Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
B.D. United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. J .vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Ronald Chaney ( artist) . and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . D.W. .R. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged. Jan Irvine . Dorothy Fryar .M.E.
.
. . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . 2 . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . 1 17 ix .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . 1 . . . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . . 2. . 1 1 Canonical Units . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The NBody Problem .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 1 . . . . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . 14 . . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . .. . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . 1 . . . . . . 1 09 . 93 . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . 1 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . 2 . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . 1 .3 Classical Orbital Elements . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v .2 Coordinate Systems . . 61 . . Exercises . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . _ 1 . . . . . . . . . 2. . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . 1 . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . 2 . .1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . .1 4.6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . 1 49 . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exerc ises . . . . 25 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1 . . List of References . . . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . . . xi 5 . . 357 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . . . 357 358 . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . . 8 . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . 3 20 . . . . . . . . . . 344 352 355 . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . List of Reference s . . . . . 333 . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . 359 . List o f Re ferences . . . . . 8. . . . . . . 3 87 9. . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 84 . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . 380 . . . 277 6. 26 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 6. . . . . 321 321 3 22 . Histor ical Background . . . . . . . 273 . . .4 7. . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . 279 6 . . 277 6. . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . 379 . . . . . . . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . 8 . .2 The Solar System . 275 . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . 3 27 . . . 3 85 9. . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. .1 Historical Background . . .
5 . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 449 . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . .
as his mother told him in later years. he might have been put into a quart mug. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. 1 642 . Newman! . there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that.CHAPTER 1 TWO. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. Kepler. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. JarnesR. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. the year Galileo died.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. Tycho. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. the noble and aristocratic Dane. the poor and sickly mathematician.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men.
It fit. TWO. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. necessarily moved in circles. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times .1 Kepler's Laws. Kepler's laws were only a description. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse.1. 2 1.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. therefore . who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. with the sun at a focus . The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life .2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. not an explanation of planetary motion . From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars.1 Still. Finally . discoverer of Halley's comet. is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. One day in 1 685 . The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. Since the time of Aris totle .
more simply. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . 4 1. "Why. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction.Sec. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. when he recovered from his shock. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke .1. of course . Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. they speculated whether a force . Dissatisfied with this explanation. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. 1 . undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. or . "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. without mentioning the b et. in ellipses.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . t he Principia. casually posed the question. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force .
has the value 6. " Figure 1 . 1 .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.. G.4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. • . 1 .n ( 1 .1 .1 .12) t o equat i. The universal gravitational constant. .1 . . Note that equation ( 1 .G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m.67Ox 1 0.1. . 1. / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.11 Newton's Law of Motion . .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system. . 1 2) Fg = . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. / .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 . . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia.1 ) (1 .'�V .
. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . thrust and solar radiation pressure . . not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. a lunar or interplanetary probe. . or a planet).II I I I " I I I I :. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present..2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. an earth satellite .. .Sec 1. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. An important force. In addition.. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion.e. I I I Figure 1. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. At any given time in its j ourney. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(.. etc. X I ..�I '. propellants) to pro duce thrust. . 1. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . ..e. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. m2 • m3 m m. j. I " '.
Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells.2' The NBody Problem Figure .. 2.���Y � X n 1. Y. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides.. 1 equator. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton.1 . Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X.. • • • z FOTHER . are discussed in Chapter 3 . variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . Although small. Thus. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. These effects. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's.
The v ector sum. equation ( 1 . .. perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. solar radiation pr essure. m'J JI 3 (rj j) .2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself.2. .3) Obviously . the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . Fg. (1. etc .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. F gn where =  Gm . thrust. Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where .2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1.I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . .2.Se c 1. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . II 3 (1.2 ·1 is T composed of drag.5 ) The other external force .
Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time . is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ..27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.1 + F OTHER ' (l .F I dt TOTAL dt (1.8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch.. z coordinate system. y . . (1.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 ... Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL.I) and all other external forces ..28 would not be zero .I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x ... it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma.26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL.2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0. Thus. In other words..
Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. Equation ( 1 .29) reduces to = r· 1 n . mi 0).1 2) . m ..29) is a second order . vector.11) 2. nonlinear.2.. sun and planets . F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc .1 0) for i = 1. m· J (�i) . The only remaining forces then are gravitational.. equation ( 1 .G And for i = 0 . Y. ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system .2. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form.2. ( 1. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X .G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. r JI. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 . unpowered flight.1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. Then writin g equation 1 .10) ( .2. Equation (1 . It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions.Sec 1 .2. expelling mass or relativistic effects. mn may be the moon. we get j = j � *i 1 3 .
21 1 ) and ( 1 .2. 2 1 7 ) .22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.2 1 6) each bracket.1 4) gives.1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 . . Since r 1 2 = .1 From equation ( 1 .G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .1 2) into equation ( 1 .r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence. n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.2. . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 . 2.10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch..2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.
2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 .3. 1. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite . s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.9x l O 8 7 .6x l O lO 1 . To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of.3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies. Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. 1 x l 0 10 3.3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 .2x l O 8 2. mi orbit about the earth. The bodies are spherically symmetric .89 6x l 0 4 2.3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. Howe ver . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion . This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers.2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .1 Simplifying Assump tions. . sun and planets on a near earth satellite . Table 1 .Sec. 1 .
3. Y'.12 TWO. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. Y..GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 .2 The Equation of Relative Motion. " s However. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame .1 . r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_.3. remains always similar and irrnovable. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. 3 2 ) .3. For the time being. 1 . Y'.1 ) (1 .BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. which "in its own nature. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. 1 2. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. Let (X'. Y' . without relation to anything external. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1. . The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. Let (X. Y'.
33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem.33) . or space probes orbiting about 3 r . GIM+ml r Equation (1.32) from equation (1. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X.33). Z'). Y.Sec. Y. Note that this is the same as equation (1. (1 . we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. Y'. Y. Z').y X' Figure 1 . the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'.. ballistic missiles.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. Note that since the coordinate set (X. Y'. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. Z) with its origin in the central body. and acceleration in a nonrotating. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites.31) we have = _ r . velocity. 1.
Then equation 1 . 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. 1 some planet or the sun. 1. you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. 3 ·4 ) .3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 .14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. "kinetic . an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. If you think ab out the model we have created. called the gravitational GM. namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. m." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion.3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text." That is." for another form called "potential energy . From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . M. will be much less than that of the central body . Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . the mass of the orbiting body . then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). If m is not much less than M. It is convenient to define a parameter.
SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. N 0 tlcmg that .4. then 1 . Therefore. r 2. which appears in . ( 1 . 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O . C. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 .lL\I r dt JJ. To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0.Sec. dt 1:L = O.4 frame (the large mass) does not change . v =r and v= f.r ) = � r �(r . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . 1 .!!. v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. But what about the arbitrary co nstant . 1. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. 5.
3 4) by r 2 . In other words. O. �.16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. e . do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. The expression for � is �.  ( 1 . Cross multiply equation ( 1 . In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . dt .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. r. Noticing that . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive.42) 1 . the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . that the specific mechanical energy. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. rX . We conclude .g.fL 3 .iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . the earth. at what distance .2 Conservation of angular momentum. The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. therefore .iL (rxv) = O.4. Since in general a x a= 0.
41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. (1 .43) v I h = r x v. 1 . called specific angular momen tum. </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . Therefore .The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h." "Up" simply means away . I Figure 1 . we have shown that the specific angular momentum.41 Flightpath angle . h. Therefore .
by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma).0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.8143 = 35. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. c o s ¢=Jl. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS .4. In an inertial coordinate system. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth.8143 r • v > 0 .7 1 37J+O.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. Also find the flight·path angle. respectively. however. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . J and K are unit vectors. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical.420 . v. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. and the specific angular momentum.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. Ch.899 X 107 ft. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . 1 85 2 1 + 6. &.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . I h = rv c o s ¢. • ( 1 . = 0. V =5. ¢. Determine the specific mechanical energy .2778 J + 1 0 . h.4274I+2.5936 1 + 5 . therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. the zeni th angle .573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. (4. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). ¢. r = 12.
Also note that J.3 3 r r r since r • i = f . JJ. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion.. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .5. .. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. While this equation (1.1!y r .51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. its complete solution is not.& . Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity.( r) r. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .51) The left side of equation (1. (1. (h xr) =.33) is simple.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4. 1 . �t (B· .. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain.. we see that J!:. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. 1 .Sec.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ. err.I..
c and a . a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. + r o Since.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. we obtain = 1 h2 /g . (1. h2 where vector r. v..54) . I r 1 + e cos V p (1.9 cos V (1.. in general.54) . V. 5.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle. Equation (1. +(81J.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation. . p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation.53) 1 .
an exchange of energy between the two forms. must change so as to keep h constant. Although Figure 1.Sec.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. potential and kinetic.41 and equation (1 . 5 .51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. ellipse. 1. 4 . Before discussing the factors . As r and v change along the orbit.51 illustrates an ellipse. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. cp. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. parabola. the flightpath angle.44) 1 .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 .5. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. (See Figure 1 . The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. however.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. 2. remains constant. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . There is. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. not just ellipses. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. 3.
52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow.5 2 illustrates this definition . The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. If. 1 Figure 1 . the section is a parabola. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. the section is an ellipse.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . or a single point. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. Figure 1. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines . If the plane cuts both nappes.
the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . The prime focus. The secondary or vacant focus. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit.Sec 1 . F'. F. Figure 1 .53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . F and F'. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1.53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) .
In the parabola. The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse ")." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium.5 3 .24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative .e2). The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 ." "perihelion" or "aphelion.54)).55) p = a (1 ." etc. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero .5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . Thus. Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. a. The dimension. is c�lled the semimaj or axis. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. ( 1 . for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter.
By comparing equations ( 1 . B. 5. which points toward periapsis.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 . 1e ( 1 . 53). 1 ( 1 . e = BltL. 1.Sec . 5. 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe.56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e).57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . . since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. Quite obviously.53) and ( 1 .58) 1 .. we encountered the vector constant of integration.4 The Eccentricity Vector. ( 1 . the trajectory equation.= a( 1 +e) . In the derivation of equation ( 1 .52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !.1 0) . tL r ( 1 .59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . .
v.p. e = ( v v ) r .1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. ( 1 .(r . If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired.61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. r  r . equation ( 1 . of the satellite.53) and equation ( 1 .44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. is equivalent to increasing h. r r p. h. we get • p.6 RELATING &. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. is zero. By comparing equation ( 1 . Figure 1 ...6. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth. e . p. 1. th . v ) v . e = V x (r x v) . and that as h is .1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. By inspection. x v. ( 1 .54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. v)v. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r .5. /or any orbit. Therefore.26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p.p. 1 . of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p.
�' " .  . . = �. r I .e ) . .44). Figure 1 .increased the parameter.42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . We can then write. is zero.� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 .. . v.�= � .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle. . I '. 57) p rp = a(1 . .. p.6. .1 ) predicts . R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. . 1 01) .62) we obtain &.F �.62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . (1 .. as a corollary to equation ( 1 . of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .
5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive .6. &. while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive.28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch .e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f .63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).6. Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. Figure 1 . zero.1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. Thus.56) and equation (1 . the energy of a satellite (negative . or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . Many students find equation ( 1 .63) misleading.1 ) therefore p. 1 and from equation ( l . You should study it together with Figure 1 . a.
Jf5P.Sec 1 . = 6. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . if & is zero . Namely. m i .0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. 2& = 3 . and semimaj or axis. & = 2 .897  e2 ) = 3. m i . 9 n . r p = rES + 200 = 3643. p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. 64) Notice again that if & is negative. m i . e is greater than I (a hyperbola). R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit.  a=  '!:. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather.. The student should be aware of this pitfall. 0 . 6 . e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . semilatus rectum. and specific angular momentum. A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. Determine its altitude at apogee. ra = 1 � e = 4453. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.. if & is positive . For a given satellite . e is exactly 1 (a parabola). specific mechanical energy. 3 n .2 Determine its specific angular momentum.5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . .1 and perigee altitude 200 n ..7 n . mi. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
specifically r + 1 . 1 35 x 1 06 ft n.7· 1 . ( 1 .7·2) . An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. Since an ellipse is a closed curve.7· 1 ) B y inspection. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit.r Ell = 1 009. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. = 5.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . h =. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses.7 . 2a = r a + r = 8097. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. I ( 1 .855 = 6 .861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a . an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . 1 n.30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a .JpjJ. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 .= 2.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa.m i .mi. When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. 1 . The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period. the distance between the foci is ( 1 .
in general. 2 ( 1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point. e is defined as combine to yield da.horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 .71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. when rearranged .7.7 .76) . Using equation ( 1 . 1 .2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.75) which.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 . you will see that the .72) and ( 1 .1 .7. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 . If you refer to Figure 1 .72.7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 . 2 b.74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.73) ( 1 . Since r + r' = 2a.Sec. becomes r dt = 11 dll. equation ( 1 .
is given by the expression So. 1 Figure 1 .76) as ( 1 .73 Differential element of area . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. d v. we can rewrite equation ( 1 .32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Figure 1 .77) dt 2 = 11 dA. d A.72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area.
1 . incidentally.8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit. being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a.75). The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired .e2 ) = JaP and.Sec. 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 .8. Equation ( 1 .77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. Naturally.79). Of course. since h = /JlP.78) b =) a 2 . a. From equations ( 1 . 1 Circular Satellite Speed. During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. Thus.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus .8 . Integrating equation ( 1 . 55) and ( 1 . ( 1 .77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period.8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 .1 ) 1 .79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . so equation ( 1 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 .
1 ) . The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. 1 .9. The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction.000 ft/sec. There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know. we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 .000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . circular speed is about 26 .9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . Another is that.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a.1 . rCS' from the energy equation.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 .9. the periapsis radius is just r 1 .34 TWO . 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.1 Geometry of the Parabola. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.9. F or a low altitude earth orbit.
9.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 . as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back.92) .57). from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � ." 1 .= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   . there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.2 Escape Speed. Of course.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. 1 . Theoretically. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. first at a general point a distance .Sec.E. r. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity.
of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. b . the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.92) =21 .407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 .) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. 36 TWO . A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. a. = j. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . the semimajor axis.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell .1/2a.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . 5 7). The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . 53374 106 ft = = 36.. a.1 57.000 ft/sec.Since the specific mechanical energy. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic.400 nm above the surface it is only 26. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude . 8. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. As you would expect.
53374 106 ft 2 43. m i . m i .Sec. rb i t P 7087.amr iO.8 n. 8n. where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . 06748 106 ft 7087.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. 1 .
1 0.1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). (L l O. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . The parameters a. 1 1 . 1 . A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . then the righthand branch represents the orbit. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . F . then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. 1 0. If. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). If we consider the lefthand focus.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . instead. Obviously.1 ) . 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola.
1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity..2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. 1 0. we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 ." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed.0. 1 . 0. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . 1 . The angle between the asymptotes. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed. 1 0. on the other hand. If. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. the smaller will b e the turning angle . is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 .but since Sec. V 00' . 1 02) becomes ( 1 . The turning angle .1 .for the hyperbola. which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet.
Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. however. a million miles) from earth. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. of course . 1 . 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . It is. 1 (1 . 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. It is a fact. In other words. It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . 1 . This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. the concept is convenient and is widely used.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO.3 Sphere of Influence." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. for all practical purposes it has escaped. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. Astronomers call thi� ' . the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. 1 0. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely.
then the value of the gravitational parameter." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . p. r a' r p' . In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . 1 .046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. moon. earth. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit .Sec. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun.1 . Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. 1 The Reference Orbit. 1 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 5 9362 5 . 1 1 . Using canonical units determine & . or other planet. e. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. h. For other problems where the earth. J. 1 . If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU.l. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU.
1 67 D U �/T U � = . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 .42). [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. � = .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .1 . Alt = . 5 D U e �2 _ /J. 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 .
= 4 .44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 5 D U ".7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 .5 7)  r a = 1 e p. 1 . 25D U EB = 4. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .61) Find h from equation (1. 5 D U = 9.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .. 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8.58) Find r p from equation (1. = 3. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t. = 2. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.Sec.64) Find ra from equation (1.
(Answer : e = 1 . &= .2. b .B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch .000 ft/sec and 4 . Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. c.1 . respectively.. 2K DU 2 /TU . Find the specific energy of the trajectory. Find the eccentricity of the orbit. Why.44 TW O.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. 1 . 6 J 1 .000 n mi. 5 81) 1 . The orbit eccentricity is 0. Find the period of the orbit. 2J AK IJK h = AI . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. 1 . + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . . a. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. 1 EXERCISES 1 .3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. in general. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft.1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 .
7 Prove that d. (Ans. hyperbolic. 0 1K v = l + l . a a. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. 1.5 rpe r i gee = 1 .123K = 1 . Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0.6 18 = 59° 58') . 4K r r v = . D U /T U DU e. 91 J space. r x ft ) = 3. r v c. &. elliptical. p 1.Ch . 2K + . or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). ¢ =3 = 1 . V ft/sec.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. 1 . 354 10" r 1 .000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. p b.5 DU DU DU d. mi during descent? (Ans.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 .
(Neglect atmo spheric drag. p = 2. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. e.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . p = 6. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points. 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit.) 1 . 1 2 Given that e = �. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. ellipses and a hyperbolas. c. 1 .000 ft. p = 3. Determine the maximum altitude attained. b . d .2 e = . derive values for e for circles. p = 6. P 1 . e=O e = . 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = .6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 .46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . p = 2.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00.
What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. * 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. c. 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: .V O U EB /TU EB ) . 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors.6. rc = at +b = 0. 1 . Show that : b. 207 1 . What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory.Ch .
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
you may use the same Figure 2. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation.Sec. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit .4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart .24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. When describing a heliocentric orbit .Xw UK vectors. Q and W respectively. 2 . Yw '+. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . 2 .2. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system.
shape and orientation of an orbit . 6. time of periapsis passage . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time .1 as follows : 1 .the angle from to periapsis measured h. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. is substituted for a in the above list. the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits.the time when the satellite was at periapsis. 4 . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. Q longitude of the ascending node. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. a. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . T. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . i.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 5 . K I I . w. Frequently the semilatus rectum. p. in the fundamental plane . 3 . semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit .the angle . It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . if you know a and e you can compute p. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . Instead of argument of periapsis. 2 . 2.3. e. Similarly. Another system. Obviously . between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. measured in the direction of the satellite's motion.
2 .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.31 Orbital elements .Sec.
earth. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. to ' called the "epoch. then both w and Uo are undefined. w and va are all defined." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle .60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis.1 ) .3. This is the dire ction in which the sun. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . (2 . From Figure 2. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). 1 £0 £0 + . in the plane of the orbit. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . both of which are always defined . then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . then b oth W and n are undefined.3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle .31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) ." Direct means easterly. Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. n=n+w.
41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK .43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. h. n and e. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. or in their intersection which is called the "line of .4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . h. n would have to lie in the orbital plane. Therefore .4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. vI vJ v K J (2 . 2.42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. n. The node vector.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . To be perpendicular to K. n must be perpendicular to both K and h. 2 . 2. t o . To be perpendicular to h.4. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . n an d e.
1 . In general.1 ) (2 . n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements.1 1 )).46) Of course .4. We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . the cosine of the angle . Since A • then cos a = B = AB A .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see .4. n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . ex. p. between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit.S . 2 nodes. We are only interested in its direction. An understanding of it is essential to what follows . All three vectors. The vector. Study this figure carefully . The parameter. 2." Specifically . Now that we have h. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 .62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . h. The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . is obtained from (2 . e.3.
49) 6. � � h. (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2. Since n is the angle between I and n.:.) c o S Po = � er (2 .47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .48) 5 . Since w is the angle between n and (2.Sec. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.4. Since Vo is the angle between e and f.4 3 .) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° .' (2. (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .4..) e.1 1) .) . Since Uo is the angle between n and f . 2..1 0) 7 . 2 . c o s U o = !!. (2 . Since i is the angle between K and h.
Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2. If they don't make sense to you.4.1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . . The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now.1 and study it until they do . 3 .64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . look at the geometry of Figure 2 . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v. 2 z x 8 .
42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1.Sec. Figure 2. VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations. 5 DU e == . 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 .
2 3 Figure 2 .4 DU p == .\ .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .5 e == .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .
Sec.44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 . 2.
. [ ( f. Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.i:.45 ) Since h =. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node .I:!:. A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system).1.l h2 .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. EEl .(r .4. From equation (2.6.= 4D U = 13.48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . Find inclination.47) = .1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.. Find p using equation (2 .. Find eccentricity. i. . ml .. n.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 . 7 75 . e.1 ) p = .7 4n . f. ) r . using equation (2 . Using equation (2.
since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . va. is undefined. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .49) W n · e W. 4 . . for this case . II.  Find longitude of periapsis. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. 2 .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. From equation (2 . Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . II.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis.1 (. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .n.n = COS . Find true anomaily .Sec.!!. Find argument of periapsis. From equation (2.41 0) v a c os.1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 ..:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . can be determined in this case. = cos ..
