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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin.W. Dorothy Fryar . J . and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) .D.E.R. . D.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P . United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.M. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged.B. Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Ronald Chaney ( artist) . Jan Irvine .
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. . . . . . . . . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . 1 . . . . . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . 1 . . . . 2. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . .9 The Measurement of Time . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . 1 . 2. . 1. . . . . 5 . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ 1 . . Exercises .. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . List of References . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . 1 . . 1 01 . . . . . 93 . . . . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . 2. . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . 1 . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . 2 . . 2 . .2 The NBody Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . 2 .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . 1 09 . . . 1 . . . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . .
. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . 1 49 . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4.1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4.x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . .1 3 . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Solar System . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 352 355 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . 275 . Exerc ises . . . . . . . . . 26 5 . . 277 6. . . . . . . . . . 3 84 . . . . . . . 5 . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . 273 . . . . . . . 297 6. . . 8 . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . 258 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 6 . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . List o f Re ferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 . . . 380 . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . .1 8. . . . . . . . 357 . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . . . . . . . 27 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 . . . . . . . . . 7 . . 359 .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . . . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . 8. . . . . . . . . xi 5 . . . . . . . . . 3 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . List of References . . . . . . . . . 3 87 9. . . 333 . . 3 85 9.4 7. . . . . . . . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . . . 3 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Reference s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . 8 .3 Encke ' s Method . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . 25 1 . . . . . . . . 7. .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . Histor ical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . .5 . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . 440 449 . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. Newman! . Kepler. the noble and aristocratic Dane. 1 642 .CHAPTER 1 TWO.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. Tycho. JarnesR.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. as his mother told him in later years. he might have been put into a quart mug. the poor and sickly mathematician. the year Galileo died.
But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts.1 Still. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). discoverer of Halley's comet. with the sun at a focus . Kepler's laws were only a description. Finally . Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life .BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world.1 Kepler's Laws. therefore . From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. TWO. Since the time of Aris totle . Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . 2 1. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 .1. necessarily moved in circles. One day in 1 685 . Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. not an explanation of planetary motion . The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . It fit. The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " .2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data.
"If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . without mentioning the b et. of course . were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. more simply. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation.Sec. "Why. in ellipses. 1 . "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. Dissatisfied with this explanation. t he Principia.1. or . 4 1. casually posed the question. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke ." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . when he recovered from his shock. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. they speculated whether a force .2 Newton's Laws of Motion.
.12) t o equat i. G.1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system. .'�V . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. The universal gravitational constant. • . 1 . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . " Figure 1 . Note that equation ( 1 .n ( 1 .G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.1 . . 1. .67Ox 1 0.3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.11 Newton's Law of Motion . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.1 . has the value 6.1 .1. 1 . 1 2) Fg = . / .1 ) (1 . ..4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch.
Sec 1. an earth satellite .. etc. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. or a planet). The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . In addition.. j.2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. . propellants) to pro duce thrust. 1. a lunar or interplanetary probe.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . m2 • m3 m m. I " '. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. X I .e. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies.. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. I I I Figure 1. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets.. . At any given time in its j ourney. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body .II I I I " I I I I :. . An important force.. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i.. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion.�I '.e.. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. . thrust and solar radiation pressure . .
Although small. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides.. These effects. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. 2. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 .. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells.2' The NBody Problem Figure .���Y � X n 1. Thus. • • • z FOTHER .. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Y. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. are discussed in Chapter 3 . 1 equator.1 . Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator.
The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . II 3 (1. m'J JI 3 (rj j) . .2 ·1 is T composed of drag. perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. Fg. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . solar radiation pr essure. . . The v ector sum.3) Obviously .2.. equation ( 1 . etc . the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself.Se c 1. Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . F gn where =  Gm .5 ) The other external force . thrust.2. (1.
. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL. is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ. In other words.28 would not be zero ... r·I = F TOTAL mj 0. Thus. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma.2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.1 + F OTHER ' (l ...27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.F I dt TOTAL dt (1. y . Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL...I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x .28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 .. Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time .8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. (1. .I) and all other external forces .. z coordinate system.
Y. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form. mi 0).G And for i = 0 ..2.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc .11) 2. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1.2. unpowered flight. r JI. equation ( 1 . ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . sun and planets .29) reduces to = r· 1 n .29) is a second order . ( 1. Equation (1 . expelling mass or relativistic effects. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. Equation ( 1 . Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present. The only remaining forces then are gravitational..2. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions.1 0) for i = 1. mn may be the moon. nonlinear.G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth.Sec 1 . Then writin g equation 1 . vector.. m .10) ( .2. m· J (�i) .2.1 2) . we get j = j � *i 1 3 .
.1 From equation ( 1 .10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch. 2 1 7 ) .r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence. 2.2 1 6) each bracket.21 1 ) and ( 1 .2.1 4) gives.G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth . Since r 1 2 = .2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 . n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.2. .1 2) into equation ( 1 . .2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.
Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. mi orbit about the earth.21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . Table 1 . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . The bodies are spherically symmetric . Howe ver . 1 x l 0 10 3.Sec.89 6x l 0 4 2.3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . sun and planets on a near earth satellite .9x l O 8 7 . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion . The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 . . There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 .2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .1 Simplifying Assump tions.3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies.6x l O lO 1 .3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. 1 . To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. 1. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers.2x l O 8 2.3.
Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates.1 ) (1 .GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 .3. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. 1 . Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. which "in its own nature. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . 1 2.12 TWO.3.1 . Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . 3 2 ) . The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. Y'. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1.2 The Equation of Relative Motion. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. without relation to anything external.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Y' . Let (X. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Y'. For the time being. . he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. remains always similar and irrnovable.3. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. Y'.. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. " s However. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Let (X'. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. Y.
Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. Y. (1 . Note that since the coordinate set (X.33) . Z'). noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. GIM+ml r Equation (1..3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1.32) from equation (1. Y'. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. Z) with its origin in the central body. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. Y'. Y. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem.33).Sec.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r.31) we have = _ r . Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. Z'). 1. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . velocity. and acceleration in a nonrotating. ballistic missiles. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. Note that this is the same as equation (1. Y.y X' Figure 1 .
It is convenient to define a parameter." for another form called "potential energy . Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 ." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation .14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. Then equation 1 . parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. m. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . called the gravitational GM. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . 3 ·4 ) . If you think ab out the model we have created. you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. the mass of the orbiting body . then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors).3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . "kinetic . Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. will be much less than that of the central body . 1. If m is not much less than M. namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m.3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. 1 some planet or the sun." That is. M.
If the time rate of change of an expression is zero . Therefore.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. ( 1 . that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. v =r and v= f. v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . C. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O . 1. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . r 2. 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero.r ) = � r �(r .!!. then 1 .Sec.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity.4 frame (the large mass) does not change .1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. But what about the arbitrary co nstant .4. N 0 tlcmg that .lL\I r dt JJ. dt 1:L = O. 1 . which appears in . 5. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements.
42) 1 . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . Since in general a x a= 0. dt .2 Conservation of angular momentum.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . O.1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. Cross multiply equation ( 1 .fL 3 . of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch.4. �.  ( 1 . 3 4) by r 2 . In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . that the specific mechanical energy. Noticing that . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive.g. rX . therefore . e . We conclude . the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . r. the earth. In other words. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy.iL (rxv) = O. This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . at what distance . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. The expression for � is �.
By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. 1 .41 Flightpath angle . called specific angular momen tum. </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. h. Therefore ." "Up" simply means away . (1 . We shall refer to this as the orbital plane .41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. we have shown that the specific angular momentum. I Figure 1 . we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. Therefore .The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h.43) v I h = r x v. But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane .
by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma).7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1.8143 r • v > 0 . ¢. J and K are unit vectors. c o s ¢=Jl. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector. In an inertial coordinate system. r = 12. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. 1 85 2 1 + 6. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. v. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. and the specific angular momentum. • ( 1 .899 X 107 ft.7 1 37J+O. however. &.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. I h = rv c o s ¢.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6.4274I+2. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. (4. = 0.0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y.5936 1 + 5 . the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle .18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. the zeni th angle . ¢.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle .8143 = 35. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. Also find the flight·path angle. Ch.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v.4.2778 J + 1 0 . Determine the specific mechanical energy . the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . h. respectively.420 . So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. V =5.
.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. (h xr) =.& . �t (B· .· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4.. we see that J!:.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.. JJ. its complete solution is not.Sec. (1.51) The left side of equation (1. While this equation (1.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body.. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. err.( r) r. 1 . r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain.I..5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 . h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ.3 3 r r r since r • i = f .33) is simple.1!y r . 1 . . Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v . Also note that J.5.
v..52) Where B is the vector constant of integration.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. c and a . + r o Since.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r..54) . a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. in general. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation. I r 1 + e cos V p (1. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. 5. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . h2 where vector r. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation. (1. +(81J. we obtain = 1 h2 /g . If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle.53) 1 ." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1.9 cos V (1. V. .20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch.54) . Equation (1.
51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. There is.Sec. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. not just ellipses. however. 3. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. 2. 1. As r and v change along the orbit. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. (See Figure 1 .51 illustrates an ellipse. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . an exchange of energy between the two forms. must change so as to keep h constant.41 and equation (1 . potential and kinetic. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. 4 .3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . cp. remains constant.5. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8.44) 1 . Although Figure 1. 5 . Before discussing the factors . parabola. ellipse. the flightpath angle.53) and the equation of a conic section (1.
the section is an ellipse. The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries.5 2 illustrates this definition . the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. 1 Figure 1 . There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines .52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. If the plane cuts both nappes. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. Figure 1. or a single point. the section is a parabola. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . If.
53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. F'. F and F'. F. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. The secondary or vacant focus. Figure 1 . The prime focus.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion .53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections.Sec 1 . has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci.
a.e2)." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2.55) p = a (1 . It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 ." "perihelion" or "aphelion. The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c." etc. Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. The dimension.5 3 . the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. In the parabola. ( 1 . is c�lled the semimaj or axis. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 .5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". Thus.54)).24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero .
.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . 1.Sec .59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . By comparing equations ( 1 . B. In the derivation of equation ( 1 .52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 .1 0) .58) 1 . 1 ( 1 .= a( 1 +e) . tL r ( 1 . 5. the trajectory equation. Quite obviously.4 The Eccentricity Vector. 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe. which points toward periapsis. 1e ( 1 .. .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). we encountered the vector constant of integration. ( 1 . 53). e = BltL. since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. 5.53) and ( 1 .
th . we get • p. ( 1 . v.. p. x v.6 RELATING &.(r . e = V x (r x v) . equation ( 1 .44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms..6.5. /or any orbit.53) and equation ( 1 .1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. e = ( v v ) r .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p.p. of the satellite.p. 1 . r  r . Therefore.61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . v)v. v ) v .54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. By inspection. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. is zero.1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. ( 1 . Figure 1 . is equivalent to increasing h. h. and that as h is . e . of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. r r p. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth. 1. By comparing equation ( 1 . If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired.
. �' " .  . as a corollary to equation ( 1 .. r I . . (1 . v. . Figure 1 .e ) .44). .1 ) predicts ..increased the parameter. is zero. .F �. p.42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . 57) p rp = a(1 . of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle. I '.� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . We can then write.. 1 01) . R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec.6. .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 .62) we obtain &. = �.�= � . .
of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . Thus. while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative .63) misleading.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . 1 and from equation ( l . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 .a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l .e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . Figure 1 .6. zero. This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. the energy of a satellite (negative .1 ) therefore p. Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). You should study it together with Figure 1 .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &.6. Many students find equation ( 1 . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit). while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.56) and equation (1 . &.28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . a.
0 . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008... & = 2 . if & is zero . m i . e is greater than I (a hyperbola). Determine its altitude at apogee. and semimaj or axis. Namely. m i .Sec 1 . semilatus rectum.  a=  '!:. and specific angular momentum. 9 n .Jf5P. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. ra = 1 � e = 4453. . 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 64) Notice again that if & is negative. A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. r p = rES + 200 = 3643. 2& = 3 .7 n . mi. specific mechanical energy. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. = 6. For a given satellite . e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic..1 and perigee altitude 200 n . 3 n . the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . m i .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . The student should be aware of this pitfall.0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0.897  e2 ) = 3. 6 . if & is positive . R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. e is exactly 1 (a parabola).
m i . the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over .7· 1 . specifically r + 1 . The method is illustrated in Figure 1 .= 2.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a . When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that.r Ell = 1 009.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . = 5. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.7· 1 ) B y inspection. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. I ( 1 . the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses. h =. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. 2a = r a + r = 8097. 1 .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a .7 . The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.JpjJ. 1 n. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant.mi. ( 1 . 1 35 x 1 06 ft n.855 = 6 . Since an ellipse is a closed curve.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa.7·2) . the distance between the foci is ( 1 .
