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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
E.W.R. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. D. Jan Irvine .B. .M.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P . J . Dorothy Fryar .D. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged. Ronald Chaney ( artist) . United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R. Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.
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. . . . 1 17 ix .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . 61 . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . .8 The Circular Orb it . 2 . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . 11 . . . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . 1 . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . 93 . . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . . . . . List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . . .. . . 2. . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . 1 . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . 2 . 14 . . . . . 1 09 . . . . . . _ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . 71 . . . . . 2 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . 1 01 . . . . . . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . .2 The NBody Problem . . . . . . . . 74 . 2.
. . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . .1 4. . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . 3 84 . . . . . . . . . 27 1 . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . . . 273 . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . 3 85 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . List of Reference s . . .1 8. . . . 344 352 355 . 7 .4 7. . . 8. . Histor ical Background . 25 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . List of References . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . . 279 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 5 . . . . . .2 The Solar System . 277 6. . . 333 . . .1 9. . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . 3 27 . . . . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . List o f Re ferences . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 . . 379 .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exerc ises . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . 297 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . . 390 . . . . . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . 5 . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . . . . . . . 380 . . . . 5 . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . 3 87 9. .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . 3 20 . . . . . 275 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . 414 9. . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . 440 449 . . . . .
Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. the poor and sickly mathematician. the year Galileo died. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. JarnesR. the noble and aristocratic Dane. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. as his mother told him in later years. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. unfitted by nature for accurate observations.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. Newman! . Tycho. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. Kepler. he might have been put into a quart mug.CHAPTER 1 TWO. 1 642 .
The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . necessarily moved in circles. not an explanation of planetary motion . It fit. TWO. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). therefore . The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times .1. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. discoverer of Halley's comet. is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . Finally . but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. One day in 1 685 . Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. with the sun at a focus . But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " .1 Kepler's Laws.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. 2 1. Since the time of Aris totle . The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation.1 Still. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. Kepler's laws were only a description.
The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. more simply. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . "Why. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. of course . or . "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. 4 1. they speculated whether a force . when he recovered from his shock. Dissatisfied with this explanation." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. without mentioning the b et. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. t he Principia. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. in ellipses.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . 1 .1. casually posed the question.Sec.
.1 ) (1 .12) t o equat i. 1.'�V . 1 . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia.n ( 1 .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . 1 . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them. .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 . 1 2) Fg = . • .1 . . has the value 6. .1 . We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.11 Newton's Law of Motion . G.3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.67Ox 1 0. " Figure 1 . . / .G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. . The universal gravitational constant.. Note that equation ( 1 .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system.4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch.1 .1.
e. An important force.Sec 1. I " '. 1. . All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion.. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. . or a planet)....12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. . etc. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. In addition.2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i.. propellants) to pro duce thrust.II I I I " I I I I :. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. j. .. X I . the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. an earth satellite . y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. At any given time in its j ourney. a lunar or interplanetary probe. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies .2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(.. thrust and solar radiation pressure .�I '.e. m2 • m3 m m. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. I I I Figure 1. . not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets.
This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. Although small. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . Y..1 . 1 equator. • • • z FOTHER . These effects. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. are discussed in Chapter 3 ..2' The NBody Problem Figure . the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. 2. Thus. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2.. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's.���Y � X n 1.
(1.I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . .2 ·1 is T composed of drag.Se c 1. thrust. F gn where =  Gm . etc . The v ector sum.. the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . m'J JI 3 (rj j) . perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r .5 ) The other external force .2.2. of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. solar radiation pr essure. . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 .2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . equation ( 1 .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. Fg.3) Obviously . II 3 (1.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself. .
F I dt TOTAL dt (1. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0. z coordinate system.26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.. Thus. In other words.2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch.I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x . d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL.28 would not be zero . is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma..28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 . . (1. Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time ....I) and all other external forces ...27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.1 + F OTHER ' (l . y ...
sun and planets . The only remaining forces then are gravitational. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.2.G And for i = 0 . nonlinear. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form.29) is a second order .29) reduces to = r· 1 n .11) 2. vector. m . F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . mi 0). ( 1. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions. unpowered flight. expelling mass or relativistic effects.2. Y.1 0) for i = 1. we get j = j � *i 1 3 . ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system ..2.10) ( .1 2) . Equation ( 1 .1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. m· J (�i) . Equation (1 .2. equation ( 1 . 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. r JI.Sec 1 ... mn may be the moon. Then writin g equation 1 .2.
r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence.1 4) gives.10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .21 1 ) and ( 1 .1 From equation ( 1 .2 1 6) each bracket..2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1. Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .2.1 2) into equation ( 1 . Since r 1 2 = . . .22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1. 2. 2 1 7 ) . n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.2.2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.
1. Table 1 .1 Simplifying Assump tions.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon .89 6x l 0 4 2. This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion . s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. 1 .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . Howe ver . sun and planets on a near earth satellite .3. COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 .3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies. The bodies are spherically symmetric . mi orbit about the earth. Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison.3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of.Sec. 1 x l 0 10 3. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.9x l O 8 7 . the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .6x l O lO 1 .2x l O 8 2.3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. .
r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. . he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . " s However.2 The Equation of Relative Motion. 3 2 ) . we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. Let (X. Let (X'.3.3. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. 1 . Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies.1 .12 TWO. For the time being. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. 1 2.1 ) (1 . Y'. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively .GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . which "in its own nature. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Y'. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'.3. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. without relation to anything external. Y. Y' . Y'. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . remains always similar and irrnovable..
Note that this is the same as equation (1. Z) with its origin in the central body.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r.32) from equation (1. Y. and acceleration in a nonrotating.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr.33) . Y.Sec. Z'). or space probes orbiting about 3 r . Y'. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. GIM+ml r Equation (1.y X' Figure 1 .. Z'). the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. ballistic missiles. velocity. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. Y'. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X.33).31) we have = _ r . (1 . Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. Y. 1. Note that since the coordinate set (X.
" That is. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs." for another form called "potential energy . the mass of the orbiting body . namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. If m is not much less than M. 1 some planet or the sun. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body.4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. 3 ·4 ) . Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . 1. Then equation 1 . It is convenient to define a parameter. an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. "kinetic . From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative .14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m.3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . called the gravitational GM. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . will be much less than that of the central body . m. M. If you think ab out the model we have created. then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors)." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation .3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 .
3 4) by r ' ro�r= O .' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. 1 . 1.r ) = � r �(r . C. v =r and v= f. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . r 2. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 .!!. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements.4 frame (the large mass) does not change .4. Therefore. N 0 tlcmg that . The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . then 1 . 5.lL\I r dt JJ. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. But what about the arbitrary co nstant . which appears in .Sec. ( 1 . v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. dt 1:L = O. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 .
We conclude . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. the earth. rX . of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit .4. do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. �. that the specific mechanical energy. 3 4) by r 2 .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. In other words. The expression for � is �. neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion.42) 1 . why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . e . Cross multiply equation ( 1 . Noticing that . in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . r. O.  ( 1 . Since in general a x a= 0. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. therefore . In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy .iL (rxv) = O. at what distance . dt .fL 3 .2 Conservation of angular momentum.1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy.g. The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass.
The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . Therefore . Therefore . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. (1 ." "Up" simply means away . we have shown that the specific angular momentum. we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. called specific angular momen tum.41 Flightpath angle . h.4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. 1 .43) v I h = r x v. I Figure 1 .41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h.
&. r = 12. = 0.8143 = 35.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. In an inertial coordinate system.4274I+2. respectively. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi).2778 J + 1 0 .4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. Determine the specific mechanical energy .4.5936 1 + 5 . I h = rv c o s ¢. Ch.8143 r • v > 0 . 1 85 2 1 + 6. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.420 . c o s ¢=Jl.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. • ( 1 .899 X 107 ft. (4. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. ¢. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. and the specific angular momentum. Also find the flight·path angle. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . J and K are unit vectors. v. V =5. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . the zeni th angle .0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. h.7 1 37J+O.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . ¢. however.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1.
err..Sec. 1 .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 . its complete solution is not. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.5.1!y r .& ... (1.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ. JJ. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v . we see that J!:. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1.I.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4. 1 .33) is simple.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. While this equation (1.. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity. (h xr) =.. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ.( r) r.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. Also note that J. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain.51) The left side of equation (1.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body. . �t (B· .3 3 r r r since r • i = f .
5. we obtain = 1 h2 /g . +(81J. h2 where vector r. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. I r 1 + e cos V p (1.9 cos V (1.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. + r o Since. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r... p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. .54) . c and a . (1.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. v.54) . V. in general. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B .1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B.53) 1 . Equation (1.
3. 5 . which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. the flightpath angle. ellipse. an exchange of energy between the two forms. 2. There is. As r and v change along the orbit.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . 1. Before discussing the factors . The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. however.44) 1 . hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem.51 illustrates an ellipse.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. Although Figure 1. not just ellipses. parabola. remains constant. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. cp.41 and equation (1 . potential and kinetic. 4 . (See Figure 1 . 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. must change so as to keep h constant. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body.53) and the equation of a conic section (1.Sec. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 .5. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle.
Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. or a single point. 1 Figure 1 . we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general.52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . If the plane cuts both nappes. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . the section is a parabola. If. Figure 1. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines .5 2 illustrates this definition . the section is an ellipse. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. the section is a hyperbola having two branches.
F and F'.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. F'.53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. The secondary or vacant focus.53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections.Sec 1 . has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. Figure 1 . F. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. The prime focus.
is c�lled the semimaj or axis. a. The dimension. The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. Thus. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter.54)). which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative ." etc." "perihelion" or "aphelion. Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee.55) p = a (1 . for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). In the parabola.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. ( 1 .5 3 .e2). the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero .
Sec .53) and ( 1 .58) 1 . .52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. By comparing equations ( 1 . . since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. In the derivation of equation ( 1 .1 0) .59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 .. 53).57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 . 1 ( 1 . B. which points toward periapsis. tL r ( 1 . we encountered the vector constant of integration. 1e ( 1 .= a( 1 +e) . Quite obviously. ( 1 .4 The Eccentricity Vector. 5. 5. 1.56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe. e = BltL. the trajectory equation.
. is zero.p. Therefore.26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. e = ( v v ) r . v. e .5. r r p.6 RELATING &.1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. is equivalent to increasing h. 1. of the satellite. By inspection. Figure 1 . r  r . 1 . x v.61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). we get • p. ( 1 . of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. equation ( 1 .p.6. and that as h is . Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth. th . Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . ( 1 .(r . AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. /or any orbit. If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired.53) and equation ( 1 .54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum..44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. e = V x (r x v) .1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. p. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. By comparing equation ( 1 . h. v ) v . v)v.
We can then write.� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . = �. .6. 57) p rp = a(1 . I '. �' " . is zero.. . . v. .increased the parameter.61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle. .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . 1 01) .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 .44). p.1 ) predicts .  . . of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 . r I .�= � .62) we obtain &..e ) .. R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. as a corollary to equation ( 1 . . Figure 1 . (1 .F �.
Figure 1 . This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). the energy of a satellite (negative . &. zero. 1 and from equation ( l . You should study it together with Figure 1 .6. This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . Thus.a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l .56) and equation (1 . a. of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive.6.28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch .e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . Many students find equation ( 1 . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive .63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a.63) misleading.1 ) therefore p.
.5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. For a given satellite . But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . m i . 6 . = 6. 0 . ra = 1 � e = 4453. r p = rES + 200 = 3643. Namely. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. and semimaj or axis. m i . Determine its altitude at apogee.7 n . 64) Notice again that if & is negative. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 and perigee altitude 200 n ...2 Determine its specific angular momentum. A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. mi. e is exactly 1 (a parabola). EXAMPLE PROBLEM. p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. m i . The student should be aware of this pitfall.  a=  '!:.0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. if & is positive . specific mechanical energy. semilatus rectum.. & = 2 .Sec 1 .Jf5P. and specific angular momentum. 3 n .897  e2 ) = 3. e is greater than I (a hyperbola). 9 n . 2& = 3 . if & is zero . e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) .
6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses.7· 1 ) B y inspection. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse. 1 . h =.mi.m i . ( 1 .7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . = 5. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. 2a = r a + r = 8097.= 2.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa. I ( 1 . 1 n.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .7·2) . Since an ellipse is a closed curve. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit.855 = 6 .JpjJ. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread.7 . When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . 1 35 x 1 06 ft n.r Ell = 1 009. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a .7· 1 . specifically r + 1 . the distance between the foci is ( 1 . The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a .
e is defined as combine to yield da.71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. If you refer to Figure 1 . you will see that the . 2 b. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll. Using equation ( 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.7.7. in general.72) and ( 1 .7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .76) .73) ( 1 .7 . Since r + r' = 2a. 1 . equation ( 1 .75) which.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit. when rearranged .1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 .1 .Sec.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.72. At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point. 2 ( 1 .
Figure 1 . is given by the expression So. 1 Figure 1 .32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .77) dt 2 = 11 dA. d v.76) as ( 1 .73 Differential element of area . d A. swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. we can rewrite equation ( 1 .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area.
c2 =) a 2 ( 1 . 55) and ( 1 .78) b =) a 2 . Integrating equation ( 1 .8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . Of course. 1 Circular Satellite Speed.77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. Naturally.1 ) 1 . incidentally. Thus. a.75).8. During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus .8 .Sec.79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired .79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . 1 . Equation ( 1 . The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed.79). since h = /JlP.8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit.e2 ) = JaP and. the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. From equations ( 1 . ( 1 . so equation ( 1 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. 1 .
rCS' from the energy equation. we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . Another is that.000 ft/sec. the periapsis radius is just r 1 .9. 1 .B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola.34 TWO .1 Geometry of the Parabola.1 .9. 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know. circular speed is about 26 .9. F or a low altitude earth orbit. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 .82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit .1 ) .9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.
r. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. first at a general point a distance .92) .= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   ." 1 .E.2 Escape Speed. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . Of course. 1 . from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � .91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l.Sec.57). as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .9. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back. Theoretically." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.
Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. 53374 106 ft = = 36.1 57. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. the semimajor axis.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. As you would expect. a.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude ..92) =21 . b .Since the specific mechanical energy.1/2a. 36 TWO . Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . = j.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 .700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.400 nm above the surface it is only 26. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. 5 7). 8. a.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field.000 ft/sec.
where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 . 06748 106 ft 7087. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn.amr iO.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem .53374 106 ft 2 43. 1 .8 n.Sec. 8n. m i . rb i t P 7087.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21. m i .
A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . 1 0. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . F . The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . If.1 ) . 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. (L l O. 1 1 . 1 . Obviously. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). If we consider the lefthand focus. then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 .1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). then the righthand branch represents the orbit. instead. 1 0. The parameters a.
V 00' . The angle between the asymptotes. If. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity. we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. 1 0. 1 02) becomes ( 1 .0. on the other hand. The turning angle . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed. which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. 1 . 0. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 .but since Sec.for the hyperbola. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 .. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . 1 0. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 .1 ." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. the smaller will b e the turning angle . 1 .2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed.
the concept is convenient and is widely used. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. 1 0.3 Sphere of Influence." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. It is. 1 (1 . that once a space probe is a great distance (say . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. for all practical purposes it has escaped. 1 . 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 .40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. It is a fact. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. In other words. 1 . 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. of course . a million miles) from earth. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. Astronomers call thi� ' . however. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed.
then the value of the gravitational parameter. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. 5 9362 5 . In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . r a' r p' . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. e. 1 1 . For other problems where the earth. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. Using canonical units determine & . 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. earth." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. or other planet. will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. moon. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. 1 . 1 The Reference Orbit.1 .l.Sec. J.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. 1 . h. p. 1 1 . or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet.
1 67 D U �/T U � = .42). Alt = . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . 5 D U e �2 _ /J.1 . [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . � = .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units.
58) Find r p from equation (1.Sec.61) Find h from equation (1. = 3.. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .64) Find ra from equation (1.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t. 1 . 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. 5 D U = 9. 25D U EB = 4.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 .5 7)  r a = 1 e p. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1. 5 D U ". = 2.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 .= 4 .
1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . is 30 x 1 0 6 ft.1 .2. 1 . &= . Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. b . + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . 2J AK IJK h = AI . Find the eccentricity of the orbit. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. 1 EXERCISES 1 . (Answer : e = 1 . .3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi.000 n mi.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch .000 ft/sec and 4 . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. 5 81) 1 . c.. Why. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. a. 2K DU 2 /TU . respectively. Find the period of the orbit.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. Find the specific energy of the trajectory. The orbit eccentricity is 0. 6 J 1 . in general. 1 .44 TW O.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively.
2K + . 7 Prove that d. 354 10" r 1 . D U 2 /T U 2 = + . What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. ¢ =3 = 1 .6 18 = 59° 58') . a a.000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 .8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. 91 J space. D U /T U DU e. 1.Ch . mi during descent? (Ans. r v c.123K = 1 . r x ft ) = 3. (Ans.5 DU DU DU d.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. V ft/sec. 1 . or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). hyperbolic. 4K r r v = . &. p b. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . 0 1K v = l + l .5 rpe r i gee = 1 .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. elliptical. p 1.
p = 6. 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. 1 . 1 2 Given that e = �. e. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 .000 ft. (Neglect atmo spheric drag. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points. e=O e = . P 1 . b .) 1 .2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = . p = 6.6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . c.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. p = 3. p = 2. derive values for e for circles.2 e = . p = 2. ellipses and a hyperbolas. Determine the maximum altitude attained. d .
1 . 207 1 .Ch . What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v. * 1 . Show that : b. What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 .V O U EB /TU EB ) .1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. c. rc = at +b = 0. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a.6.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
When describing a heliocentric orbit .Xw UK vectors. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section .24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit .2. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. Q and W respectively. a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation.Sec. 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. 2 .4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. 2 . you may use the same Figure 2. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. Yw '+.
the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. Q longitude of the ascending node. p. K I I . The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. Similarly. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. 2 . in the fundamental plane . It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. Obviously . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits.3. eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit .the angle . is substituted for a in the above list. Instead of argument of periapsis. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. 3 . A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. 6. time of periapsis passage .58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . argumen t of periapsisthe angle . between the ascending node and the periapsis point. T. Frequently the semilatus rectum. shape and orientation of an orbit . w. if you know a and e you can compute p. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. i. e. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . Another system. 5 .3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size .1 as follows : 1 . Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. 4 . in the plane of the satellite's orbit.the time when the satellite was at periapsis. a. 2.the angle from to periapsis measured h.
Sec. 2 .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.31 Orbital elements .
then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . then b oth W and n are undefined. earth. From Figure 2. w and va are all defined. This is the dire ction in which the sun. (2 . between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 .3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . in the plane of the orbit. both of which are always defined . then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun.32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). to ' called the "epoch. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde .1 ) . n=n+w." Direct means easterly. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n.60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . Retrograde is the oppo site of direct.3.31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . then both w and Uo are undefined. 1 £0 £0 + .
4. n and e. n.42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 .41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. The node vector. n an d e. Therefore . n would have to lie in the equatorial plane .Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . t o . n must be perpendicular to both K and h. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . 2. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. To be perpendicular to h. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . To be perpendicular to K. h. 2 . n would have to lie in the orbital plane. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. 2. vI vJ v K J (2 . h.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product .
The parameter. In general.S .1 ) (2 . e. The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. Now that we have h. n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. ex. being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . 2." Specifically . is obtained from (2 . p. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . 2 nodes. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. Study this figure carefully . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2.1 . An understanding of it is essential to what follows . You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 .4.46) Of course . We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: .2 Solving for the Orbital Elements.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . The vector. h. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us.1 1 )). We are only interested in its direction. the cosine of the angle .4. All three vectors.3.
Since w is the angle between n and (2. Since n is the angle between I and n. Since Vo is the angle between e and f.) c o S Po = � er (2 . � � h.47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° . Since Uo is the angle between n and f . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° .1 0) 7 .48) 5 .) . 2 . c o s U o = !!.:.4 3 .4. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.Sec..L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° . Since i is the angle between K and h. (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .1 1) ..' (2.4.49) 6. 2. (2 .) e.
The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative).64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . 3 . . Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2.1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense .4. The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v. 2 z x 8 . If they don't make sense to you. look at the geometry of Figure 2 .1 and study it until they do .
5 DU e == .Sec.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 . Figure 2.
\ .5 e == .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch . 2 3 Figure 2 .4 DU p == .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .
Sec.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 . 2.44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .
1.i:.1 ) p = . Using equation (2.4.47) = .48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . Find eccentricity. EEl . e.= 4D U = 13.45 ) Since h =. . From equation (2.7 4n .6. Find inclination. Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid. f.(r .. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 .1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . ml . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system).. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node ... 7 75 . i. ) r .l h2 . and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. Find p using equation (2 . [ ( f. n. using equation (2 .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .I:!:.