From equation (2.  then from equation ( 1 .5 . = From equation (2. 2 Find true longitude o f epoch.85 n . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .6.. EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct . v)v] =.\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .25 EB EB D U EB 7748. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=.E)r(r .m i ...33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM . The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .1 ) Find e.
49) w: 0 W = cos.5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .Sec.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n . va : From equation (2.5 Find the inclination. I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 .11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 . From equation (2 . .48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis.43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .4. From equation (2.I Find the true anomaly . 2.
. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. i . Let ' s assume that we know p. 8. v.ffe si n V (2. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. shown below. n. n.5 2) . changes with time . w and va . In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. 8. i.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =.5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . that occurs in a given time . the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly .5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . w and v. The method. lV.24): ro to. 2 elements are given. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. Of the se six elements.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2.5. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .to. consists of two steps. 2. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set.
si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .25 45{) (2. Before equation (2.54) from equation r (2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = . 5P DU E9 (2.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .54) r = J � [.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 . 2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).5 i= p 2.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.Sec. v �[. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.
suppose you know the south. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar ." 2. In other words. 2 2. have a definite starting point . A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . the direction of the po sitive zaxis.6. east a!1d up. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . east. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . and it still represents the same thing. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . For example. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. direction . namely. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . such as position vectors. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. its fundamental (xy) plane . A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. For example . east ." The phrase in quotes describes what the . Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. suppose you know the south. vector represents. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. or what it represents. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . Certain vectors. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components).
" A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite. ���________� • . Let us imagine three unit vectors I.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S . Figure 2. 2.Sec.6. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .y Y 75 ." In other words. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation. y' and z ' axes.61 illustrates the two frames. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. y ����. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. : r Y I ex a . y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. 2.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices.61) . We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. and extending along the x.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . V and W along the x ' . Figure 2.
We will use subscripts to identify the basis.1 ) yields I.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2.61 we can see that the unit vectors U. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ). 2 From Figure 2.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch . J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2. (2.62) above and equating it with (2.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.6. 65) . V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .
Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis. .Sec. Rotation about the xaxis. 2 . These are summarized belox:: . 68) B '" (2.  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .67) yields the set of equations (2 .67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2. 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.66) (2. (2 . derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes.64) above .69) '" axis.6.
Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.6.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L .78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2. Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames. So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. 2 (2.61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame .7 . in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . 1 ). The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) . a.4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . Figure 2.
Fortunately. denoted by D . The transpose of the matrix D . all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e .1 .61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates.Sec. Hence . Equation (2. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 .Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e . We can write equation (2. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. . A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. (i.e. Now.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . The inverse of any orth. 2.61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). AB =1= SA ).61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative.
oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . d w . tluee b . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce .". mu " in cid 'n ce b . By me mo C. 6. Perifo ca l to th e G Th .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK .. a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. d wi th . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . 5 Tmn . th.ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc.". 'o ta t." a ny mp licat e d . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . gl " n i lly .1 2) Figure 2 .Eq to th e IJ K in at . axes in to CO ham . O c M ma t. to p' ter ho w co no. anglo . 62. basis no ma t ..n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . a bl . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame.. sh ow n in F ig u " Th . d th yo u will b .sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch .".6 . n t rizing th . m1 " fo. th' O ugh w hi ch on . 6.. 2 (2.
we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. then Sec .. .. Figure 2. 2 .63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry..The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame .. Thus if a i ' aJ . from Figure 2... R.63. a K and ap ... aQ. To . For example . 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit .
I • p I · Q J . Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Similarly. J and K Thus R = J . The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. Now a.cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .1 4) R23 = . the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .sin n sin w cos i . ! • P. P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I.sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R .cos n sin w . a �. Q I ' W J · W K . 2 from their dot product .6. the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w.63 .1 3) i.6. R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . P K · P In Figure 2. B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. since I and P are unit vectors. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another.
But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired.Sec . In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. V. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical.5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s .1 ) and (2.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . . In this case either n or w or both are undefined. 2. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. 2 .5 . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity.
The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. is measured clockwise from north . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. The unit vectors S. 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. 2. p.1 . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. EI. The azimuth angle . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . can also be measured. 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south.( N o rt h ) 2.7 . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . Az. 7 . AZ .84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . the elevation angle . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � .7 . E and Z shown in Figure 2 . The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.7. the rate at which range is changing.
1 . E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .7 4) = + P (2 . Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El.72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. Az. 2.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.and EO/. From Figure 2. We will express the po sition vector as (2 . /l!L.73) E l (B I ). Sec. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky.75) .7. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. p. from the geometry of Figure 2. Thus.3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2.7 . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. = Ps PE = P cos Pz.1 ) where .72 we see that r (2 . E I .7 .
If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth. A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .76) . For the moment we will assume that equation (2 . 2 J topo centric frame .72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . Unfortunately.
EB x f. you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth.73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame . It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v.Sec. (2 . v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) .73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .77) . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". 2 . Figure 2. Therefore .
300 N Lat .1 = [. 5Z (Given) [).707 .E + 1 .3535 . Figure 2.5 J .866 .6 1 2 . 5 Z (units are DU). 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.612 .707 o .612) r = R + P = 2S . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long. Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates. Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . 3535 . is 2 S E + .
I =J =K=O. 2. (2. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. y. . z) system (Figure 2 .75 ) .7. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . 332J  . if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . v. (2. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2.. Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. y.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = ..9 1 81 + 2.4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . rotating with respect to the (x. The unit vectors D. We will denote this quantity by w. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.982K . w) .Sec.79) J.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . however.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. z).
1 0) reduces further to .1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. . Hence .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) .7. Hence . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . equation (2 . V = w x V and W = w x W . . The remaining terms of equation (2. equation (2 .7. Similarly. R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . .
. .. v v..75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA.. .1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q.7. �:.LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 ... .. " F i xed " System ( x. Equation (2.7. dt R I (2 . � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u... z) '.... . y..... W) Figure 2.. 2 . . .. .Sec...y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ ...... .....71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector....1 2) . 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u .
7.7 .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest. Equation (2 . (2 .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .9!." Ioox.1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.7 . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .7.JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .7 .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 . Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth. 2 iLl F = .7. (2 .7.1 3) into equation (2 . The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .) .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .1 2) to the po sition vector r.7.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .7.
a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. ae . be' is just the polar radius of the earth. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. of course . Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . It is known . Sections parallel to the equator are .8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . 2.) 2. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components.8.Sec. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . If the earth were perfectly spherical. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. Therefore . We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. In the model which has been adopted. however . circles. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . 2 .
2. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use .94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . 1 45 6356. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . it does complicate the concept of latitude. When you are given the latitude of a place . the difference between L and is usually negligible . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter .1 ." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight .8. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. Consider Figure 2. The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field .8.785 0. 2. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level.08182 == km km L La L .2 The Measurement of Latitude." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated . The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude .3 Station Coordinates.8.
95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 . L . 4 km Figure 2..Sec. The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e .!! o .. 2 . / (2. O ..8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.82.1 ) . We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude ." which is illustrated in Figure 2. 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. Thus..8 . the "reduced latitude . c.82 .
/ .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But .. for any ellipse . z ..1:  (2 . 0 O D. 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . I C. b e =a e V� = b2 + d. c:  0) x Figure 2. Ch .and e = da.82) . a2 . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L.
8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . Thus.Sec:. 2 .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . (2 . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2.85) . (2.
83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2.8 7) 2. If the Greenwich sidereal time .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components. (2 .8. {1 ' is known . {1.85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . 2 ( 2 . From Figure 2.86) L. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude . elevation above mean sea level. The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below. and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .8 8) . The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame .98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .
the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site .89) . 2 . Although Figure 2. the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time .Sec . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time . L.84 shows a spherical earth.8." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2.
2 j i Figure 2 . From (2 .1 0) .8 .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .
The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours.9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . a Z If a l .9.Sec.cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time .8. it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . This should be made clear by F igure 2.9 . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time . 2.1 2) . 2 .6. This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . so . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. (2 . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time .9 equation (2 . This is the time kept by ordinary clocks.1 . It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .1 2) and a s ' a E .
09054 mean solar seconds .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . So far. In early January. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. when the earth is near perihelion. Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 .
or Zulu (Z) time. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart .is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . Universal Time (UT).9. The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. For example . (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. Thus.9. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. if it .3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known .2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . 2. 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 .Sec. This relationship is illustrated on page 99. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . 2 . . Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa.
we express time in decimal fractions of a day. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . 8 9=8 9 0 1 . we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . in addition. m i n ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. . The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane .4 Precession of the Equinoxes. Ephemeris and 2. 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1.104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If.9. ° 229421 1.
.Sec ." with a perio d of 1 8 .6 years. As the earth' s axis precesses. 2 ..6 year s . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun.. the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 ... Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic.000 year s .92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars. The period of the precession is about 2 6. the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. 0 0 0 y rs " . 6 yrs I Figure 2. so the lunarcaused precession has this same period. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . Due to the asphericity of the earth. the equatorial plane is not .. However . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year .
1 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6.0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 .296° H = 6 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.00 1 + L= 0 . 25 8=8 g + A = . 00 1 From section 2 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. 5 7 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl .74933340 = 1 . at 0600 GMT. The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included.e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . 6 24 5 .378km = 0 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . Day  = Long o 57 .6245 rad ians o 9 . x= [ z= � ae + � .296 degrees west longitude .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .
4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.72) PE p Pz Ps = . Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .346E + O.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 . 2 .(0. 00 1 (S.6971 + .7 1 SJ + OK Sec.From equation (2.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O. 00 1 c o s(S.6245) = .74) .2D UES = (0.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0. At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N. 0.6245 )1 + 1 .
0 1 . 3. 1 08 Ch .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.�� lO.(0.3.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.866 0. 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .Ps = .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .7·5 ) From equation (2 .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .0E + 1 .8 .610.46 P =D1 .(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .25 0.0588K) From equation (2 .84J .73 p + (O.4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .5 1 .46 D U /T U (0.46S .73Z D U (T U r = 0.1 .73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.433 .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2. 46 = 0.1 . 0.8 .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .1 .346E + l .0.77) v = [� ] [ J 0.346J + 1 .061 .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .
232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . p .8J . Ai. k. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . As Baker S points out . of course . f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar).Sec. 2.081 . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. and the orb it is uniquely determined. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. may be lacking. Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . Ei. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . EI .3.0. f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. W. Figure 2. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . Gibbs is. 2 .
then u sing (2 . 1 02) gives (2 . 1 06) Multiply (2 . who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree .5 4). 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I .1 ) successively by fl . (2 . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . 1 0. Dotting (2 . Notice that C2 may now be divided out. 1 05) (2 . Q and W.r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . equation ( 1 .1 ) by (2 .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. 1 0. (2 .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section.r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. 1 0. 1 05 ) and (2 . 1 03) by f3 X r l . 1 03) Cross (2. 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . (2 . and the definition of a dot product . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o .r. 1 04) (2 . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar .r 3 ) = 0 . 1 04) . 2 fine scholar . 1 08) . we can show that : e ' f = p .
1 09) D. 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . 1 0. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. 1 0. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. Since P. 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. provided N .1 4) (2 .1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . 1 0. 1 0 pD = N . i.Let the right side of (2 .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . D = N P = O' N (2 . 1 0.e . .1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . 1 0. N and D have the same dire ction. 2 . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. (2.1 5) .1 3) : (2 . 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . (2 . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. equation (2 . (2 . 1 0.1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. Therefore .
1 7) W Q = S S N (2 .r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . D and S ve ctors. P = Q X W. and (2 . N and S vectors.1 8) N (2 . (2. N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . 1 01 0) to find p. (2 .52) we can write i X h = p. 1 0. From equation ( 1 . 1 020) to find P. 1 0. 1 0. Before solving the problem. (2 .1 8) to find Q. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. (2 . 1 020) Thus.1 9) to find W. since NeQ = pS. ( f  r + e) . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. (2 . 1 0. N > o. Q and W are orthogonal. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 .r2 ) f3 ] (2 . 1 02 1 ) . 1 0. 1 0.1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Then use (2 .1 6) .1 9) Since P. 1 0. Therefore.r t ) f2 + ( rt . 1 0. check N * O and D .1 7) to find e.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. However .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N.
1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. b) c O . ON (2 . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . 2 . e) We can write h v v = .( a .E. v = eP. (h xr r = + (a .h = P.2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. D X r + JJ{. Using the identity . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. = p. 1 024) (2 ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 .(h . h X (h h ) v . so c) b . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . v) h and h .Sec . 1 0.. 1 025) . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 .
This is not exactly true. 4 . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . proceed as follows : For example . Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . This method . to find any of the three velocities directly . possible two body orbit . 1 02 6) Thus. N=FO. Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. Test: 0 10 . 1 .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . N and S vectors. Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. v2 � + L S r2 • . 2 L + LS (2 . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . using the stated tests. = 0 for coplanar vectors. find v2 : 2. shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . Finally . Form L = = 6.
8000K = 0. the semilatus rectum.Sec. N . If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. r 1 and r2 . and the timeofflight between these po sitions. Form the D . period and the velocity vector at position two . 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. r1 r2 r3 = 1 . NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution .0. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units).0774J 0. P = 0= N  2. 2 .047 1 = .5000K Find : P. eccentricity. 9701 = 2. and S vectors: D= N S 1 .9000J + 0. The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations.97 .0471 O U = 0 .039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . Since 010. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.000K = 0_700J ." Thus.
. = .576J .0. 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .0.041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 0408 1 1 . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.0.270K W= N.1 .0804 e = = = 0 .960 DU/T U (4. 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . 2 S .963K N 1 .497 9.657K D U /T U 2 0.97 o lP = a = 1 .4 to solve for the elements. 1r/{: 6.67 TU (89. 700J . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .963J .270J + 0.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .
is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s .7 2). then ' .g . optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch.6 2 : 1 1 .:S :J: JS L K . (2 . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. r = pL [�. If we let L . (X1 ' < \ � . [:i:n :: :.Sec.1 ) (2 . L. 1 1 . 3. we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. 2. As a result . ° 2 . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . 2 . 1 1 2) r . j = 1.z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . In either case . = OJ + R j . topo centric right ascension and declination) is required.
.1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 3) (2 . . �J 1  . ':. • ' I . \ . 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . f f. I . � . The vectors L. r u. .. ' ' :.. p and r.. L.1 . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . R and R are known at time t2 . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . \' P2 i �� G ". \ •.J V I . (2 . \ [L. �� I 1 " _ ./  L . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . : '< ' . • 00 . . .. are not known . \ Figure 2. say the middle ob servatio n . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = .[. L. p.' ' " ': . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. p. however . 0 (2 .1  R ) r3 .
t 1 ) ( t2 . 1 1 6) + 2t .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t 1 .t 3 ) L2 (2.t2 ) (t.t2 ) ( t} .t 2 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t 1 ) (t 3 . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t 3 ) (t.t2 L3 ( t 3 . t2 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =. t } . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t 1 ) ( t.t2 ) .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t 1 . Since we have the value of L at. t2 and t3 .three t�es.t 3 ) ( t } .t3 ( t 2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t2 ) ( t 1 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .Sec.t 1 ) ( t2 .t } ) (t 3 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 . 2 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t 3 ( t 1 . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t2 ) ( t 1 .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t 1 ) ( t3 .t3 ) (2 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t. 1 1 .
u R Ir3 J + . 2 . I L . L L L K K K J . better yet . L J . p. 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. 1 1 5 ) . L K + . 1 1 6) and (2 .u L 1 / r 3 L J + . however. . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . in fact .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . For the time being.1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch .L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + ... p' and r. 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule.. L J I (2 . p. D reduces to L D =2 L I L .u R Ir3 I + . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . that if more than three observations are available . it is evident that L Dp = . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . 4 Equation (2 .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J .ons (2 .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. LI . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. It should be noted. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . + . This. making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations.u L /r 3 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. .
L L L J K I p . L J L I K J!.1 0) and (2 . From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . If we do this we find that .Sec . 1 1 . . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. Substituting equation (2 . 1 1 . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . 2 .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . 0. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. L K . Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . 1 1 . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. 1 1 .1 1) Op = . R . p and r. R J .1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. r2 = pL RI = + p (2. . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . 1 1 2). O O. 1 1 . R R I . R R . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2.4 Solving for Velocity . 1 1 . 2 . L K L J L I K (2. 1 1 5). 1 1 .. . 1 1 ..1 0) into (2.1 2) .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2.
Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . 2 . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . El.1 4) p 2. k. one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations.1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . 1 1 . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. P.For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . E l . 1 1 . a . (2 . This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . ° .2). at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all .1 3) for p. 1 1 . 1 1 . 2 (2 . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. As a matter of fact . a3 . 1 1 . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . Laplace ' s method fails . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. such as P. If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. ° 3 . To obtain the velocity vector . D.
Doppler rangerate. however .::"P . v Kl at t = to are correct.g. t4 . It may happen . Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. 1 Computing Residuals.::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. The question then arises. The six residuals are �1 ' . 2 The Differential Correction equations. For example . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. p) will differ from the computed data. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates.Sec." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. . Assuming that the residuals are small. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e .::"P 2 ' . The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations.::"P 3 . 1 2. . \ ' t2 . 2. of course. ts and t6 ' These predictions are . r K ' v " vJ . t3 . that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. 1 21) . 1 2. 2.
i. 2.Vj' D.VK .1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . reduce the residuals to zero . . 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. 1 2. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. equations (2 . . D. r K " ' arl D. NK.. for example . 1 2.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. usually 6 for orbit problems) n .VI .r l " v K )p1 ( r l . Nj. however. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. V K ) . Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation.e. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. NI .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. The inversion of equations (2 . rj . D. With the aid of a digital computer. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon.) Then. by trial and error. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . . .1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. ap1 . 1 2 .
4. for 90% confidence . since p 2 below) .tb each of the elements measured. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. minimum as described above . 3 . 2 . 2 . V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). called the root me an square (RMS) . zero . If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. for the exactly determined case (p or b. a and (3 are the elements (two here . This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2.. use 0.g . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it .. b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. = = n) . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. Solve equation (2 .8 1 ) . This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum.W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. .
Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 .2. 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . ex VI.Assume equal confidence in all data. 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. the partial derivatives are : . Choo se ex and for the first estimates.:.
2. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT.Sec. Thus. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J .
we will use a simple .474 Xi 3 . 6 orbit elements) would be used.360 = . let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . In practice. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. yet still overspecified number of measurements. large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . To illustrate the method involved. 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small.474 and f3 = 3. This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. corresponding to the given Xi and compute .
1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence . 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l .Sec.500 8.934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .1. 2 .865 49.007 0.y.000 n = Vi 0. aa ._1.. ( V i Yi ) 2 4. 474 x 3 .) 2 n . .031  1 = 1 RMS residual /. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2. E ( V 1.000 1 9..1 26 0.474 4 0 07 19. 934 = 1 . 969 ____  Vi .0 01 1 3.828 0 0.866 4 x . 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 . 3 .Vi 2.1 05 9. 0 35 3.000 50.
Thus (X new = .246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. 0..(X 26 3. The second iteration yields: £::.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2.304 0..360. 1 22) we have £::.1. = 3.0. 1 75 ] 5. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.z 10.670 3.027 12.l Now using (2 .056 ""' T ."""'" �T�� .021 070 20.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .36 .3.4 1 69.031 8.304 = .474 + .380708 A = 40. {3 = {3 new . 0 18 0.001 07 33 b = 0.039 £::. which is larger than what we started with.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .062 . 81 30 8. 1 96 = 3. 27 A WA = [12. 105. 1 961 0. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .733.. so we iterate.2. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .
5 8 1 . The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . and finally. 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . 038 [3 = 3 . 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . 7 35 x 3 . the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . 2 .00 1 . W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. in theory.000 . Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit .735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . . 2.5 8 2 . 1 2. In practice . 038 . 2 .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. however. However.Sec . The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . during orbital decay. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth.
1 The Spacetrack System. 1 3. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). antisatellite targeting." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). At present. 2 . 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS .000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. 1 Radar Sensors. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. forming "clouds" of space debris. Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected.500 miles make about 1 2 . and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. 2 2. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. the White Sands Missile Range . 1 4 . spacecraft failure diagnosis. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. the precomputed 2. In addition. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System.5 003. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). and midcourse ICBM inter ception. These detection radars with a range of 2.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .
At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. Greenland. New Jersey. is now on active Spacetrack alert. One FPS49 . at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. while three are located at Clear.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. One of the earlier detection radars. 2. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. Alaska.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. Turkey. Figure 2. and is on active spacetrack alert.Sec.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. the FPS43.
Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. United Kingdom. Alaska. Alaska. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. Florida. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. This BMEWS station at Clear. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. 2 Figure 2. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly.142. under the 140ft radome at the left. In addition. The prototype located at Eglin AFB.
Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. 2. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. 2. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver.143. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan.Sec.2 Radio Interferometers. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. When two or . High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering.14. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe.
1 4 . but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system.3 Optical Sensors. two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . Alberta. and therefore . 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. 2 . To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . Considering the type of observational data received. is well established. Canada . 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . the semimajor axis. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal .1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . In addition to these . After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period.
the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. it is .Sec. seeing conditions must be good. and the lighting correct. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. A separate optical system superimposes. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages.145.400 miles. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . Alberta. 2. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. As a result. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars.
2 . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. on the other hand . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. in any case . . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. 1 4 . Doppler rangerat e info rmation. takes time. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. Massachusett s . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. For detection radars. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce .000 meters. Further . is relatively accurat e . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. New Mexico site. it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . In any case . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . 4 Typical Sensor Errors. This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data.1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error .
146. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) . 2. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. lunar attraction.14. nonuniform gravitational fields.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific.5 Future Developments. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0.7 seconds in time would remain. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects.Sec 2.
is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . p. a continuousw ave . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . but it also record s target tracks for later playback . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. Now. The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . Theoretically . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . Operating in the SHF b and . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. In t he system under development . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . howeve r . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. of the target . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . Many improvements .
Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. 1 5 . 1 5 .. One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . i. For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i.. 2 . 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . The arc CB which forms the • . 1 5 . respectively with a launch a zimuth . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth.1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. 1 5 2 . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . 18cP  2 . F igure 2 . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . 1 5 . o f the orbit . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 .Sec. 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination .
1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . i : c os i = . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . therefore . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . 1 5 ·3 . 1 5 . 2. The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. . f3 ' be easterly . A direct orbit require s . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . For a due east launch equat ion (2 . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . 0 i. The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit .e . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . L o?" If i is to be minimized . that the launch azimuth. Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . betwe en 00 and 1 80° .
This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . 1 5 . Figure 2 .Sec. 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . 2 . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . su r face .
What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. e = .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. 885. Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. Colorado ( 1 04. a solar day or sidereal day? b . Which takes longer .89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . J . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. = (partial answers : 2. 9 7 0 .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. 2 EXERCISES 2 . i = 90° .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch .7071 + . Englan d . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. = u nd ef i ned ) = .7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U.
1. 2. c . (Answer [partial] e = . Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. 82 u a . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 .Ch. i . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. 2 + b .8 2075 . . (partial answer s : p = 8/9 .7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I .8 I J P = .2K DU .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. 3<. 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . e. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU.) Determine p. W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. Determine the orbital e lements.
a.7 6) . (Answer : r = 1 . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. 2. 1 0 2.8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . 1 0 January 1 9 70. 2. W. Units are earth canonical units. r2 1 . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. p = 1 . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . Q. b ut not nece ssary. equatorial . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . b . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours.4 1 4202 0. Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis .3 1 065 1 5 0. 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . b .5 0 West .060668 8 3 1 . the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . PST . C alifornia . 6464495 a. LST = 63 . U se of a computer is sugge sted . 2 . 1 7 1 .3 5 35 3995 0 1 . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d .4 1 4225 1 1 1 . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . r3 r l I J K 1 . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans.8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale .system along the unit ve ctor s P.
C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.0 0 2 .94974 1 7 6 . fl f2 f3 0 .09497879 1 . 1 4  DU/TU.094964 1 8 0.6 0.9 1 420062 4 .0 2 .0 0 2 . .5 65 6808 1 0. DU * 2.62 1 34384 c.0 0 .8 0 0 .0 7 .707 1 0 1 0 1 0.2K with a velo city o f AI .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .20709623 0 .8 0 . B . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .Ch.97 2 .89497 879 0.9 1 42 3467 2 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q . fl f2 f3 3 .0 0 .89497724 0 0 0 1 .6 0. fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g. fl f2 f3 d. fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.97 0 1 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .0 7 .707 1 1 25 5 0.7 0 0 e.0 2 .1 .0 1 .565 6808 1 0 0 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 .207 1 25 5 1 . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .0 1 .
Obj ect vernal equinox direction. d .1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . Express the coordinates. Obj ect c.75 K D U /T U )  . Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. b. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . ___ e. east and zenith (up) component s? c. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates.0078 J 0. 9 7 . Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south.17 p 0. . Obj ect b . __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . v = 0.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . 2 a . * 2 . 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. ( A ns. vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.620 1 I 0. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 .
Mass. NY." Sky and Vol 1 6 . New York . London . U. 8 . 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . S . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . No 6 . Navy Space Surveillance System. C ambridge . NY . NY . Jame s R . Henize . 9 . pp 1 08 . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. New York . 7 . "Space Traffic Surveillance . 6. Newman . G . New York . Baker . Inc. and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . Pedro Ramon . Sky Publishing Corp . Moulton . Inc. November 1 9 67 . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. 1 9 1 4. D avis . Vol 3 . Edmond Halley . NY . Thomas Nelson and 3. Jr ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . Telescope . Robert M .1 1 1 ." in The World of Math ematics . 4. Dover Publications . 2 .Ch. K. Second Revised Edition . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . 1 9 66. 1 96 3 . 1 965 . Laplace . Space/A ero na utics . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. C leeto n . John Wiley & Sons. . New York and London . "The A erospace Vehicle s . E scobal. Sons Ltd . 1 0 . Paul G . Gauss. Academic Pre ss. C . 1 962. 1 95 6 . 1 9 67 . 1 95 7 . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . Thoma s. New York . Carl Friedrich. A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . Angus. 5 . Pierre Simo n ." Vol 48 . E . L. Forest Ray . Simo n and S chuster . The M acmillan Company. Armitage .
. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. USAF Academy. Sunnyvale. SepOct 1 967. McGrawHill. Carson. NY. 1 966. p 39 . New York. Gerald C. Electronic . "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination." The Vol 1 4. 1 966. Vo1 40. Thomas J. Roger R. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. R." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. 1 6. 1 2 . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. 1 962. P. Bate. the A stronautical Sciences. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. California. and Eller. No 20 . NY . New York . 1 5 . Colorado. Briskman. 1 4. 1 9 66.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . S. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . Inc." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. "Future Radar Developments. 1 970. Cheetham. Journal of Oct 2. Air Force Systems Command. New York. New York. 17. R. 1 3 ." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. 1 967 . NY. Robert D . 2 1 1 . 1 962. NY. Davies. No 5 . Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas." Satellite Control Facility.
After that . or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . according to their different velocity.000 or more miles. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. 1 0. for the next 250 years. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . Goddard. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. those bodies. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. the idea seems to have been forgotten. 1 .CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. and the different force of gravity in different heights. or variously eccentric. ) 00 . will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. as of 5 .
the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . On 4 October 1 95 7 . 1 . 3 . The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors.research. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. since it contemplated the use of military hardware . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . Project Orbiter. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. However. The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. still in its infancy . Manned spaceflight . was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. Rather . particularly if it is manned . 3 . the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 .
...n w . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N . ... ...50K �. .///11// .. � '" . � . 20K (.rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION .(/} � � (I) E � � .' � S' (1) 0 .EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr. I MONTH I . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 .V'h WillI e: � . mJ77/1/. YEAR a YEARS ..H O URS WEEK .25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" ... VI/II � V � . .J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl ..rrrj. � ee. . c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .... (I) CD � ..: fiD It: 0 It: <t .. 71.J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E . 11 L ..::: 0(I) "" 20 10 ..+ :=. ..J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .... c.
1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . stated. but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. a p ogee 1 00 n . m . 3 . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch.1 shows the limits imposed by drag . m . 1 . 1 . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . 1 ·2 . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . Figure 3 . Figure 3 . m .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit .
!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. 3 .or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself.. 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. The vehicle is not allowed to coast .Sec. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . 1 2 . It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. 1 3 . The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. as you can see from Figure 3 . The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 .
but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits.3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. 1 . therefore. Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . You . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth.1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . As a result. 3 . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . Figure 3 . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . 1 5 . This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque .
J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�. 3 .2 ...D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9. 1 > .���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.Sec.."� ill Q rn o I � fS . "::> Figure 3 . 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " ..9 r�=r�rr.5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.
I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .J 5 "' C iii 0. 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.. "' "' .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 ..
3 .N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. which also is due to oblateness. the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63. What is the inclination of the orbit? b. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . Therefore = .site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . The ascending node moves to the west . Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude .6.60 .6 0 . It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days.40 or greater than 1 1 6.Sec. a. completing one revolution every 90 days. With this perturbation .Q 360 ° per 90 days :.40 and 1 1 6. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. and oppo. 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. Figure 3 .67 0 /day From Figure 3 .
Figure 3. This is. 1 The Synchronous Satellite.000 nm altitude .2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. however. 2 .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . ground trace of a synchronous satellite. This. Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase .inches from the surface. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. 1 2 this would be 2*. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. of course. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. The first stage booster climbs 3 . The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . unfortunately. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). Of course. 3 . Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned.2. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time .21 shows why. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 3 .6 earth radii above the surface ." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. not the case . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. 1 .300 nm or about 5 . On the scale of Figure 3 . for example . For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. 3 Figure 3 .
.2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more..� � Figure 3 .. . curve is \ " " . intervals .22 Ascent ellipse . Dot ted grou nd trace . This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit. Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr.21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. 3.Sec... \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 .. burn """ " " .. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . At apogee of the ascent ellipse..
3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude .1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch .33) or = da 2a2 vdv .32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction .. /:. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. fJ. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. = _ r 2a .v (3.31) If we solve for '.  fJ. 3 . a very precise orbit is required. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. at appropriate points in the orbit.da a2 = fJ. This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. for some other reason.3 . 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. we get a change in . 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. dv. 2vdv . a? v. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . speed. (3. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. Usually this is not serious.34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. as they are called . We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . but . (3 . and flightpath angle. we get (3 .
3 . a 6.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6.34) for small but finite 6. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. 3 . 2 The Hohmann Transfer.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory.h a �  da. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit .v) . the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec .1 .34). The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . a2 6.V v P P (3. Since we know r l . Since the major axis is 2a. We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. to the large orbit. therefore . whose radius is rl . whose radius is r2 ." 3 . 4 Jl. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. of the orbit given by equation (3 . along the transfer ellipse.semimajor axis.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6.3. called Hohmann transfer orbits. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. Similarly. For example . 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height.
/2 a .1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch . its speed is .36) = r i + r2 =  and. (3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3.31 &.31 (3. 2at Figure 3 .37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3. since p. 3 the transfer orbit. &.
i n our example . the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. Find the minimum /::.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. & t = � = .3. .V implies a Hohmann transfer . ra = 3 DU. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . to VI ' So . Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. For the transfer traj ectory.V required to double the altitude of the satellite . 3 I N. 3 . I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . Although.3. Minimum rp = 2 DU. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one .� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::.Sec.39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required.1 0) (3 . The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion .
1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 . We can express this condition mathematically as r = .3.VTOT == .346 ft/sec 3 . Figure 3.061 DU/TU I::.068 D U/TU V cs =.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits. Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.V2 = .3. I::.313) .� r 1 1 +e p p (3.32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch . I t is obvious from Figure 3 .707 DU /TU vi r.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.V1 = . 3 V cs 1 = (il = .JfF"= .
Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. Knowing and e.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits.Sec. and the angular momentum. / 2a . I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 .3.1 5) .1 4) (3. ht.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. I &. To satisfy both conditions. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.33) and interpret them graphically. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. we can compute the energy. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. (3. in the transfer orbit. 3 . p p (p. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. respectively . p p p  = .3. �.
p r2..39) The angle between v1 and va.33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r . Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit .1 is just the flightpath angle . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.34 /::. its speed is (3 . .v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 . __ Figure 3. we get (3.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .
or it can rotate the line of apsides.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit.V required. as shown at the right of Figure 3 .1 7) reduces to equation (3. We can solve for the magnitude of b. This is called a simple plane change. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . and obtain directly for circular orbits.1 'I' . assuming that we know v and e.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. 4 .V.3. 3 . b.V. ¢l ' is zero.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ". it is not surprising that equation (3 . An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. b.1 . which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape .310) when the flightpath angle . then only the plane of the orbit has been altered .V. b. 1 Simple Plane Change .4.41) 3. more simply. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3.Sec.3. together with the b. e. If. Or.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. (3 . the b. A velocity change . the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. (3. after applying a finite b. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. 3.V using the law of cosines. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above .V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the .41 .31 6) Now.34. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . form an isosceles vector triangle.
Therefore . If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. for example . The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . DU circular orbit. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. makes b. a. It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. . Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). A plane change of 60 0 .vrequired to accomplish the mission. b . Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . Determine the total b.V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized.V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. calculate the additional b. 3 Figure 3 .
0.Sec. 1 +� 1 .270.Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU . & t = = �= .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.618 = 1 . Therefore at = r2 . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.Vl = V l . .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 . 3.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.V l 1 .953 DU/TU L.__ = . I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis. DU 2 1 Hence .. The given information is: h I = 0.1 = \1'1 . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .
2 + 0. 6.317) to determine 6.626) = 0 .447) (.V22 v.626) = 0. 3 and we must use equation (3. + v�s2.253 ft/sec .447) 0.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch . 1 5 DU/TU 6.626 vcs2 = V't.387 DU/TU = 1 0.V2 = y'l'5= 0.(0. 3 87 .4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .4) (. 4 .042 ft/sec Therefore v = .704 DU/TU 18.447 DU/TU 2 1 . 447)(.2 . 31 7 + . v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.2(.= 0 .3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .V2 .
V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .Sec. F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .4.4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U . 3.078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .447 ) ( .1 ) t:::.
Ch . a plane change or an orbit transfer. i. 3.5 DU .1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . a.5 b.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. 0 .2 Calculate the total 6.76.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of . lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.5 DU/TU. 3 EXERCISES 3 . i changedall other parameters remained the same. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3. What is the minimum 6. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.e. 1 1 DU and e = 0. (Ans.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. c. 3 .449 DU/TU) 3.2 DU and 4 DU respectively. r p = 1 DU e = 0. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . a = 2. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b.21 . 0. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time .4 Refer to Figure 3 ..
v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. C ompare this with the I::. * 3 . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer.7 3 . 0 . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth.Ch . 9 Calculate the total l::. orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . . 5 & Design a satellite . using Hohmann transfers. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation.1 DU 8 1 = 0.3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . 34DU2 (fU d. beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . The . 8 Compute the minimum I::.412 5 3 . P = 1. (Ans. 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . 3 . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 .56 c.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit .9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. 95 DU 8 = 0. = 0.
Berkeley and Los Angeles. 2nd revised ed. 1 96 1 . and Space Travel.1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The Viking Press. Robert M . Rockets. New York and London . and Maud W. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. New York . Newton . Headquarters. Ley. V2 . Washington .. DC . Makemson. 1 9 60. 1 . 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . NY . Missiles. New York . 4 . 5 . L. Baker. University of California Press. 3 . The Viking Press. 1 962. Sir Isaac. 1 July 1 965 . . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Air Force Systems Command . Willy. Dornberger. Walter . 1 95 5 . Vol 2. NY. A cademic Pre'ss. Principia. Space Planners Guide.
. This was Kepler 's first great problem. . The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. including the earth . . who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. the solution of the second problem. Albert Einstein ! 4 .CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him.2 1 77 . the determination of the true movement of the planets. . by taking the observations under my care . or perhaps usurping them . For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. . if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . . was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. . of the heirs. . presupposed the solution of the first. I quickly took advantage of the absence. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. or lack of circumspection.
Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . . 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . Thus. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. whole grand entertainment would be lost. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. detour. 1 .1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. "What matters to me. . and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries." Kepler points out in his Preface. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. we not only forgive them. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . but above all to convey to him the reasons. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. subterfuges. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. When Christopher Columbus. I + .
that. almost with masochistic delight. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. Moreover." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. with the warning: "Ye physicists. But then without a word of transition. . His results. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. without benefit of any preconceived notions. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times.Sec 4. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. perihelion and aphelion. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . in the next two chapters Kepler explains. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. prick your ears. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. as it were. . for now we are going to invade your territory. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. again incorrectly . It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. never noticing his error. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. however. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit.
but analytical geometry came after Kepler.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. . On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. 4 Figure 4 .. as I shall prove further down . " Finally. he settled on the oval. the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse.. .2 Finally. He had . arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit.
disguising itself to be accepted. but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. are one and the same . return e d by stealth through the backdoor. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits.: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. mine] . .y it should move in an orbit at all. have persisted to this day. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. Ah. Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did.. The climax to this comedy of errors. believing that this was a quite different . which I had rejected .. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . In this chapter we will. . 4. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses.Sec 4. came when. .2 T I M EO F . You: are . I thought and searched. .!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. . but he did not know how.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. That is to say.e . until I went nearly mad. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end.. time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. . . and velocity and the timeofflight. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to .' " .and chased away. . de rive the . : . . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. made a mistake in geometry. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. hypothesis.F L I G HT . Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits .2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . in a moment of despair. whereas the two .
22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 .e ..1 ) i s the area � . where the true anomaly is v . 7T a b .2. say from periapsis to some general point. 4.. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area.A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch .. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. (4.. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. 4 existed . We will pursue a lengthier. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use .21 Area swept out by r . In going part way around an orbit. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus..2. A ' in Figure 4.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY . ''' The only unknown i n equation (4.2. but more motivated. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. P. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.2 .l . ''"'''"'. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . i.1 ) .
A dotted line . Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . From analytical geometry. 22 Eccentric anomaly.Z x2 + .l. perpendicular to the major axis. 2 T i M EO F . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. E E Circle : . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. \/2 a2 _ .F L I G HT .Sec 4 .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse.
From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons.a E) . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 . It Tollows directly from equation (4. . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis.22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . A2 .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . oos E and whose (4.�rea PSV minus the dotted area. Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . 4 Hence . sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse .
Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) . which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians).28) .27) reduces to (4. cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4. substituting into equation (4. to its corresponding true anomaly. cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v . E. whose base is (a CDS E).25) where M is called the "mean anomaly. Kepler introduced the definition M = It . From Figure 4.27) (4. Obviously .24) E .F L I G H T .e si n Ai yields E) .Sec 4." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .e si n E (4. minus the triangle . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally.e sin E (4.24)." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E . and whose altitude is (a si n E ).e si n E ) I (4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.2 .T = 4 ( E .22.2 T I M EO F . in order to use equation (4. v.1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' .we get � ( E .
from Figure 4.( t o .[ 2kn + (E .T) . In general we can say that t  to = 4.T o ) . The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane . 4 E E.(to .( Eo  E) (4.29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis. Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4. we can say that t .to = lP (t . when v is between o and n. E Figure 4 .28).24 right.e Sin .T ) .to = ( t . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically. + t .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then . In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .24 left).T) .
7 .8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.J1=82 d E (4.+ COS (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .8 E ) dE (4.82 f: ( 1 .Sec 4.8 si n E ) V r . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .2.2. From equation (4.82 ( E .2.1 3) (4.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.2.21 2).2 T I M EO F.1 2) (4. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .2.1 1 ) easily integrable .2.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.21 6) V 1 . From equations in section 1 .F L I G H T .1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration. .28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .2.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
Sec 4.4. 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa. From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. ( 1 . va' a and the trial value of x. Therefore .2 Solving for x When Time is Known . since equation (4.1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e . Figure 4. a.4. C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . a trialanderror solution is indicated. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . Fortunately . In one sense . But now we have a problem. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known .4. (4 .1 2) is transcendental in x. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) .1 3) ro va v t" . 4. Equation (4 . the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given.4 4.47) has been used to eliminate z.
and A and B are not colinear. the iteration may be terminated. xn . and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.3 The f and 9 Expressions.32).4. 1 dt r (4. we must then calculate the corresponding and v. Substituting for r in equation (4. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .41 9) . Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible.4. 4 . Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . Thus A. (4.1 = x 2 C + x .z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . B and C are coplanar vectors.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.42.41 6) dx x .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q.4. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar. With x known. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. the four vectors fO ' (4. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.
1 9) gives Sec 4 .1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h . g. We can isolate the scalar ..4. x.where f.. g . g . t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities.. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q. however. Crossing equation (4. f and 9 are not independent. f and g. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 .tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w ..4. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates. in equation (4. the left side of the O . if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity... we will derive an interesting relationship between f.1 8) into equation (4.420) This equation shows that f .4. = fg. f. First.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4.. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable ...