72) and ( 1 .1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 .72. e is defined as combine to yield da.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.Sec.75) which. equation ( 1 . Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 .7. Since r + r' = 2a.74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis. If you refer to Figure 1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .73) ( 1 . 2 b. becomes r dt = 11 dll.7. Using equation ( 1 . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 . when rearranged .1 .7 .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. in general. 2 ( 1 .76) . 1 . you will see that the .
1 Figure 1 .32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . d A. Figure 1 . is given by the expression So. swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle.77) dt 2 = 11 dA.76) as ( 1 . we can rewrite equation ( 1 .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. d v.73 Differential element of area .
During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . 1 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. Equation ( 1 . a. 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . Thus. Of course. is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus .8. so equation ( 1 . the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis.79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 .1 ) 1 . 1 .Sec.8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . 1 Circular Satellite Speed.77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. incidentally.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 .8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit.78) b =) a 2 .79). Naturally.e2 ) = JaP and. the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius.8 . ( 1 . proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. From equations ( 1 . since h = /JlP.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. Integrating equation ( 1 .75). The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. 55) and ( 1 .
An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit. 1 .B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch .34 TWO . F or a low altitude earth orbit. There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know.000 ft/sec. circular speed is about 26 .1 . The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction.9. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.1 Geometry of the Parabola. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a.1 ) . Another is that. One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 .9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 .000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. rCS' from the energy equation. the periapsis radius is just r 1 .82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 .9.9.
1 .9." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . Of course. r. from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � . there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back. as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity.E.92) .91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.57). first at a general point a distance .2 Escape Speed.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   . Theoretically.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .Sec." 1 .
1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. As you would expect.400 nm above the surface it is only 26. Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . a.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . = j. b .000 ft/sec. 8.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1.1 57. a. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude ..Since the specific mechanical energy. 36 TWO .407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 . the semimajor axis. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : .92) =21 . 53374 106 ft = = 36. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 .1/2a. 5 7).700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets.
m i .8 n.Sec. rb i t P 7087. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21. 06748 106 ft 7087.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .53374 106 ft 2 43. 1 .amr iO. 8n. m i .
1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located).1 ) . If. (L l O. then the righthand branch represents the orbit. F . 1 0. then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . Obviously. instead. The parameters a. The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. 1 0. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . If we consider the lefthand focus. 1 . Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . 1 1 . 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth.
is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. 1 0. 0. The angle between the asymptotes. V 00' . If. The turning angle . is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 .0. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 .but since Sec. 1 . we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity. which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. the smaller will b e the turning angle . on the other hand.1 . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed.. 1 . 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . 1 0.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed.for the hyperbola. 1 02) becomes ( 1 .
1 0.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. Astronomers call thi� ' . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 (1 . In other words. It is a fact. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . of course . absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. that once a space probe is a great distance (say .3 Sphere of Influence. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. for all practical purposes it has escaped. the concept is convenient and is widely used. a million miles) from earth. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. 1 . we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. It is. 1 . however.
Sec. J. 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . p. 5 9362 5 .046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . Using canonical units determine & . earth. then the value of the gravitational parameter. or other planet. 1 1 . or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. 1 1 . In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. 1 The Reference Orbit. r a' r p' . 1 . For other problems where the earth. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 .1 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. e. h." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. 1 . Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU.l. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . moon.
1 67 D U �/T U � = .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . Alt = . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units.42). 5 D U e �2 _ /J.1 . � = .
1 . = 2.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 . 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t.61) Find h from equation (1.58) Find r p from equation (1.Sec. 5 D U = 9. 25D U EB = 4.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. = 3.= 4 .64) Find ra from equation (1. 5 D U ".5 7)  r a = 1 e p. 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8..= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft . 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.
Find the eccentricity of the orbit. respectively. 2J AK IJK h = AI . Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. b . 2K DU 2 /TU .000 n mi. a. (Answer : e = 1 . The orbit eccentricity is 0.2. 1 . 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. 1 EXERCISES 1 . &= .1 .44 TW O. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . Find the period of the orbit.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . is 30 x 1 0 6 ft.000 ft/sec and 4 .3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi.. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. 1 .2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . c. Find the specific energy of the trajectory. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. . in general. Why. 6 J 1 . 5 81) 1 .1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 .4 Six constants of integration (or effectively.
000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. &.Ch . What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. (Ans.6 18 = 59° 58') . elliptical. r v c.123K = 1 .5 DU DU DU d. hyperbolic. 2K + . V ft/sec. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . 1. mi during descent? (Ans. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). 91 J space. 4K r r v = . 354 10" r 1 .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. p b. 1 . 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. ¢ =3 = 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . r x ft ) = 3. 7 Prove that d.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. a a.5 rpe r i gee = 1 . D U /T U DU e. Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. 0 1K v = l + l . D U 2 /T U 2 = + . p 1.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular.
p = 6. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = .6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . 1 . P 1 . 1 2 Given that e = �. ellipses and a hyperbolas. derive values for e for circles. p = 3. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.) 1 . e. Determine the maximum altitude attained. e=O e = . p = 2.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. b . p = 6. c. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. (Neglect atmo spheric drag.2 e = . 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. d .000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. p = 2.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 .000 ft.
1 .Ch . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. Show that : b.V O U EB /TU EB ) . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. rc = at +b = 0. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. c. 207 1 .1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . * 1 . What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 .6.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
Sec. Q and W respectively. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. Yw '+. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane .2. 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit .Xw UK vectors.24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . 2 . 2 . The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. you may use the same Figure 2. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW.4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. When describing a heliocentric orbit .
In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive .3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . Another system. Similarly. i. p. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . 2 . shape and orientation of an orbit . The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. w. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. 5 . between the ascending node and the periapsis point.the time when the satellite was at periapsis. the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. Q longitude of the ascending node. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . is substituted for a in the above list. in the fundamental plane . 2. measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. 6. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . argumen t of periapsisthe angle . T. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. K I I . if you know a and e you can compute p. Obviously . 3 . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. Instead of argument of periapsis.the angle .the angle from to periapsis measured h. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . time of periapsis passage . Frequently the semilatus rectum.1 as follows : 1 . the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .3. 4 . a. e. the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits.
31 Orbital elements .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2. 2 .Sec.
w and va are all defined. then b oth W and n are undefined. Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . This is the dire ction in which the sun. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . in the plane of the orbit. to ' called the "epoch. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . in the plane of the satellite's orbit." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle .60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .3. both of which are always defined . and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . n=n+w.31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. then both w and Uo are undefined. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. (2 ." Direct means easterly. Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. earth. 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. From Figure 2.1 ) .3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . 1 £0 £0 + .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit).
n must be perpendicular to both K and h. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . 2 .43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . The node vector.42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. 2.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . n would have to lie in the orbital plane. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . n an d e.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . h. 2. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. h.4. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . Therefore . n. t o .4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. To be perpendicular to h. To be perpendicular to K. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . n and e. vI vJ v K J (2 .
2 nodes.1 1 )). Now that we have h. Study this figure carefully .1 .46) Of course .S . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . An understanding of it is essential to what follows . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . is obtained from (2 . The parameter. All three vectors. 2. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . h. n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements.4. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . In general. The vector.1 ) (2 . We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: .62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. n and e are illustrated in Figure 2.3. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. the cosine of the angle . e. We are only interested in its direction.4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node.4. p." Specifically . ex.
(2 .) e.:.) c o S Po = � er (2 .Sec. Since i is the angle between K and h.. Since w is the angle between n and (2. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .1 1) . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° . � � h.' (2.) . (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° . Since Uo is the angle between n and f .1 0) 7 .) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° .4 3 . c o s U o = !!.. Since n is the angle between I and n.4.48) 5 .4. 2. 2 .49) 6. Since Vo is the angle between e and f.
Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2. The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v.1 and study it until they do .4. . 2 z x 8 . look at the geometry of Figure 2 .64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . 3 . If they don't make sense to you. The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative).1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense .
VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.Sec. 5 DU e == .42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 . Figure 2.
4 DU p == .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 . 2 3 Figure 2 .5 e == .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .\ .
5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 . 2.44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.Sec.
ml .l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 . i. ) r .45 ) Since h =..68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . Find inclination.1 ) p = . Using equation (2.4. Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid..48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane .47) = .l h2 .7 4n ...i:.6. 7 75 . Find eccentricity. n.I:!:.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . using equation (2 . f. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node . [ ( f. e. EEl . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Find p using equation (2 . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). From equation (2. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. .(r .1.= 4D U = 13.
 Find longitude of periapsis.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis.1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. Find argument of periapsis.41 0) v a c os. = cos .1 (.Sec. va. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore ..:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . is undefined.. II. Find true anomaily . From equation (2 .1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 . can be determined in this case. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector . 2 . II. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis.49) W n · e W.!!.n. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again .n = COS . 4 . From equation (2. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . for this case . .
m i . 1 [6 \ h=rxv=.45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .6. From equation (2.70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . v)v] =..33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM . EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct . 2 Find true longitude o f epoch.85 n .1 ) Find e.E)r(r .25 EB EB D U EB 7748..\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2. = From equation (2..  then from equation ( 1 .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = . The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .5 . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .
2.4. From equation (2 . va : From equation (2.5 Find the inclination.11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 . From equation (2. I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 . . Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .Sec.43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .I Find the true anomaly .1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis.49) w: 0 W = cos.
w and v. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time .5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. i.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .ffe si n V (2.24): ro to. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2.5. 8. lV. n.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. w and va . v. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. consists of two steps.5 2) . changes with time .5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . The method. . that occurs in a given time .to. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. 2 elements are given. 2. shown below. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . Let ' s assume that we know p. n. Of the se six elements. 8. i . the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly.
A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 . Before equation (2.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .25 45{) (2. 5P DU E9 (2. 2.5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).5 i= p 2.54) from equation r (2.54) r = J � [. v �[.Sec.
such as position vectors. but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. have a definite starting point ." The phrase in quotes describes what the .6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general.6.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . and it still represents the same thing. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. suppose you know the south. vector represents. east. or what it represents. its fundamental (xy) plane . 2 2. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . For example . A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin ." 2. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. suppose you know the south. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. Certain vectors. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . direction . The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. east . say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. namely. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . east a!1d up. In other words. For example. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis.
y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. ���________� • . and extending along the x.6. Figure 2.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. Let us imagine three unit vectors I. : r Y I ex a . Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite.61 illustrates the two frames.Sec. y ����. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. 2.61) .6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S .y Y 75 . expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . y' and z ' axes. 2. V and W along the x ' . the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 ." In other words. Figure 2.
64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2.1 ) yields I.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch .62) above and equating it with (2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis.61 we can see that the unit vectors U.6.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2. (2. 65) . 2 From Figure 2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 . V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.
 The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex . Rotation about the xaxis.69) '" axis.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. (2 .66) (2. The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2. 68) B '" (2. These are summarized belox:: . 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.64) above .67) yields the set of equations (2 . Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis. .3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . 2 .67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2.Sec.6.
So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . 2 (2.6. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation. Figure 2. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes.61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame .si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L .84 shows the angular relationship between two frames.78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.7 . Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. 1 ). a.
In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal. Equation (2.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e . Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. (i. Fortunately. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . Hence . The inverse of any orth. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order).61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. Now.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . The transpose of the matrix D .e.6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e .1 . 2. denoted by D .Sec. AB =1= SA ).61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. We can write equation (2. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. .
. anglo . 5 Tmn . d th yo u will b . O c M ma t.6 . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th .". d w .Eq to th e IJ K in at . gl " n i lly . By me mo C. th' O ugh w hi ch on . 62. d wi th . Perifo ca l to th e G Th .". 'o ta t.. a bl . n t rizing th . 6.2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK .1 2) Figure 2 .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc.n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . 6. to p' ter ho w co no. a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. tluee b . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce . basis no ma t . th.ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . mu " in cid 'n ce b . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . axes in to CO ham .sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . sh ow n in F ig u " Th ." a ny mp licat e d . m1 " fo."... 2 (2.
63. 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit . . from Figure 2. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . then Sec . 2 . aQ. For example .. a K and ap ..63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry.. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame .. Figure 2.. To .The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. R... Thus if a i ' aJ ..
