perifocal. 3 9 0 station.9 8 gravitational constant. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 84. B urnout. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 429 lunar distance. 1 22. 20.1 3 1 G auss problem. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 84 ecliptic. 297299 451 . 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 1 5 . 246 Brahe. 1 8 8 . 422 gravitational parameter. 349 Angle of elevation. 2427 Apogee. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 5 7 principal direction. 28 1 B arker's equation. 74 geocentricequatorial. 3 5 8 . 203 Aphelion. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 5 3 . 2 Astrodynamic constants. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 8 4 Copernicus. 1 8 5 true. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 3 2 3 masses. 429 Astronomical Unit. 7483 Coordinate systems. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 9498 transformations. 24 height adjustment. 5 5 heliocentric. 54 fundamental plane. 24 Apparent solar time. 5358. 9 3 . 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 1 620. 54 orbit plane. 102 Apoapsis.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 60 and universal v ariables. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 60 Argument of periapsis. 5 3 . 3 3 period of. 74 BMEWS. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 2 1 2 B asis. 277320 computation chart. 3 8 9 . 4 3 0 Conversions. 296 geometry. 109 B akerNunn camera. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 2 1 . 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 423 Azimuth. 1 09. 1 09 Angular momentum. 279 C anonical units. 3 2 5 .1 1 6 Kepler problem. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 4 gravitational h armonics. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 3 4 Collision cross section. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 429 flattening. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation.
G auss problem.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 1 0 9 . 6 1 Elevation angle. 1 8 8 . 4 3 3 Drag. 84. 1 42. 9. 2 1 ff.1 1 6 Gravitation. 7 G ravitational constant. 1 7 equations.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 1 8 2. 1 1 7. 2 3 3 .93 . 1 04 Escape speed. 1 0 6 mean. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 1 0 twobody. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 2 1 2. 8 7 . 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 26. 2 5 8 264 piteration method.3 3 pe. 3 5 0 Epoch. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 3 1 . 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 2 8 2 time. 2 3 0 .1 3 1 Direct ascent. 4 G alileo. Elliptical orbits. 3 90 . 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 227 418 ( y ) . 3 6 6 Differential correction. 3 6 8 local.452 Declination. 3 00 launching. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 306 EarthMoon system. 264 eccentric anomalies. zenith angle. function o f true anomaIles. 3 5 . 94 . 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 2 9 7 . 4 Newton's law of. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 1 8 8.1 4 3 .1 5 5 Direct motion. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 3 0 . 20 1 202 f and g series. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 25 1 . 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 423 424 Earth oblate. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 4 1 9. 26 ff. 40. Carl Fredrich. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 2 0 . 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 1 8 1 . 25. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 56. 25 1 258. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 60 Dot product. 1 22.3 9 6 Energy. 1 0 6 precession. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 54 Elements of orbit. 2 9 . 2 1 .3 0 6 numerical integration. 2 4 . 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 3 5 . 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 62 vector. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 1 54. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 444 algorithm. 1 0 3 G round track. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 1 60 low altitude. 3 89 nbody.1 90. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 8 0 f and g expressions. 9 4 Geoid. 62 Ecliptic. 58 from position a n d velocity. 3 22 trajectories. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 4 G ravitational parameter. 221 hyperbolic. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 60 true longitude at.2 1 2 parabolic. 2 1 2. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 22827 1 . 5 8 . 3 5 Escape trajectory. 9 3 98 effect of rotation.riod o f . apparent. 1 4 0 .
1 5 8 Lineofsight. Greenwich. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . gravitational parameter. 3 7 0 Integration. 3 9. 2 8 8 . 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 3 0 3 . 2. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 1 4 1 . Edmund. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. true at epoch. 1 0 1 . 238. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 9 9 . 58 regression. 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 3 1 6 Injection. 1 1 7 derivatives. 62 . 8 Node ascending. 1 52 Mass of planets. 2 7 7 . 370 Hyperbolic orbits.I N D EX H alley. 3. 3 64. 1 8 8 . 94 geodetic. 94 reduced. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. numerical rotation of. 1 57 Line of nodes. 3 59374. 1 5 6. 1 7 7. 1 5 6.3 8 4 general coplanar. 3 1 Manned flight. 2 1 . 3 44 . 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 22. 5 8 Longitude.1 6 6. 1 56 vector. 1 1 7 Latitude. 3 80 Kepler. 3 65 noncoplanar. 1 7 Local sidereal time. 5 1 . 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 3 8 . J ohann. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 1 0 2 Meridian. 3 7 9 . 3 89 trajectories. 3 1 Moon. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on.8 9 derivatives i n . 6 . 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 8 6 . 62 longitude of ascending. limitations. 60 Lunar trajectories. 207 I nclination. 6. 1 Kepler's equation. equations o f nbody. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 3 26 orbital elements of. Isaac. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 22 1 . 1 0 twobody. argument of at epoch. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 54 Heliocentric transfer.1 8 1 first. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 3 24326. 3 5 0 free return. 3 27. 2 second. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 1 . 3 24 . 20 Least squares solution. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 7. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 3 69.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 2. 3 62 . 1 9 8 . 6 rotation of. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 1 02 Mean solar time. 2 6 5 27 1 . 3 9 6 constraints. 3 69 . 220 Mean motion. 3 9 6 M otion. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 2 Heliocentric constants. 247 Newton's laws. 5 Newton.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 1 6 3 . 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 60 Latus rectum. 1 4 1 . 2 H alley's comet. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 3 57 .3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 2.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 8 9 .3 05. 1 03 Minor axis. 1 80 third. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 2.9 3 Mu ( � ) . 1 5 1 . 4. 1 8 5 . 234.