425).1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4. o .X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.34) and (4.4. we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw .4. (4.4. ) .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .426) . Xw .42 1 ) We can isolate (4. (4.e2 )  r . From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 . .a l e + Sln Y.423) (4.E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f . . yw x . x wYw . 4 h (4.425) Combining equations (4.w o Yw h (4. x + Co cos v = .
ro .43 1 ) .1 ) .426) through (4 .429) Substituting equations (4.. x = 0 at t = o .. ro ro .426) and (4... e quation (4.43 0) 0 1 f C a = . r. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4.Sec 4 ..a Va 2 = 1 9.a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum.a  mitions of z. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C ...4.. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4.. x + co h = .Va • W .32). (4.. 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4..42 1 ) c /Ii.428) yw .sin r  � (4.(e sin � + cos � ).42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .. x =� cos x + c r . e quation (4..427) and using the definition of the universal variable .43 0) f (4..429) into equation (4.
433) (4.] � a .. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .32) (4.4.4.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 . � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .436) .202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .4·3) � r o .1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §. r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .1 ) and (4 ..435) (4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .4.. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.
4. Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4. in any of the equations where z appears.x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . the expression (t would replace 4 . 4 . x + Co cos [ � .[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . Also. From and determine r and a.1 ) Va = _ E .4. solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . its definition. 1 The Physical Significance of and z.420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions.43 1 ) and (4. 3 . Obviously . rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t.Sec 4. 5 .e E). Va x (4.34) (4. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4. Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z.1 8). to 4. 1 . 2 .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem.4 .5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation.43 6) . The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. if we are going to use equation (4. Note also that if were not zero . 5 . then compute r and r from equation (4 . Si n va = Va =  c o s . then compute v from equation (4.43 5) and (4.1 9) . note that equation (4. la . 4 .1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit .5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).434) .4. but we have not said what and z represent. can be used.
53) from (4 . we can conclude that = V'ii I F . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s . (4 .204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ .3 4) and (4. therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .57) . (4 .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �). Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f. (4 .53) Subtracting equation (4. a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x .5 4) (4.E o l .52) whenever is negative .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.4. 1 (4.1 3) .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE. To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.56) la. 5 ·1) at time x = 0.Do . we get x= D .F 0 1  Va I E . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .
5 9) . If imaginary.1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. so Sec 4.5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero .to 4 . Therefore . a. I z = I F .8) Figure 4 . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem.5.F a ) '· z is zero. the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.when z is positive . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4. 5 . 5 . In computing the semimaj or axis.
so S � V0r eFz 2 . is large. a = ± x 3 .5.a � eFz ± 2x 3 . 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. so s i n h fi .6F... Solving for X and letting lP = 2n.fZi3 = q . / ( . . we get for elliptical orbits.:z. C = 1 . convergence will be extremely rapid.P)/ 2.All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a..z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z . If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. with £X.ji11. In the case of elliptical orbits.cosh . if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. and .. Use this for a first guess . ( t a to) . wherever it occu rs.a vG ) . then Z will be a large negative number . I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period.e .1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . since X = foE. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period..v y� ( .5 .. Furthermore .. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 .
for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence .t o ) x ::::: sign (t . 5 .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J. 4 . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.tJ is positive .a .t o ) #a ( 1 ] . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4..to is positive.a eFz sign ( t .5. Anytime t .sign (t .tohATci ( l . 5 .L ( t .Q) eV La 2J.r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.t o ) sign (t . so Sec 4 .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before. we get � S . .1 1 ) .sign in the above expression .r:z . X will be positive and .t o ) Fa . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .t o ) 2x 3 � + t . Thu s .t o ) � ( 1 .£. where appropriate . recognizing that X will be positive when (t . vice versa . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the . Therefore.
4. we can write equation (4.B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.1 1 ) .1 3) COS .cosh . = Similarly.5. z cos i � .4. s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 .. use equations (4.s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch . w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .Ji .y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 . so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .4.4.1 1 ) We can write equation (4.4. .5.1 2) and (4 .s i n i V} = i si n i B .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 . (4.0 6 + .5.208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.5.4.1 0) as C where = i C = .1 3). Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive. use equations (4. 4 (4 . if z is negative . . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.1 1 ) as But i v:z ..1 0) and (4.". If z is near zero . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .7! + .1 0) (4. 1 .(1  .
5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z .5...Sec 4. ..1 4) ·· 1 . 0 'j (4. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .. The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 .� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4. . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .+ . .5. (4Ir) 2 ..Ji! + Ji!.1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity . Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z . (611)2 etc. 0 ..
zS . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x.1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM. it is not surprising that the derivatives.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .5 .3S ) .s i n z dz 2z [ 0. 4 functions . we get I � = fz. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.( 1 .2C ) . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . 1 .5. Differentiating the definition of C. Find r. va > � a= :l = 1 . r a . 1 K .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . dC /d z and dS /d z . 2& .)] P (4. we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . I dS = _ ( C . Given ra = I D U va = 1 . and v at = t=2 T U .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ.[i) z ] (4 . t=2 T U9 ra = I.1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . va = Therefore & = 1.266  . 39 5 .
8 1 6 1 .1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 . 705 .266 ( 1 . y'ii"(t . 1 .222 1 .8 2 1 1 . we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .8 1 6 1 . using a slide rule .58 1 .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.973 a Using equation (4..t.6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.58) 2 1 . 58+ .. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places. xn tn fit After three iterations.1 .58 1 .821 1 ..007 2.705 2 ..12.4.222 Repeating the process.t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit. X l Zl y"""a6E or x .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .Since x = and . 2 2 x 3 ' etc.4.1 .000 1 .82 1 1 .277 dXn 1 .222 = 1 .1 4) and (4. solving for t . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary. we can make a 2 __ = 1 .279 1 .t o x_ 21Tya lP :...8 1 6 x n+1 . tn toward t = ZTU. 24 1 = 1 . 58+.
0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY .JPt::.6 . We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. Finally.. But first some useful identities will be presented. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum.1 we can see that X w = r cos v . yw and r in terms of D. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. for the parabola._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. since e = 1 .2. f = 0. 4 4.321 . as D = v'P tan � 2 .32 1 1 + 1 . ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D.6. r = _. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly.8801 Ch . E or F.6. E and F.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. and 9 = 0.2) . 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. v. D. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . g. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. 236K g..Then from the definitions of f. f = 0.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. we will derive expressions for xw . g = 1 . But .. 4. 880 1 1 .0.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0.1 ) From Figure 4. f. 1 24.1 7). (4.6. E and F..
62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .1 ) . yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.65) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.6. the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.Sec 4 .1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . (4.
4 rr.J7!. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.62 Perifocal components of r . 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. in Figure 4 .1 ) .66) v .Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. For the eccentric anomaly . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown. (4. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known.6. Using r • r = and equation (2. r • v. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .s i n p v = ffp ta n v .
To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .67) (a si n E ) a But . we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . e illS E we get another useful  �. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .24) . 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4. (4. I Substituting from equations (4.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae.8) and simplifying.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4.6. (4.6.62.Sec 4 . M  (4. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) .67) and (4 . yw Just as we did for the parabola.1 0) e sin E also. we can say that I yw = Q. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .
relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly. F is imaginary... we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E .1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation.22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.1 3) .6. when E is a real number.6. when F is a real number .. is given by e si n rr = r = $a .1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4.6. v. e cos E from equation (4.28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4. solving this equation for • v .1 0) .e Si n r E Finally .:.!. The .Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4. we obtain E = . The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .. E is imaginary . 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.6..
The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning.e) . The rectangular components of a general position vector.6.67) we can write Sec 4 .61 6) r e cosh F = 1.e ) . may be written as (4.  But i si n iF = si n h F. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.6. so (4. 6.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF.el = a (cos i F . 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E . 4. 6. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic. r.1).6 .a r  (4. In Figure 4 .1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v .range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.Il a •v (4. From equation (4. so Yw = a � sinh F.1 8) . But l cos i F = cosh F .1 4) Xw = a(rosh F . Similarly. 6.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation.
.vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf .624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . and note that h = ..p .JiLP. 4 +._ c��V P IW (4.P ( 1 ..c o s tv ) (4..1 .ji! sin v p (4. 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.:.. tan p /:. so 1 � L (I . Figure 4..... ( . we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = ... .42 1 ) .63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .A F U N CT I O N O F T. V.I M E Ch . the rectangular components of the velocity vector .V. (4.625) (4.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y . r0 · = 1 .V _ 2 1 . are yw = r sin v (4. 62 1) (4..: o s /:. .c os I 9 ' = v'f. where tv = v . 626) .x". 623) ..6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4.
Similarly.E ) .67) and (4.a E sin E .cos L'!.6. o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4. E rr . From equations (4.I Jlla sin E. (4. yw 9 and (t .6. Thus Xw Sec 4.e) v! fJa( l .e2 ) v. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.63 1 ) (4.!Ji8 sin L'!.E .63 2) .e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .4. we get f = a( cos E .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = . using equation (4. = .6.e 2 ) cos E .cos L'!.a ( 1 .( L'!. r (4.a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .E) 9 r _ 0 j. 627) But.to ) . (4.e2 ).68) .1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .sin L'!.1 (4.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .63 0) (4.1 0). 629) f = 1 .42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 ..E ) f = .e2 ) = 1.e cos E o ) .� ( 1 .Ji!.
4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4. A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .(1 E .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 .6.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E . (4. of course .2 6) is one equation in one unknown .63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t . (4. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true. � V a3 ( t .to) .  E.6F ) . . The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia . cosh 6F ) . and Sma1l4 tells us: " But.629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.4 Kepler Problem Algorithm. Kepler himself realized this.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) .t o ) . M can be obtained from = (4. from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly . it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign ..634) (4.220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch . In classical terms." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself.63 6) 4. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it.2k7T + M o .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .26) Even though equation (4. ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.
638) n dM/d E I E=E n . of course .64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. that results from this trial value .64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. ' (4. � Figure 4. M n . select a new trial value. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. compute the mean anomaly.Sec 4 . Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. E It would. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. E n+ l E + M . 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . but this is not very accurate.63 7) Now.
d M = 1 e cos E . 4 . The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. It can be used for LW or�E . r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). From fa and va determine r 0' a. even when e is nearly 1 . va and the timeofflight. e.1 8) and (4. 2.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration.  .4 0) EXERCISES 4.t ' are given.when e is nearly 1 .4. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. Once E i s determined by any method. The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation. dE Therefore.6.e cos En (4. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.4.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . however. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits.5 + . Determine f and V from equations (4. p and va· 2 .2. equation (4. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r.5 cos V DU .1 2) .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . where d M / d E l E = En En. t . e. Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. 3 .222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem.1 9). Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. Solve for V if needed. 5. 1 .
2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse.6 For the data given in problem 4. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. (partial Ans. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU.4 If. f = 4 . how should the area of search for x be limited. (Ans.3. 4. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P. i. 625) . x.e. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. find r and v for .85 TU) 4. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. Find the values of f. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. corresponding to l:J) of 600• . glven fO' vO' and t. V = 3481 . TOF = 5.Ch .348J +  1 .5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead.3 Given l:J) = ffP. Explain why this must be so . Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . find the universal variable.. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse.
f and g. then . Va and t . 4 . == 1 . TOF = 2. 1 0.73 TV) 4.. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa.5 . 7 The text. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . e = .to and solve for f and v. e = . 4 . Do the same for problem 4. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . if X == x (t ) . what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. with a perigee above the north pole.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. g. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point.10 rp 4 .5 DU. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. Le. ra == 2.99). Va and w and will solve for f. and give your analytic reasoning behind. (Ans. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. Develop.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit.51 0) and (4. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. 4 4 . 9 At burnout. 5. 1 1 For problem 4. 5 DU. 4 . 2.1 1). in equations (4. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 .9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods.
r3 fJ. o 4 . A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company.. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola.( t .1 8).. NY. LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 4.r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. f and 9 in terms of (t . 1 963 .6 TU) .E. Philosophical Library. Small.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 .. Albert. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. 1 7 Derive the expression for g . g. Einstein. 63 2). Madison. Koestler. . Battin. equation (4. Kepler. The University of Wisconsin Press. 1 95 9 . L'.. 2. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters.I:!:. See equations (4. Robert.630) through (4.43 5) and (4.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch .to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � .. = . 1 964. 1 95 1 .43 6). Guidance . The Sleepwalkers. 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.16 * 4. Stahlman. The Macmillan 3 . A New York. 4 .0 + . New York. 4. NY. Company. Wise. Arthur. New York. r. NY.2 . 2. Richard H.
Roger R." A str.1 92. Redondo Beach. Mathmatica. Vol 3 1 . 1 96 1 . H. H. "Universal Variables. to Celestial Mechanics. 1 1 . W . 1 2. Lemmon. pp 1 89." A stron. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. Bate. E. N. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. Goodyear. W. New 6. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps." A stron. 7. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. United States Air Force Academy . Forest Ray. A n Introduction York. K. Vol 70. 4 5 ." ARS 1. and 1. J. F . 8. 1 947. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . W. pp 3093 1 5. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. Brooks. J.ach. S. Vol 70. Sundrnan. Sperling. 9. 1 9 1 4. K. Stumpff. Herrick." A cta Vol 36. . 1 965. 1 965 . 1 0. 1 9 1 2 . The MacMillan Company. pp 1 05 . pp 66066 1 .1 79. Vol 275 . 1 965.1 28 . H . . Moulton. California. pp 1 08. Unpublished notes.
A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. 227 5. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . a 24yearold German mathematician. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. in the first year of the 1 9th century. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. in 1 7 8 1 . astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray.. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. But.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . Uranus.
and for convenience in referring to it later. Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802."the Gauss problem. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. and the direction of . The object turned out to be Ceres. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. but for a different reason. exactly 1 year later. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. no more . they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . Hegel asserted. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. no less. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before ." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . 5. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. If they paid some attention to philosophy . 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . Because of its importance.
there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. . the orbit is a degenerate conic. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. / I I I I I Figure 5 . Sec .motion. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . p. or the "long way. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians.. . It is not surprising. If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r).. The relationship between the four vectors f l . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case.. / . 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . Obviously . If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4.. 2.SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ .. 5 . find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. therefore. that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations.." through an angular change greater than 7r.". .. particularly if the parameter.21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 .1 .. appears in the denominator of any expression.
Consider equations (5 . what we have is three equations in three unknowns. There are seven variablesf1 .cos �E ) . g.= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. a and �E.( 1 .25).( 1 . 23) and (5 . From equation (5 . (5 .cos �E ) f = 1 .25 ) (5 . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. r2 P p rI . 3.. this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent.1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f.1 ) (5 .( 1 . r . p. We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 .24) arid (5 . g. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. 2. a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. f.23). (5 .y'ii8 .22) r2 a ( 1 . (5 .24) Si n �E (5 . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. Use equations (5. (5 .sin �E ) � JJ. but the first four are known. f and g.cos �V .. 2. t.cos �v) = 1 .23) Actually.cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . a 9 = 1 . the solut �on to .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . p. so 2 .26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 ...22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f. Test the result by solving equation (5 . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E .230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . bv . 27) . a or �E. so a trialanderror solution is necessary .27) and (5 .2.
since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. g . we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. however. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f .Sec. = 1 . suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. a and L'£ or 6F. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. x and z. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. introduced in Chapter 4. 5 .:t x3 S. r1 (5 . This last step is perhaps the most important of all.1 ) (5 . a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. p.( 1 . 3 . A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. In each case .c x2 y.3 2) . If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. let's write the expressions for f.. and would enable us to use the universal variables. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 .
A y= .v ) 1 c o s b.v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 . 1 . p r1 j .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.viI x ( 1 zS) \ ..jE: .. we get r 1 r 2 (1 .. yields X C. P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b. we obtain A. as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant...33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.38) y.232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .v) (5 ..V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch .33)  (5. rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.39) . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.c o s b.i n b. 5 X2 (5 . ( 1 .v (5 ..A .( c o s b. ( 1 c o s b.36) may be written (5 .31 ).v) • 9 = = IE.1I 1 � .v y..j A equation (5 .37) I y = r 1 + r2 .35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .( 1 c o s b.
(5 .r I (5 .3. 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .31 3) (5 .1 ).1 6) (5 . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 ..1 4) 1 The velocity. thi 't "p. so that (5 .420).31 5) (5 .3. 5 .=1' Ig =r2 =.31 7) . From equations (5 . the last term of this expression may be simplified.qr::oo . . we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But. we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 . I" � \ ·1 fr . y.31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I .3. 3.LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .: r I . by using equations (5 .37 ) and (5 .1 0) (5 .35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 . can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves. A. rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 . 3. 32). and the auxiliary variable .34).ff.38).Sec.".on simplllw. +.32) and (5 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .
may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section.3 .P . 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 .0.E2 and z = . 5.1 0) and (4.3. From f ' f and the "direction of motion. 5. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. dt / dz.31 8) ( ) (5 .= 3 x 2 . this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .3.0. Since z = .1 0) . may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. 5 1 . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. y. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.39)." evaluate the I 2 constant. The derivative.31 9) .1 1).31 3).4.31 7).31 6) and (5 . Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.31 5). adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. 6. Pick a trial value for z.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . 9 and 9 from equations (5 .1 2) (5 .37). a Newton iteration. (5 . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . 4. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 .dz dz dz 2yy dz .234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Determine x from equation (5 . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. 2 . 3.1 4) and (5 . 3. using equation (5 .31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 . 7 . Although any iterative scheme . When the method has converged to a solution. A.S + X 3 _ + . If it is not nearly the same . evaluate t. which converges more rapidly.4. Determine the auxiliary variable. from equation (5 .
5 . we get ( 1 . 3 .=  dS (C .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .z S) dS _ .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 . 5 . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . i n section 4 . . we showed that y.Sec.__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .320) (5 .32 1 )  .39) for dy = dz  But.
These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .318).1 0) and (4.7K DU. "direction of motion": rl =0.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.4. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 .320) and (5 . 51 r2 = 1.319) and (5 .236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .41 1 ). determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two . There is only one path for a given direction of motion.323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . equations (4.OK DU. Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S. ill rl . 5 so.  (5 .324) _  (5 . D M � si g n (1T L'>. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = . To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM.v) .322) into equation (5 .6J + 0. Using universal variables. At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0.01 + + O. we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.+ 5! 7 ! _ _ . we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .326) .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit). From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.
0. For ease of numerical solutions.1 4) and (4. 0000 1 .Sec.321 radians Using (5 . 23287446 yT12 vm . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (. 327) r1 = 1 .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = . 0488088482 + 1 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .6V is small. 0000 + 1 .5.327).962 radians LW long way = 21T .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).28406 = 1 . A A l ong way =1 .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .39).37) does when . 5 . a convenient form of equation (5 .6V short way = 5. 5 . 28406 ( __ = 3 . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 .1 .3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . from equations (4. 0488088482 + 1 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 ..6V > 1T). 86474323 = 1 .1 5) .
so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 ..3...05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0..) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration.489482706 (6") . Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.444689 m 0.28406 y'0. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : . 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.1 0).. Step 5: Using equation (5 . the desired time o f flight is : ...780 1 9540 1 /2 0.28406 y'3.. Y l o ng = 3. 1 . (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.86474323 = 1 .86474323 2.238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .23287446 0..3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 . from the given data.23287446 t l o ng = 0.0 we do not normalize.3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 ..9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off. 0432z = 1 3.672625 1 6 TU + through 6. 1 3 min = 0445 z .
96670788 z = x 0.60 1 874421 .3 .63049 1 80961 1 . (5 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.0.1 3). 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.94746230 A = 1 . 7499473 9 t = 0.989794 D U/TU 0.31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 . 1 1 39209665J  0.3.79852734 v2 = 1 .Sec.1 5).83236253 Using equations (5 . W e have : � 104 (within 0. 74994739 VI = 0. 1 7866539741 + 1 .50634848K v2 = 0.36 1 677491 + 0. (5.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .0.250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0. (5 .28406 Y = 0.6009 1 852 .28406 Y = 4.3.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.6 1 856634 = 0.8826885334K v2 = 0.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .1 6) and (5 .58 1 43981 VI = 0.t solved .0.83073807 v 2 = 1 .02234 1 8 1 1 .5544 1 39777J 0.4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.t .554824 D U /T U f = 3.5288 97 1 4 = 2. 5 .314).76973587J .
38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative.38) and (5 . The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. In other words. where f::1) is less than 7T. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position).39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number.zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .1 O} VC . yet equation (5 .= 0.2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 . the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths.076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. From equation (5 . 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell .31 .39). Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 .52). For "short way" trajectories. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.