1 3) i. B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides.sin n sin w cos i .1 4) R23 = . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w.6. Now a.cos n sin w .63 . I • p I · Q J . 2 from their dot product . the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w . Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . J and K Thus R = J . since I and P are unit vectors. ! • P. P K · P In Figure 2. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another.82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . a �.sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. Q I ' W J · W K .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .6. Similarly.cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .
5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . V.1 ) and (2. Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical.Sec . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. 2 . Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . 2. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. In this case either n or w or both are undefined. . Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements.5 .
( N o rt h ) 2. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . can also be measured. The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . AZ . The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located.7. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.1 .7 . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . is measured clockwise from north . The azimuth angle .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . E and Z shown in Figure 2 . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. 7 . 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. the rate at which range is changing. The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. p. Az. If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) .7 . the elevation angle .84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . 2. EI. The unit vectors S.1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system.
72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2. There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. Sec.1 ) where .72 we see that r (2 . Az. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 .1 . Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El.7 .73) E l (B I ).3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. E I .and EO/. Thus. We will express the po sition vector as (2 . sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.7. p. = Ps PE = P cos Pz. From Figure 2. we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p.7 . as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. from the geometry of Figure 2. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .7 4) = + P (2 . 2.75) . /l!L.72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z.
76) . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . 2 J topo centric frame . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth. A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Unfortunately.72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.
(2 . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . Therefore . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .Sec. you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. 2 . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame . It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence".73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 .77) . EB x f.73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. Figure 2. v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed.
612 . 300 N Lat .6 1 2 .E + 1 . is 2 S E + .707 o .3535 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long. 3535 . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.612) r = R + P = 2S .866 . 5Z (Given) [).88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Figure 2. Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.707 . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 .1 = [.5 J .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . 5 Z (units are DU). Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth .
79) J.7.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. y.75 ) .7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = .4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time .78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. z) system (Figure 2 . . The unit vectors D. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . 332J  . v. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. 2. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. (2.982K . w) .9 1 81 + 2. rotating with respect to the (x. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . (2. I =J =K=O.Sec. however. It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. z).. We will denote this quantity by w. y.
90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . V = w x V and W = w x W .1 0) reduces further to .7. . . The remaining terms of equation (2. 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. Hence . Similarly.1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. equation (2 .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . Hence .7. equation (2 . . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 .
. W) Figure 2.. 2 . � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u. dt R I (2 .71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector..LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 .....7...Sec.. Equation (2..75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA. .. .. " F i xed " System ( x... �:..... . . z) '...y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ . ... .1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q.1 2) ...... v v.... y. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u .7.. ..
The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .1 3) into equation (2 .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame . Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest. (2 .1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .7 .7 .7. Equation (2 .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 . 2 iLl F = . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .1 2) to the po sition vector r.7 .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .) ." Ioox.7.1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem. (2 .7.1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.7.7.7.1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .9!.
Sec. of course . 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. however . To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. Sections parallel to the equator are .8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame .8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . 2.8. In the model which has been adopted. 2 . ae . that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. circles. It is known . a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. Therefore . ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components.) 2. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . If the earth were perfectly spherical.
" The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior.785 0. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. 1 45 6356. the difference between L and is usually negligible . The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field .08182 == km km L La L . 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter .8. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378.8.1 .8.3 Station Coordinates. The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . 2. The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . it does complicate the concept of latitude. 2. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated . When you are given the latitude of a place . The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . Consider Figure 2.2 The Measurement of Latitude. While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude .94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .
8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . the "reduced latitude .. / (2. c.82.!! o . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 . The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e . 4 km Figure 2. 2 .82 .1 ) . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.. L . O .8 . Thus. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude ... 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � ." which is illustrated in Figure 2.Sec.
.. Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But . a2 .1:  (2 . b e =a e V� = b2 + d.82) . 0 O D. for any ellipse . 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. / .and e = da. Ch . I C. c:  0) x Figure 2. z .
(2 .85) .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2.Sec:. dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . 2 . Thus. (2. 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L .
If the Greenwich sidereal time .8 8) . From Figure 2. The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .8 7) 2. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . {1.4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components. 2 ( 2 . elevation above mean sea level.98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2.86) L. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.8. {1 ' is known . (2 .
The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time .8. 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2.3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t.Sec .89) . Although Figure 2. the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . 2 .84 shows a spherical earth. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich ." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . L.
From (2 . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .8 .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch .1 0) . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components. For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth . 2 j i Figure 2 .
1 Solar and Sidereal Time .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .8. The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day . When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours.1 2) and a s ' a E .Sec.00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .9 equation (2 . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. (2 . It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle .1 .6.1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . a Z If a l . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. 2 . This should be made clear by F igure 2.9 . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 .1 2) . This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. so . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time .9. 2.9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun .
when the earth is near perihelion. no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical.1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . So far.9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2.91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . In early January. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion.09054 mean solar seconds . Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure .
Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. 2.Sec. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart .0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. This relationship is illustrated on page 99. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. Universal Time (UT). 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . .9.is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . or Zulu (Z) time. 2 . The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . For example . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. if it . Thus.3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known .2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour.9. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also .
° 229421 1. we express time in decimal fractions of a day.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. . m i n . it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession.104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane .4 Precession of the Equinoxes. Ephemeris and 2. in addition. To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent .9. 8 9=8 9 0 1 . 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If.
. 0 0 0 y rs " . the equatorial plane is not . However ." with a perio d of 1 8 . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic. 6 yrs I Figure 2..6 year s . . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . Due to the asphericity of the earth. the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly.z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 .6 years. 2 . As the earth' s axis precesses. so the lunarcaused precession has this same period. The period of the precession is about 2 6.Sec .000 year s .92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars.. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation .. the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 .. The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year .. on the slow westward precession caused by the sun.
What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. Day  = Long o 57 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs.6245 rad ians o 9 .296 degrees west longitude . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 .296° H = 6 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . 5 7 . x= [ z= � ae + � .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.00 1 + L= 0 .1 . at 0600 GMT.378km = 0 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . 6 24 5 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . 00 1 From section 2 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown .74933340 = 1 . 25 8=8 g + A = .
7 1 SJ + OK Sec.4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.6245 )1 + 1 .74) . 2 .6245) = .(0. 00 1 c o s(S.72) PE p Pz Ps = .346E + O. 00 1 (S.2D UES = (0.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.6971 + . 0.From equation (2. At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 .2Z ( D UES) From equation (2. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .
25 0.8 .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .7·5 ) From equation (2 .061 .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .866 0.�� lO.1 .46S .73 p + (O.1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2. 0.73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.77) v = [� ] [ J 0.433 .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.1 .84J .0588K) From equation (2 .8 .0.4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.346E + l . 1 08 Ch .73Z D U (T U r = 0.232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .0 1 .1 .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) . 3.0E + 1 . 46 = 0.5 1 .46 D U /T U (0.0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.Ps = .3.(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.346J + 1 . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .(0.04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .46 P =D1 .610.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .
f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. Figure 2. well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. k.0. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . Gibbs is. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . p . 2 . 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . EI . EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique .8J .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . 2. may be lacking. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . Ei. Ai. W.081 .3. and the orb it is uniquely determined.Sec. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . As Baker S points out . of course . f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar).
1 05 ) and (2 . Q and W. (2 . 1 05) (2 . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . 1 0. The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 06) Multiply (2 . Dotting (2 .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. Notice that C2 may now be divided out. 1 03) Cross (2. who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . 1 04) (2 . (2 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. and the definition of a dot product . equation ( 1 . 2 fine scholar . then u sing (2 . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. 1 0.r 3 ) = 0 .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1 ) by (2 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . we can show that : e ' f = p . 1 08) . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. 1 03) by f3 X r l . 1 04) . 1 02) gives (2 . 1 0. is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered .r.1 ) successively by fl . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P.5 4). (2 .
1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . 2 . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. Therefore .Let the right side of (2 .e . (2 .1 5) . . equation (2 . 1 0 pD = N . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. D = N P = O' N (2 . 1 09) D. This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h.1 4) (2 . Since P. 1 0.1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. 1 0. i.(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . N and D have the same dire ction.1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . (2. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. (2 . 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. provided N .1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) .1 3) : (2 . 1 0. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above .
check N * O and D .1 7) to find e. (2 . From equation ( 1 .1 9) Since P. 1 0.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . 1 02 1 ) .r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . (2 .5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors.1 8) to find Q. 1 0. Then use (2 . N and S vectors.1 9) to find W. 1 01 0) to find p. However . Therefore. 1 0. Before solving the problem. 1 0. 1 020) to find P. 1 0. N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 .1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 1 0. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 .1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . P = Q X W. ( f  r + e) . (2. Q and W are orthogonal. (2 .1 6) .r t ) f2 + ( rt . 1 0. 1 020) Thus. (2 . and (2 . since NeQ = pS. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N.1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. D and S ve ctors. 1 0.52) we can write i X h = p. N > o.1 8) N (2 .
(h ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . = p.( a .E. so c) b . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. 1 025) . D X r + JJ{. h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. 1 024) (2 . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . (h xr r = + (a . v = eP. v) h and h . ON (2 . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) .h = P. b) c O .Sec . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . h X (h h ) v .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . 2 . Using the identity . 1 0. e) We can write h v v = ..
Finally . but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . proceed as follows : For example . v2 � + L S r2 • . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. possible two body orbit . This method . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. using the stated tests. appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. Form L = = 6. Test: 0 10 . to find any of the three velocities directly . The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination.1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . 4 . 1 02 6) Thus. 1 . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . = 0 for coplanar vectors. This is not exactly true. Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . 2 L + LS (2 . find v2 : 2. N and S vectors. N=FO. shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit .
NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem.000K = 0_700J . 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar.047 1 = . Form the D . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. period and the velocity vector at position two . This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution .0471 O U = 0 . r 1 and r2 . 2 . r1 r2 r3 = 1 . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. and the timeofflight between these po sitions.0774J 0.0. eccentricity.9000J + 0.97 . Since 010. 9701 = 2. and S vectors: D= N S 1 . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) ." Thus.Sec.8000K = 0. P = 0= N  2. N .5000K Find : P. the semilatus rectum. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.
379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .963J . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.1 .0804 e = = = 0 .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .67 TU (89. then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .576J .657K D U /T U 2 0.97 o lP = a = 1 .1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .270K W= N.963K N 1 .0.0.497 9. 2 S . 0408 1 1 . 700J .960 DU/T U (4.4 to solve for the elements. = .0. .270J + 0. 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0. 1r/{: 6. 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 .
j = 1. so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . (2 . then ' .1 ) (2 . r = pL [�. an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. 2.g .:S :J: JS L K . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch.6 2 : 1 1 . [:i:n :: :. 1 1 2) r . (X1 ' < \ � . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . As a result . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . L. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . ° 2 . = OJ + R j . Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . If we let L . In either case . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. 2 . 3. the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780.Sec.7 2). (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. 1 1 .z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit .
\' P2 i �� G ". say the middle ob servatio n . \ •. the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . f f. 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. 1 1 5) At a spe cified time .. R and R are known at time t2 . • 00 . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . The vectors L. 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. \ . • ' I . I . . . � . 0 (2 .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 3) (2 . 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . \ Figure 2. �J 1  . L. however . p. : '< ' .[. are not known . p. . L.r Sub stituting this into equation (2 ...J V I .. \ [L.. . p and r.1 . ' ' :. .' ' " ': . (2 . �� I 1 " _ . r u.1  R ) r3 ./  L . 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . ':.
t3 ( t 2 . t2 .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t 3 ) ( t } .t 3 ) (t.Sec. Since we have the value of L at.t 2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t2 ) ( t 1 . 2 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t 1 .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t 1 ) (t 3 . 1 1 6) + 2t .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 1 ) ( t3 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .three t�es.t 2 ) + ( t 3 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector . t } .t3 ) (2 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t2 L3 ( t 3 . t2 and t3 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L. 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t 1 ) ( t. 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t 1 ) ( t2 .t2 ) ( t} .t2 ) .t 1 .t } ) (t 3 .t2 ) (t.t 3 ) L2 (2. thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t. 1 1 .t 3 ( t 1 .
u R Ir3 J + .. For the time being. p. D reduces to L D =2 L I L . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule.L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . better yet . .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . p' and r.. . This. however. L J .u L 1 / r 3 L J + . must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . it is evident that L Dp = . L K + . 1 1 5 ) . I L . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. 2 . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. L J I (2 . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 .u L /r 3 . + . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f.u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. 4 Equation (2 .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . that if more than three observations are available . in fact .. It should be noted.u R Ir3 I + . 1 1 6) and (2 .ons (2 . L L L K K K J . LI . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . p.