. II. 2 .1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis.:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However .1 (. 4 . is undefined.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis.n = COS . = cos .41 0) v a c os. .49) W n · e W. Find argument of periapsis. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .!!. From equation (2. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . Find true anomaily .Sec. can be determined in this case. va.  Find longitude of periapsis. for this case . since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . From equation (2 . since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore . II..n.
. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .5 .\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.25 EB EB D U EB 7748.33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .85 n ..m i . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .  then from equation ( 1 .1 ) Find e.E)r(r . 1 [6 \ h=rxv=. v)v] =.70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .. EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = . 2 Find true longitude o f epoch. = From equation (2. From equation (2.6.45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .
11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. 2.43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .4. va : From equation (2.49) w: 0 W = cos.5 Find the inclination.1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .I Find the true anomaly . I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 . From equation (2.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n . . From equation (2 .Sec.
5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . . 8. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . shown below. In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . 2 elements are given. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. that occurs in a given time . first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. w and va . changes with time .5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 . t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. The method. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. i . 2. n.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. n.to.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . consists of two steps. i.5 2) . Let ' s assume that we know p.5. Of the se six elements.24): ro to. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . lV.ffe si n V (2. v. w and v. 8.
si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .5 i= p 2.5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2. 2.54) r = J � [. v �[.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v). 5P DU E9 (2. Before equation (2.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .Sec.54) from equation r (2. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.25 45{) (2.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .
say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). suppose you know the south. or what it represents. east. such as position vectors. east a!1d up. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame.6. and it still represents the same thing. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . For example. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . namely.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. suppose you know the south. its fundamental (xy) plane . and zenith components of "the vector from a radar .74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . have a definite starting point . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. In other words. For example . The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does." 2. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. vector represents. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. 2 2. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. east . A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else ." The phrase in quotes describes what the . direction . Certain vectors.
2.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . 2. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . : r Y I ex a ." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite.y Y 75 . V and W along the x ' .Sec. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis." In other words.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices.6.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S .61) . Let us imagine three unit vectors I. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. y' and z ' axes. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. and extending along the x. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 . Figure 2. ���________� • . y ����. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation. Figure 2.61 illustrates the two frames.
64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 . (2. 65) .1 ) yields I.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch . J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.6.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.61 we can see that the unit vectors U. 2 From Figure 2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2.62) above and equating it with (2.
(2 .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .Sec. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. These are summarized belox:: .67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2.69) '" axis.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.66) (2. Rotation about the xaxis.67) yields the set of equations (2 . 2 .6. 68) B '" (2.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis.64) above . The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2. .
Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame .61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame . We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .7 .78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.6. 1 ). Figure 2. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . 2 (2. a. So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch .si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L .4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes.
We can write equation (2. all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal. . if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. denoted by D .cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e .61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates.e.Sec. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. Equation (2. Now. The transpose of the matrix D . The inverse of any orth.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose .1 . Hence . For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). 2. (i. AB =1= SA ). A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e .61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. Fortunately.
"' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . to p' ter ho w co no. anglo .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK ." a ny mp licat e d .6 . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce . 2 (2. sh ow n in F ig u " Th . th. basis no ma t . a bl . 'o ta t. d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . 5 Tmn . Perifo ca l to th e G Th .".sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . 62..".Eq to th e IJ K in at .1 2) Figure 2 . By me mo C. P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [.. n t rizing th .. m1 " fo.".. gl " n i lly .n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . axes in to CO ham . th' O ugh w hi ch on . O c M ma t.ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . d th yo u will b . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . d wi th . tluee b . 6. d w . mu " in cid 'n ce b .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. 6.
we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit . aQ. a K and ap . For example .. Thus if a i ' aJ ..The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix.63.. To .. R. Figure 2. from Figure 2. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. 2 . . then Sec ..63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame ....
sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . J and K Thus R = J . Now a. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. since I and P are unit vectors. The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A.6. 2 from their dot product .63 . a �.sin n sin w cos i . B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w . P K · P In Figure 2.1 3) i. Similarly.6.1 4) R23 = . Q I ' W J · W K .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I.sin n sin w cos i R12 = R .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .cos n sin w . ! • P. I • p I · Q J . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w .
Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. 2 . But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need .5 .5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . V. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements.Sec . 2. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. In this case either n or w or both are undefined.1 ) and (2. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. .
7 . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. the rate at which range is changing. is measured clockwise from north .( N o rt h ) 2. Az.7 . EI. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. E and Z shown in Figure 2 .84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. 2. 7 . p.1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . The azimuth angle . The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles. The unit vectors S. the elevation angle . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. can also be measured. AZ . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up .1 .7.
72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2.7.and EO/. Thus. Sec.72 we see that r (2 . E I .1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI. Az. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2.1 .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame.72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z.73) E l (B I ). There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r.7 4) = + P (2 . From Figure 2.75) . 2.7 . we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. p. We will express the po sition vector as (2 . /l!L. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 . E1 sin Az cos Az (2 .7 . = Ps PE = P cos Pz. from the geometry of Figure 2.1 ) where .
76) . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2. things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth. For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. 2 J topo centric frame .72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . Unfortunately. The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .
EB x f.Sec. (2 . Therefore .73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in . Figure 2. 2 . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v.77) . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence".73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame . v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed.
5 Z (units are DU).612 . is 2 S E + .E + 1 . 5Z (Given) [). 3535 .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 300 N Lat . Figure 2. Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.707 .707 o .5 J . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth .612) r = R + P = 2S .3535 .1 = [.74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.866 .6 1 2 . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 .
Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame .75 ) .982K . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. z). y. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . w) . We will denote this quantity by w.9 1 81 + 2. . It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. z) system (Figure 2 . I =J =K=O.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = .78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. however. (2. The unit vectors D.. y. v. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . rotating with respect to the (x.. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u.7. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. 2.79) J.4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . 332J  . (2.Sec.
. . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . Hence .7. equation (2 . V = w x V and W = w x W . .1 0) reduces further to .1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. Hence .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . The remaining terms of equation (2. equation (2 .7. 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . Similarly. You should prove to yourself that U = w x U.
7. �:... W) Figure 2.... y. dt R I (2 ... .... ...... v v...1 2) . ..7.. ... 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u ... .75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA. Equation (2. ..Sec.LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 .... 2 . ... .. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u.1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q.y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ ... " F i xed " System ( x. z) '.71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector.
2 iLl F = . Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.7. (2 .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .7 .9!.1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.7 .7.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 . (2 .7 .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.7.7.1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.1 3) into equation (2 .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get . The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 . Equation (2 ." Ioox. 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .1 2) to the po sition vector r.7.1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .) .7.
is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . If the earth were perfectly spherical. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. of course . Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . circles. however . We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. Therefore . 2. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. In the model which has been adopted. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid.Sec. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. 2 .8. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. Sections parallel to the equator are . It is known .8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth.) 2. ae . be' is just the polar radius of the earth.
What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) .1 . Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378.94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .8. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .785 0. 1 45 6356. it does complicate the concept of latitude. The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter . This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude .2 The Measurement of Latitude." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . Consider Figure 2. The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . the difference between L and is usually negligible . The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude .8. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field .8.3 Station Coordinates." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. 2. When you are given the latitude of a place . The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . 2. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level.08182 == km km L La L .
8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � ..!! o . L ..Sec. O . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 . 2 .1 ) . / (2. Thus. the "reduced latitude . We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude .8 . c." which is illustrated in Figure 2.82.82 . The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e .. It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal..8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. 4 km Figure 2.
2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . z . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. for any ellipse .82) . a2 . / . I C. 0 O D.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But . c:  0) x Figure 2.and e = da. b e =a e V� = b2 + d...82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz.1:  (2 . Ch .
8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . (2. = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2.8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above .Sec:. (2 . 2 .85) . Thus.
{1.98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2 ( 2 . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .8.4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components.8 8) . (2 . {1 ' is known .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.86) L.8 7) 2.85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . From Figure 2. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. If the Greenwich sidereal time . elevation above mean sea level. and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .
Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t.3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time .8. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . 2 ." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . L. 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2. is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . Although Figure 2.89) .84 shows a spherical earth.Sec .
The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .1 0) . From (2 . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch .8 . 2 j i Figure 2 . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .
1 2) and a s ' a E . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . so .6. It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle . a Z If a l . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day . 2. 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . 2 .Sec.9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. (2 . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval.8. When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours.cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () .9 equation (2 . This should be made clear by F igure 2. A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 .1 2) . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun .1 .9 .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time .9.
So far.09054 mean solar seconds . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. In early January.1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. when the earth is near perihelion.9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day .
2 .) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O.is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . This relationship is illustrated on page 99.3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa.2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . or Zulu (Z) time. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . . if it . Thus. 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . 2. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. Universal Time (UT). For example .Sec. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis.9.9.
2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1.4 Precession of the Equinoxes.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. in addition. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . . 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . m i n .9. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. ° 229421 1. we express time in decimal fractions of a day. To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. 8 9=8 9 0 1 .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . Ephemeris and 2.
0 0 0 y rs " . The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . .. the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 .. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic.z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 ... The period of the precession is about 2 6.6 years. the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 . 2 . the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. Due to the asphericity of the earth. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. As the earth' s axis precesses. 6 yrs I Figure 2.." with a perio d of 1 8 .Sec . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun.92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars..000 year s .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 .6 year s . the equatorial plane is not . However . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period.
at 0600 GMT. The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. 5 7 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . 6 24 5 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 .1 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .296° H = 6 .378km = 0 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.00 1 + L= 0 .74933340 = 1 . 25 8=8 g + A = .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 00 1 From section 2 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account . x= [ z= � ae + � .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . Day  = Long o 57 .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .6245 rad ians o 9 . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6.296 degrees west longitude .
4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.72) PE p Pz Ps = .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 . Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .6245) = . 00 1 c o s(S.2D UES = (0.346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 0. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = . 00 1 (S.7 1 SJ + OK Sec. At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.6971 + .6245 )1 + 1 .(0.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2. 2 .88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .74) .346E + O.From equation (2.
73Z D U (T U r = 0.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .866 0.346J + 1 . 3.77) v = [� ] [ J 0.0588K) From equation (2 . 1 08 Ch .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .�� lO.610.0E + 1 .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .46S . 46 = 0.Ps = .8 .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .061 .73 p + (O.1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.25 0.46 P =D1 .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .46 D U /T U (0.84J .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0. 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .1 .8 .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .3.232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .7·5 ) From equation (2 .346E + l . 0.5 1 .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .433 .1 .(0.0 1 .0.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.1 .
1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . As Baker S points out . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . W. Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . k. 2. Figure 2. well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . Ei. f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique .081 . 2 . but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this .0. may be lacking. Gibbs is.3.Sec. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics.8J . and the orb it is uniquely determined. EI . These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . of course . p . Ai. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 .
Notice that C2 may now be divided out. Q and W. 2 fine scholar . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . Dotting (2 . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 .1 ) successively by fl . 1 08) .r 3 ) = 0 .1 ) by (2 . 1 04) (2 .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. 1 05) (2 . 1 06) Multiply (2 . 1 03) Cross (2. 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 03) by f3 X r l . 1 05 ) and (2 .r. 1 0. 1 0. (2 . (2 . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p.r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. 1 0.1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . then u sing (2 . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I .5 4). (2 . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . 1 04) . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . and the definition of a dot product .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . equation ( 1 . 1 02) gives (2 . we can show that : e ' f = p .
1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e.1 4) (2 .1 5) . 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system.Let the right side of (2 . 1 0. (2. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h.1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . (2 . D = N P = O' N (2 . N and D have the same dire ction. 1 0 pD = N . equation (2 . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. 2 . 1 09) D.e .1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . Therefore . i. 1 0. Since P. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above .1 3) : (2 . 1 0. (2 . 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. provided N .
1 8) to find Q. Then use (2 . (2 . N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. 1 0.1 6) . 1 020) to find P. 1 0. 1 0.1 9) to find W.1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1 8) N (2 .r t ) f2 + ( rt . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 1 01 0) to find p. N and S vectors. 1 0. 1 020) Thus.r2 ) f3 ] (2 .r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . However . (2 . ( f  r + e) . 1 0. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 . (2 .5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. 1 02 1 ) .1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . 2 Again using the relationship (2 . and (2 . Q and W are orthogonal. P = Q X W. (2. 1 0. N > o. 1 0. 1 0.52) we can write i X h = p. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. D and S ve ctors. Before solving the problem. since NeQ = pS. Therefore. From equation ( 1 .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2.1 7) to find e. (2 .1 9) Since P. check N * O and D .
(h xr r = + (a . h X (h h ) v .E. D X r + JJ{. b) c O . = p.( a . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. e) We can write h v v = . v) h and h . 1 024) (2 . 2 . Using the identity .h = P. the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. 1 025) .Sec .. 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . so c) b . v = eP. 1 0./O S eW X P ) ( 2 .(h . ON (2 .
The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . This method . shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . proceed as follows : For example . 1 .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . Test: 0 10 . 2 L + LS (2 . to find any of the three velocities directly . possible two body orbit . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. Finally . using the stated tests. Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. N=FO. Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . 4 . 1 02 6) Thus. Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . Form L = = 6. N and S vectors. find v2 : 2. There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. This is not exactly true. v2 � + L S r2 • . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. = 0 for coplanar vectors. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult .
000K = 0_700J .97 . eccentricity. 2 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .8000K = 0. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors.5000K Find : P.0. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . the semilatus rectum. period and the velocity vector at position two . the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth. N . If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors.039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 .0471 O U = 0 . and S vectors: D= N S 1 . r1 r2 r3 = 1 . P = 0= N  2.Sec. Since 010. Form the D . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. 9701 = 2.047 1 = ." Thus. and the timeofflight between these po sitions. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) .9000J + 0. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. r 1 and r2 .0774J 0. Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units).
0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . 0408 1 1 .963K N 1 . 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0. .0. 2 S .960 DU/T U (4.270J + 0.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .67 TU (89. = .576J . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.497 9.0.97 o lP = a = 1 .0804 e = = = 0 .0.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1r/{: 6. then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .657K D U /T U 2 0.270K W= N.4 to solve for the elements. 700J .1 .963J .
However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera.g . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . (2 . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . 2 . If we let L . 1 1 2) r . 2. then ' . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . 1 1 . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit .Sec.6 2 : 1 1 . = OJ + R j . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . L. S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . 3. These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. As a result . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e .7 2). [:i:n :: :.z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. j = 1. r = pL [�. Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite .1 ) (2 . ° 2 . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . In either case .:S :J: JS L K . (X1 ' < \ � .
1  R ) r3 . . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . .. \ Figure 2. �J 1  .1 . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . L. are not known . . 0 (2 . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P.. . \' P2 i �� G ". : '< ' . I . ' ' :. The vectors L. r u. �� I 1 " _ . f f. (2 . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . \ •.1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . \ [L./  L . say the middle ob servatio n . 1 1 3) (2 .. • 00 .J V I . 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . p and r. ':.' ' " ': .. \ . p.r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . however . � . . p.. L. R and R are known at time t2 .[. • ' I .
t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t3 ( t 2 . 1 1 6) + 2t . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2. We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t 1 ) ( t3 .t 1 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) ( t } . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t2 ) ( t 1 .three t�es.t } ) (t 3 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 . Since we have the value of L at.t 2 .t 3 ( t 1 .t 3 ) L2 (2. t2 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t 3 ) L1 + 2t . 2 .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 . t2 and t3 .t2 ) ( t 1 . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 . t } .t 1 ) (t 3 .t2 ) ( t} .t3 ) (2 . 1 1 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t 1 ) ( t.t 3 ) (t.t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t2 ) (t.t 1 .t2 L3 ( t 3 .Sec. thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t2 ) .t 1 ) ( t2 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .
u R Ir3 J + . For the time being. .u L 1 / r 3 L J + .u L /r 3 ..1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . however. 2 .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract .. LI . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. D reduces to L D =2 L I L . in fact . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . better yet . 1 1 5 ) . must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . L L L K K K J . L J I (2 . 1 1 6) and (2 . p.u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule.ons (2 . It should be noted. p. . L K + . L J . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . p' and r.L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . + . I L . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. it is evident that L Dp = . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati.u R Ir3 I + . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. 4 Equation (2 .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . that if more than three observations are available . This.. 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 .
1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . If we do this we find that .. . p and r. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I .4 Solving for Velocity . . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . Provided that the determinant of the coefficients.1 0) into (2. R R .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 . L K . 1 1 . 2 . 1 1 2). 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . R . Substituting equation (2 . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r.1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. . 2 . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. 1 1 . L J L I K J!. 1 1 .1 0) and (2 . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I .1 2) . 0. 1 1 . 1 1 .1 1) Op = . O O. L K L J L I K (2. R R I . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. 1 1 .Sec . 1 1 . 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. R J .. J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. 1 1 5).L L L J K I p . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section.
1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 .2). P. then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . To obtain the velocity vector . a3 . 1 1 . E l . k. 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. such as P. This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . Laplace ' s method fails . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. ° 3 . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. 1 1 . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . El. at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. 1 1 .1 4) p 2.1 3) for p. 2 . 1 1 . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . (2 . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . a . ° . 2 (2 . 1 1 . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . As a matter of fact . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . D.
2. 1 21) . "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . ." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. It may happen .::"P 2 ' . Assuming that the residuals are small.Sec. we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. The six residuals are �1 ' . Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements.::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2.::"P 3 . however . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times.g. 1 2. ts and t6 ' These predictions are . 2 The Differential Correction equations. 1 Computing Residuals. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. t3 . t4 . For example . 2. r K ' v " vJ . v Kl at t = to are correct. Doppler rangerate. of course. The question then arises. . 1 2. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e .::"P . based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . p) will differ from the computed data. \ ' t2 .
Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . i.VK . r K " ' arl D. . The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. V K ) . ap1 . by trial and error.VI . Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. rj . D. .Vj' D. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. equations (2 .r l " v K )p1 ( r l . All that is required is to introduce a small variation. however. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. 2.. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .e. NK. NI .1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. 1 2.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . usually 6 for orbit problems) n .1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. 1 2 . 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. With the aid of a digital computer. Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically.) Then. .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. The inversion of equations (2 . . for example . reduce the residuals to zero . Nj. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. 1 2. D.
W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e .g . 2 . is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. Solve equation (2 . use 0. This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. . since p 2 below) . Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). for the exactly determined case (p or b. Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. = = n) . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem.tb each of the elements measured. minimum as described above . If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it .. In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . a and (3 are the elements (two here . zero . for 90% confidence . 2 . 3 . b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. 4.8 1 ) . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec.. called the root me an square (RMS) .
the partial derivatives are : . Choo se ex and for the first estimates.:. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM .2. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . ex VI. 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations.Assume equal confidence in all data.
Sec. Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. Thus. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . 2.
To illustrate the method involved. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . we will use a simple .360 = . yet still overspecified number of measurements.474 Xi 3 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. In practice.474 and f3 = 3. 6 orbit elements) would be used. large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit .1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations.
474 x 3 .000 1 9.007 0.y.865 49.500 8. 934 = 1 . 969 ____  Vi .Vi 2. 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l .) 2 n .000 n = Vi 0. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.474 4 0 07 19..Sec.000 50.1.1 05 9.0 01 1 3.1 26 0.828 0 0. 0 35 3. 3 .866 4 x ._1. 2 . aa .031  1 = 1 RMS residual /. E ( V 1.. .934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 . 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence . 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 . ( V i Yi ) 2 4.
304 = . 1 96 = 3.474 + . which is larger than what we started with. 81 30 8. 1 75 ] 5..027 12.l Now using (2 .�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .733.001 07 33 b = 0. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.056 ""' T . Thus (X new = .031 8.0.3. The second iteration yields: £::.039 £::.360.4 1 69. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1.304 0..670 3.z 10.(X 26 3.36 . so we iterate. 1 961 0.062 . 1 22) we have £::."""'" �T�� .380708 A = 40. 27 A WA = [12..I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2. {3 = {3 new . 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .2. = 3. 0. 105.021 070 20. 0 18 0.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0.
which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. and finally. the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. 2 . This i s not yet the case so we iterate again .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. . 1 2. In practice .5 8 1 . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0.000 . 2 . 7 35 x 3 . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . however. 2. The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations.Sec .735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion .00 1 .5 8 2 . 038 . 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 . during orbital decay. in theory. However. the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. 038 [3 = 3 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally .
the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). 1 Radar Sensors. 2 . spacecraft failure diagnosis. At present. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . antisatellite targeting. the White Sands Missile Range .500 miles make about 1 2 . and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. forming "clouds" of space debris. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . and midcourse ICBM inter ception. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. These detection radars with a range of 2. 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected.5 003. 2 2. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). 1 3. The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. 1 The Spacetrack System. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. 1 4 . In addition. the precomputed 2.