The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.V ) a (5 .cos ""V ( 1 .25). It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity.. 5.cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E. hence. a and ""E. and 2 solving for p.1 ) and si n  COS . we obtain 5.4 TH E p./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .6V p � .4.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5.)2 cos . From equation (5 . This check is only necessary when is positive. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns. a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .23).6V COS .c o s ""E si n ""E . if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::..cos !:::. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity.j1 .?S.c o s x =.42) into equation (5. The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve . 5. we can solve for a and get 1 .Sec.4. (sin xl i .va si .6V V 1 ..v. we get  .1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 .4. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive .
2 Ll.c o s bJ)) (5 . 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.Qp y'2ni p .v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch . (5 .E .E Solving for cos2.4.E Q ± y'2ni C O S .J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.43) 5. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.46) Ll.45) ± Using these same definitions.E ( k . and noting that � c os '2 .48) k .44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions. we get Ll. (5 .. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .45) and simplify.Q p ) 2 (5 . E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .2 Expressing a as a Function of p.E CO � = ± p= k = . The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .E) •  k = k Ll. we obtain m p a= (5 .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.43) as Ll.
4 . we need to determine � (or . Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). 5. however.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr.!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter ..I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . a may not be smaller than some minimum value . Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048).41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . Sec. 2. The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later .4 T H E p.. we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight .4. Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . 5.6. am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . First .where k. . Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. 5 .F in case a is negative).3 Checking the Trial Value of p.
let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 . 9 and f from equations (5 . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .6. F ) .1 0) = = 1 .6.24) or the corresponding equation involving .6. we can determine .4 The t vs P Curve .Tar (si n h .49) Since we always assume .E from equations (5 . although t approaches infInity for this orbit.F: (5 . If (.F is positive. F 1 .41 2) (5 .6. we can compute f.4. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .E a If yield is negative. there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation. let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way. F . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like . 5 c o s .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .6. This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero. If we look at "long way" trajectories.6. we see that the limiting case of .6. the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .( 1 ." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .1 3) .E ) (5 . In Figure 5.6.24) and (5 ..23) and (5 .23). If a is positive.4. (5 .25).vi.6. To get a feeling for the problem.4. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First..f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .From the trial value of P and the known information. Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.s i n .6.E .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.41 1) c o sh .a r1 (1  f) (5 .F (5 .
.zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. we should first compute P j or P j j . P must lie between P j and infinity. 5 . for t:sv greater than IT.42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 . parabola hyperbola Figure 5 ..I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse .43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case .. Sec.. From the discussion above. t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j ... we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 . As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight.4 T H E p... For l'J) less than IT.. lie within the prescribed limits. In Figure 5 . P must lie between o and P j j ... Since it is important thar the first trial value.. as well as all subsequent guesses for p..
0 Q + y2in k  (5 . p )0 p" . 5 1 :co . .1 4) Q . � " . • .1 5) 5 . b .4. Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5..43 k p a rameter .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. The solution is then bracketed and. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi).. I . . . The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution.246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE .yLri1 (5 .46). Several simple methods may be used successfully. by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two .4. ell . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p..5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. . one that gives too small a value for t. and one that gives too large a value.4. from equation (5 . '" E 0> '" .
tn t .. O��_4o P n.... . ... ... ..1 6) This scheme can be repeated. . . .4. If tn.Sec....P n .t n ) ( P n ..1 ) (t n . . . ...1 ) (5. . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5. .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p. . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. 4 T H E p...... 5 ... but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer. . .. . .. .1 and Pn .. then a better estimate of p may be obtained from .. .1 6).4. ... . . . . . .t n . .44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t ... . .I Figure 5 .....
From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S . 41 9) . (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .iri equati �n (S.24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.si n L'> E l .1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p.41 7).1 7) I t =9 viIZ. fl3  fJ. � ( S .r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . ( � .4.4.41 8) (S . we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g .
Qp ) Q.Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .4 T H E p. 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 . we obtain . 5 .4 8) .2 dp k ( k .2mk2 Qp 2kQp . from equation (5 .E / dp and noting.47).Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n . bE d�E .( k .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .420) From equation (5 .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE . that ( k .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .Sec.
1 8) from (5 . 5 (5 .6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 . which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve..Qp) si n 6E JJ..COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + . (5 . _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2. p(k h JJ.4. and (5 .250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .= .� (6E ..42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .6E JJ.420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .1 9).42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .4.423) . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F . (5 .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .
1 4) and (5 . Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 .II using 2 .1 1 ) . 2. 7 . should be used in equation (5 . solve for a from equation (5 4 .F obtained from the trial value.4. Pn .49) and (5 . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . using equations (5 .1 5).1 0) or equation (5 . of p. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES .24) and (5 . 25). 9 and f from equations (5 . Solve for t from equation (5 . Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.423). as appropriate .27) and (5 .22). equations (5 . (5 . 5 251 .1 2) or (5 . G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem.422) or (5 . 5 . we will develop and use the f and 9 series.8). Sec.2·3). 3 . Using the trial value. The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola.F.E or Ll. As stated earlier .4.1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.6E or Ll. 6. Q and m from r] . We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 . Solve for Ll. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. t and . 4 .4.4. Solve for f. 2 . 5 . 5 . r and Ll. Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . 8 .4. 9 .44). Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a.6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 . Evaluate the constants k.4. Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. a.To evaluate the slope at Pn . the values of g.
252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . 5 5) r r (5 .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn .54) we have the following recursion (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . 5 2) (5 . we write equation (5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v.1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . (5 .57) (5 . 5 9) . Therefore.� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 4) for n = O. r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . (5 . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.
p. v are known . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr .1 7) . We define them as follows : O.51 2) u .515) =  ur.5. v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .5 11 ) (5 .5.5W)  (r . p and q which will be useful later . 5 . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate.and the equation of motion f  (5 . 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. this can be (5 . u L. q. Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 . 5 .51 3) rr and the definition of p. 5 .51 6) (5 . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 . as we shall u .
.r . . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r . 1 1 1 1 . ) .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = .U .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5. = . r r (5 .3u p (5 .57) and (5 . 522) q = . ) _ 24 (r .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 .1 8) Using the definition of P.(v) 2 . 5 20) (5 .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly.p (u + 2q ) . 5.23 r· (V) r   u. d q = d t . v) _ 1 u. r) (v) 2 . (5 . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . 5 . Summarizing: (5 .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . . _ [1 1  2 (v .
u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u .6 u 2 p = . Fs = F4 . 5.2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .6 u 2 p = .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . = . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .u G = .Sec.54) for n = 1 .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 . F3 = F .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. = r 0.1 5u p ( u .u r = .30p p + 3 q ) . = F 1 r + G 1 . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.3 u p ( u .t!:. 2 we have : ) r( 1 = .u G 4 = u ( u .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .3p ( u + 2q ) . = . p and q. Writing equation (5 ..7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .
tao Comparing with equation (5 .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u . ) .524) (5 .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious. . Vo (5 . Referring to equations (5 .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 . therefore. 5 = U (u .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .5. the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .526) .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .52) and (5 .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .1 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .523) .Gn n.u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .
20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .51 . G = 30up(1 4p2 .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 . F 1 = 0.1 5p 2 + 3q + U). F = 3up 3 F = u(.94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 . 5 .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) . F 2 = 'U.30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 . G = O. G = u.2 1 q .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.90q .6q . G 1 = 1 .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).Sec.u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 .28q .30q .3q .
5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 .5·29) . 5. The f and 9 series may be used . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . 5.2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. f I .2·3).5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. From equation (5 .5·27) + ' (5 . Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. 2·5). We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. r I . 7) (5 . 5 . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only.0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . 7) r I g (r I . In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse.51) + 9= 7  1 .24) and (5 . p. we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 .f (r I .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. (5 .6. the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious.
thus Figure 5 .6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6. L£ . The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly.Sec.77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . 5. As. A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ .61 Sector and triangle area (5 . . This . so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. becomes dt (1 .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA.
62) (5 .63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss. x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 .6." + l( 1 .c o s b. 4 � c o s b. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large. .2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 .43) and using the identity.2E ) 2 .' l'2 2 2 (5 . 5.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .64) = 2 (2� co s � )3. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .6. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. E ) .2 The First Equation of Gauss. If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.
£Q.(5 .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .24) and (5 .2 ( 1 r1 r . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .6 .Sec.68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.. Si.67) 1 cos l:>v =.61 ) becomes si n l:v ..65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 . so .65).L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J. equation . ( .2 2 L (5 .= .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.L . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 . L ( l:>E .s i n l:>E ) .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J. 5 . si n l:v cos � .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . .. Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 ..s i n l:>E ) .61).1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E . From the first of these equations.23) we can write y  =2 2 2  . t/y.. Using the identity. 3 The Second Equation of G auss.. n l:> E ) . (5 .
y 2 ( y . S + 1 .64) and (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary.from (5 . (5 . s and w. 27) and (5 .4 Solution of the Equations . 22) completes the solution. and so on. in three unknowns. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. recall that we started with three equations. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation." 5 .25). y and LE .6. Unfortunately. The first step is to evaluate the constants. 24) and (5 . y.69) are transcendental. n = 2 si n 3 LE .cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) .6.si n LE ) we may write. We then added another independent equation.1 ) = W (LE . (5 . (5 .262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . To review what we have done so far. equations (5 . from r I ' r2 . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 .6. When convergence has occurred. the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 .1 0) . which is known as "the second equation of Gauss.1 ) . Next. a and LE.Si.64) and solving for y. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE .69) cos f = 1 . (5 .s) . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. 6. p. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. and one more unknown. a good first guess is y � 1 . 23). using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 .43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated.2(� . !:JJ and t. pick a trial value for y. 5 Recognizing the first factor as w.1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E.
1 0) may also b e written as Sec. they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.69) and · (5 . F s i n h 3 "2 . F. equation (5 . the righthand side of equation (5 .c:. equation (5 .c:. E = i .0.c:. S.6.c:.E and .F .c:. F = si nh .1 2) = X = .c:. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables. Noting that . Since we already know that when . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic. i sin i. )� s + 1 . 5 .1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .c:.c:.1 2) become indeterminate.F will be zero and both equations (5 .c:.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written. Using the identity.c:.E is imaginary.6.6..6.69) and to determine y.c:.cosh 2 .1 0) may become greater than one.F are close to zero. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .Since the equations above involve .F 2 ) · (5 .c:.c:.F .1 1 ) s i n h .c:.c:.c:. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section. 6.F = rush . difficulties may be anticipated any time .69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 . If the given timeofflight is short.F .cE. For this reason. then . . 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y .E is imaginary.E .E s i n 3 .c:. E or .c:.S ) y (5 . indicating that�.F and COS i . 6.s i n .5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.F is real.c:. as y2 = W S + x .c:.F whenever the right side is greater than one .
Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution.6.24). ( 1 + §. parabola. 2 6..6. problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . and then expressing 6.62) and (5 .25) and (5 .1 3).61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 .6. r2 . 1� = 2 3 1. . or negative. s and w. ) .1 1). 7 . E as a power series in x.43). /:.1 4) Now.1 0) or (5 . which is developed by Moulton.1 (5 . Determine X from equation (5 . (5 . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. 2.2 Ch . . (5 .. 5 . . E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit.]) and t using equations (5 . Compute the constants. Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 .264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E .6.6 .Y:i.6.1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . 6 . it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. . is . replacing CDs 6. from rl . zero.26).E or 6.. 4. X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . Depending on the type of conic. The result. (s + x ) · 1 (5 . 3 . g . This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. and 9 from equations (5 . the orbit being an ellipse. f. 2 .27) and (5 . Determine p from equation (5 .22). Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. or hyperbola according to whether x is positive.F from equation (5 .6.1 5) 1 . determine 6.23).1 4). The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . Evaluate f.63).
The £:." In all but the simplest cases. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. �atellite intercept and rendezvous. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . ballistic missile targeting. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. 72. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . 5 . To make the problem even more specific. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . To avoid generalities. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS .v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. and ballistic missile interception. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. Usually. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed.Sec. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site.
 ".. 5 i nterceptor ...266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . .� .. ��y V \" _ ..�: :. �/ �/ ". fI }/ \ \ . r. 7 .....7.. I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 . at t. \ •• • • • • • . e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary. ... ) / ot t.' ':.� ' ...f.. I n . ".\." \ t a rg e t / \ ..1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .".1 .
we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. which is when the intercept will occur.7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 .7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 .Sec. 5 .
Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission.238 km/sec. . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. 5 them. 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . �v? �v . . . " . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. launch vel. have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest.268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . . \ \ \ Figure 5 . . . the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . . . .
the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period.2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . the better . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. In Figure 5 . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V.7 . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. From Figure 5 . Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . In summary . Because of earth rotation. A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. 5 . 5 . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot.5 . the launch site will have moved eastward . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission.7 .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) .
J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.4 /':..7.V plot for example intercept problem .O F ..) z :J « . 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .
1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L.8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 . another method will be develope d . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 .8 .85) (5 . i. 5 . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. v2 • P I ' P2 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 .84) (5 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. P3 . t2 . the three components of r2 . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6.86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . 82) t2 so (5 .e.Sec. Although we have examined a very specific example . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5. (5 . P3 · .
5 to (5 .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. R1 . in fact only six of the equations are independent. Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . ' r2 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . � into equations (5 .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a.8) (5 . L2 .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . y and z .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . 8. y and Z . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . Estimate the magnitude of f2 .8.8·7) (5 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 .e. y. the components of Vz be X. i. L3 . b .8. f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . Rz . the components of f2 and V2 . and eliminating the K components. Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. 526) and (5 . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d .
which are the components of f2 and v2 . The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location.39).522). I I I I  x. 5 . .1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. 5 Z. Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . Limitations. 5. c. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04.41 . Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 . e . verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . Z.423) for hyperbolic orbits.527).32).Ch .3 Verify equations (5 . Usirlg specific numbers. b. f.4 Verify the development of equation (5 048). EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. Ease of computation. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a.31 ). Y.31 3) through (5 . but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. =: =: 5 .31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 .t2 and t2 t } are not too large.6 Derive equation (5 .V required for intercept? 5. using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy.2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. Accuracy. f2 I + J DU). 5. and (5. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6.1 5. (5.526) and (5 .
The piteration technique.9 Repeat problem 5 . 5. d.J + K). (Ans. 5 . although a few iterations can be made by hand. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. The original Gauss method. 5 Given two position vectors rI . t2 . as a function of rI r2 . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 .0922 TU.274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5. vI = 0. The universal variable method . d. r2 'and the distance between them. (Ans.00256 (J + K» .009 (.tl = 1 . b.7 . Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. which will contain both position vectors.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 .t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. c. 1 1 For the following data sets for r I .06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 . Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. 5 . r2 . rl r2 p.t l determine v2 using a. h = 1 .8 using the universal variable. Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use.
Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. McGrawHill Book Company. Forest Ray. Pedro Ramon. a.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. (Answer : v = 0. New York. NY. 1 956. Dover Publications. 51 + 0. NY. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . Battin. Methods of Orbit Determination. Inc. Davis. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. 4. 2 . John Wiley & Sons. 1 965. 1 963. 1 9 59. 1 9 1 4. S. Liu. Richard H. Escobal." in The World of 1 . Moulton.J D U Use "long way" trajectory.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory.4804847 1 1 2 +0. and A. Bell. (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. r 1 = 41 t 2 . Vol 5 . f 1 = 1 . Gauss. A stronautical Guidance. r 1 = I t 2 . 1 . NY. New York. Eric Temple .9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . 2I D U t2 . d . to Celestial Mechanics. 1 964. Inc. Mathematics. "The Prince of Mathematicians. Carl Friedrich. New York.7K D U t 2 . New 6.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 .66986 9921+0 .t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . Appendix A. New York. f l = 0 .0.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. Herrick.Ch . NY. .t 1 = 0. Simon and Schuster. 3. the MacMillan Company. r 1 = 2I t2 . c .6J + 0. A n Introduction York.
.
culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. The result is well known. The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. Efforts. longrange ballistic missiles. It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . which concern us in this chapter. have a very short history . As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. Napoleon I 6.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. World War II as "too late .000 V2's had been fired in anger . . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. ironically . the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 .
these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. Trevor Gardner . In July 1 95 4. According to Dr. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee .278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum.000 pounds thrust. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. Brigadier General 3 . They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. California. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. After all. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. 4 Accordingly.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . in June 1 9 53 .
From 2 main contractors at the beginning.Sec. Otherwise. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. 6. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . the program had. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. by mid· 1 95 9 . 6 . Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . Progress was rapid. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. Blasingame . While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant.000 people participating directly. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. Atlas was a reality. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. After three unsuccessful attempts. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path .2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout.
(6 ." "height of apogee. 6 . Figure 6. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude.ji1Tr.2 The Nondimensional Parameter.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . need not be redefined. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. =.22) .1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. Q . such terms as "height at burnout." "flightpath angle at burnout. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations.2. There are. Since Va:.. 6 from launch to burnout. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . 6 .2." etc.. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory . It will not be discussed in this text. 1 defines these new quantities. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories.2. Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . however. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range..2.
Sec .21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 . 6.
3 The FreeFlight Range Equation .2. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.2. 24) 6 .26) . and substitute for V. If Q is greater than 2 . the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit.25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 .1 ) . 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit. (6.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch .23) or IQ=2�·1 p . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . When Q is equal to 1 . It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.the expression p. Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .O/r from equation (6. the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit.
Sec. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .27) . be written as (6. and co s � = . half the freeflight range angle . lies on each side of the major axis.26) above can. 2 Equation.co s v b o .f6. 6 . 'l'. therefore.22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) .
If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. also becomes known. = r Q C O S2 cp . 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. ¢ro.1 1) into equation (6. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. h = rv cos cp. e. A.2.29) and (6.2. the required freeflight range angle. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.2. . If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry.e2 ).1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. the total range angle. .28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6.29) Now.T.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6.284 . it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and.28) p. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. what should the flightpath angle. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . since p = a( 1 . (6. ./.
with a little algebra. Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal.4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . Instead . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . F'.2. The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. In Figure 6 . Sec 6 . Now.In other words. We could . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . is called r bo .23 Ellipse geometry 6 . ¢bo. we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo .
23) and r60 + rbo = 2a .286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line .2. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. in fact. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . that. � + 'lr) = . If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid. for example. light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.Qb o sin � .I n 2 and also as rb (6." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .2. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror .2. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal.000 ) from equation (6.1 3) (6.2. Qb o 2 2 (6.1 6) . shown in Figure 6. F' and the burnout point. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. It means. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering.24.x) = sin (6.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . This is. d.
sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .2. 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory . .1 6) gives us .9. so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .866.24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 . 6.Sec.
This would not be a very practical missile trajectory.P/2&." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . Because a = . equation (6 . If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners.1 6) does not exceed 1 . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. Nevertheless. 2. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. . If Q bo is greater than 1 . 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. Figure 6 .288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Table 6. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. Provided that 'l' is attainable.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. 2. If Q bo is exactly 1 . A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth.
25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 6 .Sec. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.
hits earth 000 > 1 high only . what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. hits earth Table 6 .11 5 18 1 . 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :.low traj . vbo = 2/3 DU/TU.low traj .1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. ha p og ee 0. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . cos ¢ b o == 0. During the test firing of a ballistic missile.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .5 DU.21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. skims earth high only . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU.625 . Assuming a symmetrical trajectory.
08 1 7 DU/TU and . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . 6 2 1 .. c os � = + N .1 2) . Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . 2<P b o + 64°20. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 .4Deg. 6 .2.025) = 1 . Notice or <P b o = :. 36° .Sec. :. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. versus the flightpath angle . 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . ) (60 n m i ) =2. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. 26.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 600 E.2. 08 1 7 ( 1 . We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . 60 0W .5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . 'IT. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 6.025 DU respectively.1 . 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) .
1 6) equals exactly 1 . If the right side of equation (6.2... en EO I .. There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .. (2<P bO � ) 2 . be the maximum range condition. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target.1 8) L__________________� .:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' . s 0> Q) 0 � c .s. 0> <1> <1> � IJ..26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero. .292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell . 2..7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight . then. � 80 . A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .� 90 Figure 6.1 7) I (6..Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 . we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must. :.2.pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 .'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6..
220) for maximum range conditions. but . By inspection.222) . We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6. due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. From the symmetry of Figure 6. 6 . VI 1 800 . 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. 6 .cos 2 .2.'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.1 9) for maximum range conditions. This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . sin �= 2 2 .Sec:. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o . 'JI .e cos 2 (6.. the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 .7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2).2.Qbo Qb o (6 .8) .6 Time of FreeFlight.1 7 ).22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. 2. 2./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. noting that l . 2 . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 .