1 1 . J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. p and r. is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. . O O. 1 1 . 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. 2 . 1 1 . 1 1 5).Sec .. Substituting equation (2 . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . If we do this we find that . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2.1 2) . 1 1 . R . 1 1 . 1 1 . 0. 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns.1 0) into (2. R R . Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . 1 1 . 1 1 .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. L K L J L I K (2.1 1) Op = .L L L J K I p . R J . 2 . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . 1 1 2). L J L I K J!. . R R I . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. L K .1 0) and (2 . .4 Solving for Velocity .. From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section.1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration.
In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1 3) for p. There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. E l . ° 3 . k. A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . a3 . 2 . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . P. Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . 1 1 .2). D. 2 (2 . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. 1 1 . El. 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. Laplace ' s method fails . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . such as P. As a matter of fact . 1 1 . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . (2 . ° . a .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant .1 4) p 2. I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . 1 1 . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . 1 1 . To obtain the velocity vector .
" By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. t3 . 1 21) . that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ .Sec. of course. 2 The Differential Correction equations. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . p) will differ from the computed data. . . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. Assuming that the residuals are small. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations.g. r K ' v " vJ .::"P . \ ' t2 .::"P 3 . v Kl at t = to are correct. 2. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. For example .::"P 2 ' . t4 .::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. 1 2. The six residuals are �1 ' . A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. Doppler rangerate. 1 2. however . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. ts and t6 ' These predictions are . Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. It may happen . 2. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . The question then arises. 1 Computing Residuals.
1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. usually 6 for orbit problems) n ..e. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. D. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. With the aid of a digital computer. V K ) . equations (2 .) Then. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. rj . ap1 . Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . . however.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2. reduce the residuals to zero . for example .Vj' D. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. 1 2 . by trial and error. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. The inversion of equations (2 . Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations.VI . D. . . . The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . NK. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. 1 2.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. NI . r K " ' arl D. i. Nj.VK . 1 2. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method.r l " v K )p1 ( r l . 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated.3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives.
. Solve equation (2 . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. since p 2 below) . 4. called the root me an square (RMS) . If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. for the exactly determined case (p or b. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. zero . 2 . 2 . 3 . b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. . This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. for 90% confidence . V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). use 0. 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M).tb each of the elements measured.8 1 ) .g . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . = = n) . minimum as described above .. a and (3 are the elements (two here . In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e .
Assume equal confidence in all data. Choo se ex and for the first estimates. 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x.:. ex VI.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). the partial derivatives are : . Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations.2. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements.
1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. Thus. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 .Sec. Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . 2.
This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. 6 orbit elements) would be used. large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . we will use a simple . This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. In practice. To illustrate the method involved. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals.474 and f3 = 3. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . corresponding to the given Xi and compute . The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear.474 Xi 3 .360 = . This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. yet still overspecified number of measurements.
36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l . 0 35 3.0 01 1 3.934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .y.. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .000 1 9. E ( V 1.1 26 0.) 2 n . 474 x 3 .866 4 x ..031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.474 4 0 07 19.500 8.007 0. aa ._1.Vi 2. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.1 05 9.1.865 49. 934 = 1 . 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence . ( V i Yi ) 2 4.000 n = Vi 0. 969 ____  Vi . .000 50. 3 .Sec. 2 .828 0 0.
1 22) we have £::.474 + . 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 . 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.027 12.2.l Now using (2 . Thus (X new = .021 070 20.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2. so we iterate. = 3.380708 A = 40.670 3.031 8.056 ""' T . 27 A WA = [12. 105.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .304 = .36 . which is larger than what we started with."""'" �T�� . 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .001 07 33 b = 0.1. 1 75 ] 5.3. The second iteration yields: £::. 0 18 0.z 10.360. 1 96 = 3..1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 961 0.039 £::.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0.4 1 69. 81 30 8. {3 = {3 new ..062 .0.(X 26 3.733.. 0.304 0.
during orbital decay.5 8 1 . 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. and finally.000 . W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. In practice .Sec .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. 1 2. 038 [3 = 3 . The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . 2 .5 8 2 . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally .735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . 2. Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . 7 35 x 3 . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. However. which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. however. 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 . The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . . the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 .00 1 . 038 . 2 . in theory. a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion .
the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). At present. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. and midcourse ICBM inter ception.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects.5 003.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . spacecraft failure diagnosis. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected.500 miles make about 1 2 . and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). 1 Radar Sensors. Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. the White Sands Missile Range . 2 . and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . 1 4 . 1 The Spacetrack System. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . 1 3. In addition. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . These detection radars with a range of 2. the precomputed 2. forming "clouds" of space debris. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. antisatellite targeting. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. 2 2.
There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. is now on active Spacetrack alert. while three are located at Clear.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. Turkey.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. Figure 2. One of the earlier detection radars. Alaska.Sec. and is on active spacetrack alert. Greenland. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. the FPS43. 2. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. One FPS49 .s The prototype is located at Moorestown. New Jersey.
This BMEWS station at Clear. In addition. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. Alaska.142. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. 2 Figure 2. under the 140ft radome at the left. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. Alaska. Florida. United Kingdom. The prototype located at Eglin AFB.
High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy.Sec. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. 2. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe.143. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry.2 Radio Interferometers. 2. When two or .14.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2.
2 . two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . In addition to these . but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. Alberta.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . is well established. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. Considering the type of observational data received. the semimajor axis. 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . 1 4 . These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit.3 Optical Sensors. the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. Canada . each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. and therefore .
seeing conditions must be good. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. A separate optical system superimposes.145. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. it is .Sec. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2.400 miles. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. As a result. Alberta. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. 2. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. and the lighting correct.
in any case . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data.) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. New Mexico site. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec .000 meters. Massachusett s . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . is relatively accurat e . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . on the other hand . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . 2 . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error .1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . For detection radars. takes time. I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. 4 Typical Sensor Errors. I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . 1 4 . Further . In any case . Doppler rangerat e info rmation. SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds.
Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. lunar attraction. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0.Sec 2.14. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. 2. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated.7 seconds in time would remain. nonuniform gravitational fields.5 Future Developments. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .146. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific.
1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . p. Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . Operating in the SHF b and . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . howeve r . Theoretically . of the target . In t he system under development . Now. Many improvements . a continuousw ave . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . the t argetrefle cted laser b eam.1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. but it also record s target tracks for later playback . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y .
respectively with a launch a zimuth . The arc CB which forms the • . 2 . i. If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . 1 5 . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance .1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . o f the orbit .Sec. Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion .. 18cP  2 . F igure 2 .. For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i.1 Ground trace sat ellite is. 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . 1 5 . 1 5 . 1 5 2 . 1 5 . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle .
The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . f3 ' be easterly . L o?" If i is to be minimized . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere .e . 1 5 ·3 . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . 1 5 . A direct orbit require s . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . i : c os i = . . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . 0 i. If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . that the launch azimuth.3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. For a due east launch equat ion (2 . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . 2. betwe en 00 and 1 80° .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . therefore . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = .
2 . su r face . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . 1 5 . Figure 2 . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion .Sec.
at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. i = 90° . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c.5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . Colorado ( 1 04.7071 + .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans.89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 .7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . 9 7 0 . a solar day or sidereal day? b . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. = (partial answers : 2. Englan d . 2 EXERCISES 2 . Which takes longer . J . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. e = . 885. 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. = u nd ef i ned ) = .
Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. 2 + b . (Answer [partial] e = . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. c . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. 2.Ch. i .) Determine p. 82 u a . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 .8 2075 . e. Determine the orbital e lements. 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I .8 I J P = . . 1. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . 3<.2K DU .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system.
circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. r3 r l I J K 1 .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . b . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . 1 0 January 1 9 70. 1 0 2. 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. p = 1 . b ut not nece ssary. Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le .4 1 4225 1 1 1 . 6464495 a. LST = 63 .3 1 065 1 5 0. 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . Q. U se of a computer is sugge sted . 1 7 1 .3 5 35 3995 0 1 . b . W.5 0 West . PST .060668 8 3 1 . r2 1 . 2 . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . C alifornia .4 1 4202 0. equatorial . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . (Answer : r = 1 . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . 2.4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours.7 6) . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . 2. By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. a. 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e .system along the unit ve ctor s P. Units are earth canonical units. 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . Site longitude is 1 2 1 .
fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.707 1 0 1 0 1 0. C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2. fl f2 f3 0 .0 1 .7 0 0 e. fl f2 f3 3 .094964 1 8 0.9 1 42 3467 2 .0 0 .89497 879 0.Ch.09497879 1 .89497724 0 0 0 1 .8 0 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .8 0 0 .9 1 420062 4 .207 1 25 5 1 .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .0 1 .6 0.n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A . .97 0 1 .5 65 6808 1 0.0 7 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .6 0.0 2 . fl f2 f3 d.0 2 . 1 4  DU/TU.0 0 2 . B . DU * 2.2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b. fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.0 0 .0 0 2 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 .20709623 0 .94974 1 7 6 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .707 1 1 25 5 0.0 7 .565 6808 1 0 0 .62 1 34384 c.1 .97 2 . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.2K with a velo city o f AI .
. v = 0. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . 2 a . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e.75 K D U /T U )  . Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. d . Obj ect vernal equinox direction. ___ e. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . 9 7 . Obj ect c. b. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0.0078 J 0. ( A ns. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d .1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . Obj ect b . east and zenith (up) component s? c. Express the coordinates. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . * 2 . Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2.17 p 0.620 1 I 0.
Carl Friedrich. Space/A ero na utics . The M acmillan Company. Sons Ltd . Armitage . New York . 1 95 6 . 1 96 3 . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. Dover Publications . November 1 9 67 . Navy Space Surveillance System. A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . D avis . John Wiley & Sons. New York . Newman . 4. 5 . "The A erospace Vehicle s . pp 1 08 . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . Paul G . Academic Pre ss. NY. London . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . Sky Publishing Corp . New York and London . G . New York . "Space Traffic Surveillance .Ch. E scobal. . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . 8 . NY . No 6 . E . Robert M . Laplace ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . 6. New York . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . 1 0 . 1 9 1 4. Inc. Gauss. Second Revised Edition . 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 1 95 7 . C . 1 962. Forest Ray . K. Jr . Pierre Simo n . Inc. 2 . Moulton . U. Thomas Nelson and 3. C ambridge . 1 965 . Mass." in The World of Math ematics . NY . S . 1 9 67 . Vol 3 . Memo ires de 1 78 0 ." Vol 48 . Jame s R . Edmond Halley . Simo n and S chuster . Thoma s. "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. Pedro Ramon . 9 . 7 .1 1 1 . Henize . NY . Angus. L. Telescope . 1 9 66. Baker . C leeto n .
1 962. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. 1 9 66. 1 962." Satellite Control Facility. Robert D ." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. the A stronautical Sciences. R. No 20 . NY. 2 1 1 . Briskman. 1 970. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . p 39 . 1 2 ." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. New York. New York. No 5 . "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. NY. NY. 1 967 . "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 3 . R. Colorado. Vo1 40. P. 1 6. Sunnyvale. Thomas J. Carson. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Electronic . 1 966. SepOct 1 967. 17. S. . Cheetham. "Future Radar Developments. Gerald C. USAF Academy. Bate. Davies. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New York. 1 966." The Vol 1 4." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. New York . Air Force Systems Command. Inc. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. NY . 1 4. 1 5 . McGrawHill. Roger R. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. Journal of Oct 2. California. and Eller.
The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. and the different force of gravity in different heights. Goddard. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. or variously eccentric. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . ) 00 . as of 5 . After that .000 or more miles. or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. according to their different velocity. 1 . for the next 250 years. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . those bodies. 1 0. the idea seems to have been forgotten.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights.
the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. Manned spaceflight . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . Project Orbiter. since it contemplated the use of military hardware . 3 . still in its infancy . The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. 1 . 3 . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. On 4 October 1 95 7 . The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. However. 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. particularly if it is manned . Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later.research." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. Rather . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another.