A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. Alaska.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. One FPS49 . One of the earlier detection radars. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. Greenland. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. 2. Figure 2. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. while three are located at Clear.Sec. New Jersey. is now on active Spacetrack alert. the FPS43. Turkey. and is on active spacetrack alert.
A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. United Kingdom. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . In addition.142. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. under the 140ft radome at the left. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. Alaska. 2 Figure 2. This BMEWS station at Clear.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. Florida. Alaska. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long.
Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site.14. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. 2. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground.143. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering.Sec. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB.2 Radio Interferometers. When two or . High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. 2. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan.
but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. In addition to these .3 Optical Sensors. the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. 2 . and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . and therefore . 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. Considering the type of observational data received. 1 4 . Alberta. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. Canada . is well established. 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. the semimajor axis.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 .
2.Sec. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. seeing conditions must be good. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. Alberta.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. it is . the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages.145. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. As a result.400 miles. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. and the lighting correct. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. A separate optical system superimposes. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable.
I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . In any case . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . . Doppler rangerat e info rmation. SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. 2 . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . 4 Typical Sensor Errors. Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . takes time. The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . New Mexico site.1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Massachusett s . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . in any case . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . 1 4 . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. is relatively accurat e . 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . on the other hand . For detection radars. it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error .000 meters. I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. Further .
5 Future Developments. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific.Sec 2. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects.146. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. nonuniform gravitational fields. 2. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. lunar attraction. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated.7 seconds in time would remain.14. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) . Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag.
howeve r . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. but it also record s target tracks for later playback . p. 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. Now. Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . of the target . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . Many improvements . Operating in the SHF b and . the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. a continuousw ave . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . In t he system under development . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. Theoretically . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands.
As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . 1 5 . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . The arc CB which forms the • .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . F igure 2 . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. 1 5 2 . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . 18cP  2 . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. respectively with a launch a zimuth . o f the orbit . 1 5 .Sec. 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . i.1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . 2 . 1 5 .. The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . 1 5 .. at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion .
that the launch azimuth. A direct orbit require s . For a due east launch equat ion (2 .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . i : c os i = . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . therefore . 1 5 ·3 . 2. The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . betwe en 00 and 1 80° . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . .e . f3 ' be easterly . 1 5 . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . L o?" If i is to be minimized . 0 i. The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things .
This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . 2 . su r face . Figure 2 . 1 5 .Sec. A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay .
1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. J . Colorado ( 1 04. What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy . a solar day or sidereal day? b . = (partial answers : 2. Englan d . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. 885. e = .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. 9 7 0 . Which takes longer . 2 EXERCISES 2 .7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . = u nd ef i ned ) = .89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2.7071 + .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich.4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. i = 90° .
6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = .8 I J P = . W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 .7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . i . 3<. 82 u a . Determine the orbital e lements. Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU.J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. . 2. e. 2 + b . (Answer [partial] e = . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . c . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU.2K DU .Ch.8 2075 .) Determine p. 1.
1 0 January 1 9 70. the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . p = 1 . r3 r l I J K 1 . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . U se of a computer is sugge sted . 1 7 1 . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . Q.4 1 4225 1 1 1 . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. 6464495 a. Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . r2 1 .4 1 4202 0. (Answer : r = 1 .5 0 West . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . 2. LST = 63 . b . Units are earth canonical units. equatorial . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. b . PST . 1 0 2.7 6) . a. 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d .3 5 35 3995 0 1 .system along the unit ve ctor s P. W. Site longitude is 1 2 1 . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . 2. 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . C alifornia .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . b ut not nece ssary.3 1 065 1 5 0. makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours.060668 8 3 1 . 2 .
7 0 0 e.8 0 0 . 1 4  DU/TU.0 0 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .94974 1 7 6 .0 1 .565 6808 1 0 0 .207 1 25 5 1 . fl f2 f3 3 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.2K with a velo city o f AI .0 1 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 .2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b. fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.97 0 1 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .0 0 .62 1 34384 c.707 1 1 25 5 0. B .5 65 6808 1 0.0 7 . fl f2 f3 0 .6 0.9 1 42 3467 2 .0 0 2 . .1 .6 0.0 0 2 .n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.09497879 1 .707 1 0 1 0 1 0.89497724 0 0 0 1 .9 1 420062 4 .0 2 .0 7 . fl f2 f3 d.89497 879 0.094964 1 8 0.8 0 . DU * 2.97 2 .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .0 2 .Ch. C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.20709623 0 .
Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates.17 p 0.1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . 2 a . Obj ect b . A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . Obj ect c. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . ___ e. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. Obj ect vernal equinox direction. b. d . .1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . ( A ns. 9 7 . Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. * 2 . Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . east and zenith (up) component s? c.75 K D U /T U )  . 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates.0078 J 0. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . v = 0. vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . Express the coordinates. What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south.620 1 I 0.
2 . Armitage . 1 965 . Jr . K. 1 9 1 4. Space/A ero na utics . 1 96 3 . . 1 9 67 . 4. Baker . "The A erospace Vehicle s . pp 1 08 . Paul G . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. Pierre Simo n ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . Edmond Halley . Academic Pre ss. NY . No 6 . Second Revised Edition . 1 9 66. Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. 7 . Sons Ltd . C leeto n . 8 . Moulton . S ." Vol 48 . E scobal. A translation of Th eoria by Charles H." in The World of Math ematics . 1 962. Robert M . Telescope . 1 0 . Thoma s. C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . Newman . G . Mass. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Pedro Ramon . Angus. Laplace ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . Inc. Inc. Dover Publications . Gauss. 5 . C ambridge . New York and London . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . New York . Simo n and S chuster . New York . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . New York . NY . NY. November 1 9 67 . Henize . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . D avis . Navy Space Surveillance System. Sky Publishing Corp . John Wiley & Sons. Thomas Nelson and 3. London . Vol 3 . Jame s R . 6. "Space Traffic Surveillance . New York . 1 95 7 .1 1 1 .Ch. The M acmillan Company. E . 9 . U. Memo ires de 1 78 0 . C . NY . 1 95 6 . Forest Ray . L. Institute of the Aero space S cience s . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . Carl Friedrich.
R. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 ." Satellite Control Facility. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. 1 9 66. 1 967 . 1 5 . 1 4. New York ." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. and Eller. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. SepOct 1 967. Roger R. P. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. New York. Colorado. McGrawHill." The Vol 1 4. Briskman. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. R. USAF Academy. ." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. S. 1 966. Davies. New York.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 970. Inc. 1 2 . No 20 . Journal of Oct 2. Carson. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Vo1 40. NY . Sunnyvale. NY. Air Force Systems Command. NY. Bate. Robert D . 1 962. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. "Future Radar Developments. the A stronautical Sciences. Electronic . California. 17. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. Gerald C. 1 6. NY. Thomas J. p 39 . 1 966. 2 1 1 . Cheetham. No 5 . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. 1 962. New York. 1 3 .
) 00 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. 1 0. After that .CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . for the next 250 years. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. according to their different velocity. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . Goddard. as of 5 . those bodies. or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. the idea seems to have been forgotten. or variously eccentric.000 or more miles. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . and the different force of gravity in different heights. 1 . will describe arcs either concentric with the earth.
1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . Project Orbiter. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . On 4 October 1 95 7 . has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 .research. 1 . 3 . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . However. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. Manned spaceflight . 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. still in its infancy . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . since it contemplated the use of military hardware . particularly if it is manned . 3 . Rather . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors.
� ee. I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N .n w ...J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl . 71. .25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" ..J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION ..J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E ..rrrj.EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr. c.(/} � � (I) E � � ... � '" . ... c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ . 11 L .+ :=..::: 0(I) "" 20 10 .///11// .. VI/II � V � . .' � S' (1) 0 .. YEAR a YEARS . .rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION ....H O URS WEEK .. AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 .. (I) CD � ..V'h WillI e: � . � ... 20K (. I MONTH I . . .50K �. mJ77/1/..: fiD It: 0 It: <t ...
1 shows the limits imposed by drag .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. Figure 3 . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . 1 . Figure 3 . m . 1 ·2 .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. stated. p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . 1 . 3 . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . m .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . m . a p ogee 1 00 n .
The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. 1 3 . 1 2 . since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. as you can see from Figure 3 . It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. 3 ..Sec. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 .!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . The vehicle is not allowed to coast . between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition.or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude.
If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . therefore. Figure 3 .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. You . 3 . This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . 1 5 . As a result.3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. 1 .
:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�. 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .Sec...D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS ."� ill Q rn o I � fS ..9 r�=r�rr..2 .�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t. 3 . "::> Figure 3 . 1 > .J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.
"' "' . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.J 5 "' C iii 0..J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 .. I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: . 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch .
Q 360 ° per 90 days :. 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . Figure 3 . With this perturbation . Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . What is the inclination of the orbit? b. The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. which also is due to oblateness.67 0 /day From Figure 3 . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. The ascending node moves to the west .40 and 1 1 6. and oppo. It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. 3 . Therefore = . A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit.60 .6 0 . a. 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63. completing one revolution every 90 days. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi .6.40 or greater than 1 1 6. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2.Sec.
For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable.2.300 nm or about 5 . Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. 3 .21 shows why. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. 3 Figure 3 .000 nm altitude . This is. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures.inches from the surface. The first stage booster climbs 3 . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. Of course. On the scale of Figure 3 . If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. 1 The Synchronous Satellite.2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. for example . This. 1 2 this would be 2*. There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . 3 . of course. however. ground trace of a synchronous satellite. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. Figure 3. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. unfortunately. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame .6 earth radii above the surface . 2 . 1 . 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. not the case . If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min).
. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more. Dot ted grou nd trace ..21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. . curve is \ " " . This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm .. Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr.� � Figure 3 .22 Ascent ellipse . the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit. 3. This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit.. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 ... burn """ " " . intervals .2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s..Sec.. At apogee of the ascent ellipse.
fJ. = _ r 2a . and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. and flightpath angle. as they are called . we get (3 . 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:.da a2 = fJ. Usually this is not serious.34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed.  fJ. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. dv. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. speed. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. a very precise orbit is required.v (3. This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis.33) or = da 2a2 vdv . a? v. 3 . (3 . (3. /:. we get a change in ..32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction .31) If we solve for '.3 . for some other reason. at appropriate points in the orbit. 2vdv . In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . but . 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed.
v) . to the large orbit.V v P P (3. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec ." 3 . a2 6. 2 The Hohmann Transfer. therefore . whose radius is r2 .V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6.semimajor axis. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . 3 . Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have.3. Since the major axis is 2a.34) for small but finite 6. along the transfer ellipse. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . Similarly. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. of the orbit given by equation (3 . The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse.1 . In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. Since we know r l .35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. For example . We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. 4 Jl. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. whose radius is rl . 3 . Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . a 6.h a �  da. called Hohmann transfer orbits. 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3.34).
&.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.36) = r i + r2 =  and. since p.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3./2 a .37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.31 (3. 3 the transfer orbit. (3. its speed is .1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch . 2at Figure 3 .31 &.
w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . to VI ' So . Find the minimum /::. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . 3 I N.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3.1 0) (3 . Although. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section .1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. Minimum rp = 2 DU. For the transfer traj ectory. . ra = 3 DU. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it.3. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU.V implies a Hohmann transfer .� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::.V required to double the altitude of the satellite .Sec. & t = � = . 3 .3. i n our example .39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs.
� r 1 1 +e p p (3.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.707 DU /TU vi r.3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits. Figure 3. We can express this condition mathematically as r = .JfF"= . I::.061 DU/TU I::. 3 V cs 1 = (il = . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.346 ft/sec 3 .068 D U/TU V cs =. Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits. I t is obvious from Figure 3 .V2 = .1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .3.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.V1 = .3.313) .VTOT == .
I &. p p (p.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits.3. and the angular momentum.1 4) (3. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. �. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r.3. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. 3 . To satisfy both conditions.33) and interpret them graphically. respectively . / 2a . ht. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.1 5) . Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. p p p  = . (3. in the transfer orbit.Sec. Knowing and e. we can compute the energy.
p r2. we get (3.34 /::. </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>. its speed is (3 . . 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 . Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit ..38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r .39) The angle between v1 and va.1 is just the flightpath angle .v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . __ Figure 3.
34. b. 3 . since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . This is called a simple plane change. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape .4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.3.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".41) 3.V. 1 Simple Plane Change .Sec.31 6) Now. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. or it can rotate the line of apsides. it is not surprising that equation (3 . An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. (3 .V required. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . together with the b. If. ¢l ' is zero. A velocity change .3.4.310) when the flightpath angle .1 .V.1 7) reduces to equation (3. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles.41 . Or.V.1 'I' . assuming that we know v and e. 4 . as shown at the right of Figure 3 .V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. after applying a finite b. form an isosceles vector triangle. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . (3. e. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . We can solve for the magnitude of b. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. more simply. b. the b. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . b. and obtain directly for circular orbits. 3.V using the law of cosines.
1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. makes b. . a. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . Therefore . for example . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. Determine the total b. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 .V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer.170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . DU circular orbit. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .vrequired to accomplish the mission. 3 Figure 3 . Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . b .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). A plane change of 60 0 . calculate the additional b.V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 .
I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.V l 1 .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L. 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.Sec..1 = \1'1 .618 = 1 . & t = = �= .Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit. Therefore at = r2 .__ = .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( . .Vl = V l . 1 +� 1 .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0. DU 2 1 Hence .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' .0.953 DU/TU L. The given information is: h I = 0.270. 3.
626) = 0. 2 + 0.2 .626) = 0 . 31 7 + .387 DU/TU = 1 0.2(.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .704 DU/TU 18.V22 v. 3 87 . 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 . 1 5 DU/TU 6.447 DU/TU 2 1 . 6.317) to determine 6.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.042 ft/sec Therefore v = . 4 .447) (.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 . + v�s2.V2 .447) 0. 447)(. v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.V2 = y'l'5= 0.3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.626 vcs2 = V't.= 0 . 3 and we must use equation (3.(0.253 ft/sec .4) (.
F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .4.078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( . 3.4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .447 ) ( .0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .Sec.1 ) t:::.
c.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . 3. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time .5 DU/TU.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination.e.21 . lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . What is the minimum 6. 3 EXERCISES 3 .2 Calculate the total 6. a = 2.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. i. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . i changedall other parameters remained the same. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. 3 .4 Refer to Figure 3 . 1 1 DU and e = 0.5 b. 0 .. a. (Ans.76. r p = 1 DU e = 0. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of .2 DU and 4 DU respectively. a plane change or an orbit transfer. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.449 DU/TU) 3. 0. Ch .5 DU . = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.
3 . using Hohmann transfers. 8 Compute the minimum I::.412 5 3 .V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . 0 . At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation.7 3 . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer.9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode .1 DU 8 1 = 0. beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . . C ompare this with the I::.V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned.v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU.Ch . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) .56 c. 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. * 3 . The . (Ans. 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. = 0. P = 1. 34DU2 (fU d. 9 Calculate the total l::. 95 DU 8 = 0. 5 & Design a satellite . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . 1 0 Note that in problem 3 .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = .
DC . Air Force Systems Command . Sir Isaac. 1 9 60. 1 July 1 965 . and Maud W. Vol 2. 1 96 1 . Robert M . 1 962. New York . Baker. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Headquarters. 2nd revised ed. Dornberger. New York . V2 . L. Makemson. 1 95 5 . NY . Willy. 1 . 3 . University of California Press. New York and London . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Rockets. 5 . The Viking Press. . Ley. A cademic Pre'ss. Washington . and Space Travel. Space Planners Guide. Newton . 4 . NY. Principia. The Viking Press. 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . Missiles.1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Walter . Berkeley and Los Angeles..
presupposed the solution of the first. or lack of circumspection. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . including the earth . . . For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. . Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations.2 1 77 . . . by taking the observations under my care . Albert Einstein ! 4 . who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. the solution of the second problem. of the heirs. This was Kepler 's first great problem. was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. .CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly.. Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. I quickly took advantage of the absence. the determination of the true movement of the planets. or perhaps usurping them .
Thus. subterfuges. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. . The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. I + . Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . detour. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. but above all to convey to him the reasons." Kepler points out in his Preface. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. . (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . "What matters to me. When Christopher Columbus. 1 . "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. we not only forgive them. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. whole grand entertainment would be lost. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 .
almost with masochistic delight. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. . . He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . as it were. however. perihelion and aphelion. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. never noticing his error. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. for now we are going to invade your territory. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . without benefit of any preconceived notions. prick your ears. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. Moreover. with the warning: "Ye physicists. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. But then without a word of transition. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. His results. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy.Sec 4. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. that. again incorrectly .
2 Finally. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. . 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . " Finally. the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e .. he settled on the oval. 4 Figure 4 .180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse.. a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. . but analytical geometry came after Kepler. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. as I shall prove further down . with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. He had .
!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. . Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·.. de rive the . We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position ..2 T I M EO F . time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. . disguising itself to be accepted. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. in a moment of despair. The climax to this comedy of errors. believing that this was a quite different . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. until I went nearly mad. . Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits .F L I G HT . hypothesis.e . have persisted to this day. and velocity and the timeofflight. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th.y it should move in an orbit at all.: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. . . That is to say.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . . I thought and searched.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. You: are . mine] . for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . . and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. which I had rejected . but he did not know how. 4. came when.' " . he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. are one and the same . . whereas the two . what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end.Sec 4. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. : . . In this chapter we will. Ah. made a mistake in geometry. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton.. return e d by stealth through the backdoor.and chased away.
. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.l . the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. but more motivated.21 Area swept out by r .2. where the true anomaly is v .2 .2. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area.1 ) i s the area � . ''"'''"'.e . ''' The only unknown i n equation (4. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus. P. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit .182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY ... 4. 4 existed . i.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. We will pursue a lengthier.2. In going part way around an orbit..1 ) .A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . say from periapsis to some general point. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. A ' in Figure 4. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . 7T a b .. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. (4. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use .
 \/2 a2 _ . perpendicular to the major axis.Sec 4 . Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse. From analytical geometry. E E Circle : .Z x2 + . 2 T i M EO F . 22 Eccentric anomaly. A dotted line . the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 .F L I G HT .l. The angle is called the eccentric anomaly.
From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons.22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . It Tollows directly from equation (4. Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse .22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . 4 Hence .a E) .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . A2 .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 . oos E and whose (4.�rea PSV minus the dotted area.
1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' . Obviously . v.F L I G H T . Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .e si n Ai yields E) . substituting into equation (4.we get � ( E . Kepler introduced the definition M = It . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .2 T I M EO F .22. minus the triangle .27) (4.24) E . E. whose base is (a CDS E).Sec 4.27) reduces to (4. to its corresponding true anomaly. cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.2 .e si n E (4. in order to use equation (4. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians).e sin E (4. Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally.e si n E ) I (4." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .24).28) . and whose altitude is (a si n E ). cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.T = 4 ( E . From Figure 4.
24 left).24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.to = ( t . E Figure 4 . 4 E E.T ) .( t o .[ 2kn + (E .e Sin . In general we can say that t  to = 4.T o ) .(to . Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.24 right. The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .T) . from Figure 4.( Eo  E) (4. If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .to = lP (t . so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .28).Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically. we can say that t .29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v. + t .T) . when v is between o and n.
1 1 ) easily integrable .1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.2.2.1 2) (4.+ COS (4.8 E ) dE (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.Sec 4.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.J1=82 d E (4.2.8 si n E ) V r .  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .1 3) (4.82 f: ( 1 . From equations in section 1 .21 2).2.2.2 T I M EO F.1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .2.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.2.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.21 6) V 1 .82 ( E .28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .F L I G H T .7 . . From equation (4.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
4 4.1 2) is transcendental in x.4. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. va' a and the trial value of x.47) has been used to eliminate z. (4 .1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e . Fortunately . 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4.4. since equation (4. Equation (4 . Figure 4. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) .Sec 4. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . a trialanderror solution is indicated. ( 1 . we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign .2 Solving for x When Time is Known .1 3) ro va v t" . In one sense . But now we have a problem. Therefore .4. C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . a. From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. 4.
4. Thus A.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. B and C are coplanar vectors.1 = x 2 C + x .1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.42. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. we must then calculate the corresponding and v.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.32).3 The f and 9 Expressions. the four vectors fO ' (4.4.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x.41 6) dx x . Substituting for r in equation (4. (4. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z . 4 .1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar. the iteration may be terminated.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.4. and A and B are not colinear. 1 dt r (4. xn . With x known.41 9) .
. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q..where f.4. f. Crossing equation (4. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates.. x.420) This equation shows that f . however. f and g.. f and 9 are not independent. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity.4. First..1 8) into equation (4.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w . g . The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .4. We can isolate the scalar .4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4. g. we will derive an interesting relationship between f.. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 . in equation (4.. the left side of the O . g .1 9) gives Sec 4 .1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h . t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities... = fg.
yw x . ) . (4. x + Co cos v = . 4 h (4.w o Yw h (4. o .a l e + Sln Y. From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 . Xw .424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.425).E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .4.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . .4.1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.e2 )  r . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x. .425) Combining equations (4.4.42 1 ) We can isolate (4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .423) (4.1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw .426) .34) and (4. (4. x wYw .
426) through (4 .427) and using the definition of the universal variable . x + co h = ..426) and (4. x = 0 at t = o .1 ) .sin r  � (4.42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4.a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum.... Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4.. r.4. ro .43 1 ) .428) yw . e quation (4.a Va 2 = 1 9... Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4. e quation (4. (4....42 1 ) c /Ii.429) Substituting equations (4.32). x =� cos x + c r . 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4..a  mitions of z.43 0) 0 1 f C a = .. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C .43 0) f (4. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .Va • W .. ro ro .429) into equation (4.(e sin � + cos � )..Sec 4 .
. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .4..202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY . vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .4.436) .4·3) � r o . r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .] � a . r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.32) (4.1 ) and (4 .433) (4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 ..435) (4. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.4.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.
4.4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4. 3 .4.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. 5 . if we are going to use equation (4. but we have not said what and z represent.43 5) and (4. 1 The Physical Significance of and z. then compute r and r from equation (4 . x + Co cos [ � . note that equation (4. then compute v from equation (4.e E).43 6) .x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . 4 .[ i + x + c 0 ] Va .1 ) Va = _ E . Si n va = Va =  c o s . 5 . Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. Also.1 8).1 9) . Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. in any of the equations where z appears. can be used.4 . to 4. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. la .43 1 ) and (4. its definition.434) . 4 .420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4.1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit . Va x (4. Obviously .4. 1 . 2 . the expression (t would replace 4 . From and determine r and a.34) (4.Sec 4. Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . Note also that if were not zero .
56) la.7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.1 3) .53) Subtracting equation (4.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).52) whenever is negative . (4 .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.E o l . we can conclude that = V'ii I F . 1 (4.204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . (4 . 5 ·1) at time x = 0. To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4. therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.Do . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .5 4) (4. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f. we get x= D . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ . a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .4.53) from (4 . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .57) . (4 .F 0 1  Va I E .3 4) and (4.
2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4. so Sec 4. I z = I F .5 9) . 5 .1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . Therefore . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem.8) Figure 4 . If imaginary. from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. 5 .when z is positive .to 4 .5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero .F a ) '· z is zero. In computing the semimaj or axis. a.5. the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.
. since X = foE.. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. convergence will be extremely rapid. When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4.. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp.a � eFz ± 2x 3 .. . so s i n h fi . Use this for a first guess . / ( . If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly.ji11.5 .e .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .v y� ( . where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period.All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a.6F.fZi3 = q . with £X.5.cosh . we get for elliptical orbits.P)/ 2.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period.. Furthermore . In the case of elliptical orbits. so S � V0r eFz 2 . is large. wherever it occu rs. ( t a to) . C = 1 .. then Z will be a large negative number .a vG ) . a = ± x 3 . Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 . and .:z.. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X.
for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4. we get � S .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations. 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z. 5 .t o ) #a ( 1 ] . .t o ) � ( 1 .to is positive.tohATci ( l . where appropriate .t o ) sign (t . 5 .t o ) x ::::: sign (t . Anytime t . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J. n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.L ( t . recognizing that X will be positive when (t . so Sec 4 .£.sign in the above expression . vice versa .t o ) 2x 3 � + t .Q) eV La 2J.sign (t . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) . Therefore.to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .a eFz sign ( t .r:z .a . 4 .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before. X will be positive and .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.5. Thu s ..t o ) Fa .tJ is positive .1 1 ) .
use equations (4.s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .4. = Similarly. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .4. If z is near zero .1 0) as C where = i C = .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .5. if z is negative .1 0) (4.1 1 ) We can write equation (4.5.1 0) and (4.4.4. s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 .(1  .1 3).0 6 + . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S . we can write equation (4.cosh .4. 1 . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.".4.5.7! + . (4. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.1 1 ) as But i v:z . 4 (4 . so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .s i n i V} = i si n i B . .1 1 ) .. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .1 3) COS .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive. use equations (4.B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. ..1 2) and (4 .Ji . z cos i � .5.
1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity .Ji! + Ji!. Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . 0 .1 4) ·· 1 .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z ..+ .. .5.� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4. (4Ir) 2 .Sec 4. 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .5.5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z . 0 'j (4. .... . (611)2 etc.. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity . The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 .
5.s i n z dz 2z [ 0.zS .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . and v at = t=2 T U . it is not surprising that the derivatives. va > � a= :l = 1 .21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . 1 K .[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s . t=2 T U9 ra = I. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves. we get I � = fz.[i) z ] (4 .3S ) .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ.5 .2C ) .( 1 . I dS = _ ( C . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x.266  . Differentiating the definition of C. we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . 39 5 .)] P (4. dC /d z and dS /d z . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Find r. 2& . r a . 1 .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. 4 functions . Given ra = I D U va = 1 . va = Therefore & = 1.
.222 Repeating the process.973 a Using equation (4. X l Zl y"""a6E or x .t o x_ 21Tya lP :. 2 2 x 3 ' etc. we can make a 2 __ = 1 . xn tn fit After three iterations.222 = 1 .266 ( 1 . 1 .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.279 1 .82 1 1 . 24 1 = 1 .8 1 6 x n+1 . we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .Since x = and .8 2 1 1 .12.821 1 .1 . y'ii"(t .1 .1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 .8 1 6 1 . solving for t .. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.8 1 6 1 .t.222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.58 1 ..1 4) and (4.. 705 . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.58) 2 1 .007 2.277 dXn 1 . using a slide rule . 58+ ..000 1 .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ ..222 1 .58 1 . 58+. tn toward t = ZTU.705 2 .4.4.
we will derive expressions for xw . You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. E or F. f = 0. f. and 9 = 0.6..8801 Ch .1 we can see that X w = r cos v .2. yw and r in terms of D. 4 4. for the parabola. since e = 1 .0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. Finally. 1 24.6. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . 236K g. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D.2) .JPt::.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. 880 1 1 .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. D.. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit.Then from the definitions of f. But first some useful identities will be presented. But .6 .6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies.6. (4. r = _.1 7). Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum.32 1 1 + 1 ..321 .. f = 0. 4. E and F. E and F.0._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. as D = v'P tan � 2 . g = 1 . v. g.1 ) From Figure 4.
Sec 4 .6.62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos . the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 .65) .1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) . yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.1 ) .61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4. (4.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.
62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. For the eccentric anomaly .Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 ) .66) v .62 Perifocal components of r . w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.6. r • v. (4. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .s i n p v = ffp ta n v . 4 rr.J7!. Using r • r = and equation (2. in Figure 4 .
6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4. yw Just as we did for the parabola.62. e illS E we get another useful  �. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . I Substituting from equations (4.67) and (4 . M  (4.8) and simplifying.67) (a si n E ) a But .24) .6.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r . we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) .1 0) e sin E also.6. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . we can say that I yw = Q.Sec 4 . (4. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle . (4. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae.
e cos E from equation (4. is given by e si n rr = r = $a . we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E .:. E is imaginary . 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4. v.22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.1 3) ..6. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly.!.6.1 0) . For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.6. when E is a real number.1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation. F is imaginary. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4..6.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .. we obtain E = . when F is a real number . solving this equation for • v . The .1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4..e Si n r E Finally ..28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4.
From equation (4. The rectangular components of a general position vector. 6.el = a (cos i F . But l cos i F = cosh F .63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. may be written as (4.  But i si n iF = si n h F.e ) .6 .1 4) Xw = a(rosh F . so Yw = a � sinh F.a r  (4.e) . Similarly.Il a •v (4. 6.6.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . In Figure 4 . = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4. so (4.1). r.61 6) r e cosh F = 1. 6.range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4. 4.6.67) we can write Sec 4 .1 8) .1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .
p . so 1 � L (I ..: o s /:. 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:. .:.6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4..P ( 1 .. tan p /:. Figure 4. the rectangular components of the velocity vector . and note that h = . where tv = v . V.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y ._ c��V P IW (4.624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) ..x". r0 · = 1 .63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .A F U N CT I O N O F T.. .ji! sin v p (4.vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf . 4 +.c o s tv ) (4... we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = .c os I 9 ' = v'f. 62 1) (4.42 1 ) . 623) .V. 626) . are yw = r sin v (4.JiLP. ( .1 .. (4..I M E Ch ....V _ 2 1 ..625) (4.
cos L'!. (4. = . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .1 0).63 1 ) (4.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .to ) . r (4.E ) f = . E rr .a E sin E . Thus Xw Sec 4.� ( 1 .I Jlla sin E.a ( 1 .e2 ).4. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .E ) .3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly . o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.6.63 0) (4.!Ji8 sin L'!.a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l ..e 2 ) cos E .67) and (4.628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.68) .cos L'!.E) 9 r _ 0 j. yw 9 and (t .6.e) v! fJa( l . Similarly. 629) f = 1 .( L'!. From equations (4.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = . 627) But. we get f = a( cos E .e2 ) = 1.e2 ) v.63 2) .(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .sin L'!.1 (4.e cos E o ) .Ji!.E . using equation (4. (4.6.
A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some . and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself. the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E . with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia . 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4. cosh 6F ) .  E. . it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign .6. (4.2k7T + M o . (4.63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .63 6) 4.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E. and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. Kepler himself realized this.to) . ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.634) (4.[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 .6F ) .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch .26) Even though equation (4.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) .. M can be obtained from = (4. � V a3 ( t .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm.2 6) is one equation in one unknown . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly . In classical terms.t o ) . of course .(1 E .
64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . � Figure 4.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. compute the mean anomaly. M n . ' (4.63 7) Now. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . E It would. of course .64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M.638) n dM/d E I E=E n . 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. that results from this trial value . select a new trial value. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method.Sec 4 . but this is not very accurate. E n+ l E + M . 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4.
2. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. Once E i s determined by any method. however. 1 . 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.when e is nearly 1 .1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola.4 0) EXERCISES 4. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. e.t ' are given. 5.1 8) and (4.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. 4 .1 2) .4. The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation. 2. It can be used for LW or�E . va and the timeofflight. even when e is nearly 1 .1 9). e. d M = 1 e cos E . equation (4. dE Therefore.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M .222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . From fa and va determine r 0' a. Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. Determine f and V from equations (4.  .6. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. where d M / d E l E = En En. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem.5 + .4.e cos En (4. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . p and va· 2 .5 cos V DU . r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). t . the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. 3 . Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. Solve for V if needed. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(.
to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. 4. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU.3 Given l:J) = ffP. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. Explain why this must be so .348J +  1 . 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. Find the values of f. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa.e. how should the area of search for x be limited.Ch .3. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. f = 4 . 625) ..5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. i. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P.85 TU) 4. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . (partial Ans. TOF = 5.6 For the data given in problem 4. (Ans. V = 3481 . find r and v for .5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. glven fO' vO' and t. corresponding to l:J) of 600• .4 If. find the universal variable. x.
224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. 1 0.5 . 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value.51 0) and (4. if X == x (t ) . 5. 4 .5 DU. e = . in equations (4. Va and w and will solve for f. e = . TOF = 2. 7 The text. then . f and g. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . 1 1 For problem 4.73 TV) 4.9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods.1 1). gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. Le. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. g. (Ans. Va and t . 5 DU. == 1 . with a perigee above the north pole. 4 . ra == 2. 4 4 . and give your analytic reasoning behind. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0.10 rp 4 . 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 .99). 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa.to and solve for f and v. Do the same for problem 4. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . 4 . Develop.. 9 At burnout. 2.
1 7 Derive the expression for g . Koestler. 1 95 9 . r3 fJ. Stahlman. g. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. 4 . A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9.1 8).0 + . Small. 4. 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.( t . New York.. Richard H.. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. Madison.43 6). f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. = .and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . o 4 .to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � ..2 .E. NY. New York. Arthur. Wise. f and 9 in terms of (t . Kepler. The Sleepwalkers. . A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D.. Company. 1 963 . Einstein. equation (4. Philosophical Library..6 TU) . 1 964. Battin.43 5) and (4. Albert. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t .to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . See equations (4.I:!:. L'. 1 95 1 . The University of Wisconsin Press. r.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. 63 2).16 * 4.630) through (4. The Macmillan 3 . 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. NY. 4. 2. LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . NY. 2. Guidance .r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. Robert. A New York.
1 1 . Forest Ray. H. pp 1 08.ach. Roger R. J. 1 965 . . Lemmon. K." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. 1 9 1 2 . New 6. to Celestial Mechanics. Goodyear. H . Herrick. H. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. Brooks.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch ." A str. United States Air Force Academy . F . California. Bate. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. 7. Mathmatica. A n Introduction York. . The MacMillan Company. Vol 3 1 . Unpublished notes. pp 3093 1 5. W. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships.1 79. S. pp 1 05 .1 92.1 28 . 4 5 . Redondo Beach. Vol 70." A cta Vol 36. W . and 1. W. "Universal Variables. Sperling." A stron." ARS 1. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. Sundrnan. 1 9 1 4. Vol 70. J. 1 965. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. Stumpff. pp 1 89. K. 8. 1 965. Moulton." A stron. E. 1 96 1 . 9. Vol 275 . 1 2. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. pp 66066 1 . N. 1 947. 1 0.
in 1 7 8 1 . Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. 227 5.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. a 24yearold German mathematician. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy.. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. in the first year of the 1 9th century. Uranus. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. But. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace .
you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. Because of its importance. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . but for a different reason. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. no less. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. and the direction of . Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. exactly 1 year later.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . Hegel asserted. no more . 5. The object turned out to be Ceres. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. and for convenience in referring to it later. If they paid some attention to philosophy .2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t."the Gauss problem.
the orbit is a degenerate conic. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit.. 2. or the "long way. .. . Sec . the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion..21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. Obviously . It is not surprising.motion. appears in the denominator of any expression.".SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ . If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). particularly if the parameter. If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). / I I I I I Figure 5 ." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians.. The relationship between the four vectors f l . 5 ... / . find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. p. therefore." through an angular change greater than 7r... that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used.1 . . We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M .
Test the result by solving equation (5 . From equation (5 . p.cos �v) = 1 .1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f.22) r2 a ( 1 ...r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . f and g. n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E .cos �E ) .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f. Consider equations (5 . what we have is three equations in three unknowns.230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 .cos �V .24) Si n �E (5 . a or �E. a and �E. 2. p. (5 . 27) . a 9 = 1 .y'ii8 .25). 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary .27) and (5 .. this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent.( 1 .26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . so 2 . 23) and (5 . Use equations (5. 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 .cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . g. r .( 1 . We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 .sin �E ) � JJ. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns.2.23) Actually. r2 P p rI .cos �E ) f = 1 .( 1 .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p.1 ) (5 . g. There are seven variablesf1 . t. bv . but the first four are known. 3.25 ) (5 . (5 . the solut �on to . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. 2.23).. (5 . f.24) arid (5 .
{ and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. r1 (5 .3 2) .:t x3 S. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. = 1 . since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. and would enable us to use the universal variables. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. This last step is perhaps the most important of all. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated.. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. x and z. 5 .1 ) (5 . adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. a and L'£ or 6F. 3 . p. In each case .cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. let's write the expressions for f. however.Sec. g .( 1 .c x2 y. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. introduced in Chapter 4.
33)  (5..v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 .37) I y = r 1 + r2 .. as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.viI x ( 1 zS) \ .A . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.( 1 c o s b. ( 1 .v y. we obtain A.36) may be written (5 . we get r 1 r 2 (1 .i n b..c o s b.v) (5 ..232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .v (5 . rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b..v ) 1 c o s b. 5 X2 (5 .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .v) • 9 = = IE.1I 1 � . yields X C.. p r1 j .31 ). ( 1 c o s b.( c o s b.j A equation (5 .39) .. A y= .38) y.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch .jE: . 1 .33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.. P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b.
rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 . and the auxiliary variable .1 6) (5 .1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .3.31 7) . 3 We can also express X in equation (5 . +. (5 . 32). so that (5 . 3. can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.ff.: r I .3. by using equations (5 . thi 't "p.31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 .".32) and (5 .35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 .37 ) and (5 .420). From equations (5 . I" � \ ·1 fr .on simplllw.31 5) (5 . we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.r I (5 ..3.=1' Ig =r2 =.LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ.1 ). we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 .38).1 4) 1 The velocity.qr::oo . y. 3. A. . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 . the last term of this expression may be simplified. to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .31 3) (5 .1 0) (5 .Sec.34). 5 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .
5.E2 and z = . from equation (5 .3 .31 6) and (5 . Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 .31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 . (5 .dz dz dz 2yy dz . 5 1 . dt / dz. Determine the auxiliary variable. If it is not nearly the same . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . 2 .= 3 x 2 .234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . From f ' f and the "direction of motion.31 3).P . which converges more rapidly. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.3.1 1). Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.1 0) . 5. The derivative. A.1 4) and (5 . 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 .31 5). evaluate t. this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .31 8) ( ) (5 .31 7). The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .4.31 9) .39). Pick a trial value for z.1 2) (5 . Determine x from equation (5 . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. 6. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation.31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. When the method has converged to a solution. then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. 9 and 9 from equations (5 . a Newton iteration.S + X 3 _ + . may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z.3.1 0) and (4. necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . Since z = .4.0. 4. 7 . 3. y. 3.37). Although any iterative scheme . using equation (5 ." evaluate the I 2 constant.0.
3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS . we showed that y.320) (5 . 3 .Sec. 5 .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C .32 1 )  .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .39) for dy = dz  But.31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 . . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . we get ( 1 . 5 .z S) dS _ .=  dS (C . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 . i n section 4 .
41 1 ).326) .318). determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two . the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z. 51 r2 = 1.OK DU.6J + 0. These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 . Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.320) and (5 ." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements. D M � si g n (1T L'>.324) _  (5 . Using universal variables. "direction of motion": rl =0.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.322) into equation (5 .  (5 . 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .+ 5! 7 ! _ _ . we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 .1 0) and (4.325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM. At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0. Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period.323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 .319) and (5 .322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . There is only one path for a given direction of motion.4.7K DU. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 . equations (4.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit).v) .01 + + O. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S. ill rl . 5 so.
Sec.6V is small. I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . 28406 ( __ = 3 . A A l ong way =1 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T). OM = +1 we have "short way " (.37) does when .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = ..CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = . 86474323 = 1 . 5 .6V short way = 5. from equations (4. 0000 + 1 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .321 radians Using (5 .327).3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . For ease of numerical solutions. Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . a convenient form of equation (5 . 327) r1 = 1 .5.962 radians LW long way = 21T .1 4) and (4. 0488088482 + 1 . 0488088482 + 1 . 5 .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 .1 5) . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . 0000 1 .1 .6V > 1T).28406 ( __ ) = 0 .39).28406 = 1 .0. 23287446 yT12 vm .
Since �t for this problem is less than 1 .23287446 0.238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .672625 1 6 TU + through 6.28406 y'3. 1 .86474323 = 1 .1 0)...86474323 2... Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 . X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : .444689 m 0.3.489482706 (6") . so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now. 0432z = 1 3... from the given data.0 we do not normalize. Step 5: Using equation (5 .. the desired time o f flight is : .3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 . (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.780 1 9540 1 /2 0..) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration..05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.23287446 t l o ng = 0. 1 3 min = 0445 z .. Y l o ng = 3. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off.28406 y'0.
83073807 v 2 = 1 .94746230 A = 1 .t . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.314).3 .02234 1 8 1 1 . 7499473 9 t = 0. 1 1 39209665J  0.96670788 z = x 0.60 1 874421 .662242 1 3 A = · 1 .3. (5 .8826885334K v2 = 0.989794 D U/TU 0. 5 .83236253 Using equations (5 .1 3).31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .Sec.1 6) and (5 .28406 Y = 4.79852734 v2 = 1 .5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.50634848K v2 = 0.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.28406 Y = 0.5544 1 39777J 0.250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.36 1 677491 + 0.0.76973587J .0.1 5).0. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2. W e have : � 104 (within 0.9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.58 1 43981 VI = 0.4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.6009 1 852 .3.5288 97 1 4 = 2.6 1 856634 = 0. (5 . (5. 74994739 VI = 0.t solved .554824 D U /T U f = 3.63049 1 80961 1 . 1 7866539741 + 1 .