The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. and the eccentricity. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . can be obtained from equ ations (6. 6 The semimajor axis. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24.27 Time of freeflight (6.1 1). 2. Figure 6 . 23) and (6. a. 28. In fact . since five variables have been plotted on the figure. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . e.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 .
750 n m .884) ( 1 . What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2. 6 .Sec.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.075) == 0.8 period vs. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.25 D U == 7 .29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.95 From Figure 6. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.000 nm.
. :: : J: : : . hi. .CI�rie� v X I . : :/ .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . : ' .. : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: . ' . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. :: :"/ N . .aje. : : . .9h Ir.!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . .� '" �� :...I ' : ' : : : : : : . .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. : : . � ren I ("') !XI r » Free .
perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.6X and .1 � 0. 6 . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point.6C represents the cro ssrange error. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . 2 00 ft/sec . and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant.OOO nm max = 3. .Sec.2.3 . 3 . 6 . the crossrange error.  Vbo 6. The arc length . There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first.933 D Urr U � 24. 8.32 r ads = 1 33.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 .6C may be / 9 57 1.444 n m = 2.3 ° From equation (6.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. F or purposes of this example. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . . at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. For brevity .6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north. impacting at B.77 0 = 0 . .6C. In Figure 6 . These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. position. 'l' From equation (6.6X. 957 Hsi 66. For a fixed burnout altitude .220) .3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed.
we get (6.thought of as angles. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . .31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X.1 ) to (6. Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. 3. I 1 . Equation (6. the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . if the intended target had been the north pole .32) 2 X Figure 6.3 . 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation. In Figure 6 . you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center.3.1 . for example."2 to simplify equation (6 . if they are in degrees.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. cos .
P. are as planned.Sec. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error.3 . �C. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section.33) . a crossrange error. Figure 6 . 6 .32 Azimuth error 6 . 299 Figure 6. before . 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6.'l1. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. 'l1. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 .32 is the crossrange error . will result. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. 6(3. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown .2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth.
D.0.x ' to simplify equation (6.y I  : : i. <Pbo' In Figure 6..C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 .33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range. 6. In other words.3.\]I.path angle .34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point.. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.0.21 about the center of the Earth.0. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount . This . The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn .\]I will represent a downrange .3 .33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . (6. \]I.oo a "'00 Fl ight .� I a q. it will hit the target anyway .300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. 6 If we assume that both 43 and . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended. cos X � 1 . it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it .. are shown by a solid line in the figure .
cot <P b o (6.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. 6 .2.1 2) of this chapter .3.Sec.6.3 . We could get an approximate value for .37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .36) (6. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.8) (6. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 . 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.1 0) Qbo I i . then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 . The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .
_ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( . Let us first express equation (6.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate . Vb Substituting from equation (6.3.1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3. acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6. 3. a'l1 .sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .3.3.
1 3) This partial derivative . the actual range error on a 3 .000 nm range. While we need equation (6.1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot).33. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. Figure 6.Sec. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . 3 . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . 6 . 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. If this seems strange. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. particular burnout error . Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . A plot of range versus burnout radius.33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. when used in the manner described above. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0.3 . angle errors. In fact.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . equation .3. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6.
1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6.3. too slow and the missile falls short.1 4) for small values of .3.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 . 6 however. 6..3.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .3.2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.1 1) implicitly. if burnout occurs too low. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . differentiating the range equation (6 .3.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = .304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the missile falls short of the target in every case .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6. . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . The magnitude of the error is (6. is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler . Again. b o 'fJ ' (6 . the missile overshoots .3.1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .
a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. Total downrange error : . ub o = 5 x 1 0 .Sec.9 0 5 D U !TU . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = . like the other two influence coefficients.1 8) would reveal that. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 .3.9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . 1 D U .1 0. LW b o = . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error .905) 2 ( 1 . 1 ) 2 .4 rad ians. 3.1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . . r bo = 1 . Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better. There is no crossrange error.735 = 6 .5 x 1 05 D U/TU . 6 . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 . 735 rad DU r b o ( . We will need Q bo (.4 D U . 649 r ad U D U/T .6V b o + a 'lr .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .6¢ b o = . An analysis of equation (6 .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 .
4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. v. for example). The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 .4 ) (3444) � 4 n . its flightpath angle. 6 =2.2sin 1 60 o 2 = . We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. then all three . We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. ove rshoot 6.4 ) TOT =1 1 . In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. The rotation is from west to east.1 0. <p. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame .S ) . We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 . 56x 1 0 . 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation. m i .649 (5x 1 O .4. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives. That is.5 24 ft/sec.4 )+6. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . 6. That is.1 . {3.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . 0.1 .2 1 (.56x 1 0.735 ( 5x 1.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . and its azimuth angle. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar. both the launch point and the target are in motion.
This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. an azimuth. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . An observer at rest would not agree . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel.000 ft/sec. of 45 0 . direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. Hereafter. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . A simple example should clarify this point." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. . and the azimuth considerably less than 900 .:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . and a speed of.Sec. of train l \\�. 6 . If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. Like the observer on the moving train.I ·=<� • . �. of 900 (east). He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame .. we will refer to measurements of burnout .4.000 ft/sec. (6.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile.5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. say 1 .1 ) . 1>. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 .4.
v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . We can obtain the south. v. Once you have the components of ve. �. and up components of the true velocity. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . first.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner .308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . of course. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. flightpath angle . Vs (6 . east .45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v.44) �.42) The true speed. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. break up V into its components. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . lies. It is. (6 . Thus. this will not be difficult. finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent.
then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively.Sec. The term.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  .43 is just 90 0 L o. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . Rather . the target will be there also.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. 6. Hopefully. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight .42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. when the missile arrives at point B.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched .4. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. In Figure 6 . z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . so the arc length OA in Figure 6. Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4.
The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point.N + wffitA' where . (6 . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 .0.48) Again.N + w ffitA ) .N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. {3.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 .N. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. A. {3. . (6 .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target.0. by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6. (6 . tA . this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . The longitude difference. Once we know the total range angle. and if.0. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions. It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for .0. we can solve for the required launch azimuth. then a value of . If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . we get c o s {3 = sin L t .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3.0.47) Solving for cos {3.0. .
A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. A. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate .Sec. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. Needless to say. tA But . 6 . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . and launch azimuth. (3.
5 1 1 95 v . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 87 9 30.9 DU/TU. 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 33° ¢bo = v E = ... 9cos3 00cos 3300= . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .. 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = .. 29 .0 58 8cos290 = . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 .5022 ta . 1 ) 1 . using Q bo = . 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry.3 ° W burns out at 30o N.4 5) : v= . 85 From Figure 6 . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = .j( . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . . 6 . 1 DU. v = .675 s (J=333 . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of . 8° v n /3 = v = . 339 ) 2 + ( .. Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. 45 ) 2 = . 79 . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.. 339 ) =. what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory .( .42) through (6 .. 9 s i n 300= .
. 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . 29 . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0.7 8 0 . tff=3.203. 6 70) =. 77° = .4 .80° . 6. w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . 334)=135° . 3709 �GG (3. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1. 770 N re = 156.3. 334 TU boN = 135° . 334TU ) =123.123 .13 = 7. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = .Sec. 2 5 TU :.85 and ¢bo = 3 0.we(3.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � .
R = 6 0 n . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. r b o = 1 .926 D U /TU . v = 1 6 . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6.1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .6 ft/sec) 6 . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . m i . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6.2.05 D U = 1 0° .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. 6 EXERCISES 6 . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N. 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 .5 D U!TU 1 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude.' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . and a spherical Earth.000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal .1 9)? Why? 6 . = . m i .840.
how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. 7 I n general. he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . Do not use charts.02. how large can . Rtf = 5 .2 1 2 run) 6. 6 . (Ans. 1 0 During a test flight.0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .'lr ). A lateral displacement . 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 .6. an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . . 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. Rtf = 4 . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory .Ch.x and L¥3 be? . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o .6.)(. 6 EXER CISES 315 6 .02.000 run) 6 . 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. .400 n mi. Using the equations si n iL.98 to 1 .06 DU.
1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . (Ans. ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. b .0 DU for a ballistic missile.31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . a. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. c . Is this a high. low.936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 . ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . 6 6 . 7 .6888 n mi L:. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:..r = 0.800 nautical miles? (Ans.346 n mi long) b.642 DU/TU) .. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . vbo = 0. or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 .V = 25 . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. 6 .
6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . 5 DU. What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 . 6. at an altitude of 2. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 .'I' = � b. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. �bo and analyze the result .22 The range error equation could be written as: b. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.where e is the 6 . Do not use charts. b..ri. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . 3 0 0 E. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. at the same altitude . 6 . R t of 4.QL.4 min) = 6.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N.6 .e .600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. i. 6 . 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans.530 ft/sec. Ch . Q bo + .700 n mi using a high trajectory.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'.. 1 2 00 W. determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . tff 40. 1 5 00 E. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . If the velocity at burnout was 28.. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . 5 DU and whose perigee is . using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ).23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : .
v bo = . 92S1 0608. Do not assume a nonrotating Earth.48966 = 3 1 5 . 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.4 rad ian s a.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . 1 200W .3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . b.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . or maximum range trajectory? 6 . It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 . c.1 045 . (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .500 ft/sec=O.25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.318 V bo =23.1 0 . 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.0057 ° = .66E+20784.5 0 . elevation .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. low. How far will the missile miss the target? 4.6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of . (Ans.
What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. L t 54 0 3 1 '. downrange displacement of burnout point . In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . tff 3 2 . 1 20 OW . 1.649 n mi . 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . What was the freeflight range. 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . Assuming a symmetric orbit. the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . 5 7 min) == * 6 . (Ans. 0 (Ans. What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b .6 1 8 .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.Ch . and r bo � r(fl.73 n mi. rotating. 43e . What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . site located 319 During the actual firing. atmosphereless Earth. == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N.1 2 ' . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. . ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6.
LongRange Ballistic Missiles .320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 2. NY. New York . The MacMillan Company. 4.1 2) .2.3 1 The approximation : * 6. Gantz .800 n mi.2. 1 962.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. Dornberger . 1 95 5 . A History of the U.6Vb o . Calif.4) . ed . Los Angeles. Eric. Praeger.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 .3 . R ff ::: 1 0. . New York. Schwiebert. The Viking Press.02 DU.S. Garden City. NY. Vol 2. Albert D. * 6. Wheelon . altitude at bo ::: . NY. Inc. 6 * 6. 3 . 5 . The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. Inc. Ernest G . (Hin t : See section 6. 1 965 . Publishers. Frederick A. Lt Col Kenneth. New York. "Free Flight . 1958. Doubleday & Company. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. NY. V2 . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o .30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . Burgess. Space Technology Laboratories. Walter. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). 1 960. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts.
The Moon is the more useful. about which she moves. together with the Earth. since it gives us light during the night. Proctor. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. the 32 1 . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A.. have been discovered. when it is dark. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . does. the Sun or the Moon? . . . fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 .CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. when it is light anyway. of all which.the Moon. though principally attracted by the Earth. and moving round it. move round the Sun once a year. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. and is.
The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. but because it comes close to being a double planet. Lagrange and Laplace . Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. D'Alembert.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Brown . A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . W. Clairaut . not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. W. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. 7. 7 Author in this book." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. Even interplanetary trajectories. with no less subtility than industry.in this case the Sun. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. has given a full account. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. . Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous.
Darwin.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . . the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present.3 04 of the mass of the Earth. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. 7 . the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. .. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. This puts the center of the system 4. . .. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . .:. . The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. As a result . .21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge .3 days. H. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27.: =j Figure 7. . ��===c==Q. :. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). . According to one theory advanced by G. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . .400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .Sec. in fact.
the orbital elements are constantly .22 Lunar orbital elements 7. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. 7 Figure 7.2.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. In the case of the Moon's orbit .324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements.
054900489 . This effect .3 1 66 1 days.400 km. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a." was discovered more than 2 . b. c. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384.8 days. called "evection. The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0.000 years ago by Hipparchus. The line of nodes. 7 .Sec. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.
is the descending node . When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. in l S72. for only then can Sun. Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. 23 ° 27' . e . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. but more than a century later .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth .2. its mean value is 5 0 S ' . and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. where the Moon crosses from north to south. If the Moon's orbit were = . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . Thus. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . making one complete revolution in l S . The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 .000 years. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670.9 years. d . being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. the other . When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .6 years. rotates westward. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis.6 years. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic.2 Lunar Librations. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . From Figure 7. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S ." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse .
7 . The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit.3 . At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. solar pressure . the computer time required could become prohibitive . lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour ." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion.75 0 around each limb of the moon. among other things. Actually we see .Sec. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. As a result. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. monthbymonth basis. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. and 7. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. at one time or another. solar perturbations. daybyday.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. we would see exactly half of its surface . taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. This permits us to see about 7 . Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date .
this will not introduce significant errors. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories.. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. With this thought in mind. 7 . a = :l:!:.3. It is not important that the analytical method be precise.Q. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. semimaj or axis.0549 . we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ.3 . We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . 2& e = y'1  pia . 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. 7.6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity.. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = .400 km. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem.
. j 80 .. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit..9 I njection 1 1. 7 .. 60 \ \ I njection . we can solve for va . we get c o s V = 2.2 10.i.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10.0 S pe e d .. 1 r1 1 .. k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.Sec.c " 0 . II. . E i= .:.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .. We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.c C/) .g' . 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH .  I. e r Figure 7.3 ..31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly.. In Figure 7.r1 1. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit.
3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection.')'...3 .32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . Actually. In Figure 7. then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit...330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 ... It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours. : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 .. For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.J! . . If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP.. As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic .. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . : .. 7 an injection altitude of . the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed . \ 0 �� ' earth " . . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . ..: / :1 . . to parabolic.32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds.05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 ..
If we are trying to minimize injection speed. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if.we will never reach the Moon at all. due to errors in guidance or other factors.32 we see that. Eventually . .966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. From Figure 7 . Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. is a function of . if we try to take longer by going slower. We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. 7 . the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case .32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . as the injection speed is decreased. 3 . Assuming an inj ection altitude of . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 .4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. Assuming no lunar gravity . Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. 82 km/sec. In such a case . Moon from our assumed inj ection point . 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. this minimum injection speed is 1 0. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the .Sec. In general the sweep angle . 1 8 8 km/sec. which we can call 1/1. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. 7 . The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle .32. if we keep reducing the injection speed . an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 .
where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. . the initial velocity is too high. Neglecting lunar gravity.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj.33 . This may be seen from Figure 7 . so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . If. and wrrft. But. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj.. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. that is. for example . the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted .
4. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius.3 00 km. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. . which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . R s' given by the expression Sec.1 ) . The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite .4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. 7. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 . It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations.0 km/sec. for all practical purposes. however. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . only are interested in determining ap.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 .arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. There is.encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. 5 However. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. 7 ." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. In effect. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace .
1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth. 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .1 ) can be found in Battin . a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h . Figure 7 .4. A full derivation of equation (7 .) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n .4 . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 ) yields the value Rs = 66. 7 .4.) Then. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.4.
46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . Finally. The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 .44) .Sec. r 1 .45) COS <P I . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions.r h V 1 I (7 . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. at lunar arrival is (7 . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables. r 1 . 1 . A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. the radius. from geometry .42) (7 . 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration.43) From the law of cosines.
47) 2& e = ".41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .4.48) (7 . a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 . p=� (7 .49) (7 . t l . 1 p ia  a = :l!. Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. JJ. 7 Figure 7.1 0) .
Sec. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .4.4. Eo and E1 from Finally. Wm = = t 1 .649 2.1 5) 2.6 rad/sec 1 0 . . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .4. 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.4. 1 37 X X 1 0. 7 .to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .1 1 ) (7 .1 6) The phase angle at departure.1 3) (7 . the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .4.3 rad/TUEIl (7 .4. we can determine the eccentric anomalies. where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .1 2) Next.e 1 r1 __ (7 .to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .
r2 .4.1 8) (7 . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft . r 1 . (7 . 7 .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 .0 1 8 k m/sec. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO . The geocentric radius. 7 . is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch .2 Conditions at the Patch Point . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition.4. it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon .42 : V m = 1 .48) through (7 . then the selena centric radius. We will do this in the sections that follow. Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.4. In Figure 7 . Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 .which we chose arbitrarily .45). at arrival is completely determined by \ .1 6) above .1 9) .4. (7 .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so.4.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
30 .50 � � c 0 i e 1. «>  0. Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .20 .40 .348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .
52) and Figure 7 .5 0 . b oth of which are undesirable.si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 .52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . From Figure 7 . 54. Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7.5 3) . we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct .5 0 and 28 . If lunar declination at intercept is specified. Figure 7 . 5 4 worth noticing.Sec.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. As a result . However. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 .5. once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. 7 . if we add a coasting arc. If lighting conditions are important. sir! 0 1 . It should be obvious from equation (7 .
86 28 26 29 .949 1 8 05 42.07 47.63 1 1 1 . 7 1 7 1 66 .862 1 65 . 5 7 1 1 66 .970 1 66 .41 7 1 67 . 1 4 1 06.737 18 1 9 36 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39. 5 8 67.97 28 34 3 9 .3 3 3 1 67 .460 1 67 . 1 0 28 27 29 . 2 1 28 34 42 .3 .374 1 8 00 07 . 267 1 67 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .3 1 + 1 48 .424 1 67 .95 7 1 7 37 48.08 28 29 08 .45 8 0. 1 7 2 1 67 .308 1 8 22 22.05 8 1 65 .76 28 3 1 09 .435 1 65 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . 1 969 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .44 28 2 1 1 8 .3 1 8 5 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.7 1 54. 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .97 28 3 1 47 .766 1 7 43 23 .97 1 1 9.3 1 9 3 .88 28 33 3 5 . 8 1 28 32 47 .78 1 3 1 .23 1 23 .34 28 32 1 7 . 078 1 66 .445 1 67 .3 1 28 29 48 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .58 73.00 28 28 1 5 .449 1 67 .242 1 66 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.27 3 5 .9 8 9 8 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8. F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .84 60.883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .85 4 1 .46 1 1 67 .47 28 25 3 8 . 1 9 173.97 29.695 1 8 02 54 .87 28 34 22.385 1 67 .05 28 33 1 1 .85 1 1 66 . . 1 6 +1 6 1 . 1 5 28 34 1 0.203 28 1 8 49 . 1 0 1 6. 24 28 23 34 . 5 9 28 34 33 .90 28 33 5 3 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .376 1 67 .1 44.254 1 67 .4 1 3 1 66 . 1 90 1 67 . 973 FIgure 1 65 . 24 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .44 22. 1 67 1 7 29 26 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens . 8 0 1 36.39 28 3 0 34.38 + 9 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.963 1 8 27 5 5 .998 17 5 7 20.72 1 1 8 25 08.32 1 1 67 . 624 1 7 3 5 00. 1 3 . 7 .56 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 . .020 1 8 1 6 49.89 28 24 29 .35 28 1 6 08 .
The launch time. plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. The difference i n right ascension .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 .9 .Sec. 7 . the total time . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept.57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 .3 . 5 3 . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . 1/1 c ' Thus. 84).55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time.53 . �. 5 4). tt ' is (7 . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. ao' at this launch time .si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . we get cos 6a. c o s 1/1 t . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . at the launch point (see Figure 2. it is possible to adjustt l . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . and may be obtained from equation (2.54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . which may be computed from the injection conditions.5 ." 8. between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. !::lX . slightly (7 .89) : (7 56) . is the same as the "local sidereal time .
2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. .4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = . 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7. 000 k m 33 . 7. 7. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier.3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. and the exact We now know the injection conditions. 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. 7 .(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods. � .and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . What additional 6.54) agree. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.3 224 .426 k m 2 /sec2 6.t I ES Ch .V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon.300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0.
7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . b. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . 7 . Determine the /:. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.400 k m : a . What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c..9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7.Ch . a . .
1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. . Use h bo l OO n mi . requirement. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. <1>0 = = = * 7 .Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion).) * 7 . 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. select ro ' vo ' to meet this . 7 7 . You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. Specifically.
November 1 95 9 . 1 9 5 9 . Richard H . Second Edition. Battin. London and New York. 1 962. 4. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. New York. The Moon . Principia . 2. New York. Makemson. 1 943 . University of California Press. A stronautical Guidance. George . 1 964. Newton. 3 . Fisher. 5. . Clyde . Inc. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Baker. Robert M." ARMA Document DR 220. NY. The Story of the Moon .1 6. 1 967. Doran and Company. Academic Press. Abelard Schuman. McGrawHill Book Company. NY. Doubleday. Berkeley and Los Angeles. L. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori.Ch. 6. Gamow. Garden City. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. an d Maud W. Isaac . NY.