. VI/II � V � ..J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION ... 71.25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" ...H O URS WEEK ..J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E ... I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N . mJ77/1/.. (I) CD � . � . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 .rrrj... 11 L . � ee.: fiD It: 0 It: <t . .. .. � '" ..+ :=.. 20K (. ..EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr.50K �. .' � S' (1) 0 . . c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION . . c.::: 0(I) "" 20 10 .J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl ..V'h WillI e: � ..n w ...///11// .. YEAR a YEARS .. I MONTH I .(/} � � (I) E � � .
3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. stated. For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . Figure 3 . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . a p ogee 1 00 n . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . m . radiation and meteorite damage considerations.2 Direct Ascent to Orbit.1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . Figure 3 . 1 . m . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . m . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . 3 . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . 1 . 1 ·2 .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch.03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth.
It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. as you can see from Figure 3 . between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of .or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. The vehicle is not allowed to coast .. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point.Sec.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. 1 3 . 3 . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. 1 2 . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster.
but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). therefore. 1 5 . Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude.1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. As a result. You . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . 1 . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . 3 . Figure 3 . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque .
J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*. "::> Figure 3 .�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+..���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.2 . 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " ."� ill Q rn o I � fS ..:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�..J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .Sec.9 r�=r�rr. 1 > . 3 ..5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.
"' "' .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch .J 5 "' C iii 0. 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .. 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 . I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: ..
The ascending node moves to the west .N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . With this perturbation . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle.6. What is the inclination of the orbit? b. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . a. the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63.40 and 1 1 6.60 . which also is due to oblateness. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . Therefore = . 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. and oppo. Figure 3 . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits.6 0 . A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. 3 .Q 360 ° per 90 days :. 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes.67 0 /day From Figure 3 . 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi .Sec. completing one revolution every 90 days.40 or greater than 1 1 6.
Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable.2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. This is. There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . not the case . If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. Figure 3. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . On the scale of Figure 3 . ground trace of a synchronous satellite. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). This. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude.2. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. 3 Figure 3 . If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. 1 . unfortunately. 3 .inches from the surface. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. however. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time .300 nm or about 5 .21 shows why.6 earth radii above the surface . 3 . 1 The Synchronous Satellite. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . of course. This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. The first stage booster climbs 3 . 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . for example .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase .000 nm altitude . unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. Of course. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. 2 . 1 2 this would be 2*.
2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit.Sec. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more.. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 ..� � Figure 3 .... intervals . . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr. At apogee of the ascent ellipse. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . curve is \ " " . 3.22 Ascent ellipse .21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically... Dot ted grou nd trace . burn """ " " . . This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit.
it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit.da a2 = fJ. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . a very precise orbit is required.33) or = da 2a2 vdv . as they are called .1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height.34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed.3 . 3 . 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. at appropriate points in the orbit. speed. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . = _ r 2a . What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed.v (3. a? v.31) If we solve for '.  fJ. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size.32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. we get (3 . at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. we get a change in . This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis.. and flightpath angle. fJ. 2vdv . dv. (3. for some other reason. but . /:. Usually this is not serious. (3 .
h a �  da. whose radius is r2 . suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. 2 The Hohmann Transfer. called Hohmann transfer orbits.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. of the orbit given by equation (3 .v) . along the transfer ellipse.3.1 ." 3 . 3 . Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit .v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. 3 . we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. 4 Jl.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. Similarly.V v P P (3. a2 6. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. Since we know r l .34) for small but finite 6. a 6. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. For example . The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . Since the major axis is 2a. therefore . Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit.34). to the large orbit. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl .semimajor axis. whose radius is rl .
36) = r i + r2 =  and.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch .37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3./2 a . 3 the transfer orbit. its speed is . &.31 &.31 (3. (3. 2at Figure 3 .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. since p.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3.
39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . For the transfer traj ectory. The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. 3 .V implies a Hohmann transfer .P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 .1 0) (3 . . w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one .V required to double the altitude of the satellite . The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. Find the minimum /::. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . ra = 3 DU. to VI ' So . i n our example .Sec. Although.3. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit .3. I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. & t = � = . Minimum rp = 2 DU.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. 3 I N.
3 V cs 1 = (il = .1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 . We can express this condition mathematically as r = . Figure 3.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.061 DU/TU I::. I::.068 D U/TU V cs =. Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.707 DU /TU vi r.3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.346 ft/sec 3 . I t is obvious from Figure 3 .32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .313) . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.3.JfF"= .� r 1 1 +e p p (3.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .VTOT == .3.V1 = .V2 = .
I' l l  e ' )l2 p. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3.1 4) (3. (3.3. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . / 2a . To satisfy both conditions. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p.33) and interpret them graphically. p p (p.Sec. we can compute the energy.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits.3. I &. Knowing and e. and the angular momentum. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. ht. 3 . �. p p p  = . respectively .1 5) . in the transfer orbit.
__ Figure 3.v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer. its speed is (3 . p r2.39) The angle between v1 and va.. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit .33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.1 is just the flightpath angle .34 /::.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. . we get (3. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 .
Sec. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . 4 . and obtain directly for circular orbits. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. after applying a finite b. This is called a simple plane change. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. b. If. A velocity change . Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . 3. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . (3 . together with the b. it is not surprising that equation (3 . assuming that we know v and e. b. the b.34.V. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3.4. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3. Or.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. 1 Simple Plane Change .3. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . We can solve for the magnitude of b. ¢l ' is zero.31 6) Now. or it can rotate the line of apsides.41 .V.1 'I' . The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle .4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.V required.3. (3. as shown at the right of Figure 3 .V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . 3 .V. e.310) when the flightpath angle .V using the law of cosines.1 7) reduces to equation (3. more simply.1 . b.41) 3. form an isosceles vector triangle.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.
Therefore . makes b. The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit.170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 .vrequired to accomplish the mission. A plane change of 60 0 . Determine the total b.V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. a. If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . for example . Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . 3 Figure 3 . DU circular orbit. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). b . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. calculate the additional b. It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0.
1 +� 1 . 3.953 DU/TU L.0.Vl = V l . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( ..__ = .Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . DU 2 1 Hence .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.1 = \1'1 .V l 1 . & t = = �= . The given information is: h I = 0. .Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a. 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) .1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 .Sec. I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.618 = 1 . Therefore at = r2 . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.270.
447) 0.387 DU/TU = 1 0.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .(0.447 DU/TU 2 1 .2(. 4 . 6. 31 7 + .704 DU/TU 18.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .042 ft/sec Therefore v = . 447)(.626) = 0 . 3 and we must use equation (3.3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.626) = 0.V2 = y'l'5= 0. 3 87 . + v�s2.V22 v.V2 .626 vcs2 = V't. v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.2 .253 ft/sec .4) (. 2 + 0. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .447) (.= 0 . 1 5 DU/TU 6.317) to determine 6.
Sec.V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 . 3.1 ) t:::.4.078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( . F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .447 ) ( .0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .
1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.4 Refer to Figure 3 .e. a = 2.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 .21 .. (Ans. 0 . 8 97 DU/TU) 3 .5 DU/TU. r p = 1 DU e = 0. i changedall other parameters remained the same. 3 . What is the minimum 6.449 DU/TU) 3. 3 EXERCISES 3 .5 b. c. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. Ch . i.76. 1 1 DU and e = 0. a. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b.5 DU . What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination.2 Calculate the total 6.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans. 0.2 DU and 4 DU respectively. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . 3.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. a plane change or an orbit transfer.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S .
3 . 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . 0 . . = 0. parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . * 3 . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode .56 c. C ompare this with the I::. (Ans. 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0.v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. 5 & Design a satellite . The . P = 1. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer.1 DU 8 1 = 0.3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = .412 5 3 . At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. 34DU2 (fU d. orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day .Ch . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) .V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . using Hohmann transfers.V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. 95 DU 8 = 0.7 3 .9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . 8 Compute the minimum I::. 9 Calculate the total l::.
1 9 60. NY . Missiles. 4 . Newton . Walter . 1 July 1 965 . 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . New York . 2nd revised ed. 3 . A cademic Pre'ss. 1 . The Viking Press. L. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Baker.. 1 96 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles. Sir Isaac. 1 962. Makemson. Space Planners Guide. New York .1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . V2 . Dornberger. Principia. Vol 2. Robert M . University of California Press. Headquarters. and Maud W. NY. Washington . DC . Ley. 1 95 5 . The Viking Press. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Air Force Systems Command . Rockets. and Space Travel. . Willy. 5 . New York and London .
Albert Einstein ! 4 . . . or perhaps usurping them . Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. . . the determination of the true movement of the planets. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. the solution of the second problem. who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him.2 1 77 . was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. I quickly took advantage of the absence. by taking the observations under my care . including the earth . . presupposed the solution of the first.CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. This was Kepler 's first great problem. of the heirs. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. .. or lack of circumspection. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. .
subterfuges. Thus. 1 . . It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . When Christopher Columbus. whole grand entertainment would be lost. but above all to convey to him the reasons. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. detour. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2." Kepler points out in his Preface. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. I + . "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. "What matters to me. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. . and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. we not only forgive them. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the .
were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. as it were. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. without benefit of any preconceived notions. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. for now we are going to invade your territory. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. never noticing his error. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . almost with masochistic delight. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . But then without a word of transition. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. with the warning: "Ye physicists.Sec 4. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. Moreover. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . . This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. that. . prick your ears. again incorrectly . the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. His results. however. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. perihelion and aphelion.
But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. " Finally.. the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. . with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. as I shall prove further down . He had . Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. 4 Figure 4 . . He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse..2 Finally. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. he settled on the oval.
disguising itself to be accepted.. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . believing that this was a quite different . but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. in a moment of despair.2 T I M EO F . until I went nearly mad. came when. time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened.. along w�th th� naples he used to describe them.. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. return e d by stealth through the backdoor.Sec 4. hypothesis. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . made a mistake in geometry. but he did not know how. That is to say.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . de rive the . what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end. The climax to this comedy of errors. : . 4. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. .y it should move in an orbit at all.and chased away. . have persisted to this day. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits.F L I G HT . which I had rejected . You: are .' " . . . are one and the same . Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. whereas the two . and velocity and the timeofflight. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. . In this chapter we will. Ah.e . . . . witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. . I thought and searched.: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. mine] . for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to .
1 ) . P.. say from periapsis to some general point.. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area..A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . 4 existed . In going part way around an orbit. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. We will pursue a lengthier.21 Area swept out by r .l . 7T a b .22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 .2.e . It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus.. i.2.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. but more motivated.1 ) i s the area � . The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . 4.2 . the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY .2. A ' in Figure 4. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4.. where the true anomaly is v . (4. ''"'''"'. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use .
22 Eccentric anomaly.Sec 4 .Z x2 + .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse. has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. 2 T i M EO F . From analytical geometry.l. perpendicular to the major axis. the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle .F L I G HT . A dotted line . E E Circle : . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. \/2 a2 _ .
22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V .�rea PSV minus the dotted area. A2 . oos E and whose (4.22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . 4 Hence .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . . It Tollows directly from equation (4. sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons.a E) . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle .
" If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.24) E . From Figure 4.we get � ( E .e sin E (4. E.1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' .27) reduces to (4. Kepler introduced the definition M = It .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.Sec 4. and whose altitude is (a si n E ).2 .24). which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians).e si n E (4. we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly. substituting into equation (4. cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E .T = 4 ( E .26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .e si n Ai yields E) . Obviously .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV . v.22. to its corresponding true anomaly. in order to use equation (4.27) (4.e si n E ) I (4.F L I G H T . Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .2 T I M EO F . minus the triangle . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .28) . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally. whose base is (a CDS E).
T ) .24 left).T o ) .( Eo  E) (4. + t .[ 2kn + (E . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.to = lP (t .T) . E Figure 4 . we can say that t .28). In general we can say that t  to = 4. from Figure 4. 4 E E. The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .( t o .24 right.Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v. In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a .24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.to = ( t .T) . Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.e Sin .(to . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then . when v is between o and n.
82 f: ( 1 .2.2.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .2.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.1 1 ) easily integrable .1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.J1=82 d E (4.1 2) (4. From equations in section 1 .2 T I M EO F. Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .2.2. .1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .+ COS (4.21 2).21 6) V 1 . we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.2.1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.8 E ) dE (4.82 ( E .F L I G H T .Sec 4.1 3) (4.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a. From equation (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .7 .8 si n E ) V r .2.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
a trialanderror solution is indicated. Fortunately . va' a and the trial value of x. Equation (4 . An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . Figure 4. C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . But now we have a problem. 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. a. 4.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. Therefore .1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. since equation (4.2 Solving for x When Time is Known . In one sense .42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .47) has been used to eliminate z. ( 1 .1 3) ro va v t" .1 2) is transcendental in x.Sec 4. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) .4.4.4.4 4. (4 . From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis.