From equation (5 . and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position). the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .1 O} VC . Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T.9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on.31 .2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 .52). In other words.076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 .39). where f::1) is less than 7T.39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number.38) and (5 . Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics.zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative.= 0.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. For "short way" trajectories. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. yet equation (5 . The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4.
. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.4 TH E p. From equation (5 .cos !:::..1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 .4.j1 .V ) a (5 . a and ""E./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .1 ) and si n  COS .4. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . and 2 solving for p.c o s ""E si n ""E . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E..4. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive .c o s x =.25). a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .Sec. (sin xl i .6V p � . for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5.6V V 1 .va si .23).cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) .cos ""V ( 1 .6V COS . we get  . 5. we can solve for a and get 1 .)2 cos . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve . It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity. hence.?S. This check is only necessary when is positive.42) into equation (5. The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.v. 5. we obtain 5.
43) 5.45) and simplify. we get Ll. (5 .J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.4.43) as Ll. 2 Ll.Q p ) 2 (5 .E . We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .c o s bJ)) (5 . (5 .E Solving for cos2.v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .E Q ± y'2ni C O S .46) Ll.E) •  k = k Ll.E ( k .2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .2 Expressing a as a Function of p. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.. The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information. and noting that � c os '2 .E CO � = ± p= k = . 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions. we obtain m p a= (5 . a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.45) ± Using these same definitions.48) k .Qp y'2ni p .
First . The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . a may not be smaller than some minimum value .1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr. Sec. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048).where k. however. Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses).!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 .6. 5. am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . . The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero.4. 5 .41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 .F in case a is negative). we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . 2..4 . Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 ..4 T H E p.3 Checking the Trial Value of p. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. we need to determine � (or . 5.
. let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .F: (5 ." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .F is positive.24) or the corresponding equation involving .6.E a If yield is negative. the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .E . If (.4 The t vs P Curve .6.49) Since we always assume . let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way.6.E from equations (5 . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i . we can compute f. we can determine .4. F ) .E ) (5 .41 1) c o sh .6.Tar (si n h .F (5 . F . If we look at "long way" trajectories..24) and (5 .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 . although t approaches infInity for this orbit.( 1 .6. If a is positive. we see that the limiting case of .6.6. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.s i n . F 1 .4. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .a r1 (1  f) (5 .6. 9 and f from equations (5 . 5 c o s . As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.vi.From the trial value of P and the known information. In Figure 5.1 3) .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.25). there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.41 2) (5 .6.1 0) = = 1 .4. (5 . To get a feeling for the problem.23). Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.6. we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like .23) and (5 .
P must lie between P j and infinity...4 T H E p.I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse . P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case .. Sec.. we should first compute P j or P j j ... for t:sv greater than IT. In Figure 5 .. t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j ..zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 .. P must lie between o and P j j . 5 . For l'J) less than IT. From the discussion above. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 .42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 . As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight... Since it is important thar the first trial value.43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories... lie within the prescribed limits. as well as all subsequent guesses for p.
46). The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution.43 k p a rameter . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5.5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p.yLri1 (5 . such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). . � " . Several simple methods may be used successfully. '" E 0> '" . b .4. ell .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. . I .. by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p. we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. one that gives too small a value for t.1 5) 5 . 5 1 :co .. • . . The solution is then bracketed and..4.1 4) Q . from equation (5 .4. p )0 p" . and one that gives too large a value.246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . . 0 Q + y2in k  (5 .
. It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer. .. tn t . . .4.1 6). . .. ..1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p... . .P n . .. .1 and Pn ... .I Figure 5 . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it.. . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. then a better estimate of p may be obtained from . 5 .4... 4 T H E p. O��_4o P n.1 ) (5.. .1 ) (t n ..44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration .. .1 6) This scheme can be repeated.. . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5. .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. ... . ...t n ) ( P n . then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t . .... ..Sec.. . . ........ If tn. .t n ... . .. .
5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  .1 7) I t =9 viIZ. fl3  fJ.41 8) (S . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative .4.si n L'> E l .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . � ( S .41 7). 41 9) .1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p.r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .iri equati �n (S. we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .4. ( � . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .
3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .4 8) .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .47).Qp ) Q. from equation (5 .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .Sec.2 dp k ( k . 5 . bE d�E . that ( k .4 T H E p.2mk2 Qp 2kQp .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE .420) From equation (5 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 . we obtain .( k .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .E / dp and noting.
6E JJ. which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.. (5 .. _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.� (6E .4.si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.1 8) from (5 . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F . (5 .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .= .420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .Qp) si n 6E JJ. 5 (5 . p(k h JJ.423) ..COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .4.250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .1 9).42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 . and (5 .
Using the trial value. 4 .24) and (5 .II using 2 . Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola. using equations (5 .4. 5 251 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 . Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions. Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 .F. Evaluate the constants k. solve for a from equation (5 4 .22). Solve for f.422) or (5 . We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .8).49) and (5 . 7 . as appropriate .4.E or Ll. 5 . we will develop and use the f and 9 series. 6.1 5). equations (5 . 25). This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. 2 . G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem.4. 2. Q and m from r] .1 0) or equation (5 .4. 5 . 9 . (5 . a.4. 9 and f from equations (5 .6E or Ll. the values of g. of p. 5 .1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.To evaluate the slope at Pn .1 4) and (5 .44). Pn . Sec. 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. As stated earlier .423). The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a.1 2) or (5 . r and Ll.4. should be used in equation (5 . t and .1 1 ) .F obtained from the trial value. 8 .27) and (5 .2·3). 3 . Solve for Ll. Solve for t from equation (5 .
5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = .54) we have the following recursion (5 .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . (5 . (5 .57) (5 . 5 9) . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . we write equation (5 . 5 4) for n = O. we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. Therefore. 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . 5 5) r r (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . 5 2) (5 .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .
5W)  (r .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr .515) =  ur. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. this can be (5 . u L. 5 . v are known .and the equation of motion f  (5 . We define them as follows : O. as we shall u .51 3) rr and the definition of p.5. p. 5 . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .5. These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate.51 6) (5 . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .1 7) .5 11 ) (5 . p and q which will be useful later . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 . 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .51 2) u . q. 5 . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u.
. 1 1 1 1 . ) .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r . v) _ 1 u. . 522) q = .57) and (5 . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . .23 r· (V) r   u.r .1 8) Using the definition of P. 5 20) (5 .U . d q = d t .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. r) (v) 2 .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . (5 . Summarizing: (5 . ) _ 24 (r .p (u + 2q ) .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 .3u p (5 . = . _ [1 1  2 (v . 5 . 5. 5.(v) 2 . r r (5 .
1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.1 5u p ( u . = r 0.u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \.30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .3p ( u + 2q ) .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u . = F 1 r + G 1 . F3 = F . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.30p p + 3 q ) .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .3 u p ( u . 5.54) for n = 1 . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . = . = . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .u G 4 = u ( u .6 u 2 p = .6 u 2 p = .u G = .Sec.1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P . Writing equation (5 .t!:.u r = .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u . p and q. Fs = F4 ..r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .
4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 .523) .1 . ) .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.tao Comparing with equation (5 .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .5.54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .52) and (5 .526) . therefore.256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Vo (5 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t.1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .Gn n.524) (5 . 5 = U (u . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t . .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q . . Referring to equations (5 .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .
30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 . G 1 = 1 . G = u.Sec.3q .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.2 1 q . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 .28q .90q . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u). F = 3up 3 F = u(. F 2 = 'U.7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) . F 1 = 0.51 . G = 30up(1 4p2 .6q . 5 .30q .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) . G = O.
to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. 5. We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v.5·29) . p. In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions.0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch .2 Solution of the Gauss Problem.2·3). we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. 5 . 7) (5 .6. r I . the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. 2·5).51) + 9= 7  1 . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . From equation (5 . This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. f I . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u . 7) r I g (r I . The f and 9 series may be used .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy.f (r I . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle .5·27) + ' (5 . 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 .24) and (5 .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . 5. (5 .
h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. This .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. thus Figure 5 .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r .Sec. As. L£ .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA. becomes dt (1 . so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . . 5.61 Sector and triangle area (5 . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ .6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6.
V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .6.' l'2 2 2 (5 . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. E ) .43) and using the identity.260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss.62) (5 . this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.2E ) 2 . we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 . The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . . 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b.6. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information.c o s b. but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown. 5. 4 � c o s b.2 The First Equation of Gauss. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 ." + l( 1 .64) = 2 (2� co s � )3.
.65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .. t/y.L .£Q. From the first of these equations. equation . Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .2 2 L (5 .L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 .= ..jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J. Si.JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.. n l:> E ) .6 . (5 .(5 .61). ( .65). 5 .s i n l:>E ) .2 ( 1 r1 r .67) 1 cos l:>v =.L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J. L ( l:>E . 3 The Second Equation of G auss.68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J. .24) and (5 .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 . si n l:v cos � ..s i n l:>E ) .61 ) becomes si n l:v .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .Sec.. Using the identity.1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . so .
from r I ' r2 .6. !:JJ and t. Unfortunately. using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. y 2 ( y . 24) and (5 . n = 2 si n 3 LE .262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 23).2(� . (5 . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. a and LE.s) .1 ) .69) cos f = 1 . 27) and (5 . s and w. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . (5 . we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . pick a trial value for y.from (5 . and so on. until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical.Si. (5 . S + 1 .si n LE ) we may write. y and LE . recall that we started with three equations. To review what we have done so far.43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. p. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. When convergence has occurred. and one more unknown. so a trialanderror solution is necessary. a good first guess is y � 1 .6. The first step is to evaluate the constants. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation." 5 . 22) completes the solution. 6. Next. the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations.6.69) are transcendental. y.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) .1 0) . (5 . there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . We then added another independent equation.25). in three unknowns. equations (5 .1 ) = W (LE .64) and solving for y.64) and (5 . which is known as "the second equation of Gauss. more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y.4 Solution of the Equations .
c:.c:.1 0) may become greater than one.1 2) = X = . the righthand side of equation (5 .6.F .c:.E is imaginary. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.c:.cE. equation (5 .c:.69) and to determine y.c:. If the given timeofflight is short. )� s + 1 .E is imaginary.c:.c:.E s i n 3 . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic. . Using the identity.F is real.F . they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.E . The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section.F = rush .S ) y (5 . S..F and COS i .F whenever the right side is greater than one .1 0) may also b e written as Sec.1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 . Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.F 2 ) · (5 .c:.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.c:.0. Noting that . 5 . 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y .E and .Since the equations above involve . F s i n h 3 "2 . indicating that�.69) and · (5 . 6. Since we already know that when . For this reason. equation (5 . difficulties may be anticipated any time .c:.F are close to zero.c:.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit. E = i .69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .c:. i sin i. F = si nh .1 1 ) s i n h . as y2 = W S + x .s i n .1 2) become indeterminate. then .c:. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .cosh 2 .F will be zero and both equations (5 .c:. 6.c:.6.c:.6.6. E or .c:.F .c:. F.c:.
25) and (5 .Y:i. The result.1 4). zero. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . 7 . is .6. which is developed by Moulton. Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 .. E as a power series in x. parabola..1 3).6. r2 . 2 . and 9 from equations (5 .6.63). f. . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 .26). The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. 1� = 2 3 1. E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. Evaluate f. Determine p from equation (5 .6 .43). and then expressing 6. 2.23). from rl .1 1). Depending on the type of conic. problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . replacing CDs 6.22). .6. . or negative. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s.F from equation (5 .61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 .E or 6..1 5) 1 . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . (s + x ) · 1 (5 .6.]) and t using equations (5 .1 (5 .2 Ch . s and w.27) and (5 .6. (5 . . 3 . determine 6. Determine X from equation (5 . g .1 4) Now. /:.264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . the orbit being an ellipse. 6 .24). 5 . Compute the constants. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. ) .62) and (5 .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. 2 6. 4. it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x.1 0) or (5 . ( 1 + §. (5 .
Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. and ballistic missile interception. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. To avoid generalities. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 ." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. To make the problem even more specific. Usually. �atellite intercept and rendezvous. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . 72. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 .Sec." In all but the simplest cases. The £:. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. ballistic missile targeting. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. 5 . we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time .INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific.
I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 .7.. 5 i nterceptor ... at t. "..266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ..' ':.. r.. �/ �/ ". 7 . fI }/ \ \ ..� ..�: :. .. . ) / ot t. I n ." \ t a rg e t / \ .1 .. \ •• • • • • • .1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .f.... ��y V \" _ .. ".". e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.\..� ' .
We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . which is when the intercept will occur. we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 .Sec. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. 5 . The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200.7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily.
. we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. launch vel. have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. \ \ \ Figure 5 . . Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. . . " . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. �v? �v . .238 km/sec. The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 them. 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. . . . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point.
7 .7 . In summary . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. Because of earth rotation. the better . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. 5 . we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . In Figure 5 . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . the launch site will have moved eastward . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor.2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions .5 . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. From Figure 5 . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . 5 . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit.
5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <..270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .) z :J « .V plot for example intercept problem .4 /':.O F .7..
1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. i. the three components of r2 . (5 .84) (5 .Sec. Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. another method will be develope d .85) (5 . Although we have examined a very specific example . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6.8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series.86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . 5 .e. P3 · . 82) t2 so (5 .8 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. t2 . v2 • P I ' P2 . P3 . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.
8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. y and z . Rz . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . � into equations (5 . Estimate the magnitude of f2 . y and Z . the components of Vz be X. the components of f2 and V2 . L3 . and eliminating the K components. b . ' r2 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . y.8. in fact only six of the equations are independent.e. R1 . f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . L2 .8·7) (5 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 .8) (5 .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch . 526) and (5 .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . 8.8. 5 to (5 .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . i.272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.
t2 and t2 t } are not too large. which are the components of f2 and v2 . Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . and (5.1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. 5.32).3 Verify equations (5 . =: =: 5 . (5. . b. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6.31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . f. 5. using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.V required for intercept? 5. Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 .31 3) through (5 . c.423) for hyperbolic orbits. 5 Z. but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. Limitations. 5 .4 Verify the development of equation (5 048). Z.1 5. Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. Ease of computation. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04. EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location.41 . f2 I + J DU). Y. I I I I  x. Accuracy.526) and (5 .6 Derive equation (5 .Ch . e . Usirlg specific numbers.31 ).522).527).2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6.39). Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 .
J + K). The piteration technique. r2 . d. d.9 Repeat problem 5 .06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 .009 (.0922 TU. which will contain both position vectors. The original Gauss method. (Ans. b.tl = 1 .8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . h = 1 .7 . t2 . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5. 5 . 5 Given two position vectors rI . Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. 5 . The universal variable method . as a function of rI r2 .t l determine v2 using a. 5. r2 'and the distance between them. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use.00256 (J + K» . vI = 0. (Ans.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . 1 1 For the following data sets for r I .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . c. although a few iterations can be made by hand.8 using the universal variable. rl r2 p.
Inc. 51 + 0. Dover Publications. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence .9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . New York. Richard H. New York. 1 . New York. 1 963. 4.66986 9921+0 . Battin. 3.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . Moulton. Mathematics. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . and A. r 1 = I t 2 . NY. Davis. r 1 = 2I t2 . r 1 = 41 t 2 . Herrick. to Celestial Mechanics. 1 956. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. John Wiley & Sons.6J + 0.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. (Answer : v = 0. f l = 0 . a.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. Escobal. McGrawHill Book Company. "The Prince of Mathematicians. 2 . Bell. 1 9 59. 1 964. New York. f 1 = 1 . (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. NY." in The World of 1 . A n Introduction York. Pedro Ramon. Gauss.0.7K D U t 2 . NY.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . Inc. Eric Temple . the MacMillan Company. Forest Ray. 2I D U t2 . Liu. Methods of Orbit Determination. 1 9 1 4. d . c . .t 1 = 0. New 6. Vol 5 . Simon and Schuster. Carl Friedrich. A stronautical Guidance. NY.4804847 1 1 2 +0. Appendix A.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. 1 965. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. S.Ch .2J Use "long way" traj ectory.
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The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. longrange ballistic missiles.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . Napoleon I 6.000 V2's had been fired in anger . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. ironically . During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . Efforts. It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . The result is well known. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . . the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. World War II as "too late . 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . which concern us in this chapter. have a very short history .
these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . Brigadier General 3 . But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. After all. In July 1 95 4. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. California. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. Trevor Gardner . it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. in June 1 9 53 . The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development.000 pounds thrust. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. According to Dr.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 4 Accordingly.
In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. 6 . When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. After three unsuccessful attempts. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. Otherwise. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . Progress was rapid. Atlas was a reality. the program had. Blasingame . Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant.000 people participating directly. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. by mid· 1 95 9 . 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . From 2 main contractors at the beginning.Sec. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. 6. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory.
We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions. 6 . a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. 1 defines these new quantities. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics.. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 ." etc. 6 from launch to burnout. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories." "flightpath angle at burnout. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory . =.22) . we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. however..2. (6 . Figure 6.2.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . It will not be discussed in this text.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. Since Va:." "height of apogee.. need not be redefined.2 The Nondimensional Parameter. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . Q . 6 . There are. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system.ji1Tr.2.2. such terms as "height at burnout.
2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory . 6.Sec .
(6. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .O/r from equation (6. It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2.1 ) . and substitute for V. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. If Q is greater than 2 . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section.26) . 24) 6 . 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6. When Q is equal to 1 .2.23) or IQ=2�·1 p .2. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point.3 The FreeFlight Range Equation .25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 .the expression p.
half the freeflight range angle . 2 Equation.f6. therefore. 6 .co s v b o .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .27) .26) above can. and co s � = . lies on each side of the major axis.Sec. 'l'. be written as (6.
29) Now.e2 ). the required freeflight range angle.2. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile.2. also becomes known.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. since p = a( 1 . and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6. e. h = rv cos cp. .28) p. = r Q C O S2 cp .29) and (6.T. (6.2. the total range angle. . 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. what should the flightpath angle./. A. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.1 1) into equation (6. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.284 . can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. . ¢ro.
Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. F'.In other words. We could . the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 .23 Ellipse geometry 6 .4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. Sec 6 . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus.2. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . is called r bo . it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . with a little algebra. Now. we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . In Figure 6 . ¢bo. Instead . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo .
2. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid. that.1 6) . if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror .23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s.000 ) from equation (6.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . Qb o 2 2 (6.24.2. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . for example. light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. we can express d as 'i' d = o S .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . � + 'lr) = .I n 2 and also as rb (6. d. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .2. This is. F' and the burnout point.x) = sin (6.1 3) (6. It means." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. in fact.2. shown in Figure 6. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .Qb o sin � .
9. sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .1 6) gives us .866.2. so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . 6. . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .Sec. 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .
With constant water pressure and nozzle setting.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . If Q bo is exactly 1 . If Q bo is greater than 1 . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . Because a = . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory.1 6) does not exceed 1 . the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . Nevertheless. If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 .P/2&. . Figure 6 . A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose .1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. Table 6. 2. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. 2. Provided that 'l' is attainable. equation (6 . An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole .
25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6. 6 .Sec.
ha p og ee 0.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1.625 .1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. hits earth Table 6 .low traj . 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :.11 5 18 1 . vbo = 2/3 DU/TU. skims earth high only . range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max.low traj .21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'.5 DU. cos ¢ b o == 0. the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU. hits earth 000 > 1 high only . Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. During the test firing of a ballistic missile.
2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) .025) = 1 . 08 1 7 ( 1 . 6 . A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. 'IT.Sec. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36. 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . 2<P b o + 64°20.. :. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . ) (60 n m i ) =2. Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . 36° .2. 600 E. Notice or <P b o = :.1 2) .2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 60 0W . versus the flightpath angle . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 .2.08 1 7 DU/TU and .5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 .4Deg.1 . 6 2 1 . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . 26. c os � = + N .025 DU respectively. 6.
be the maximum range condition..292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell . s 0> Q) 0 � c . then... (2<P bO � ) 2 .2.26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory.1 7) I (6.. en EO I . If the right side of equation (6.'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6.:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition . A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target..� 90 Figure 6. 2. :.1 6) equals exactly 1 . we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must. 0> <1> <1> � IJ..7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight .s. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution ..2.1 8) L__________________� .pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 . � 80 . .
due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. 2 . 6 .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. VI 1 800 .'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e .2.e cos 2 (6.7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). From the symmetry of Figure 6. the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . 2./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6.222) .6 Time of FreeFlight. but .8) .1 7 ). 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.Sec:.cos 2 .1 9) for maximum range conditions. 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. noting that l . 2. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o . By inspection. We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6.. 'JI . 220) for maximum range conditions. 6 .2. This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . sin �= 2 2 . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .Qbo Qb o (6 .
294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. can be obtained from equ ations (6. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . and the eccentricity. 6 The semimajor axis.27 Time of freeflight (6. In fact . 23) and (6. 2. since five variables have been plotted on the figure. 28. e. Figure 6 . 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 1). a.