.
two ears. At first it was not understood . compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . C opernicus. By 1 507 he was 357 . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. But the tide of opinion ebbed. two nostrils. such as the seven metals. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . two eyes. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . two unpropitious. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature..CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . indeed. and a mouth . etc. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. which it were tedious to enumerate . two luminaries. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven.
2. Venus. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. and Pluto . diameter." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. at the age of 70. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . 8. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. Mars. some of which pass near the Sun." as may be seen in Table 8 . was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . indeed. 8. comets. Jupiter . Neptune. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. are spread much more widely throughout the system. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto.1 . 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . . In addition. . nevertheless. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . .2. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. The "law. 3. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. Saturn. Earth. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. the members of the solar system. If we write down the series 0. 1 2 . . After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. Uranus. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. 6. 1 Bode's Law.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772.
The size.8 77.2 1 0.2.28 3 0.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.2 Table 8.6 2. 0 is presented in Table 8 .22.0 1 9 . changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 1 7 39.52 1 9.39 0. 8. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune .8 5 .0 1.52 2. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. The sixth orbital element. Only for brief periods.4 0. Except for Mercury and Pluto . Table 8 .72 1 . 8. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 . shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants. Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune . compared with the total mission duration.Sec. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 .00 1 .7 1 . is its path .20 9.21 Actual Distance 0.6 3 8 . 8.65 5.
. 7 73 1 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° .096 1 88 ° .497 1 3 ° .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .441 73 ° .322 1 00 ° .. 38 7 1 .400 276 ° .005 0 .489 0° .684 93 ° . 05 1 4 .405 undefined 49 ° . 76 ° .) 00 .28 3 0.850 1 ° .773 1 7° . 0 1 67 . 074 1 83 ° .004 3 ° .225 237 ° .306 2 ° . 1 7 3 9 .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .5 1 9 1 9 . 0482 . 1 1 1 326 ° ..828 1 7 1 °.203 9. 1 42 1 02 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° . 000 1 °.7233 1 .870 L.5 24 5 .0539 .76 .000 1 .2583 7 ° .. 5 73 1 75 ° .970 7 6 ° . 8 94 341 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 ..423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c. [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (. 2056 . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . 0934 .275 222 ° .394 0° . 1 3 6 47 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 0068 .
6 1 5 1 .05 6 .268x 1 0 B 3 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .7 5 7 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .232x l 0 4 3 .000 .3 .257x l O s 3 .8 1 7 1 .896x 1 0 6 3 .04 29." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .80 5 .9 1 08 .795x 1 0 7 5 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.49 4.24 1 .820x 1 0 6 6 .8 247 . 0 1 1 64.8 6 29.3 05x 1 04 1 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .06 9 .87 3 5 . 1 4 1 3 .9? 1 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .0 95.74 2 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .6 1 7 .. 5 227.79 24.8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 . 1 1 49 .986x l O s 4.65 6. 1 08 3 1 8 .46 84.2 1 4..8 8 1 1 1 ." .000 1 .
The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet.3 . If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. however. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. For transfers to mo st of the planets. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. Just as in lunar trajectories. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. from the standpoint of /:. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. was the Hohmann transfer. The Hohmann transfer. 8. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. this consideration is important.3l .v required. if continued past the destination planet .
The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by . \ _.Sec.' . Nevertheless.. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip." .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / .31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit. 8.u o_____+.v required for an interplanetary mission.V. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::. .. Therefore .
for the Hohmann transfer. The heliocentric speed.l 0 (8 . In any case . 3 .1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .where f.33) In Table 8 .l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun.78 kIn/sec. From Table 8.32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion.3. then.3 . The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. • .3 and should be reviewed . VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 . and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . B (8 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time. the difference between the heliocentric speed.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.
Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars. 40.5 1 46 .04 1 6.74 6.748 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun. it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth. From Table 8 .3 9 1 1 .099 1 .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure . 1 2 5 8 . r d = 1 .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .31 1 05 .42 4 1 . t2 . In other words . 1 6 30. 8.28 27. VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight .57 .Sec.379 1 .9  2 . Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.295 1 .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.05 4 1 .9 1 6 1 .07 4 1 . rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.524 A U From equation (8 . rE9> are respectively : .60 Table 8.28 32.345 1 .397 22.78 46.73 38.
4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 . 8 From equation (8 . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.73Km/sec .32 for a Mars trajectory.35) wt (t2 . and is illustrated in Figure 8 .3.t1 ) wt .34) __ (8 .3. Thus. where is the angular velocity of the target planet. 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4. The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 .3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . v .366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .7088 years = 258. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight. vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.t 1 = 1T = 4. From equation (8 .2 Phase Angle at Departure.9 d ays 8. the phase angle at departure .32) the heliocentric speed .099A U/TU 0 = 32.
Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. . . If we miss a particular launch opportunity. .. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct.36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . 'Yl (8 ... pp 1 60.3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " ... how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet. .. Figure 8. .Sec.. . 367 . ..1 76 .32 Phase angle at departure. 8. .
340 .368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .025 Synodic Period.60 2. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.01 1 .3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. 8.W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . yrs 0. Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::. rad/yr 26 .09 1 .04 1 .v 1 determined. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .2 1 7 3 .32 1 . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �. we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again.0 1 1 .3. 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. Mars and Venus.00 Table 8.w t I (8 .213 . the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.38) .32 In a time .530 . then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. 1 3 1 . 3 ·2. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.07 1 1 0.07 5 .37) (8.03 8 . so W EfJ7 s . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. Thus.
39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . (8 . . . . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . ".r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. . . . �. 8 . . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. � Figure 8..310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in .:V.33 / . . '\ . � _ i t_ r b_ . ..Sec. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� .. . ... f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. .. . . '?. ..
1 1 ) becomes = 2 . the angle .33 . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. For transfer to one of the outer planets. is given by cos fI =  §.6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . C but since e = da for any conic. This may be seen by solving equation (8 . From Figure 8. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 .2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed.98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 .3.the injection speed .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . we may write . 3. fI. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola. fI. so equation (8 . km/sec.34 we see that the angie . the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars.
CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .1 e where the eccentricity . 8 . conditions : = (8 .Sec.3.1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .1 2) e. 3. 3 T H E PATC H E D. is obtained directly from the injection (8 .3.
3.3. cfJ as shown in Figure 8. however. Generally. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 .72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .3. 8. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 . the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle .4 Arrival at the Target Planet. At arrival.36. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector .35 Interplanetary launch (8 .
3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :. 8 .3. (8 .1 6) (8.Sec. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 .1 8) . 3 . 3.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 .1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines.
It also means that the relative velocity vector.The angle . If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . in Figure 8. From Figure 8 . . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. 8 .3 . resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. In Figure 8.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. 3 7 . will be directed toward the center of the planet. 3 7 we see that  (8 . If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. 3.320) y = x si n e (8. the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there.s i n if> 2 v (8 . S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence .36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . e. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet.36). 'Yl should be selected from equation (8.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . 5 Effective Collision Cross Section.
37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f. X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8. 8 . (8 .lt/ 2 X _ .322) .Sec.
we obtain .326) Because angular momentum is conserved. 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the speed at periapsis is simply . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .327) for y Yields (8 . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. 324) (8. y. 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 .(8. Solving equation (8 .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance.
the "inwact parameter. b.05 DU.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . " since any offset less than this will result in a collision . only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. rt This particular offset distance is called b . V2 + 2fJ. then a much smaller target must be considered.39. The. 8. The given information is .33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission.329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter.Sec.t 3  rt (8 . In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size.329).328) we 'get (8 . This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0.
6V 1 = 1 .099 A U/TU = :.1 :: 0.373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl. 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .1 VI = 1 .05 D U 1 . 3 .099 .099 A U/TU 0.099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .
43 DU/TU .Sec. 1 39 + 1 .4.1 ) .905 = = 379 37 .v = 2v si n L 2 /::.1 . the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude. 8 . departure Figure 8 . Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 . From Table 8 . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .07 6 ft/sec 2 .044 8 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic. t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.4.22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.v (8 .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.
32.8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .. 8 as derived in equation (3 .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun .62 DUJTU� 8.1 )) .1 ) .. 7.3 .4. 8 .7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years. 8. 8. EXERCISES 8 .3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 .5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 . 8. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units. 5 for the planet Jupiter... " . Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) . 8. _  /' .3. (Ans.. 8.
v = 1 5 . lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. 1 00 ft/sec) c. r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j . v = 39 .v ? (Ans. .000 ft/sec.l:.348 DUe/TUE9> .l:.394 DUe/TU� b .V required? (Ans. 1 DUE[) radius.35) ITbo no .9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the . Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 .V = 0.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. It can be shown that . 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 .l:. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . If c = 9 .V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.l:. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the . M = 5.�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i.900 ft/sec. a.Ch. vesc = 1 .l:. where 8. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit .
.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars... (Ans. 0.0. so work carefully and follow any suggestions.28 AU2 /TU2 . What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans. What is the 6. a.254 AU/TU� . a. 8 8 . = 0. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. 8. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0.046 DU� /TU � b . 6.V of ..382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . What is the 6. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . Find the hyperbolic excess speed.73 1 DU8TU� b . 1 DUe/TUEl1. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. The mission will begin in a 1 . 0. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . 1 3 (This problem is fairly long.Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units.0.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d.. � = 0.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. What is the 6... 3 .5 DUEI1 circular orbit.? (Ans. 0..9 00 ft/sec) 8 . Is it more efficient to apply a 6. 09 DUe/TU$) = .V at apogee or perigee? 8. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .which results if the same 6. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 . Find the 6. v=' (Ans.V is applied at perigee. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit.0. v= 0. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . (Ans.
050 ft/sec) 8 . 8 . Compute the phase angle at departure. then find h. 1 .What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. <P2 and vll1II in that order. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth.2 AU/TU� d. 0. for the above transfer. 1 . Vrrw = 0. 1 4 a. For a given planet.Ch. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines.867 AU/TU� e .5 AU. c.373 AU/TU � f. (Ans. P. 3 . 0. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity.87 TU� b . 'Y1 . called the turning angle . What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 .) (Ans. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. O o) 8.3 9 DU oITU& 2 .5 AU? (Ans. (Ans. it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0.
Vol 2.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. pp 430434. and the angular rates of the planets. W . Simon and Schuster. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Fimple . 1 95 6 . No 2 . 8 8. James R. NY. 1 967. 3 . American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. coplanar planet orbits." AIAA Journal. London. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet .V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. Washington. R. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . U S Government Printing Office . The World of Mathematics. p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. 1 963. What would be an estimate of the return b. . 4 . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. Newman. transfer time. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . Vol 1 . "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. 1 969. New York. 1 96 1 . D C . * Ch . Assume circular. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. 1 .
Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . it is found that there seem to be distinct. irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . " Webster 9 . There is always some variation 385 . The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). and at times unexplainable . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. Macroscopically . but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented.
The power and all directional controls are kept constant. Then. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 6 . Fortunately. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. In fact. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. except the motion of the perigee. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies.from the norm. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. Brown 's papers of 1 897. E. M. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. The wind gust was a perturbation. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example .) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. meteoroid collisions. about a century later. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. magnetic. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. etc. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. 9 . solar radiation effects. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . and relativistic effects.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. atmo spheric drag and lift. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. which had not been treated by Newton . It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force.
This is the main emphasis of this chapter.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations .Sec. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . a section discussing methods and errors is included . These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. It was developed by P. See section 1 . This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . In particular. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. 9 . This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. H. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . With the capability for orbital flight . Encke. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. the Cowell. 9.
r=Y �r (9 .22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . the equations would be . F or numerical integration equation (9 . For the twobody problem with perturb ations.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . including all the perturbations. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. Sun and planets. y = vy (9.22) would be further broken down into the vector components. the equation would be (9 .2. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body.
satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. Classically. Even in double precision computer arithmetic. the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. In spherical coordinates (r. Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff.25) . one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. Intuitively. roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. 8 .'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories.23).22).Il m ( 3 . This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . When motion is near a large attracting body .24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. and he would be correct . In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates.Sec. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . There are some disadvantages of the method . 9 . ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2.
This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere .31 The osculatil.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. in our case .25) As a reminder. reference or b i t Figure 9. 9. The term connotes the sense of contact. and . "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing.'l. Presumably . 9 (9 . it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. In the Encke method .390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method.
the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit. Now w e will consider th.  (9 . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .3. r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit.Sec. 9 .. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 . = p ( tb ) p p to = 0. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. At that time . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . r + � r3 r = a t . or epoch.3 2) into (9 .3.3 . 3 . Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration. 9. respectively .32)  Sr. The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. Note that at the epoch.. be defined as (see Figure and .1 ) and (9 .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). Let r and p be the radius vectors to .1 ) . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors.1 ) .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit .to ) ' p (9 .33) Sub stituting equations (9 .33) we obtain .1 ) and for the osculating orbit.
.3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . However. theoretically. 6r (to + . For a given set of initial conditions.3 6) Equation (9 .35) 3 3 r _ (9 . p is a known function of time . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:..6. we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object .t) can be calculated numerically. 6r.6r] r3 r (9 . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method.392 6r == a ) p + IlL p . but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .34) then becomes (9.lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . so r can be obtained from 6r and p.37) .was to obtain more accuracy. == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) . So .3 / 2 (9 .6r ) ..
/  Our problem is not yet solved . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit .Sec. Expanding. 9 .32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. OZ are the cartesian components o f or. o y . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. In terms of its components Figure 9. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . however. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] .
2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .37) becomes (9 .( 1 . There are two methods of solution at this point . 9 From equation (9 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .31 2) . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task . /) y2 . . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .(1 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .2q So q =  Now.37). <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9.1 0) (9 .38)  1 .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . .38) and (9 . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9. so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9. 3. (9 .3.1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates. at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q.
Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body.t) . q( to + t:.1 2) may be slightly faster. f(to + t:.does not remain quite small. Vol 2.3.3. although the use of equation (9 . and 5r 0 at this point. If equation (9 . q (to ) O. Go to step c with t:. t:. Rectification should be initiated when .1 0).t) 2 . a. c. b. Otherwise (jr p .t).t to get (jr{ to + kt:. In (jr p v as described earlier. so larger step sizes can be taken.t) calculate 1 .3 8) 3. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .> a specified constant. f. but of the order of magnitude of 0. r (to ) . 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . Knowing 5r(to + t:.Sec. 9 . e . k. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. g. The method using equation (9 . v = p + (jr. p 229). (jr 0. For an integration step. Then the tables could be u sed to find f .nowing p (to ) . In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . If. p(to + t:.1 2) is used.t . calculate (jr (to + t:. Integrate another t:.t replaced by kt:.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used.39) is recommended for use with the computer. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. rectify and go to step a .t ) from equation (9 . d .01 ). It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker .3. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. = = = = = p continue. Calculate r = p + (jr.t where k is the step number.t) from equation (9 .
9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form.3. = .4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time .r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . Similarly.t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . Then e � . The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit.cSr ) (9 . A similar check could be made on i . Thus. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration .6. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . Though. For instance./l m {m s . then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. they would remain constant. at the outset. e eccentricity. One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs. from the Encke method 9. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. See equation (9 . the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . In the absence of perturbations. a . etc . this method may seem more difficult to implement.6.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces .
This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. � . In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. along the instantaneous radius vector. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker.. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. . The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired.4 . e.I OOS . 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . i. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations .variations (e.T (or M) will be used..n (t .To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. r.g.Sec. . but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. 9 . Vol 2 . 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . n. Therefore . p 246. 9 . for a table of parameter sets). R (unit vector R).tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . The standard orbital elements a. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. w and. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. The axis S is .and dM ?. Eventually . These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time .
The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G. The third axis. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt . = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .43) .rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9. W.4.1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9.
48) we find da dt = (9.45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a . dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .� 2& ' = 399 (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.4. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.Sec.44).43).44) (9. so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 . Differentiating the conic equation Qr. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed. expressions for found.!I=8!" nr from (9 .46) and F S (9 .4 and .1:!:.48) Substituting in equation (9.45) To express this in known terms.1 0) .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:. 9. (9 .. (9 .
lae dt h $) a dt .400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch ..1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 . 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .�) % J. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.) Since h = hW.4.1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.2 )% a = (1 .la _ (9 04. r hW + h da S dt (9 .
.1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .4.1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .1 8) .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 . K) � (9 . 1 e2 (9 .4.sin QL = dt .4.1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r). but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .n di dt (9 .h cos i rF s h2 .4. K . 4 .4.4. so = h ( rF sWrF W S) . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.Sec.1 6) we obtain . 9 ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
Sec.2p.2p. 4 where c will be the parameter.4.e . Since p.. . .450) and solving for e we find (9 . C.. From equation (9 . VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v. . so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . 9 .v 2p. and V are small.v {at + c ) c (9 . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. c = ve 2 p.5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l .v = .4.4.2p. • .vc . {at + c) + 3p.454) + 2p. (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9. allowing c to vary with time .2 p. but more practically we would consider � = v .5 1 ) correct to first order in J.J. The constant of integration. .vat a+v a . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 . .45 0) should be small.45 1 ).vt 2p. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.v which can be easily solved for c.vt .45 1 ) . Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p.2 (at + C)2  .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. ] (9 .
Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. his integration method. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. 9 in detail. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed.e. accuracy. . allow as large a stepsize as possible. d. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. b . highly questionable. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. c. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. such as the disturbing function. at best. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. 9 . 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. 5 . storage and complexity. not expediency.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . should be the criteria. 9 . the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth.. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. efficiency. In theory. economical in computing time. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. or has not carefully selected. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. Unfortunately.
51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. For instance .388. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (.388. 5 . The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the .276 + 3 . 2 Integration Errors.accumulated roundoff error . It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. In fact. 9 . Baker (v 2. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s .567 = 7. Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. The larger the .57 = 7 .5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ .5 (9. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. Obviously .864.28 + 3. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.476. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. 4. 9 . and f. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation.476.843. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4.Sec. They are roundoff and truncation errors. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e .
The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . Of course . AdamsMoulton. h. Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here.62) (9. 6 . There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. the larger the truncation error. 9 . Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. Thus. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes .= f(t. 9. 1 RungeKutta Method.6.1 ) . EulerCauchy and Bowie . we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. We will treat the first order equation . in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. 9 stepsize. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. In general. Gill.63) dx dt (9. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 .414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories.
. they are faster than the singlestep methods. x n + k 3 ) (9. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.yV:.63) and n is the increment number. x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h .h ) k3 +. have a relatively small truncation error.( 1 + y. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . easy to implement .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .% ] + k 2 [ 1 . It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.yry.65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize . This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods . They are relatively simple . and stepsize is easily changed . X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + .Sec.k +.__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + . 9 . 9 . In general. x n . One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error.) k2 6 3 l2 (9.64) 1 1 + .6. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated.( 1 . X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method.
Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor .1 f . 5 / 1 2 . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0.\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. 3 9. 25 1 /720. 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . .\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . .\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. 1 /2 .67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 3 /8 . 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell .beginning and after each stepsize change.6.66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 . . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas.
Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.x n+1I I (P 270 (9. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9. The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term.Sec. This method.x n + (5 5 f ri . The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 . Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).9 f n 3 ) 24 (9.69). . for instance.1 + 37 f n2 .h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method. In equation (9.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.59 f n . 9 . the error terms are not generally known.6.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first.
numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n .4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. and most used.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . 9 like other multistep methods.1 .2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter.6. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". "x.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n.° n + .1 ' etc.1 f(t n + h). n + 1 2 n i \.1 f(t n h) 2 2   .° n 60480 (9.6 . though it also includes a corrector.8 k . 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.h ) . x. 9. though. It is. . The GaussJackson method is one of the best. n + � 84 "x.
flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric.Bashforth) methods are preferred. p/r. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. is known. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques.72) .l 005). but only the simpler forms will be treated. 9 . The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. 2 and NASA C R.7. V.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. 9. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. Some of them become quite complex. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion .1 The Nonspherical Earth . Table 9. ¢. according to Vinti.I n=2 r (9. However.e presented in this section.6.7. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. is ¢ = � [1 . The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. 2 . Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic.1 ) One such potential function.6. If the potential function. 9 .5 Numerical Integration Summary . the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. 9. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. the accelerations can be found from (9.
Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. 9 CI) . Vol t . very difficult to determine proper size.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. it could be very fast.
.where J.. 9. r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .J s � ( � ) (35� .�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 ..  I.945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .2.L = gravitational parameter Sec.7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.74) ..( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .] (9 .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L . if> = I!:.e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r . = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .
422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J . y.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75). which are slightly in variance .03)x 1 0. The first term in x.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .44 ± O.5)x 1 0.l ( �) 3 ( 3 . .6 ± O. Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . 1 5 ± O.3003 ""6 ) + .57 ± O. l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .6 J = (0.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2.6 J4 = (1 . There have been various determinations of the J coefficients. Vol 1 . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0.1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J . .6 .5 ± O.6 6 (0.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 . l )x 1 0. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. I )x 1 0.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .64 ± O. l )x 1 0. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.
C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . and other parameters. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. To do this. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). by definition. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . 9 . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2.. Therefore . The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . equatorial coordinate system. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations.2 Atmospheric Drag. Vol 1 .7.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion .Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . simply use r3 r= where . 7 Drag. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point .s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only).Sec. However. the drag coefficient. There are a few ctmtiol). Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker... 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . p 147). s 9. Thus. The equations are formulated in the geocentric . but will not be presented here. term) to the RSW sy stem.
9 m p C O A . altitude above an oblate Earth.3 Radiation Pressure. z refer to the geocentric. but the reader can find this in other documents.ilc coffc. Radiation pressure. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. etc. though small. . equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. equatorial coordinate system.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y .7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. In the geocentric.lli. Equation (9 .78) z .7 . Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. 9 .7 . y .ie.t b ae ==ic.
79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. m = mass of vehicle (grams) . .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates.1 5) . Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. . See equation (9. EXERCISES 9. 9 . Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x .Ch.25). y. Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. z directions. 9 . Prove this assertion . 7 . 9 .5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm). m (9. but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation.4.4349 0 x .3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. the variation of eccentricity. 9. 1 Verify the development of equation (9 .2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . 9 where A = cross section f = 4. but a major force .4 Thrust. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 .
Planetary Coordinates for the. . Washington. The Macmillan Co . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics.ittouck." NASA CR. Academic Press. 1 967. * 9. 6.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . D. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization.000 n mi.445). Inc. L. M. John Wiley and Sons. .. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. * 9 . 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . Academic Press. Ralston . Feb 1 968. Blackford. 3 . and Wilf. R. Years 1 9601 980. 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. New York. * 9 . and Wl). 5 . LIST OF REFERENCES 2. New York. 9 9 .9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . Vol VI. New York. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. Baker. 1 9 1 4. Robert M . 9 . "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. L. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. M. and Clemence. C . 4. Brouwer. S . A.l 005 . 1 960. G. F . 1 . A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. 1 96 1 . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. M. London . Mendez. Allione . Jr . A. Moulton . DC. M. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. . J . Guidance. New York.
1 3 . Dubyago . 1 964. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. 1 95 3 . 1 948 . Maud W. Longmans. Plumber. 1 96 1 . Michigan. Baker. Washington. P . L. New York. 1 967. Inc. Paul. 1 1 . New York. . Vol 1 . R. McGrawHill. A stronautical Guidance . New York. 1 6. New York. A . W . M . Cambridge University Press. Townsend. NASA SP33 . 1 2.Ch . 1 0. D. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . 1 5 . Escobal. Inc. E . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Robert M. New York. M. Jr and Makemson. F . The Macmillan Co. Hildebrand. DC . R . Th e Determination of Orbits. New York. 1 95 6 . Celestial Mechanics. The Computation of Orbits. Published privately by the Author. G. 2nd ed. B . John Wiley and Sons. 9 . John Wiley and Sons. Orbital Flight Handbook. C. Part 1 . R. Dynamical A stronomy . 1 963. New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. P. McGrawHill. Academic Press. Escobal. 1 96 5 . 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). New Yark. Herget. Jr. Battin. 1 4 .. . Methods of A strodynamics. Smart. 8 . 1 968 . Ann Arbor. Methods of Orbit Determination. H.
.
092567257 x 107 ft 3963 . I DU� TUi. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter. English Units Metric Units 2. Canonical Units I DU. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . r. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. 3.24764 11sec 806 . we 0.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius.. .9053682 8 km' .327 1 5 44 x 1 0 . Speed Unit I� TU. Ile Angular Rotation..407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. 1 Center. 2506844773 deg min 7. 1 97 5 . 1 328 2 1 days 9.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 . 'Derived from those values of Il .922786 NM 1 3 .908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 ... Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 . 2593 6.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance. 1 . r.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter.. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.05883 36565 � TV.68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 ..77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec . 44686457 min 6378.
9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .3 14 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 . foot = 0.4 3 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A. 1f = 3 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .2342709 5 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 . there is no roundoff or truncation.3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown.8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0. .239446309 x 1 0. i.APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .07 1 0 1 50424 4 .08 1 52366 0 . 1 2 64963205 0 .e .8 9.77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .
not a null or zero vector. velocity . Examples are displacement. Examples are mass. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. (Example : 3 or A). time or any real signed number. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. K) and (p.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . Thus.relationships involving vector quantities. Unit Vector. speed. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . W). A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . Q. force and acceleration. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. C. 43 1 . Scalar. If A i s a vector . I DEFINITIONS Vector. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. length of a vector . A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. J. temperature .
regardless of the position of their origins. 1 Similarly. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. Coplanar Vectors. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. If A. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor.. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. and A and B are not collinear. B and C are coplanar vectors. . since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB.
V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.l ) C.B which is the same as A + (B). e I I l (C .2. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B. l . Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A . Scalar or Dot Product.. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. denoted by A • B. From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors.1 ) I AI cos B .C.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . The "dot" product of two vectors A and B.
K are unit orthogonal vectors. then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . denoted by A x B .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.J =K . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them.(B + C) = A .. B and C form a right handed system. .B + A . 23 ) (C.24) (C. The cross product of two vectors A and B. J . if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A .K= 1 I . That is. The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. sma l lest ang le ( L e .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A .J = J o K=K o I = O where I . A o A = Aft.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . < 180° ) AxB =C .8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C .1=J .
e < In fact A x B = . 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. K are unit orthogonal vectors. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C. then A X B = O. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . J.C.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I.
29) Scalar Triple Product. from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) . BI C1 . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C.436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .
(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .21 4) C.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.C. The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K . The vector triple produce.3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .2. Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.l 3) (C.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 . denoted b y A x (B x C) . The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B . 2.2.1 2) (C.2.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .B3 C) + A ( B3 C .
. . thus .....9... K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P. then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + ......with itself.. .. ......438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o ... v C P K y . " ...YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of . dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ... .. x J Then the velocity relative to the (I....
3 b. v = wT .= .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle.C. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. dr v = . This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .= . In this special case then.. VE LOCITY 439 which. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector.
They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. Az. and altitude above mean sea level are specified .APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . EI. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . Use standard unit conversions given in the text. EI. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). elevation rate . In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . p. azimuth rate. D . longitude. elevation. and of the satellite (R and V). The radar determines p. positive to the east) of the launch site. The input to TRACK should be range. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . range rate . From the 440 . It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. azimuth. The input to SITE should be latitude. latitude of the launch site. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . Its geodetic latitude.
62624920) = (.2045 72 1 6 . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. 22 1 0. Following are five sample sets of data for site location.74933340. 0) = (.05 1 37. . LST and LONG are in radians.D. . D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. . LST. REAL LONG.ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . 9 W 0 1 9 05. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . 8 0.8 N 7 8 . BEGIN REAL D. 5 7 5 for data set 3).5 3 4 ON 4 5. INTEGER DAY.48 201. 3 315 .0027379093®2®PI®D .01 2035 7 5 .7 . . LST) . .63745829) z = . END OF LSTIME .75 1 003 9 1 . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . .5 1 35 . .775 1 80 1 9.05 1 9 5238) . . DAY. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 . 040075. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG.5 3 0 .26347 1 9 8 . PI . 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . GST _ 1 . = (. 1 4923608. y. E 7 2 . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . .7 . 2 2 29. observation time and radar tracking data. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). 6 8 2. UT. GST.57 76. 5.75 components are : (. 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . If the above program is used.7 5.3 .044 1 8440. Input UT as a decimal (i. 007 N 1 04 .8 S 1 7 5.MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT . 6 . PI.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 .5 90 . e . . GST..5 .74933340.27907 599.07 1 05 . UT.08 30. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST.
49 0 0 2.01 .85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth. d. parabolic. 48 4 0 2.1 0 22. hyperbolic). 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 .9 0 2 0 . For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.4 1 4 2. 0 1 7 45 .6 0 .1 .001 1 0 . 6 2 .4 1 722472 .4 1 4 0 0 65 . .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix.2 VI . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. . Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 .49 0 . 5 . b .707 .001 5 30 0 . rectilinear.5 0 . .1 .9 1 046 1 80.703 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. 01 . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (.8 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach.9 1 .. 05 .293 . c. 00001 . 7 0 3 VK . elliptical. The type of trajectory (circular.998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29. 0) (. 1 0 0 2 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. From this information you are required to fmd : a. 1 29579 1 9 . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 .
5 . You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z).3 D. 1 5 0689 1 . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. a .5 0 0 . Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. x should never be greater than 2m. c.7 . 61. 1 38878 .4 of the text for guidance . RJ 61 .0. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. If your iteration process is efficient.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 . and dt/dx for each iteration.5 .jiL d. Also for an ellipse. b. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. To determine when convergence has occurred. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61.8 .3 1 0 . 61 (calculated) . If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered.025 9 1 7 . When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time .
. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem.444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.5 1 . 1 362596) = (0. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine.... 00 1 074 . I�I :::. One of the data sets tests this situation. I t .. Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. R2 V2 = (0. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations.4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later.1 . and sign (7T . You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives.9 20 . .. 1 06 1 0.. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points.6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. 3. 1 8 1 . t :::... It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11').70655823. 1 0.00006057 .w).t c l :::.. 0 .002 1 7 7 1 .1 . In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z. bt.6 for 1 :::. For instance note that y can never be negative . 0. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 .. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 .01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . 1 65 08 . For ellipses limit z to (211')2 .999 o 1 03 D.. Given r l ' r2 . 0003 6 1 .
The following data i s i n canonical units.2 .6 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. time of radar observation. The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT. Also print t:J) and a for each data set .0001 +1 . 1 2298 1 44.4 . 7 for further discussion o f this project .1 specifies the long way. location of the tracking site .7 . The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the . a message printed and you should go to the next data set . .3 .1 .5 . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM . y.8 5 +1 ..5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . .4 .4 . so a check should be made for that condi tion. Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target.4 1 . .7 0 1 0 20 1 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 . x.S = (0. The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight. t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.3 .6 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D. 1 .2 1 . Check for this case .6 .201 . print out a message and go to the next data set .0 . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program.4804847 1 .66993 1 97 .2 .6 .66986992. and the location of an interceptor launch site .9378 1 789) = 4.1 .2 .3 .6 . See section 5 .5 . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.7 0 1 0 1 .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem.
the starting value of timeofflight increment size.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . f. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top .05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . This will aid you in verifying your solution .3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. g. d. When you point out your arrays. Make some provision to print out all of your input data. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. KEPLER and GAUSS. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. c. read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . To make your program flexible . Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . e . the desired increment size for reaction time . TRACK. the number of reaction times desired . Times should be read in as minutes. Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . b . Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. and the number of timeofflight increments desired .
of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .74.038 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.0. of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.1 . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.338 **** **** **** 10 8 .92 deg/sec 1 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 .6 1 3 km EI = 56.5 p = 1 86. 844 **** **** **** 35 7 .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .
448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LATL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .
INDEX .
.
27 Angular velocity of Earth. 74 geocentricequatorial. 56 Celestial sphere. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 3 4 Collision cross section. 84. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 5 7 principal direction. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 4 1 . 5 3 . 56 Circular satellite orbit. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 8 4 Copernicus. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 1 8 8 . 57 perifocal. 1 620. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 279 C anonical units. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 5 8 Aristotle. 1 09. 3 2 3 masses.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 5 5 heliocentric. Tycho. 203 Aphelion. 54 fundamental plane. 84 ecliptic. 3 3 period of. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 24 Apparent solar time. 2 1 2 B asis. 1 8 3 mean. 1 00. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 2 3 4. 429 flattening. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 24 height adjustment. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 297299 451 .9 8 gravitational constant. 102 Apoapsis. 7483 Coordinate systems. 94. 422 gravitational parameter. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 5 3 . 1 4. 20.1 3 1 G auss problem. 5358. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 1 5 . 429 lunar distance. 60 and universal v ariables. B urnout. 1 09 Angular momentum. 2 1 . 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 2427 Apogee. 1 22. 246 Brahe. 54 orbit plane. 84. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 3 8 9 . 4 gravitational h armonics. 4043 Celestial equator. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 60 Argument of periapsis. 3 9 0 station. 3 2 5 . 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 1 8 5 true. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 4 3 0 Conversions. 429 Astronomical Unit. 277320 computation chart. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 6. 3 5 8 . 296 geometry. 109 B akerNunn camera. 349 Angle of elevation.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 374 Computer projects. 9 3 . 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 423 Azimuth. 74 BMEWS. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 9498 transformations. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 28 1 B arker's equation.
297299 I N DEX in plane. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 3 1 . 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 3 6 8 local.452 Declination.3 3 pe.3 9 6 Energy. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 1 0 6 precession.2 1 2 parabolic. 2 4 . 25 1 258.1 5 5 Direct motion. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 4 1 9. 3 00 launching. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 58 from position a n d velocity. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 3 90 . 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 1 8 1 . 3 5 0 Epoch. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 20 1 202 f and g series. 1 42. Elliptical orbits. 1 0 9 . 1 4 G ravitational potential. 3 0 .93 . 60 Dot product.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 26.1 1 6 Gravitation. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 3 89 nbody. zenith angle. 3 5 . Carl Fredrich. 54 Elements of orbit. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 423 424 Earth oblate. 2 1 ff. 4 Newton's law of. 1 8 2. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 26 ff. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 56.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 3 22 trajectories. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 2 1 2. 9 4 Geoid. 1 7 equations. 25. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 221 hyperbolic. 8 0 f and g expressions. 2 8 2 time. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 62 vector. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 2 1 2. apparent. G auss problem. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 3 5 . 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 1 8 8. 306 EarthMoon system. 2 3 3 . 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method.1 4 3 . 8 7 . 62 Ecliptic. 1 04 Escape speed. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on.1 3 1 Direct ascent. function o f true anomaIles. 264 eccentric anomalies. 2 9 7 . 7 G ravitational constant. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 94 . 60 true longitude at. 4 G ravitational parameter. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 9. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 4 3 3 Drag. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 1 60 low altitude. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 1 0 3 G round track. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 84. 6 1 Elevation angle. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 2 1 . 1 54. 2 0 . 1 1 7. 2 3 0 . 1 4 0 . 1 0 6 mean.1 90. 1 0 twobody. 444 algorithm.3 0 6 numerical integration. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 22827 1 .riod o f . 40. 2 9 . 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 1 8 8 . 5 8 . 227 418 ( y ) . 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 25 1 . 4 G alileo. 1 22. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time.
3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 1 52 Mass of planets. 1 1 7 derivatives. 22. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. Edmund. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 5 Newton. 2 Heliocentric constants. 1 8 5 . 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 2. 2. 2 second. 8 Node ascending. 3 24326. 3 7 9 . argument of at epoch. 60 Lunar trajectories. 6. 1 5 1 . gravitational parameter. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 3 80 Kepler. 3 9 6 M otion. 2 7 7 . 4. 1 0 2 Meridian. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 3 26 orbital elements of.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 1 0 twobody. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 1 7 7.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 1 4 1 . 1 .1 8 1 first. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 1 03 Minor axis. 3 69. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 1 6 3 . 3 8 . 247 Newton's laws. 238. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 20 Least squares solution. 3 69 . 9 9 . 1 5 6. 3 1 Manned flight. 3 44 . 220 Mean motion. 2. 3 65 noncoplanar. 3 24 . 7. 6 . 1 4 2 Inertial system. J ohann. 1 1 7 Latitude. 1 8 5 Mean solar day.3 8 4 general coplanar. 1 0 1 . 3 27. 22 1 . 94 geodetic. 1 57 Line of nodes. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. numerical rotation of. 3 57 . 5 8 Longitude. 1 02 Mean solar time. 3 59374.I N D EX H alley. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 3 9.9 3 Mu ( � ) . 1 8 8 . 8 9 . 1 8 Influence coefficients. 2 1 . 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 3 62 . 2 6 5 27 1 . 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 94 reduced. 62 longitude of ascending. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 2. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. equations o f nbody. 3. true at epoch. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 1 56 vector. 1 7 Local sidereal time. 3 5 0 free return. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 3 1 6 Injection. 1 4 1 . 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 5 1 . limitations. 1 80 third. 58 regression. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 2 H alley's comet. 207 I nclination. 3 89 trajectories. 1 Kepler's equation.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 8 6 . 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 62 . 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. Greenwich. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 3 0 3 . 3 1 Moon. 6 rotation of. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 3 9 6 constraints. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 234. 3 7 0 Integration. Isaac. 2 8 8 .3 05.8 9 derivatives i n .1 6 6. 1 9 8 . 1 5 6. 60 Latus rectum. 3 64.
true anomaly. 2 4 Periselenium. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 4 1 2425 errors. 420 c riteria for choosing. 2 1 .3 9 0 Encke's method. 2 1 2 computer solution.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 6 1 o f moon. 1 1 7 . 57 Perigee. 3 59 . 3 24 . 2 4 . 60 Right ascension. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 1 62 . 3 44 . 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 56. 2427 argument of. 3 3 Perturbations. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem.1 22 from position and velocity.3 7 9 lunar. two body.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 3 6 1 shape of. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 20. 1 5 1 . 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 24 height adjustment. 1 90 Numerical integration. 34. 2 0 . Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 1 5 6 . 26527 1 Residuals. 1 09 .3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. flightpath angle.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter.9 8 Optical sensors. 4 1 4 sum squared. 220 classical formul ations. 58 determination from position and velocity. 9 3 .1 76 inplane changes.454 Nu (v ) . 83 from optical sightings. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 3 8 7 . 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 3 9 0 Relative motion. 203. 3 1 . 1 3 Rendezvous. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 3 4 1 Period. 423 due to the moon. 440448 Q parameter. 1 0 3 P rojects. 1 62 O rbit.1 59 examples. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 1 0 9 Rectification. 3 60 physical characteristics. 1 1 7. 3 8 9 Earth potential.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 1 1 7 . 3 3 3 . 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 22727 1 Orbit plane.3 44 Periapsis. 1 9 3 . 5 1 .1 50. 1 69 Orbit determination. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 3 24 . 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 20 Polar radius. 6 1 from sighting directions. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 2 1 . 425 Phi ( � ) . 443 algorithm. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 5 symbols.1 22. 1 6 Potential function. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 94 Potential energy reference. 3 8 6 general. 424 thrust. 4 1 9 . 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 3 90 . 3 9 0 Parabola. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 58 Perifocal coordinate system.
8 9 derivatives in. 1 1 Units.1 0 4 Solar system. 2 1 at epoch. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 2062 1 0 use of. 1 1 .1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 9 3 . 4 3 7 . 1 8 1 . 2 1 7 parabola. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 99. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 85 Traj ectory equation. 1 3 2. 1 6 6. 8 6 .4 3 9 d o t product. 8 4 . 23 1 Universal variable formulation.1 9 0 if. 1 0 1 . 425 Time. 3 27. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy.1 0 9 apparent solar. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 287 low. 1 8 (see Nbody . 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions.9 8 of planets. 1 9 1 development of. 1 3 1 . 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 6. 1 03 local sidereal. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 23. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 20 Semimajor axis. 1 3 1 . 425 Thrust perturbation. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. definition of. 1 6 Sputnik. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 2 8 7 maximum range. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 58 Semi minor axis. 9 Sidereal time. 40 Unit vectors. 9. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth.1 4 assumptions. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 1 9 1 225. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 1 3 5 ellipse. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 1 3 6 radar. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum.1 40 Selenocentric. 9 9 . 23. 40. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 30. 2 8 8 .1 8 8 . 99. 1 0 1 . 1 5. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 1 6 3 . 4 1 9 Zenith angle. Universal gravitation. 5 8 Time zones. 4 3 7 . 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 1 3 8 optical.1 40 errors. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 4 3 7 unit. 1 9 high. 4 3 3 triple product. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. canonical. 5 radio interferometers. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 9 9 . 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 20. 4 3 1 Velocity. 44 1 mean solar. 3 60 physical characteristics. 3 1 Sensors. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 1 9 1 . 1 6. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 1 0 3 universal. 7 Universal time. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors.1 69 Hohmann. 3 6 1 Solar time. 1 02.1 6 6 True anomaly. 1 52 Station coordinates. 4. 1 8 8 . 3 5 8 . 1 8 8 universal variables.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum.4 3 9 Velocity components.3 59 orbital elements. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 1 8 1 . 60 True longitude at epoch.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?