In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible. 1 dt r (4. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z . 4 . the iteration may be terminated. the four vectors fO ' (4. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane.32).1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .1 = x 2 C + x .1 5) where t is the given timeofflight. Substituting for r in equation (4. (4.41 6) dx x . xn . we must then calculate the corresponding and v.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.4.3 The f and 9 Expressions.4. B and C are coplanar vectors. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.41 9) . it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B.4.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4.42. With x known. and A and B are not colinear. Thus A.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q.
O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 .. Crossing equation (4. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities.. x. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. We can isolate the scalar . f and 9 are not independent. f and g. First.. g.4... equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w .where f.1 8) into equation (4. f. g . g .4. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .. in equation (4.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity...420) This equation shows that f . = fg.4. however.1 9) gives Sec 4 . the left side of the O ..1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h .
x wYw . Xw .4.1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw . From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .425).426) .4.e2 )  r .1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.423) (4. . yw x . o .425) Combining equations (4.a l e + Sln Y.4.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x. ) .42 1 ) We can isolate (4.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f . 4 h (4.r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ . x + Co cos v = .34) and (4.w o Yw h (4. (4. (4. .1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4. we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x.
.42 1 ) c /Ii.. e quation (4.43 1 ) .43 0) f (4.. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4..1 ) . ro ro . r.a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum. x + co h = .. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C . (4. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin . Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4.42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4.a  mitions of z.32).(e sin � + cos � ).. ro .428) yw .429) Substituting equations (4. e quation (4.4... x =� cos x + c r .429) into equation (4...426) and (4..426) through (4 ..Sec 4 ..a Va 2 = 1 9. x = 0 at t = o .sin r  � (4.Va • W . 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.427) and using the definition of the universal variable ..43 0) 0 1 f C a = .
32) (4.4....j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY . r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .4.4·3) � r o .1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.433) (4.435) (4.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .4. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l . r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.] � a .436) . � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.1 ) and (4 .c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .
its definition. Note also that if were not zero .Sec 4. Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z.43 6) .34) (4.e E). 1 .4. The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. Va x (4.x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . 3 . 2 .1 8). rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4. then compute v from equation (4.4. the expression (t would replace 4 . but we have not said what and z represent. Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . can be used.[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . 4 .4. 5 .4 . From and determine r and a. in any of the equations where z appears.1 9) . 4 . note that equation (4. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4.1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit . x + Co cos [ � . Obviously . Si n va = Va =  c o s . to 4.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. la .43 1 ) and (4.43 5) and (4. 1 The Physical Significance of and z. Also.420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. if we are going to use equation (4. 5 . then compute r and r from equation (4 .434) .1 ) Va = _ E .
5 ·1) at time x = 0.F 0 1  Va I E .5 4) (4.65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).4. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f. therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12. (4 .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4. 1 (4.52) whenever is negative .5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.E o l . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ . we can conclude that = V'ii I F .Do .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.56) la.3 4) and (4. a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .53) from (4 .1 3) . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x .204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 . (4 .53) Subtracting equation (4. (4 . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4. we get x= D .57) .
5.to 4 . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.when z is positive . Therefore . 5 . If imaginary.F a ) '· z is zero. In computing the semimaj or axis.8) Figure 4 . I z = I F . so Sec 4.5 9) .5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. a. from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. 5 .1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.
. is large. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. since X = foE.:z. and .1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .P)/ 2. When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4.. In the case of elliptical orbits. so s i n h fi . / ( . Use this for a first guess .. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n.ji11. with £X. wherever it occu rs. convergence will be extremely rapid.cosh . we get for elliptical orbits. a = ± x 3 .fZi3 = q . 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 .. C = 1 .5.z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z . where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period.v y� ( . then Z will be a large negative number . I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number.. Furthermore .e .a vG ) . If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly.. ( t a to) . so S � V0r eFz 2 .All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value.5 .6F. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X..a � eFz ± 2x 3 ..
we get � S .sign (t .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before.r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.t o ) sign (t . X will be positive and .t o ) #a ( 1 ] .Q) eV La 2J.tohATci ( l .5.t o ) x ::::: sign (t . vice versa .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.L ( t . 5 .t o ) 2x 3 � + t . 4 .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.1 1 ) . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence .r:z . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.to is positive. if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the .t o ) Fa . Therefore. recognizing that X will be positive when (t .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) ..t o ) � ( 1 . so Sec 4 .tJ is positive . 5 . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4. n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t . Anytime t . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t .a .a eFz sign ( t .£. . where appropriate . Thu s .sign in the above expression .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.
s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 .cosh .".s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .0 6 + .1 3) COS . (4.7! + .s i n i V} = i si n i B .5. 1 . z cos i � .4.1 1 ) .4.B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.1 0) as C where = i C = . use equations (4.5. . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.5.1 1 ) We can write equation (4..1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive.1 0) and (4.(1  .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. If z is near zero . we can write equation (4.1 1 ) as But i v:z .1 3).y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .4. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! . if z is negative . w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .Ji .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .5.1 0) (4.4. so an equivalent expression for S is S � s ..1 2) and (4 . 4 (4 . .4. use equations (4. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.4. = Similarly.
+ .. 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .1 4) ·· 1 . The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z ..5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z .Ji! + Ji!. .. 0 . .5. . (611)2 etc. 0 'j (4. Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 .5.� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4...Sec 4.1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity . The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .. (4Ir) 2 .
we get I � = fz. Find r. 39 5 .3S ) . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. Given ra = I D U va = 1 . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch .2C ) . it is not surprising that the derivatives.( 1 . dC /d z and dS /d z .zS . can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves. r a .[i) z ] (4 . 1 .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. Differentiating the definition of C. I dS = _ ( C . 1 K . and v at = t=2 T U .5.s i n z dz 2z [ 0.266  .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S .5 . 2& .[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s . t=2 T U9 ra = I. va = Therefore & = 1. we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . 4 functions .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM.)] P (4. va > � a= :l = 1 .
8 1 6 x n+1 ..1 .1 4) and (4.279 1 .Since x = and . X l Zl y"""a6E or x .. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .277 dXn 1 .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ . xn tn fit After three iterations.222 = 1 . tn toward t = ZTU.t o x_ 21Tya lP :. y'ii"(t .58 1 .266 ( 1 .12.821 1 ..8 2 1 1 .4.973 a Using equation (4..58 1 . we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places. 58+ . 24 1 = 1 . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.8 1 6 1 .t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.222 1 . 2 2 x 3 ' etc. solving for t ..222 Repeating the process.000 1 . we can make a 2 __ = 1 .1 .4.007 2.705 2 .t.82 1 1 . using a slide rule . 58+.8 1 6 1 .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.. 1 . 705 .58) 2 1 .1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 .
f = 0.2) .6. (4.0. 4.32 1 1 + 1 . 236K g.6. yw and r in terms of D. 4 4.321 .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. g = 1 .0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . since e = 1 . ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. for the parabola.1 ) From Figure 4.Then from the definitions of f.8801 Ch . But first some useful identities will be presented.JPt::.6. 880 1 1 .2. f.1 we can see that X w = r cos v . In order to simplify Barker's equation (4... r = _. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v.6 . D.1 7). g. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. But . f = 0. we will derive expressions for xw .. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. E or F.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. 1 24. and 9 = 0. as D = v'P tan � 2 . E and F. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. Finally. v.. E and F.
64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system.65) .61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.1 ) . the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 .6.1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .Sec 4 . (4.62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos . 2 If we substitute from equation (4. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .
J7!. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. 4 rr.6.1 ) .66) v . 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.s i n p v = ffp ta n v . Using r • r = and equation (2. (4. r • v. in Figure 4 . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .62 Perifocal components of r . For the eccentric anomaly .
24) . we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .67) and (4 . yw Just as we did for the parabola. M  (4. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . I Substituting from equations (4.6.67) (a si n E ) a But .62.6. 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .8) and simplifying. (4. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .Sec 4 .69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. e illS E we get another useful  �.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) .1 0) e sin E also. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. we can say that I yw = Q. (4.
!.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4..:. when F is a real number .6. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.6.e Si n r E Finally . v..216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . when E is a real number. is given by e si n rr = r = $a .6.1 3) .1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.6.. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly. solving this equation for • v .. we obtain E = . E is imaginary .. e cos E from equation (4. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E . F is imaginary. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.1 0) .22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words. The .28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4.
1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . But l cos i F = cosh F . so (4.1 8) .6 . 6. Similarly.  But i si n iF = si n h F.a r  (4. may be written as (4.e ) .Il a •v (4.6.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F .61 6) r e cosh F = 1.e) . = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E . 4. so Yw = a � sinh F.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':. 6.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. The rectangular components of a general position vector. In Figure 4 . Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.6. r.67) we can write Sec 4 .range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity.1).el = a (cos i F . From equation (4. 6.
the rectangular components of the velocity vector .vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf . are yw = r sin v (4.x".. where tv = v .:.ji! sin v p (4.6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4. . 626) . (4...p ... Figure 4.42 1 ) . tan p /:. 4 +. .625) (4.624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = . V. 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.. ( .V _ 2 1 .._ c��V P IW (4.JiLP.I M E Ch .. so 1 � L (I . 623) ....c os I 9 ' = v'f.c o s tv ) (4.A F U N CT I O N O F T.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y . and note that h = .1 . 62 1) (4..V. r0 · = 1 ..P ( 1 .63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .: o s /:.
6. (4. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation. o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4. r (4.1 (4.1 0).e) v! fJa( l .63 0) (4.a ( 1 . we get f = a( cos E . yw 9 and (t .E .!Ji8 sin L'!.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o . 627) But.a E sin E .e cos E o ) .cos L'!.I Jlla sin E.a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l . E rr .Ji!.e2 ) = 1. 629) f = 1 .6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .6.cos L'!.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .e2 ) v.E ) f = .e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .. Similarly.sin L'!. using equation (4. (4.( L'!.628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.6.63 1 ) (4.67) and (4. Thus Xw Sec 4.4.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .68) .� ( 1 .to ) .E ) .e2 ).e 2 ) cos E .E) 9 r _ 0 j.63 2) . From equations (4. = .42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .
6. (4.to) ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself.63 6) 4.63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .2 6) is one equation in one unknown .. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .(1 E . (4. .  E. the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .t o ) .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm.63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 .6F ) . ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4. 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .26) Even though equation (4. Kepler himself realized this.220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch . � V a3 ( t .634) (4. M can be obtained from = (4.2k7T + M o . In classical terms.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) . cosh 6F ) .629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E. from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly . of course .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable . and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it. A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .
Sec 4 .Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. E It would. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. compute the mean anomaly. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. M n . select a new trial value. ' (4.63 7) Now.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. but this is not very accurate. that results from this trial value . E n+ l E + M . of course . � Figure 4. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4.638) n dM/d E I E=E n .64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve.
The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. 1 . e.  . even when e is nearly 1 .6.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y .4 0) EXERCISES 4.e cos En (4. where d M / d E l E = En En.1 2) . 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. equation (4.4. From fa and va determine r 0' a.1 8) and (4. Determine f and V from equations (4. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. however. e. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. 4 .636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. p and va· 2 . dE Therefore. Solve for V if needed.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola.2. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. It can be used for LW or�E .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r.1 9). d M = 1 e cos E .4. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. 5. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. va and the timeofflight. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. 2.5 cos V DU .when e is nearly 1 . t . 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.5 + . 3 . Once E i s determined by any method.t ' are given.
625) . 4. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. find the universal variable. TOF = 5. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. x. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead.348J +  1 .6 For the data given in problem 4.e. i. find r and v for . Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . Explain why this must be so . a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU.85 TU) 4. how should the area of search for x be limited. (partial Ans. V = 3481 .4 If.. corresponding to l:J) of 600• . glven fO' vO' and t. f = 4 . (Ans.3 Given l:J) = ffP.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa.3.Ch . Find the values of f. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting.5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead.
73 TV) 4.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit.99).5 . 4 4 . 4 .10 rp 4 . gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. 5 DU. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. g. Le. 5. with a perigee above the north pole. then . 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 .1 1).9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. in equations (4. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. e = . Va and t . an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. and give your analytic reasoning behind.to and solve for f and v. 4 . Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. Do the same for problem 4.. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. f and g. 7 The text. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. if X == x (t ) .224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. ra == 2. (Ans. Develop. 1 1 For problem 4. Va and w and will solve for f. e = . 4 . TOF = 2.51 0) and (4. == 1 . 1 0. 2. 9 At burnout. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude.5 DU.