8 period vs.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.000 nm.Sec.25 D U == 7 . It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.075) == 0. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6. 6 .29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.750 n m . What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.95 From Figure 6.884) ( 1 .
: : . . � ren I ("') !XI r » Free .. : :/ .I ' : ' : : : : : : .9h Ir.!:: 7:�i� I� : : : .CI�rie� v X I . :: : J: : : . hi.. . : : . .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. ' .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. : ' . . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: .aje.. :: :"/ N .� '" �� :. . .
and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. . The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . 6 . 6 .3 ° From equation (6. 'l' From equation (6. For a fixed burnout altitude .1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 .1 � 0. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point.6X and . 2 00 ft/sec . There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.6C may be / 9 57 1. For brevity . As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian.OOO nm max = 3. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit.Sec.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories.933 D Urr U � 24.444 n m = 2. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth .  Vbo 6. In Figure 6 .6C. 8. F or purposes of this example.220) . the crossrange error. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.2.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north.3 . payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. .32 r ads = 1 33.6C represents the cro ssrange error. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa. impacting at B. 957 Hsi 66.6X. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. . position. 3 . The arc length .3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed.77 0 = 0 .
3. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center. Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. we can use the small angle approxunatlOn.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. Equation (6.1 ) to (6.1 . I 1 . If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch . 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . . In Figure 6 . for example. 3."2 to simplify equation (6 . 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane .3 . cos .thought of as angles.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. we get (6.32) 2 X Figure 6. if the intended target had been the north pole . if they are in degrees.
�C. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. are as planned.'l1.2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . P. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. Figure 6 . 6(3. 'l1. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. before . Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 .33) . will result. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range .Sec. a crossrange error. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount.32 Azimuth error 6 . 299 Figure 6.32 is the crossrange error . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. 6 .3 . The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error.
0.300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn . An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact. This .� I a q. 6.D. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.21 about the center of the Earth.oo a "'00 Fl ight . are shown by a solid line in the figure .path angle .\]I will represent a downrange . if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 ..3 .33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .\]I. cos X � 1 .33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point.. <Pbo' In Figure 6.x ' to simplify equation (6.0. \]I. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it . 6 If we assume that both 43 and .3. it will hit the target anyway .C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation.0. If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.. (6.y I  : : i. In other words.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount ..34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.
6. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3.3 . The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation.1 2) of this chapter .35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .Sec. We could get an approximate value for .37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .36) (6. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.2.1 0) Qbo I i . 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.8) (6. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target. 6 .'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 . The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.cot <P b o (6. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .3.
3.1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = . a'l1 . 3.c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) . _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6. Let us first express equation (6.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .3.1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.3.302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3. Vb Substituting from equation (6.
The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories.1 3) This partial derivative . A plot of range versus burnout radius. the actual range error on a 3 .33. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0.Sec. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). angle errors.3. 3 . For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. Figure 6. While we need equation (6. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. If this seems strange. the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . when used in the manner described above. particular burnout error .1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . equation .3 . Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case.000 nm range. 6 .33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. In fact.
6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler . if burnout occurs too low. b o 'fJ ' (6 . 6..3.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout . the missile overshoots .1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6.3.31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 . too slow and the missile falls short. The magnitude of the error is (6.3. differentiating the range equation (6 . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots .2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.3. the missile falls short of the target in every case .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory . Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . 6 however. Again.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = . .3.1 4) for small values of .3.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 1) implicitly. is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.
5 x 1 05 D U/TU . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = . There is no crossrange error. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error .9 0 5 D U !TU . 3.6¢ b o = . LW b o = .1 0. 1 ) 2 . 735 rad DU r b o ( .735 = 6 .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range .3.6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . like the other two influence coefficients. a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high.6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . An analysis of equation (6 . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .Sec.905) 2 ( 1 .4 D U . 6 . .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . We will need Q bo (. r bo = 1 . 1 D U . ub o = 5 x 1 0 .4 rad ians.1 8) would reveal that.6V b o + a 'lr . 649 r ad U D U/T . Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better. Total downrange error : .
we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives.5 24 ft/sec.649 (5x 1 O . <p.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr .4 )+6.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . 6. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed.2sin 1 60 o 2 = . 0. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target.1 . The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 . That is. 56x 1 0 . 6 =2.4 ) (3444) � 4 n .4.1 .2 1 (. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar. In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another.56x 1 0.735 ( 5x 1.4 ) TOT =1 1 .S ) . for example). ove rshoot 6. both the launch point and the target are in motion. The rotation is from west to east. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. and its azimuth angle.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation. v. then all three . m i . {3. That is.1 0. its flightpath angle.
of train l \\�.4. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . say 1 .41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. and a speed of. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . we will refer to measurements of burnout .I ·=<� • . This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. of 45 0 .Sec. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . 1>. Hereafter. Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame .1 ) ." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. an azimuth. of 900 (east).:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. �..5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. (6. 6 . Like the observer on the moving train. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 .000 ft/sec. . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel.4.1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . An observer at rest would not agree .000 ft/sec. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. A simple example should clarify this point.
If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . Vs (6 . v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . Thus. Once you have the components of ve.44) �. east . We can obtain the south. lies. �. first. (6 . and up components of the true velocity. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6.42) The true speed. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site .45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. v. flightpath angle . and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. It is. break up V into its components.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . of course. this will not be difficult.
then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. Rather . Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. The term. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B.43 is just 90 0 L o. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . 6.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 .2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation.4. Hopefully.Sec. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . the target will be there also. In Figure 6 .4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. when the missile arrives at point B. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . so the arc length OA in Figure 6. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  .43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI.
we get c o s {3 = sin L t .0. by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6. . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for .N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. The longitude difference. These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. then a value of . The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. (6 . Once we know the total range angle. If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.N + wffitA' where . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . tA .43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (.47) Solving for cos {3. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . A.0.0.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . (6 . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.48) Again. we can solve for the required launch azimuth.N.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .0. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. (6 .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3.0. {3. and if. .46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 .0. {3.N + w ffitA ) .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight.
6 . how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. Needless to say.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . A. and launch azimuth.Sec. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . tA But . By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. (3.
( . 45 ) 2 = . 6 . 339 ) =. using Q bo = .4 5) : v= . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = .. 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 339 ) 2 + ( .9 DU/TU.j( . 8° v n /3 = v = .. 87 9 30. Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . v = . 79 . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.3 ° W burns out at 30o N.. 9cos3 00cos 3300= . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 .... Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. 1 ) 1 .42) through (6 .5022 ta . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 .0 58 8cos290 = . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of ..312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . 1 DU. 33° ¢bo = v E = .675 s (J=333 . 29 . 85 From Figure 6 . 9 s i n 300= . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 5 1 1 95 v . 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ .
7 8 0 .we(3. 334 TU boN = 135° . E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again.123 . 6 70) =.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � .203. 770 N re = 156. using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1. . 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = .4 . 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = .3. tff=3. w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 .85 and ¢bo = 3 0. 2 5 TU :. 77° = . 29 . 6.80° . 3709 �GG (3. 334TU ) =123.Sec.13 = 7. 334)=135° .
4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 . and a spherical Earth. 6 EXERCISES 6 .2.6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .6 ft/sec) 6 . r b o = 1 . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude. R = 6 0 n .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .926 D U /TU . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans.040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . m i .840. Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. v = 1 6 . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .05 D U = 1 0° . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6.5 D U!TU 1 .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . = . .1 9)? Why? 6 . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . m i .
A lateral displacement . Rtf = 4 .)(. What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory .0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . 6 . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8.000 run) 6 . Using the equations si n iL.02. . an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .6.x and L¥3 be? . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point.j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. . 7 I n general. (Ans. = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o .06 DU. 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . how large can .2 1 2 run) 6.400 n mi.6.98 to 1 . Rtf = 5 . 1 0 During a test flight.'lr ). Do not use charts.02. 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 .Ch. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of . 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N .
1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 .6888 n mi L:.346 n mi long) b.642 DU/TU) . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .r = 0. (Ans. ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar .800 nautical miles? (Ans. Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. vbo = 0.V = 25 . or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 . 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. low. 6 6 .. 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal.31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Is this a high. 6 . How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. a.0 DU for a ballistic missile.. 7 . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . b . c . ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range .
5 DU and whose perigee is . at the same altitude . using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ).600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N... Ch .where e is the 6 . 5 DU.23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . tff 40. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth .22 The range error equation could be written as: b.4 min) = 6. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range .ri. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 .e .700 n mi using a high trajectory. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . b. 1 2 00 W. 6 . at an altitude of 2. What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum.6 .. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.. 6 . what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . If the velocity at burnout was 28. 6. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 .¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. �bo and analyze the result .QL. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. 3 0 0 E. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 . determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means.'I' = � b. Do not use charts. R t of 4. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi.530 ft/sec. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . i. 1 5 00 E. Q bo + .
4 rad ian s a. or maximum range trajectory? 6 . Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. c. 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . elevation . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of .1 0 . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N.318 V bo =23.25 An ICBM is to be flight tested. 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. 1 200W . It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 .5 0 .3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . v bo = . How far will the missile miss the target? 4.66E+20784.1 045 . 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O. (Ans. low. b.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 .48966 = 3 1 5 . 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20. 92S1 0608.0057 ° = .500 ft/sec=O. (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .
(Ans. and r bo � r(fl. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . tff 3 2 .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b .649 n mi .6 1 8 .73 n mi. 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.1 2 ' . atmosphereless Earth. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. Assuming a symmetric orbit. site located 319 During the actual firing. What was the freeflight range. 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . 43e . What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . 0 (Ans. 1. 1 20 OW . rotating. L t 54 0 3 1 '.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. 5 7 min) == * 6 .Ch . downrange displacement of burnout point .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. .
R ff ::: 1 0. NY. Vol 2. * 6. 1 962. Ernest G . Albert D.1 2) . Gantz . New York . "Free Flight . New York. NY.02 DU. (Hin t : See section 6.4) . Dornberger . LongRange Ballistic Missiles . Frederick A. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. The Viking Press. A History of the U. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts.6Vb o . Space Technology Laboratories. V2 . Praeger.2. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). Burgess.2. 3 . 2.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . 6 * 6. New York.800 n mi. Walter.S. How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o ." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. The MacMillan Company.3 1 The approximation : * 6. ed . Inc.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 960. 5 . 1 965 . Los Angeles. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. Garden City.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . Schwiebert. altitude at bo ::: . 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. 1958. NY. Publishers. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . NY. Doubleday & Company. Calif. 1 95 5 . Lt Col Kenneth. Wheelon . Eric. 4.3 . . Inc.
when it is dark. though principally attracted by the Earth.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. does. . together with the Earth. Proctor. and moving round it. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. since it gives us light during the night. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . of all which. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. when it is light anyway. about which she moves.. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. have been discovered. whence arise several irregularities in her motion.the Moon. the 32 1 . move round the Sun once a year. and is. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . the Sun or the Moon? . . The Moon is the more useful.
Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. Brown . 7 Author in this book. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . Clairaut . 7. Lagrange and Laplace ." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. W. D'Alembert. has given a full account. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . . W. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . Even interplanetary trajectories. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. with no less subtility than industry. A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. but because it comes close to being a double planet. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .in this case the Sun. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 .
3 days. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . . ... According to one theory advanced by G. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward .67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . As a result .:. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . . . The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present.400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . This puts the center of the system 4. H. 7 .3 04 of the mass of the Earth. Darwin. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge .: =j Figure 7. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. :. . . These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. ��===c==Q. .3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. in fact. . . . . son of the great biologist Charles Darwin.Sec. the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962.
When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. the orbital elements are constantly . 7 Figure 7.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane.22 Lunar orbital elements 7.2. In the case of the Moon's orbit . due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon.
2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. This effect . Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . c. The line of nodes." was discovered more than 2 .054900489 . 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0.8 days.000 years ago by Hipparchus. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. b. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 .Sec. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' .400 km.3 1 66 1 days. called "evection. 7 .
d . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'.2. and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. From Figure 7. the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. e . is the descending node . Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur ." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . for only then can Sun. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . in l S72.6 years. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . Thus. the other . but more than a century later .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . rotates westward.2 Lunar Librations. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node .6 years. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned .326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . where the Moon crosses from north to south. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S .9 years. If the Moon's orbit were = .000 years. 23 ° 27' . making one complete revolution in l S . its mean value is 5 0 S ' . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory .
the computer time required could become prohibitive . SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion.3 . The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. monthbymonth basis. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris.75 0 around each limb of the moon. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. and 7. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. 7 . Because of the complex motions of the Moon. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions.Sec. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. solar pressure . daybyday. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date ." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. we would see exactly half of its surface . at one time or another. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . solar perturbations. As a result. Actually we see . among other things. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. This permits us to see about 7 . At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory.
2& e = y'1  pia . We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . 7 .. It is not important that the analytical method be precise. 7. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about .Q.3 .400 km. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ.. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed.0549 . _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter.6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. a = :l:!:. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. this will not introduce significant errors. With this thought in mind.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . semimaj or axis..3. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions.
j 80 .c " 0 . 1 r1 1 . ..2 10...c C/) .:.31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly. In Figure 7..g' . 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10..0 S pe e d . We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4. we get c o s V = 2... we can solve for va . we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit. E i= . 60 \ \ I njection . II.9 I njection 1 1.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed ..r1 1. k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .  I. e r Figure 7.Sec. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit.i.. 7 .3 ..
3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory ... Actually. As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic ..32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed .. : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 . For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point. . \ 0 �� ' earth " .J! ..330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .. to parabolic. 7 . : .. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP. . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \.05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero..32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . In Figure 7.: / :1 . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.. 7 an injection altitude of .. then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . . .')'... the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection. For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite .3 .
If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . In general the sweep angle . as the injection speed is decreased. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. Moon from our assumed inj ection point . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. Eventually .Sec. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. 7 . the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case .32 we see that. 3 . Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec.32. . we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. From Figure 7 . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . this minimum injection speed is 1 0. Assuming no lunar gravity .32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. Assuming an inj ection altitude of . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . 7 .4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. which we can call 1/1.we will never reach the Moon at all. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. if we keep reducing the injection speed . The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . In such a case . due to errors in guidance or other factors.966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. if we try to take longer by going slower. is a function of . 82 km/sec. 1 8 8 km/sec. both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the .
the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t.. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. that is. for example . But. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. . the initial velocity is too high. If. and wrrft.33 . where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. Neglecting lunar gravity. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . This may be seen from Figure 7 . the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . In the case of a direct (eastward) launch.
we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. In effect. however. only are interested in determining ap. R s' given by the expression Sec.encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence.1 ) . 7. 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 . There is.0 km/sec. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. 5 However.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 .4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we .arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. 7 . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations.3 00 km. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . for all practical purposes. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the .4. . It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 .
4 .4. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h .) Then." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .1 ) yields the value Rs = 66.300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . A full derivation of equation (7 . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.4. 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. 7 . Figure 7 . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.4.1 ) can be found in Battin .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.
42) (7 .Sec.43) From the law of cosines. r 1 . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 .r h V 1 I (7 . at lunar arrival is (7 . the radius. r 1 . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables.46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 .45) COS <P I . 1 . 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. from geometry . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit.44) . Finally.
49) (7 .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.4.to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined. Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. p=� (7 . 1 p ia  a = :l!. JJ. 7 Figure 7. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .1 0) .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . t l .47) 2& e = ".48) (7 .
4.1 3) (7 .1 1 ) (7 . .4.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .1 6) The phase angle at departure.e 1 r1 __ (7 .1 5) 2.4. 1 37 X X 1 0. we can determine the eccentric anomalies.4.3 rad/TUEIl (7 . Eo and E1 from Finally.to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence . timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .Sec. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. 7 .1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .4. Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.6 rad/sec 1 0 .1 2) Next.649 2. Wm = = t 1 . the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.4.
7 .which we chose arbitrarily . is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 .4. We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 .1 6) above . In Figure 7 . (7 . We will do this in the sections that follow.45). 7 . (7 . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory.45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails.4. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO . The geocentric radius.1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth.1 8) (7 . r 1 . it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 .1 9) . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition.0 1 8 k m/sec. a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 .48) through (7 . then the selena centric radius.42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail. The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed.4.4. at arrival is completely determined by \ .4.42 : V m = 1 . It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so.2 Conditions at the Patch Point . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. r2 .
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
«>  0.30 . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .50 � � c 0 i e 1.54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .20 .40 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.
5 4 worth noticing. Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . 54. if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. Figure 7 . sir! 0 1 . b oth of which are undesirable.52) and Figure 7 . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7. t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . As a result . if we add a coasting arc. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . For this condition any launch azimuth is correct.si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 .Sec.5 0 and 28 .52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely.5 3) . 7 . However. we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct .5. If lunar declination at intercept is specified. If lighting conditions are important. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. It should be obvious from equation (7 .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date .5 0 . 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. From Figure 7 . The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 .
376 1 67 .78 1 3 1 . . 5 8 67.3 . 267 1 67 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .435 1 65 .44 22.27 3 5 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 .203 28 1 8 49 .97 29. 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.445 1 67 . 24 28 23 34 .424 1 67 .84 60.374 1 8 00 07 . 1 3 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .05 28 33 1 1 .020 1 8 1 6 49.6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8. 7 . 1 90 1 67 . 86 28 26 29 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .32 1 1 67 .1 44.38 + 9 .254 1 67 .737 18 1 9 36 .45 8 0.862 1 65 .41 7 1 67 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.35 28 1 6 08 . 5 9 28 34 33 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0. 1 0 1 6.97 28 34 3 9 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .58 73.47 28 25 3 8 .695 1 8 02 54 . 1 5 28 34 1 0.3 1 28 29 48 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .460 1 67 .46 1 1 67 .7 1 54. 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . 24 . 1 0 28 27 29 .44 28 2 1 1 8 .3 1 8 5 .85 4 1 .308 1 8 22 22.56 .07 47.95 7 1 7 37 48. 8 0 1 36.242 1 66 .34 28 32 1 7 .87 28 34 22.72 1 1 8 25 08. 7 1 7 1 66 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .970 1 66 .88 28 33 3 5 .449 1 67 .97 1 1 9.766 1 7 43 23 .963 1 8 27 5 5 .89 28 24 29 .23 1 23 .4 1 3 1 66 .39 28 3 0 34.00 28 28 1 5 . 1 7 2 1 67 .3 1 9 3 . 1 4 1 06.9 8 9 8 . 1 6 +1 6 1 . 8 1 28 32 47 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 . 2 1 28 34 42 .97 28 3 1 47 .05 8 1 65 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .3 3 3 1 67 .85 1 1 66 .998 17 5 7 20. 5 7 1 1 66 . .76 28 3 1 09 .63 1 1 1 .3 1 + 1 48 . 078 1 66 . 1 9 173. 1 969 .385 1 67 . 624 1 7 3 5 00.08 28 29 08 .949 1 8 05 42. 1 67 1 7 29 26 .90 28 33 5 3 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 . 973 FIgure 1 65 .
84).53 . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . at the launch point (see Figure 2. Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . �. To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . is the same as the "local sidereal time .Sec. to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch.9 ." 8.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. The launch time. This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 .89) : (7 56) .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. The difference i n right ascension . and may be obtained from equation (2. we get cos 6a. the total time . ao' at this launch time . tt ' is (7 . c o s 1/1 t . it is possible to adjustt l . which may be computed from the injection conditions. 5 3 . 1/1 c ' Thus. to' and the right ascension of the launch site .5 . 7 .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. slightly (7 .3 .54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . 5 4). !::lX . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept.
What additional 6. and the exact We now know the injection conditions. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. 7.300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0.3 224 .and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . 000 k m 33 . 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune .54) agree. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. � .t I ES Ch .3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 7. 7 . The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon. .2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier.
What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec . b. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. a . Determine the /:. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 .Ch . 7 . What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. .I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions..9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit.400 k m : a . 7 EXERCISES 353 7 .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn.6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars.
) * 7 . 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. Specifically. vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion).354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . requirement. 7 7 . Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. <1>0 = = = * 7 . select ro ' vo ' to meet this . One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. . given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude .Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. Use h bo l OO n mi . There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi.
Gamow. Battin. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. L." ARMA Document DR 220. McGrawHill Book Company. 3 . Inc. 1 9 5 9 . Newton. Baker. Robert M. 1 964. Second Edition. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. an d Maud W. 2.1 6. Fisher. Garden City. Richard H . Berkeley and Los Angeles. A stronautical Guidance. November 1 95 9 . NY. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. NY. Doubleday. New York. Academic Press. Doran and Company. New York. 6. . Makemson. Principia . 1 962. University of California Press. The Story of the Moon .Ch. London and New York. Abelard Schuman. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Clyde . Isaac . The Moon . 4. George . 1 943 . 1 967. NY. 5.