3 9 0 Relative motion. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 1 1 7 . 1 62 . 1 9 3 . 2 1 2 computer solution. 5 symbols. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 4 1 9 . true anomaly. 420 c riteria for choosing. 1 0 3 P rojects. 3 3 3 . Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 220 classical formul ations. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 440448 Q parameter. 83 from optical sightings. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method.1 22 from position and velocity. 1 1 7 . 2 0 . 26527 1 Residuals.1 76 inplane changes. 22727 1 Orbit plane. 1 69 Orbit determination. 94 Potential energy reference. 4 1 2425 errors. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 3 8 6 general.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 3 9 0 Parabola. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 20 Polar radius. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 3 24 . 1 6 Potential function. 424 thrust. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 2427 argument of. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 203. 1 09 . 1 3 Rendezvous. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 3 90 . 6 1 from sighting directions. 27 1 273 from three position vectors.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 57 Perigee. 423 due to the moon. 20.3 9 0 Encke's method. 3 24 . 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes.9 8 Optical sensors.1 59 examples. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 443 algorithm. 1 5 1 . 424 R ange and rangerate data. 34. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 2 1 . 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters.1 22. 3 3 Perturbations.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 3 59 . 3 1 . 5 1 . two body. 56. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 2 1 .1 50. 58 determination from position and velocity. 1 90 Numerical integration. 425 Phi ( � ) . 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion.3 7 9 lunar. 9 3 . 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 6 1 o f moon. 1 5 6 . 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 1 62 O rbit. flightpath angle. 1 0 9 Rectification. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 3 60 physical characteristics. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits.3 44 Periapsis. 3 6 1 shape of. 2 4 . 60 Right ascension. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 3 8 7 . 24 height adjustment. 1 1 7. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 4 1 4 sum squared. 2 4 Periselenium. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 3 44 .3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers.454 Nu (v ) . 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 3 4 1 Period.
3 6 1 Solar time. 1 9 6 derivatives of.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 85 Traj ectory equation. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 9 9 .8 9 derivatives in. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 1 3 1 . 4 3 7 . 3 60 physical characteristics.1 40 errors.3 59 orbital elements. 3 1 Sensors. 1 3 6 radar. 425 Thrust perturbation. 1 0 3 universal. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 02. 4 3 3 triple product. 1 9 1 development of.1 69 Hohmann. 1 52 Station coordinates. 1 6. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 3 5 8 . 1 3 1 . 2062 1 0 use of. 2 8 7 maximum range. 7 Universal time.1 9 8 Time o f free flight.1 0 4 Solar system. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 2 8 8 . 5 8 Time zones. 2 1 at epoch. 1 9 high.1 0 9 apparent solar. 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 4. 58 Semi minor axis. 4 3 7 . definition of. 3 27. 30.4 3 9 d o t product. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 4 3 1 Velocity. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 8 4 . 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 23. 9. 2 1 7 parabola. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 1 8 1 .1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 0 1 . canonical. 1 0 1 . Universal gravitation. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 5 radio interferometers.1 40 Selenocentric. 1 3 5 ellipse. 44 1 mean solar.1 8 8 . 4 3 7 unit. 287 low. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 1 8 (see Nbody . 9 Sidereal time. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 1 1 Units. 9 3 . 1 03 local sidereal.1 9 0 if. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust.9 8 of planets. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 1 6 Sputnik. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 425 Time. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 1 3 2. 1 3 8 optical. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 1 1 . 1 8 8 universal variables. 1 6 3 . 9 9 . 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 1 6 6. 1 8 8 . 60 True longitude at epoch. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 99. 40 Unit vectors. 40.1 6 6 True anomaly. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 20. 23. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 6. 8 6 . 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 1 8 1 .1 4 assumptions.4 3 9 Velocity components. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 1 5. 1 9 1 . 99. 20 Semimajor axis. 1 9 1 225.
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