Einstein. . LIST OF REFERENCES 1 .. See equations (4.. Guidance . NY. NY. r3 fJ. equation (4. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. 2. o 4 . Small. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters.. f and 9 in terms of (t . 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.( t . New York. 4. New York. Robert. Philosophical Library. Battin. The Sleepwalkers.r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4.1 8). Company.I:!:. Arthur. Koestler. 4 . 1 7 Derive the expression for g .2 . 1 95 1 .to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . Albert.0 + . Stahlman. The Macmillan 3 .tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression.43 6). 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . Wise. Madison.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . L'.E. r.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . 1 963 . The University of Wisconsin Press. NY. Kepler. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. Richard H. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola.630) through (4.6 TU) .43 5) and (4.. = . 1 964. 63 2). 4. g. 1 95 9 . A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D.16 * 4. A New York.. 2.
" A str. 1 0. pp 1 05 . E. A n Introduction York. Vol 70. to Celestial Mechanics. Unpublished notes. F . California. Roger R. 1 9 1 2 . J. Moulton.ach. Redondo Beach. H . Sundrnan. United States Air Force Academy . Vol 70." ARS 1. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships." A cta Vol 36. Stumpff. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. 8. S." A stron. Vol 275 . Goodyear. 1 2. New 6. 7. J." A stron.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . and 1.1 28 . Sperling. Lemmon. 4 5 . 1 1 . "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. 1 965 ." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. N. Brooks. Mathmatica. 1 965. W . W. Herrick. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. 9. Forest Ray. Bate. K. 1 965. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. pp 66066 1 . K. 1 947. 1 96 1 .1 79. Vol 3 1 . pp 3093 1 5. H. pp 1 89. pp 1 08. . W. 1 9 1 4.1 92. . The MacMillan Company. H. "Universal Variables.
in 1 7 8 1 . A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. But. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. a 24yearold German mathematician. in the first year of the 1 9th century. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. Uranus. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace ..1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . 227 5. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
The object turned out to be Ceres. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t."the Gauss problem. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. and the direction of . no more . To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . no less.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. and for convenience in referring to it later. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. but for a different reason. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. 5. exactly 1 year later. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. Hegel asserted. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. Because of its importance. If they paid some attention to philosophy . precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky.
If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). Sec .1 .". or the "long way. / I I I I I Figure 5 . the orbit is a degenerate conic. / . p. Obviously ..21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . . . the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible." through an angular change greater than 7r.. therefore.. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. particularly if the parameter... f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4.SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ ..motion. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . appears in the denominator of any expression. It is not surprising. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. 2.. . We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. The relationship between the four vectors f l ." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians.. If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). 5 .
cos �E ) f = 1 . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . (5 . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. (5 . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns.sin �E ) � JJ. Consider equations (5 .22) r2 a ( 1 ... g.cos �V . p. what we have is three equations in three unknowns.2. 3. 2.1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f.( 1 .cos �E ) . There are seven variablesf1 . a 9 = 1 . From equation (5 . bv . Use equations (5. We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p.= p 9 r1 r 2 Si..27) and (5 . 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . so 2 .25). 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. r2 P p rI .cos �v) = 1 . the solut �on to . (5 . f and g. a or �E.. r .23) Actually.( 1 . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature.r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . p.y'ii8 .25 ) (5 .( 1 . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . 2.26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . Test the result by solving equation (5 . g.24) arid (5 .24) Si n �E (5 .cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . 23) and (5 . t.230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 ) (5 . 27) . a and �E. f.23). but the first four are known. (5 .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f.
3 . and would enable us to use the universal variables. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. let's write the expressions for f. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. introduced in Chapter 4. 5 . In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree.:t x3 S.c x2 y.3 2) . In each case . p. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. r1 (5 . x and z. however. g . since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. a and L'£ or 6F. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. = 1 .( 1 . This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. This last step is perhaps the most important of all.1 ) (5 .Sec..cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I.
v ) 1 c o s b.A . A y= . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.. we get r 1 r 2 (1 .. as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.31 ). rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.( 1 c o s b.232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .. p r1 j .jE: .38) y.v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 .( c o s b. P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b. yields X C.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch . ( 1 c o s b.c o s b. 1 .v y.1I 1 � . 5 X2 (5 .35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .v (5 . we obtain A....v) (5 .i n b.39) .v) • 9 = = IE..36) may be written (5 .j A equation (5 .37) I y = r 1 + r2 .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.viI x ( 1 zS) \ .33) and cancelling vwp from both sides. ( 1 .33)  (5..
3 We can also express X in equation (5 . y. by using equations (5 . 3. 5 . so that (5 . 32).3. v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 .34).35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 .420). (5 .".r I (5 . .3.: r I .37 ) and (5 .31 7) .31 3) (5 .1 ). 3.qr::oo . A. can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves. +.Sec. 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: . From equations (5 . the last term of this expression may be simplified.32) and (5 .on simplllw.1 4) 1 The velocity.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .ff.31 5) (5 .1 6) (5 .1 0) (5 ..38). rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 .3.31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . I" � \ ·1 fr . we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 .LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. thi 't "p. we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.=1' Ig =r2 =. and the auxiliary variable .
31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. 2 . 3.0.P .31 9) . Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . The derivative.dz dz dz 2yy dz . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 .E2 and z = . may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point.31 6) and (5 . Pick a trial value for z. A." evaluate the I 2 constant. which converges more rapidly. 5. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained.31 5). If it is not nearly the same .31 8) ( ) (5 . this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. 7 . Determine x from equation (5 . 9 and 9 from equations (5 .4.1 1). may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z.4. 4.31 3). Determine the auxiliary variable.= 3 x 2 . (5 . such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 . 3. from equation (5 .3 .0. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5. From f ' f and the "direction of motion.39). Since z = . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 . y. 5 1 . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. 6. Although any iterative scheme .1 2) (5 .37). When the method has converged to a solution.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . evaluate t.3. 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . using equation (5 .1 4) and (5 .31 7). dt / dz.1 0) . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. 5. a Newton iteration.S + X 3 _ + .3.1 0) and (4. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.
3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . 5 . we showed that y.=  dS (C . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .z S) dS _ . 3 .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . we get ( 1 . 5 .39) for dy = dz  But. i n section 4 .320) (5 .32 1 )  .Sec. .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .
4.7K DU.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.320) and (5 .323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . Using universal variables. determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 0) and (4.326) . There is only one path for a given direction of motion.6J + 0.324) _  (5 .236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . "direction of motion": rl =0.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit). I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S. These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 . At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0.OK DU.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 .319) and (5 . From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0. 51 r2 = 1.322) into equation (5 . 5 so. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = . ill rl . Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM. D M � si g n (1T L'>.41 1 ).318). equations (4. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .  (5 .01 + + O.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 ." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.v) .
28406 = 1 . 0000 + 1 . 327) r1 = 1 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .39).37) does when . 5 .0.28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = ..3 : Step 1 : LW (5 .962 radians LW long way = 21T .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 . 5 . 0000 1 .6V is small. For ease of numerical solutions. a convenient form of equation (5 . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = .5.1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).6V short way = 5. 23287446 yT12 vm . A A l ong way =1 .1 5) .321 radians Using (5 . 28406 ( __ = 3 .327).1 .1 4) and (4. 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . 86474323 = 1 . from equations (4. OM = +1 we have "short way " (.Sec. 0488088482 + 1 .6V > 1T). Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . 0488088482 + 1 .
23287446 t l o ng = 0.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 ..23287446 0.238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off.489482706 (6") . 1 .3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 . (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.1 0). X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : . from the given data.. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now. 0432z = 1 3.28406 y'3.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration.. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 . the desired time o f flight is : ..3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .3.780 1 9540 1 /2 0... Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.0 we do not normalize.05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.86474323 2.444689 m 0.86474323 = 1 ..28406 y'0....672625 1 6 TU + through 6. Step 5: Using equation (5 . 1 3 min = 0445 z . Y l o ng = 3. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.
3.60 1 874421 .8826885334K v2 = 0.314).5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .t solved .554824 D U /T U f = 3.842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.3 .0. 7499473 9 t = 0.63049 1 80961 1 .6 1 856634 = 0. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.28406 Y = 0.94746230 A = 1 .76973587J .6009 1 852 .31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.83073807 v 2 = 1 .50634848K v2 = 0.0. (5.1 5). (5 .9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3. W e have : � 104 (within 0.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .28406 Y = 4.t .5288 97 1 4 = 2. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.58 1 43981 VI = 0. (5 .96670788 z = x 0.0.989794 D U/TU 0. 1 1 39209665J  0.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0. 1 7866539741 + 1 .5544 1 39777J 0.1 6) and (5 .3.83236253 Using equations (5 .Sec.36 1 677491 + 0. 5 . 74994739 VI = 0.02234 1 8 1 1 .1 3).79852734 v2 = 1 .4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.
2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . From equation (5 . there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. In other words. where f::1) is less than 7T. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. yet equation (5 . For "short way" trajectories.52). Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of.31 . 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 .39).076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative.1 O} VC . and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position).9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0.= 0.38) and (5 .zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.
/ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .)2 cos . a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p . A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique. (sin xl i . r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 .v. we get  ..4.cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) .4. we obtain 5..1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 .c o s ""E si n ""E . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .6V p � . for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity.4 TH E p.V ) a (5 . This check is only necessary when is positive. 5.va si . The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.c o s x =.25).6V V 1 .4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5..?S.j1 . F or "long way" trajectories y is positive . 5. and 2 solving for p. hence.cos ""V ( 1 . if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::. we can solve for a and get 1 . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.cos !:::.Sec.4. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.42) into equation (5.23).6V COS . From equation (5 . It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x. a and ""E.1 ) and si n  COS .
E Q ± y'2ni C O S . (5 .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5..44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.c o s bJ)) (5 .E CO � = ± p= k = .v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .43) 5. and noting that � c os '2 .4.J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll. The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.E) •  k = k Ll.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 . (5 .46) Ll. 2 Ll.E .E ( k .Qp y'2ni p . we get Ll. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .2 Expressing a as a Function of p. we obtain m p a= (5 .E Solving for cos2.45) ± Using these same definitions.Q p ) 2 (5 .45) and simplify. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 . 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.43) as Ll.48) k .
The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. 5 .6. am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . Sec.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr. a may not be smaller than some minimum value ..!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter .3 Checking the Trial Value of p. 2. we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight .. however. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). First .where k. Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses).F in case a is negative). Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 .4 . we need to determine � (or .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. 5.4 T H E p. Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . . The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . 5.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 .4.
25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like .4. If (.4 The t vs P Curve .E . F ) .24) and (5 .F (5 . If a is positive.From the trial value of P and the known information. there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.6.F: (5 .E from equations (5 . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.6.41 1) c o sh . F 1 .6.23) and (5 . As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that. To get a feeling for the problem. the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length..6.24) or the corresponding equation involving .49) Since we always assume . we can determine .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .( 1 . let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way.23). Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. although t approaches infInity for this orbit. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .s i n .E a If yield is negative. In Figure 5." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .6.4. we can compute f.41 2) (5 .a r1 (1  f) (5 .1 0) = = 1 .4. let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .25).E ) (5 . (5 . F . 9 and f from equations (5 . 5 c o s .6.Tar (si n h .F is positive.6. we see that the limiting case of .6.vi.6.1 3) . If we look at "long way" trajectories.6.
P must lie between o and P j j . P must lie between P j and infinity..... Sec..43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case . t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j ... Since it is important thar the first trial value.. for t:sv greater than IT..zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero.. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 . For l'J) less than IT.. lie within the prescribed limits.4 T H E p.. as well as all subsequent guesses for p. In Figure 5 . As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight. we should first compute P j or P j j ..I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse . From the discussion above. 5 . parabola hyperbola Figure 5 .42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 .
b ... one that gives too small a value for t.4. Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). • .43 k p a rameter . . The solution is then bracketed and. . by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . Several simple methods may be used successfully.1 5) 5 . from equation (5 ..246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE .1 4) Q . ell .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. .46). we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value.4. and one that gives too large a value.yLri1 (5 . I . 5 1 :co . � " .5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p. '" E 0> '" . p )0 p" . The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution.4. . 0 Q + y2in k  (5 .
always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5. .. .. ... . .4.44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration ..4. . then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t . .. ..I Figure 5 ... 4 T H E p.. ..1 ) (t n . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p..Sec. . . . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. . . .. .P n . ..... tn t .. . 5 ..1 ) (5. then a better estimate of p may be obtained from . .1 6)..... ... .. .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p.t n ) ( P n .1 and Pn ....I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. . ... . If tn. .1 6) This scheme can be repeated.. .. .t n .. . It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer. O��_4o P n.