.
From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. By 1 507 he was 357 .. etc. which it were tedious to enumerate . two luminaries. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent .CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance ." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. two ears. and a mouth . indeed. such as the seven metals. compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . At first it was not understood . C opernicus. But the tide of opinion ebbed. two unpropitious. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. two nostrils. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. two eyes. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 .
some of which pass near the Sun. Earth. Saturn. In addition. the members of the solar system. at the age of 70. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . Jupiter . or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. . . Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. Mars. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . The "law. Neptune. 8.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 3." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . 8. Venus." as may be seen in Table 8 . nevertheless. 1 2 . With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion.2. . Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. 6. 1 Bode's Law. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. . The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. and Pluto . and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. Uranus. If we write down the series 0. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . indeed.1 . are spread much more widely throughout the system. diameter. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. comets." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system.2. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth.
The size.72 1 .6 2. Only for brief periods.0 1 9 . the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.00 1 .2 Table 8.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun.0 1. Table 8 .52 1 9.8 5 .22. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune . is its path .Sec. 8. 8. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 0 is presented in Table 8 . compared with the total mission duration. 1 7 39. The sixth orbital element. 8.65 5.28 3 0.2 1 0.2. Except for Mercury and Pluto . Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune . A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .52 2. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.4 0.21 Actual Distance 0.8 77. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 .6 3 8 .20 9.39 0.7 1 .
275 222 ° . 074 1 83 ° .225 237 ° .497 1 3 ° .773 1 7° .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.870 L. 8 94 341 ° .2583 7 ° .203 9. 1 3 6 47 ° ..405 undefined 49 ° ..489 0° .5 24 5 .306 2 ° . 0 1 67 . 7 73 1 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a .76 .) 00 . 1 1 7 265 ° .828 1 7 1 °.850 1 ° .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° . 0068 ..096 1 88 ° . 5 73 1 75 ° .005 0 . 1 42 1 02 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 05 1 4 . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .394 0° .004 3 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .7233 1 . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.0539 .970 7 6 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° . 1 7 3 9 . 76 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° . 2056 . 38 7 1 . 000 1 °.28 3 0.441 73 ° .5 1 9 1 9 . 1 1 1 326 ° .322 1 00 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° .400 276 ° ..000 1 . 0482 . 0934 . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 ..684 93 ° .
9 1 08 .04 29. 1 08 3 1 8 .06 9 .80 5 .000 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . 1 1 49 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.. 0 1 1 64.8 8 1 1 1 .820x 1 0 6 6 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .46 84.986x l O s 4.74 2 .232x l 0 4 3 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .268x 1 0 B 3 .24 1 .2 1 4.9? 1 .8 1 7 1 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .79 24.8 247 .65 6.05 6 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .6 1 5 1 .49 4.257x l O s 3 . 5 227.000 1 .3 05x 1 04 1 .8 6 29. 1 4 1 3 .3 .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 ." .7 5 7 .896x 1 0 6 3 .87 3 5 .795x 1 0 7 5 .6 1 7 .. 00 3 3 3 43 2 .0 95.
however. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers).3 . would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. 8. S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. The Hohmann transfer. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. was the Hohmann transfer.3l . for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. For transfers to mo st of the planets. this consideration is important. if continued past the destination planet . If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. Just as in lunar trajectories. from the standpoint of /:.v required.
v required for an interplanetary mission. Nevertheless.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / . Therefore .d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .Sec. 8. \ _..u o_____+. .. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.' . the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::." .31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip.V.
l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. the difference between the heliocentric speed. The heliocentric speed. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit.3 .33) In Table 8 .where f.3. for the Hohmann transfer. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.3 and should be reviewed . then.78 kIn/sec. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 . B (8 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. 3 .l 0 (8 . • . In any case .1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. From Table 8.
In other words . rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun. r d = 1 .57 .748 . 1 6 30.3 9 1 1 .9  2 .524 A U From equation (8 .05 4 1 . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.345 1 .099 1 .42 4 1 .28 27.397 22. Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.60 Table 8.31 1 05 . 1 2 5 8 .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : . 8. Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .04 1 6. VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. From Table 8 .78 46.73 38. 40.07 4 1 .5 1 46 . rE9> are respectively : .295 1 .Sec.22 the radius to Mars from the Sun.74 6. t2 .379 1 .9 1 6 1 .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure . Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .28 32.
32) the heliocentric speed . v . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.9 d ays 8. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8. and is illustrated in Figure 8 .32 for a Mars trajectory. Thus. 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.3.VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.t1 ) wt .7088 years = 258.t 1 = 1T = 4.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 .73Km/sec .2 Phase Angle at Departure. the phase angle at departure . 8 From equation (8 .35) wt (t2 . From equation (8 . vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 . The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .34) __ (8 . where is the angular velocity of the target planet.099A U/TU 0 = 32.4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .3.
. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. . Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. .. If we miss a particular launch opportunity. . and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct... .1 76 .Sec...3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . 'Yl (8 .32 Phase angle at departure. 367 . .36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . ... 8. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet. Figure 8. . The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun.. pp 1 60.
2 1 7 3 . Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.60 2. the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.09 1 . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth.04 1 .07 5 . yrs 0. rad/yr 26 .025 Synodic Period.368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Thus. so W EfJ7 s . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again.3.v 1 determined. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. 1 3 1 .07 1 1 0.530 .W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km.w t I (8 .0 1 1 . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.01 1 .38) .32 In a time .3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence.00 Table 8. 340 . Mars and Venus. 3 ·2.32 1 . 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed. 8.03 8 .37) (8.213 . we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .
. � Figure 8. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� .39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . . . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . .:V. . (8 .. �. . "... � _ i t_ r b_ . ... f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. . '?..310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . 8 . .. . . . . . '\ . .Sec.33 / .r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<.
8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 . so equation (8 . From Figure 8. 3.98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 .2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. we may write .3. is given by cos fI =  §.1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. This may be seen by solving equation (8 .33 .the injection speed . fI. C but since e = da for any conic.34 we see that the angie . the angle .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . For transfer to one of the outer planets. Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. km/sec. fI. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola.1 1 ) becomes = 2 . the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.
is obtained directly from the injection (8 .Sec. conditions : = (8 . 3 T H E PATC H E D.1 e where the eccentricity . 8 .1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .3.3.34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .1 2) e.1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. 3.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .
3. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 . the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. At arrival.36. then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle .1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . cfJ as shown in Figure 8. Generally. however.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.3.4 Arrival at the Target Planet. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth. 8.35 Interplanetary launch (8 .3.
(8 . 3. 8 .1 6) (8.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 .1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. 3 . 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.1 8) .2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet.3. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 .Sec. sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .
then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. 3 7 . 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. will be directed toward the center of the planet.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. 'Yl should be selected from equation (8.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . From Figure 8 . If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed.36).The angle . then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure.320) y = x si n e (8. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance .s i n if> 2 v (8 . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. In Figure 8. e.3 . 3. 3 7 we see that  (8 . . 8 . v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . It also means that the relative velocity vector. in Figure 8.
X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8. 8 .Sec. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .322) . (8 .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f.lt/ 2 X _ .
8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . 324) (8. 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet . Solving equation (8 .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = . y.327) for y Yields (8 . 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance. the speed at periapsis is simply . we obtain .(8.328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence.326) Because angular momentum is conserved.
05 DU.329). only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b .329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet.328) we 'get (8 . Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission.39. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . b.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . V2 + 2fJ. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 8.t 3  rt (8 . In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. The.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. the "inwact parameter.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .Sec. The given information is . rt This particular offset distance is called b . then a much smaller target must be considered.
1 VI = 1 . 6V 1 = 1 .1 :: 0.39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl. 3 .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.099 A U/TU 0. energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .099 A U/TU = :.05 D U 1 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .099 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .
1 .43 DU/TU .905 = = 379 37 . 8 .v (8 .044 8 . {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept. 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 . the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.1 ) . 1 39 + 1 .07 6 ft/sec 2 . departure Figure 8 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .v = 2v si n L 2 /::.4.4.41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept. From Table 8 .Sec. 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic. t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.
7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years..1 )) ... 8. 8. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. _  /' .32.8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.3.3 . 8. 5 for the planet Jupiter.2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun .5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 .. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel. " .. 7. 8. 8.380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units.1 ) .62 DUJTU� 8.4. (Ans. 8 . 8 as derived in equation (3 . EXERCISES 8 .
v ? (Ans. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 ..l:.000 ft/sec. 1 00 ft/sec) c. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the . . a. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit.35) ITbo no .Ch. v = 39 .394 DUe/TU� b . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . 1 DUE[) radius. where 8. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit .l:. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj .V required? (Ans.V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.v = 1 5 . If c = 9 . Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 . It can be shown that . & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.V = 0. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the . lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. M = 5.l:.348 DUe/TUE9> . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission.l:. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.900 ft/sec.l:. vesc = 1 .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i.
.73 1 DU8TU� b . a.V at apogee or perigee? 8. � = 0.V is applied at perigee. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c.V of .046 DU� /TU � b . 8 8 .. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 .V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.which results if the same 6. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. What is the 6. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 . 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . (Ans. 1 DUe/TUEl1.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6.9 00 ft/sec) 8 .. What is the 6. v= 0. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. 0. 0.? (Ans. so work carefully and follow any suggestions. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit..9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. 6.. v=' (Ans. The mission will begin in a 1 .28 AU2 /TU2 . The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 .0. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a.0. 8.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0.Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units.254 AU/TU� . = 0.5 DUEI1 circular orbit. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans.. 3 . 0.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .0.. 09 DUe/TU$) = . What is the 6. (Ans.. a. Find the 6. Find the hyperbolic excess speed.
(Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. 3 . Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount.) (Ans.87 TU� b . P. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans.3 9 DU oITU& 2 . For a given planet. Compute the phase angle at departure.5 AU. 1 . Vrrw = 0.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 .What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. then find h. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. c. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. (Ans.050 ft/sec) 8 . O o) 8. 0. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 .2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. <P2 and vll1II in that order. for the above transfer. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars.373 AU/TU � f.Ch. 0.5 AU? (Ans.867 AU/TU� e . 'Y1 . called the turning angle . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. 1 4 a.2 AU/TU� d. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. (Ans. 8 . 1 .
No 2 . The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney ." AIAA Journal. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. and the angular rates of the planets. p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. 1 95 6 . Simon and Schuster. Fimple .where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. New York.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. 1 969. 3 . What would be an estimate of the return b. U S Government Printing Office . D C . NY. Assume circular. 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. Newman. Vol 2. transfer time. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . coplanar planet orbits. Vol 1 . 1 967. London. 1 . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. 1 963. pp 430434. 8 8. W . James R. The World of Mathematics. * Ch . Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 1 96 1 . R. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. .V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . Washington. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 4 .
it is found that there seem to be distinct. There is always some variation 385 ." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . and at times unexplainable . After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. Macroscopically . " Webster 9 . irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life.
The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. and relativistic effects. E. 9 . These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. Brown 's papers of 1 897. which had not been treated by Newton . for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. meteoroid collisions. solar radiation effects. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . atmo spheric drag and lift. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . 6 . The power and all directional controls are kept constant. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values.from the norm. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. In fact. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. etc. Fortunately.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. M. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . Then. The wind gust was a perturbation. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. except the motion of the perigee. magnetic. about a century later. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's.
It was developed by P. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. Encke. H. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . 9 .2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. the Cowell. In particular. With the capability for orbital flight . Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses .Sec. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. 9.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. See section 1 . a section discussing methods and errors is included . Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations .
For the twobody problem with perturb ations. Sun and planets. 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. y = vy (9. the equation would be (9 .22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body .388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . F or numerical integration equation (9 . Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. the equations would be . r=Y �r (9 .22) would be further broken down into the vector components.2. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. including all the perturbations.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration.
This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates.24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . In spherical coordinates (r. There are some disadvantages of the method . roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. 9 . the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. When motion is near a large attracting body .Il m ( 3 . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. Even in double precision computer arithmetic. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic .22). smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff.3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2.Sec. Intuitively. The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. and he would be correct . 8 . Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation .25) . It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. Classically.23).'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 .
9. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed .31 The osculatil.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 .3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . in our case . The term connotes the sense of contact. In the Encke method . reference or b i t Figure 9. and . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . Presumably . Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method.25) As a reminder. 9 (9 .'l. Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known .
 (9 .33) Sub stituting equations (9 . Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration.. 9 .1 ) and for the osculating orbit. Note that at the epoch.3. the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.3 .32)  Sr. be defined as (see Figure and .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit .1 ) . Let r and p be the radius vectors to .to ) ' p (9 . or epoch. the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 ..3 2) into (9 . At that time . = p ( tb ) p p to = 0. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .1 ) .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. r + � r3 r = a t .Sec. respectively .33) we obtain . 3 . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch).1 ) and (9 . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 . Now w e will consider th. 9.3.
6r.was to obtain more accuracy.. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .34) then becomes (9.392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .3 / 2 (9 . 6r (to + . However.lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method.6r] r3 r (9 .35) 3 3 r _ (9 .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .6r ) . so r can be obtained from 6r and p.3 6) Equation (9 . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:.6.37) . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object .. theoretically.. So .t) can be calculated numerically. p is a known function of time .lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . For a given set of initial conditions.
OZ are the cartesian components o f or. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] .Sec. 9 ./  Our problem is not yet solved .32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. In terms of its components Figure 9. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. however. Expanding. o y . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit .
37).35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 . (9 .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. There are two methods of solution at this point .( 1 .2q So q =  Now.(1 .38) and (9 .1 0) (9 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . .38)  1 .31 2) .3. 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . 9 From equation (9 .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates. <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9. /) y2 . . 3. but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.37) becomes (9 . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 .
nowing p (to ) .t). Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . so larger step sizes can be taken. and 5r 0 at this point. q( to + t:. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . but of the order of magnitude of 0. Rectification should be initiated when .3. If equation (9 .Sec.1 2) may be slightly faster. 9 . (jr 0. p 229).t) calculate 1 . t:. e . rectify and go to step a . Then the tables could be u sed to find f . Otherwise (jr p . c. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r.39) is recommended for use with the computer.01 ). g.1 0).t) 2 .3. b.> a specified constant. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. The method using equation (9 . v = p + (jr. Integrate another t:.t to get (jr{ to + kt:. f. Go to step c with t:. For an integration step. a.t replaced by kt:.3. although the use of equation (9 . 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . Calculate r = p + (jr. If.1 2) is used. f(to + t:. p(to + t:. calculate (jr (to + t:.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used.3 8) 3. = = = = = p continue. Knowing 5r(to + t:. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. In (jr p v as described earlier. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . k.t ) from equation (9 . 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .t) from equation (9 . care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid.t .t) . Vol 2. r (to ) . Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. q (to ) O. d .t where k is the step number.does not remain quite small.
A similar check could be made on i . Thus. e eccentricity.3. Then e � . Though.6. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known.t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . at the outset. The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r .1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. Similarly./l m {m s . From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . For instance.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. See equation (9 . A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v.6. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. they would remain constant. etc . from the Encke method 9. = . the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . In the absence of perturbations. one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces .23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration .cSr ) (9 . 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . a .396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. this method may seem more difficult to implement. One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs.
e. n. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations.. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. R (unit vector R).n (t . . where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . Therefore . r. 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. w and. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . along the instantaneous radius vector.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily.I OOS .To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary.Sec. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . ..4 . The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker.and dM ?. � . or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. 9 . The axis S is .g.variations (e.T (or M) will be used. for a table of parameter sets). p 246. The standard orbital elements a. 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . Vol 2 . In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. i. Eventually . This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. 9 .
rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .43) . = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 . The third axis. W. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .4. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.
1 0) .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .45) To express this in known terms. This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.Sec.44) (9.!I=8!" nr from (9 . dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 . expressions for found. 9.48) we find da dt = (9.43). so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .1:!:.48) Substituting in equation (9.o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .4 and . (9 . V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .� 2& ' = 399 (9 .46) and F S (9 .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.4. Differentiating the conic equation Qr.44). (9 .
la _ (9 04. 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .lae dt h $) a dt .) Since h = hW..2 )% a = (1 . the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.�) % J.4. r hW + h da S dt (9 .1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 . Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.
4..h cos i rF s h2 .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 .1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 . K ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 . 1 e2 (9 .sin QL = dt . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .4.4.�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.4.1 8) .Sec. 9 .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h . K) � (9 .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).n di dt (9 .4.4. 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h. 4 .1 6) we obtain .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
4 where c will be the parameter.2p.45 0) should be small.45 1 ) . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9. which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. ] (9 .vt .4. . • .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .Sec.5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 . C.vat a+v a . {at + c) + 3p.. but more practically we would consider � = v . is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P. 9 . .4. Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion . c = ve 2 p.45 1 ).454) + 2p.v {at + c ) c (9 . . allowing c to vary with time .4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p.v which can be easily solved for c. From equation (9 . .2p. For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence .2 p.5 1 ) correct to first order in J.v = .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. The constant of integration.vt 2p.e .J.vc .2 (at + C)2  . and V are small.v 2p..5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.2p.4.450) and solving for e we find (9 . Since p. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 .
such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. Unfortunately. should be the criteria. b . Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS .e. d. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. highly questionable. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . economical in computing time. 9 . The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. 9 . 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method.. 5 . not expediency. accuracy. allow as large a stepsize as possible. or has not carefully selected. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. at best. 9 in detail. his integration method. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. efficiency. In theory. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. such as the disturbing function. storage and complexity. c. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. . Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics.
In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.476. 5 . and f. In fact.843. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . 9 . Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved .5 (9. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method .57 = 7 . 2 Integration Errors. They are roundoff and truncation errors.28 + 3. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. The larger the .276 + 3 . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. Obviously . the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . For instance . suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ .5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations.388. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. Baker (v 2. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as .accumulated roundoff error . 9 .388. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (.567 = 7.476. 4.864. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s .Sec.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit.
errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. 9 stepsize. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . h. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors.63) dx dt (9. 6 . The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. We will treat the first order equation . any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. AdamsMoulton.1 ) . There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. 9 . 9. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 .= f(t. Thus. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. Of course .62) (9. the larger the truncation error. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes . EulerCauchy and Bowie . Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. 1 RungeKutta Method. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. In general. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. Gill.6.
__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .( 1 + y. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h . This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure.k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .yV:.Sec. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . x n . One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step .65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .) k2 6 3 l2 (9. 9 . They are relatively simple .yry.64) 1 1 + . easy to implement .h ) k3 +.( 1 .63) and n is the increment number.6. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods . In general. have a relatively small truncation error. they are faster than the singlestep methods. x n + k 3 ) (9. and stepsize is easily changed ..% ] + k 2 [ 1 . 9 . It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors. X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .k +. x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h .
\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell .\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. 25 1 /720. 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0. . 1 /2 . 5 / 1 2 . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 .1 f .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 . Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas).6. The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme .beginning and after each stepsize change.67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 3 9. . 3 /8 . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods.
so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. In equation (9. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 . the error terms are not generally known.59 f n .1 + 37 f n2 .9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. .1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. 9 .x n + (5 5 f ri .Sec. for instance.69).x n+1I I (P 270 (9. This method. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.6. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas.
It is. 9 like other multistep methods.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method.6. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.° n + .1 f(t n + h).1 f(t n h) 2 2   . The GaussJackson method is one of the best. "x.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. though.1 . n + � 84 "x.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter.° n 60480 (9.h ) .2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k.6 . though it also includes a corrector.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. 9. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n .1 ' etc. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . . It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. and most used. x. n + 1 2 n i \.8 k .
However. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique.6. ¢.7. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. 2 and NASA C R.I n=2 r (9. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. the accelerations can be found from (9.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. p/r.6. according to Vinti.5 Numerical Integration Summary . Table 9.1 The Nonspherical Earth .7. Some of them become quite complex.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. is ¢ = � [1 .e presented in this section.1 ) One such potential function. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . is known.Bashforth) methods are preferred. 9 . If the potential function. but only the simpler forms will be treated. 9. V. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. 9. 9 . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b.l 005).72) . including some which were not discussed in this chapter.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. 2 . flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references.
very difficult to determine proper size. it could be very fast.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. 9 CI) .COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t.' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. Vol t . Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .
.J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) ..42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P. r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 ..2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .J s � ( � ) (35� .  I.2.L = gravitational parameter Sec.where J.74) . 9.945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r . if> = I!:.7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .. = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .] (9 .
3003 ""6 ) + .(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .6 J4 = (1 . . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . which are slightly in variance . l )x 1 0.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 . l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . . 1 5 ± O..6 6 (0. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.6 ± O. The first term in x.6 .2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.64 ± O.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2. These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9. Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . Vol 1 .70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75). There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.03)x 1 0.75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .57 ± O.6 J = (0. y.5)x 1 0. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .l ( �) 3 ( 3 . I )x 1 0.5 ± O.1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J .5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .44 ± O. l )x 1 0.
. simply use r3 r= where .2 Atmospheric Drag. Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. Thus. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). Therefore . 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion .s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . the drag coefficient. care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . 9 . There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only).Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . Vol 1 . C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 .. There are a few ctmtiol). if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. 7 Drag. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent .Sec. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. To do this. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . by definition. but will not be presented here. s 9.7. term) to the RSW sy stem. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. The equations are formulated in the geocentric .. and other parameters. p 147). equatorial coordinate system. However.
7 . In the geocentric. Radiation pressure.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. 9 . x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. altitude above an oblate Earth. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. but the reader can find this in other documents.t b ae ==ic.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x.ilc coffc. . z refer to the geocentric. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).7 . though small. equatorial coordinate system. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . Equation (9 . y .lli.78) z .3 Radiation Pressure.424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. 9 m p C O A . This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9.ie. etc.
. but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. 9. 7 . z directions.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . 1 Verify the development of equation (9 .79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. See equation (9. Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming.4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates.4 Thrust.1 5) .3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x .25). y. . 9 . m = mass of vehicle (grams) . the variation of eccentricity. but a major force .4349 0 x . iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . EXERCISES 9. 9 where A = cross section f = 4.Ch. m (9. 9 . Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. Prove this assertion .4. 9 .
New York. Inc. Ralston . 5 . Washington. 1 .l 005 . London . 1 960. A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. Academic Press. A.. * 9 . 6. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. G. and Wilf. Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Blackford. M. New York. 1 967. Brouwer. J . Jr . L.ittouck. New York. . Academic Press. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . . Mendez. New York. Robert M .9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . M. The Macmillan Co . 9 9 . R." NASA CR. D. L. * 9 .445). 1 9 1 4. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. Years 1 9601 980. S . M. 3 . DC. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. 4. Guidance.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . * 9. Allione . M. 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. Vol VI. and Wl).000 n mi. John Wiley and Sons. . F . and Clemence. LIST OF REFERENCES 2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A. 9 . Baker. Feb 1 968. C . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. Planetary Coordinates for the. 1 96 1 . Moulton . Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers.
9 .. Escobal. Celestial Mechanics. Washington. 2nd ed. 1 4 . 1 95 3 . The Macmillan Co. DC . 1 96 5 . Ann Arbor. Orbital Flight Handbook. New York. 1 1 . Plumber. 1 2. F . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. E . New York. 1 3 . New York. C. M . P . Jr and Makemson. Smart. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). Jr. 1 967. Cambridge University Press. John Wiley and Sons. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . 1 96 1 . New York. R. 1 0.Ch . 8 . B . Vol 1 . D. McGrawHill. Published privately by the Author. McGrawHill. 1 5 . Herget. Robert M. The Computation of Orbits. New York. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. R. NASA SP33 . . Methods of Orbit Determination. M. Townsend. New York. Longmans. . Michigan. R . Th e Determination of Orbits. New York. 1 6. G. Dubyago . H. Dynamical A stronomy . Part 1 . New Yark. Inc. Hildebrand. Inc. Maud W. Escobal. Academic Press. A stronautical Guidance . P. 1 95 6 . John Wiley and Sons. Battin. Methods of A strodynamics. Baker. 1 948 . 1 963. W . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1 964. 1 968 . A . L. Paul.
.
3. 1 328 2 1 days 9. English Units Metric Units 2. 2506844773 deg min 7. r..9053682 8 km' . 'Derived from those values of Il .092567257 x 107 ft 3963 .05883 36565 � TV.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. Canonical Units I DU. 1 97 5 . Each of the two sets is consistent within itself. 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 .922786 NM 1 3 .. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 .9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 . 1 .. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 .784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 . 1 Center.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .. we 0.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius.. 2593 6.24764 11sec 806 . Ile Angular Rotation. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter.68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . I DU� TUi. 44686457 min 6378. Speed Unit I� TU. . r.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance..
3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. i. foot = 0.2342709 5 .07 1 0 1 50424 4 .e .08 1 52366 0 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 . 1 2 64963205 0 .3 14 . 1f = 3 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .8 9.903665 5 64 x 1 0 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 . there is no roundoff or truncation.9 5 2004586 X 1 0 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .4 3 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .239446309 x 1 0. .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.
Thus. 43 1 . In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. C. speed. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. not a null or zero vector. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . Scalar. Unit Vector. Q. time or any real signed number. length of a vector . force and acceleration.relationships involving vector quantities. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. W).APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. velocity . Examples are displacement. (Example : 3 or A). J. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. If A i s a vector . Examples are mass. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. temperature . The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. K) and (p. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . I DEFINITIONS Vector.
Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . and A and B are not collinear.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel.. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). regardless of the position of their origins. B and C are coplanar vectors. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. Coplanar Vectors. 1 Similarly. If A. . Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB.
V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C . e I I l (C . The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : .2.B which is the same as A + (B).1 ) I AI cos B . Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A . denoted by A • B.. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. l .C.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin.2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.l ) C. C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B. Scalar or Dot Product.
B + A .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . A o A = Aft. then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . 23 ) (C.C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A . The cross product of two vectors A and B.24) (C.(B + C) = A . . denoted by A x B . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. B and C form a right handed system.K= 1 I .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A .. K are unit orthogonal vectors. is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them. That is.J = J o K=K o I = O where I . if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible .J =K . J . sma l lest ang le ( L e .1=J . < 180° ) AxB =C .(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I .
In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. J. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . K are unit orthogonal vectors. then A X B = O. e < In fact A x B = .2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where .C. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C.
Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I . BI C1 .29) Scalar Triple Product.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C. Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.
3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity. The vector triple produce. 2.(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .l 3) (C.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .2.2.B3 C) + A ( B3 C . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below. The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .21 4) C. denoted b y A x (B x C) .(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .C.1 2) (C. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .2.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.
YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of . dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ....... then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + ... ...9... .... K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P... thus .... ... .438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o .... v C P K y . " .....with itself. x J Then the velocity relative to the (I.
. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector.= .3 b.= . The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) . the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. v = wT .C. VE LOCITY 439 which.T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . dr v = . In this special case then.
azimuth rate. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). latitude of the launch site. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . From the 440 . radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . EI. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. p. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . range rate . D . EI. The input to SITE should be latitude. elevation. The input to TRACK should be range. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. The radar determines p. longitude. positive to the east) of the launch site. azimuth. Az. Its geodetic latitude. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . elevation rate . and of the satellite (R and V).APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible .
07 1 05 . PI. LST) . 2 2 29. 040075. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . .2045 72 1 6 .74933340. BEGIN REAL D. LST. An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG.7 . .D. .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 .27907 599. UT. 22 1 0. GST _ 1 .044 1 8440.05 1 9 5238) . 5 7 5 for data set 3). .8 N 7 8 .05 1 37.3 .7 5. .5 . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. INTEGER DAY. Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .. 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . . 5. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . If the above program is used. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . DAY.5 3 0 . Input UT as a decimal (i.7 . E 7 2 .26347 1 9 8 . .62624920) = (. 3 315 . GST.0027379093®2®PI®D .01 2035 7 5 . observation time and radar tracking data. .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT . 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 .775 1 80 1 9. 1 4923608. LST and LONG are in radians.63745829) z = . GST.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . 007 N 1 04 . Following are five sample sets of data for site location. 0) = (. END OF LSTIME . LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). .8 S 1 7 5.5 90 .75 components are : (. 8 0.5 1 35 . D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . PI . . UT. e .57 76. 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . 9 W 0 1 9 05. REAL LONG. y.48 201.08 30. 6 .74933340. 6 8 2. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST.5 3 4 ON 4 5.75 1 003 9 1 . = (.
1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 . 49 0 0 2.2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix.9 1 046 1 80. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). . Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 .001 5 30 0 .01 . hyperbolic).49 0 . parabolic.1 . rectilinear. elliptical. The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29. 48 4 0 2. From this information you are required to fmd : a.85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 .293 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity.2 VI .6 0 .5 0 . 05 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. 0) (.1 0 22. 5 . 6 2 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . 1 29579 1 9 . .. b . d. 7 0 3 VK .4 1 722472 . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (.4 1 4 0 0 65 .1 . 1 0 0 2 . 00001 . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth.703 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. 0 1 7 45 .9 0 2 0 . c.001 1 0 .707 . 01 .8 . . The type of trajectory (circular.9 1 .4 1 4 2.
Also for an ellipse.025 9 1 7 . If your iteration process is efficient. c.5 0 0 . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4.jiL d.5 .3 1 0 . To determine when convergence has occurred. 1 38878 . Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 .0. b. 61.5 . x should never be greater than 2m. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. a .7 . 1 5 0689 1 . 61 (calculated) . You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. and dt/dx for each iteration.8 . RJ 61 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time .3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds.4 of the text for guidance . If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations.3 D. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x.
6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight.... If there is no convergence in 50 iterations.. . 1 06 1 0. I�I :::. 1 362596) = (0.5 1 . I t . It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). 00 1 074 .9 20 . t :::.999 o 1 03 D. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points. R2 V2 = (0. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives.70655823. 1 8 1 .w). write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory. For instance note that y can never be negative . 1 0... 1 65 08 . For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . One of the data sets tests this situation.. 0.. and sign (7T .01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . bt. 0 ..1 .4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later.6 for 1 :::. 3. Given r l ' r2 .002 1 7 7 1 . In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z.t c l :::. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 . 0003 6 1 . find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine.00006057 .1 .. Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem...
7 for further discussion o f this project .7 0 1 0 20 1 .2 .5 .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .2 .6 .201 . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target.4 . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem.3 .5 .2 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight. The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT.9378 1 789) = 4.6 .6 . y.4 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.0 . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program.S = (0.4804847 1 ..3 . so a check should be made for that condi tion. print out a message and go to the next data set . time of radar observation.6 .2 1 . 1 2298 1 44.6 .4 1 . See section 5 .66993 1 97 .7 . The following data i s i n canonical units. 1 92 1 62 1 2 .3 .1 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .0001 +1 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z .1 specifies the long way. Also print t:J) and a for each data set . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM .8 5 +1 .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. .66986992. The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .7 0 1 0 1 .4 .1 . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration. 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (. location of the tracking site . . Check for this case . x. 1 . and the location of an interceptor launch site . .
Make some provision to print out all of your input data. TRACK.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . KEPLER and GAUSS. Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. When you point out your arrays. The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time .3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . To make your program flexible .05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. c. and the number of timeofflight increments desired . Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . This will aid you in verifying your solution . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . the number of reaction times desired . e . g. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. b . Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . the desired increment size for reaction time . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. d. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . f. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. Times should be read in as minutes.
844 **** **** **** 35 7 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.038 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 . of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.6 1 3 km EI = 56.0.09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .74. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .5 p = 1 86.1 .92 deg/sec 1 .338 **** **** **** 10 8 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.
LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site . LATL.448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL.
INDEX .
.
429 Astronomical Unit. 5 3 . 279 C anonical units. 94. 102 Apoapsis. 3 9 0 station. 20. 56 Celestial sphere. 24 height adjustment. 84 ecliptic. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 5 7 principal direction. 60 and universal v ariables.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 109 B akerNunn camera. 54 fundamental plane. 54 orbit plane. 1 09 Angular momentum. 422 gravitational parameter. 3 2 5 . 3 5 8 . 84. 1 8 5 true. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 4 3 0 Conversions. 429 flattening. 296 geometry. 28 1 B arker's equation. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 5 8 Aristotle. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 277320 computation chart. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 4 gravitational h armonics. 3 2 3 masses. 4 1 . 84. 57 perifocal. 5 3 .1 3 1 G auss problem. 3 8 9 . 74 geocentricequatorial. 1 09. 1 620. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 297299 451 . 246 Brahe.9 8 gravitational constant. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 429 lunar distance. 24 Apparent solar time. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 1 22. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 1 4. 60 Argument of periapsis. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 7483 Coordinate systems. 74 BMEWS. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 5 5 heliocentric. 8 4 Copernicus. 203 Aphelion. 5358. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 2427 Apogee. 1 8 8 . 2 1 2 B asis. 1 8 3 mean. 4043 Celestial equator. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 6. 2 3 4. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 1 00. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 349 Angle of elevation. 9498 transformations.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. B urnout. 3 4 Collision cross section. 423 Azimuth. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 2 1 . 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 3 3 period of. Tycho. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 1 5 . 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 9 3 . 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 374 Computer projects.
2 1 ff. 306 EarthMoon system. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 423 424 Earth oblate. apparent. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . function o f true anomaIles. 40. 2 9 7 . 9. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 1 8 8 . 84. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 25 1 258. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 1 1 7. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 297299 I N DEX in plane. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 444 algorithm. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 7 G ravitational constant.3 3 pe.1 5 5 Direct motion. 22827 1 . 4 G ravitational parameter.3 0 6 numerical integration. 9 4 Geoid. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 1 8 2. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 2 3 0 f and g series method. 54 Elements of orbit. 58 from position a n d velocity. 3 6 8 local. 1 42. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 4 G alileo. 2 1 .1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 4 1 9. 1 0 6 mean. 62 vector. 62 Ecliptic. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. Elliptical orbits. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 1 0 6 precession. Carl Fredrich.2 1 2 parabolic. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 3 0 . 60 true longitude at. 25 1 . 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 8 0 f and g expressions. 4 Newton's law of. 2 1 2.1 1 6 Gravitation. 2 8 2 time. 26 ff. 2 4 . 1 4 0 .1 3 1 Direct ascent. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 3 1 . 3 89 nbody. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius.1 4 3 . 1 7 equations.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 26. 1 22. 3 5 .3 9 6 Energy. 56. 2 3 3 . 3 00 launching. 3 5 0 Epoch. 5 8 . 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 3 22 trajectories. 1 04 Escape speed.1 90. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 1 0 twobody.riod o f . 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 221 hyperbolic. 1 0 9 .452 Declination. 60 Dot product. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 3 90 . 1 8 1 . 1 8 8. G auss problem. 3 5 . 1 0 3 G round track. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. zenith angle. 20 1 202 f and g series. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 2 3 0 . 264 eccentric anomalies. 1 54. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 227 418 ( y ) . 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 4 3 3 Drag. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 8 7 .93 . 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 2 1 2. 25. 2 0 . 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 1 60 low altitude. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 2 9 . 6 1 Elevation angle. 94 . 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 3 3 0 Ephemeris.
1 56 vector. 5 1 . 1 6 3 . 2 1 . 1 4 2 Inertial system.I N D EX H alley. 7. 3 9 6 constraints. 2. 3 69. 1 1 7 Latitude. 54 Heliocentric transfer. Edmund. 3 80 Kepler. 3 7 9 . 1 1 7 derivatives.1 8 1 first. 3 1 6 Injection. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 234. 3 59374. 1 4 1 . 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 3 2 6 Line of apsides.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 238. 3 64. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 3 24326. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 1 3 Moving reference frame.3 05. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. numerical rotation of. 8 Node ascending. 3 65 noncoplanar. 1 9 8 . 4. 9 9 . 3 27. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 94 reduced. 3 26 orbital elements of. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . Isaac. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 1 5 8 Lineofsight.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 370 Hyperbolic orbits.9 3 Mu ( � ) . 6 . 1 0 twobody. 8 6 . 3 4 5 ephemeris.8 9 derivatives i n . equations o f nbody. 94 geodetic. 3 1 Manned flight. 1 02 Mean solar time. 1 5 6. 1 52 Mass of planets. 2 6 5 27 1 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 2 Heliocentric constants. 3 9 6 M otion. 3 69 . 1 0 1 . 1 57 Line of nodes.3 8 4 general coplanar.1 6 6. 3 623 65 Hyperbola. limitations. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 2 8 8 . 1 03 Minor axis. 1 8 5 . 3 62 . 6 rotation of. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. gravitational parameter. 3 1 Moon. 62 longitude of ascending. 220 Mean motion. 1 8 8 . 2. 3 8 . 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 3 89 trajectories. 1 0 2 Meridian. 2 7 7 . 2. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 247 Newton's laws. 20 Least squares solution. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 3 9. 2 H alley's comet. 6. 58 regression. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 22 1 . 2. 22. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 62 . 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 8 9 . true at epoch. 2 second. 3 7 0 Integration. argument of at epoch. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 3 24 . 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 3 5 0 free return. 5 Newton. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 1 4 1 . 1 . 60 Lunar trajectories. 3 2 1 3 5 5 .3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 207 I nclination. 3. 1 Kepler's equation. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 3 44 . 3 0 3 . 5 8 Longitude. 3 57 . 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 1 80 third. 1 5 1 . 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. J ohann. 1 5 6. Greenwich. 1 7 7. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 60 Latus rectum.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates.
4 1 4 sum squared. 1 0 9 Rectification. 1 62 . 20. 1 69 Orbit determination. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 3 3 Perturbations. 4 1 9 . 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 34. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 83 from optical sightings. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 1 09 . 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 6 1 o f moon. 2 0 . 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 2 1 2 computer solution. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 3 24 .3 44 Periapsis. 22727 1 Orbit plane. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 5 symbols. 203. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit.1 22 from position and velocity. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 425 Phi ( � ) . 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 26527 1 Residuals. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 3 9 0 Relative motion. 3 4 1 Period. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 1 62 O rbit.1 50. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 56. 1 3 2 outofplane changes.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 1 5 1 . 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 443 algorithm. 60 Right ascension.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 1 3 Rendezvous. 3 90 . 423 due to the moon. 3 24 . 2 1 .454 Nu (v ) . 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 3 8 6 general. 5 1 . 24 height adjustment. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 20 Polar radius. 57 Perigee. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 424 thrust. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 3 8 7 .3 7 9 lunar.1 59 examples. 9 3 .1 22. true anomaly.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 1 5 6 . 3 3 3 . 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 3 6 1 shape of. 3 1 . 1 1 7 . 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 4 1 2425 errors.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 440448 Q parameter. 1 0 3 P rojects. 1 1 7 . 1 90 Numerical integration. 3 9 0 Parabola. flightpath angle. 1 1 Retrograde motion.3 9 0 Encke's method. 2 4 Periselenium. 1 6 Potential function. 2427 argument of. 3 44 .9 8 Optical sensors. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 2 4 . 424 R ange and rangerate data. 3 60 physical characteristics. 220 classical formul ations. 1 9 3 . two body. 58 determination from position and velocity. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 1 1 7. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 2 1 . 6 1 from sighting directions. 3 59 . 420 c riteria for choosing.1 76 inplane changes. 94 Potential energy reference.
4 3 7 . 1 9 1 development of. 1 8 8 .I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 3 5 8 . 2 8 7 maximum range. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 1 6 3 . 1 0 1 . 23 1 Universal variable formulation.4 3 9 d o t product. 425 Thrust perturbation. 40 Unit vectors. 1 0 3 universal. definition of. 3 1 Sensors. 1 52 Station coordinates. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 58 Semi minor axis. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 2 1 at epoch. 1 0 1 .9 8 of planets. Universal gravitation. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 9 9 . 9.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 30.8 9 derivatives in.3 59 orbital elements. 3 60 physical characteristics. 8 4 . 1 02. canonical.1 0 4 Solar system.1 4 assumptions.1 40 errors. 1 3 1 . 4 3 4 derivative o f . 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 1 9 1 . 99. 1 03 local sidereal. 1 3 1 .4 3 9 Velocity components. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 1 3 8 optical.1 9 0 if. 1 8 1 . 2 1 5 hyperbola. 1 9 high. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 2062 1 0 use of. 1 6 Sputnik. 1 3 6 radar. 20 Semimajor axis. 85 Traj ectory equation. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 5 8 Time zones. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum.1 8 8 . 4 3 1 Velocity. 40. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 1 60 Synodic period. 20. 2 1 7 parabola. 8 6 . 1 5. 1 8 (see Nbody . 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 9 3 . 1 3 5 ellipse.1 69 Hohmann. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 1 1 Units. 9 Sidereal time.1 6 6 True anomaly. 425 Time. 99. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 1 6 6. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 4 3 7 unit. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 1 9 1 225. 5 radio interferometers. 1 6. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 4. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 9 9 . 6. 23. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 287 low. 2 8 8 . 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions.1 40 Selenocentric. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 4 3 3 triple product. 1 1 . 1 8 1 . 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system.1 0 9 apparent solar. 23. 3 6 1 Solar time. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 1 8 8 universal variables. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 44 1 mean solar. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 7 Universal time. 1 3 2. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 4 3 7 . 3 27. 1 9 3 physical significance of.
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