We must now obtain an expression for the derivative . ( � .4. (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S . we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . 41 9) . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.41 7).r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .si n L'> E l .iri equati �n (S.248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p.24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . � ( S .41 8) (S . fl3  fJ.4.
that ( k .2 dp k ( k .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .Sec.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m . bE d�E .2mk2 Qp 2kQp .Qp ) Q.Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .4 8) .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .420) From equation (5 .E / dp and noting.4 T H E p.( k .47).Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 . from equation (5 . we obtain .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE . 5 .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .
. and (5 .42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .423) . (5 ..= . p(k h JJ.6E JJ.Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .� (6E . which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .. _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.4.Qp) si n 6E JJ. 5 (5 .4.1 9).6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9. (5 .1 8) from (5 .
solve for a from equation (5 4 . Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits.423).27) and (5 . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. 9 and f from equations (5 . 4 . As stated earlier . 3 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .1 1 ) . 2. Pn . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. Solve for t from equation (5 . Evaluate the constants k. 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . 8 . Q and m from r] . Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . a.4. 2 .4. 9 .4. equations (5 . Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.4.24) and (5 . Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola. using equations (5 . 25).E or Ll. the values of g.1 4) and (5 .2·3). should be used in equation (5 . as appropriate .F. Using the trial value. of p. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. we will develop and use the f and 9 series. Sec.II using 2 . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo .4. The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a.4. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter.1 5). 6.1 0) or equation (5 .To evaluate the slope at Pn . 5 .1 2) or (5 .22). 5 251 . 5 . r and Ll. t and .8). 7 . Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . Solve for Ll.49) and (5 . We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 . G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem.F obtained from the trial value.1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. 5 .422) or (5 .6E or Ll.44). Solve for f. (5 .
(5 . (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 9) . 5 .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion. we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v.1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 .54) we have the following recursion (5 . 5 2) (5 . Therefore.u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . we write equation (5 . 5 4) for n = O. 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .57) (5 . 5 5) r r (5 .
p and q which will be useful later . We define them as follows : O.5.1 7) . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .5.51 2) u .51 6) (5 . as we shall u .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u.5 11 ) (5 . this can be (5 . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 . 5 . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .and the equation of motion f  (5 .5W)  (r . 5 .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . q. Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 . p.51 3) rr and the definition of p. 1 Development of the Series Coefficients . v are known .515) =  ur. u L. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. 5 .
) . 5 20) (5 .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . ) _ 24 (r .(v) 2 . 522) q = . _ [1 1  2 (v . . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r . Summarizing: (5 . r) (v) 2 .p (u + 2q ) .23 r· (V) r   u. . r r (5 .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .U .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly.57) and (5 . = . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . (5 .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . . d q = d t . 1 1 1 1 .3u p (5 . 5.1 8) Using the definition of P. 5. 5 . v) _ 1 u.r .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = .
u G 4 = u ( u . = .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .1 5u p ( u . 5.3 u p ( u .Sec.3p ( u + 2q ) .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.u r = . = .6 u 2 p = . = r 0.7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . p and q. = F 1 r + G 1 . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .30p p + 3 q ) . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.t!:.5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. 2 we have : ) r( 1 = ..6 u 2 p = .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P . F3 = F .54) for n = 1 . Writing equation (5 .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) . Fs = F4 .u G = . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .
5 = U (u .tao Comparing with equation (5 .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.524) (5 . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 . .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 . ) .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .52) and (5 .526) .5.u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o . Referring to equations (5 . Vo (5 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t.1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .1 . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 . therefore.523) .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u . .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .Gn n.256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.
1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).6q . G 1 = 1 .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) .30q .28q . G = 30up(1 4p2 .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) . G = u. F = 3up 3 F = u(. 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 . F 1 = 0.U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .90q . 5 .3q .51 .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 . G = O.2 1 q .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 . F 2 = 'U. G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.Sec.
In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . (5 . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 .51) + 9= 7  1 . 5 . 5. This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. 7) r I g (r I . Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. From equation (5 .5·29) .2·3). 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. 2·5). 7) (5 .0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large .f (r I .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u .5·27) + ' (5 .6. p.2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious.5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large.24) and (5 . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . f I . The f and 9 series may be used . 5. q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. r I . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse.
5. h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector.1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA.61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . As. thus Figure 5 .6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD . L£ . becomes dt (1 .Sec. so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. This . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6.61 Sector and triangle area (5 . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ .
260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .c o s b. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information.6.2 The First Equation of Gauss. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. E ) . but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.6. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression." + l( 1 . This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.2E ) 2 .43) and using the identity. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 . 5. If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio. 4 � c o s b.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss.' l'2 2 2 (5 .64) = 2 (2� co s � )3. .2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .62) (5 .
3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .. Using the identity.(5 .s i n l:>E ) .= .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.2 ( 1 r1 r . 5 .24) and (5 .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 . si n l:v cos � .6 .L . equation .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 .61).23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .s i n l:>E ) .£Q.1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E . .. (5 .67) 1 cos l:>v =. ( ..68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 ... 3 The Second Equation of G auss. so . From the first of these equations.2 2 L (5 .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J. n l:> E ) . t/y.65).. we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 . L ( l:>E .Sec. Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 . Si.61 ) becomes si n l:v .
69) cos f = 1 .s) . (5 . S + 1 .from (5 . and one more unknown. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation." 5 . 24) and (5 .64) and (5 .4 Solution of the Equations . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. Next. so a trialanderror solution is necessary. y. recall that we started with three equations. (5 . The first step is to evaluate the constants. equations (5 . we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . n = 2 si n 3 LE . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . We then added another independent equation.2(� . When convergence has occurred. a good first guess is y � 1 .262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .6. a and LE.69) are transcendental. !:JJ and t.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . y 2 ( y . from r I ' r2 . the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 .1 ) . and so on. 5 Recognizing the first factor as w.6. s and w.25). (5 .Si. To review what we have done so far. y and LE . 27) and (5 . Unfortunately. p. which is known as "the second equation of Gauss.1 ) = W (LE . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations.6. (5 . 23). 22) completes the solution. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. pick a trial value for y.43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated.64) and solving for y.1 0) .si n LE ) we may write. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical.1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . 6. in three unknowns.
they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.E and .F = rush .69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .69) and · (5 .6. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.6.c:.c:.F is real.c:. For this reason. E or . the righthand side of equation (5 .c:.c:. If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.c:. )� s + 1 .c:.c:. i sin i. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y .cE.F are close to zero.c:.c:.c:.c:.c:.69) and to determine y. then .E is imaginary.c:. If the given timeofflight is short..c:.6.s i n .F 2 ) · (5 . x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 . equation (5 . as y2 = W S + x .cosh 2 . The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section. . Noting that .F . F.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written. F = si nh .c:.0.F will be zero and both equations (5 .E s i n 3 .c:.F . equation (5 .E is imaginary.1 0) may also b e written as Sec. S.1 2) become indeterminate. 6.F and COS i .S ) y (5 .1 1 ) s i n h . 6.F . we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.Since the equations above involve . difficulties may be anticipated any time .6.1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.1 2) = X = .F whenever the right side is greater than one .c:.E .c:. indicating that�. E = i . Using the identity. Since we already know that when . F s i n h 3 "2 .1 0) may become greater than one.c:. 5 .
1 3). 2 . Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . zero. Determine X from equation (5 .24). and then expressing 6.25) and (5 . replacing CDs 6...6. 7 . parabola.Y:i. 1� = 2 3 1. 5 .E or 6.1 1). it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x.1 4) Now. ( 1 + §.1 4). ..61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 .6. the orbit being an ellipse. s and w. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &.6.]) and t using equations (5 . the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point.6.23). .22).6.264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . Determine p from equation (5 . is . 6 .63). (5 . 3 . r2 .27) and (5 . from rl .1 (5 . The result.1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . Depending on the type of conic.26).6 . E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. 4. X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . . The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . Compute the constants. or hyperbola according to whether x is positive.62) and (5 . (5 .1 5) 1 . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. Evaluate f.6. (s + x ) · 1 (5 . 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. g .F from equation (5 . determine 6.43). The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. f. or negative. problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . 2.2 Ch . . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . and 9 from equations (5 . ) . /:. E as a power series in x.1 0) or (5 . which is developed by Moulton. 2 6.
Sec. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. To avoid generalities. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. 72.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS ." In all but the simplest cases. and ballistic missile interception. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . 5 . the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. To make the problem even more specific. �atellite intercept and rendezvous. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. Usually. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. ballistic missile targeting. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . The £:.
e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary. ". at t..� ... I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 . 5 i nterceptor .�: :... ) / ot t.1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .1 . \ •• • • • • • . I n .. r. fI }/ \ \ . ��y V \" _ .f.".266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .. 7 ..� ' ....7.' ':..\. ... . �/ �/ "." \ t a rg e t / \ . "...
7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. 5 . We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 .Sec. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. which is when the intercept will occur. The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site .7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island.
. we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. . . the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. . . .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . " . . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. \ \ \ Figure 5 . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest.238 km/sec. . 5 them. \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. . launch vel. The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . �v? �v .
In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself.2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . the launch site will have moved eastward . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . In Figure 5 .7 . Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . Because of earth rotation. 5 . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot .5 . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . the better . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. In summary . 5 . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 .7 . From Figure 5 .
V plot for example intercept problem .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <..) z :J « . 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .7..O F .4 /':.
t2 . v2 • P I ' P2 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . P3 . another method will be develope d . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5. i.8 . P3 · .84) (5 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. Although we have examined a very specific example .e.Sec. Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2.V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . 5 . the three components of r2 .1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L.8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 .85) (5 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. (5 . 82) t2 so (5 .
8) (5 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . ' r2 . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z .8·7) (5 .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. in fact only six of the equations are independent. 526) and (5 . the components of f2 and V2 . y. f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . b . L3 .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . the components of Vz be X.8.R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . 8.1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.8. R1 . and eliminating the K components.272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . y and z . 5 to (5 . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . Rz .e. Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. � into equations (5 . y and Z . Estimate the magnitude of f2 . i. L2 . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a.T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch .
Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location.31 ).39). EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. e .423) for hyperbolic orbits. Y. f.6 Derive equation (5 . Limitations.4 Verify the development of equation (5 048).31 3) through (5 . . 5 Z. Ease of computation.522).41 .3 Verify equations (5 . but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. and (5. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 .1 5. which are the components of f2 and v2 . 5. 5.1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. I I I I  x. b. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. f2 I + J DU). 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04.526) and (5 . =: =: 5 . Z. c.527). Usirlg specific numbers. 5 .32).t2 and t2 t } are not too large. Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 . (5.Ch . verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 .V required for intercept? 5. Accuracy. using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 .2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6.
8 using the universal variable.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use.t l determine v2 using a. d. d.274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 Given two position vectors rI . 5 . b. which will contain both position vectors. h = 1 . although a few iterations can be made by hand. 5. 5 . as a function of rI r2 . 1 1 For the following data sets for r I .8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 .9 Repeat problem 5 .J + K). Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. The original Gauss method. (Ans. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series.tl = 1 .0922 TU. The universal variable method . r2 'and the distance between them. r2 .7 . (Ans. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. c. t2 . rl r2 p. The piteration technique. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. p 1 + J + K DU DU 5.009 (.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . vI = 0.00256 (J + K» .
r 1 = 41 t 2 . NY. 1 964. Gauss. 1 956. Mathematics. Vol 5 . (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. 51 + 0.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. Herrick. Methods of Orbit Determination. r 1 = 2I t2 . to Celestial Mechanics. Moulton. Liu. S. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. New York. New York. . (Answer : v = 0. A n Introduction York. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . Simon and Schuster.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory.4804847 1 1 2 +0.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. f l = 0 . NY. "The Prince of Mathematicians. NY.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . Appendix A. Inc. Carl Friedrich.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. A stronautical Guidance." in The World of 1 . 4.6J + 0. Battin. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. c . 2I D U t2 . New 6. NY.Ch . and A. McGrawHill Book Company. New York. 1 965. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight.66986 9921+0 . 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . a.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b .7K D U t 2 .2J Use "long way" traj ectory. John Wiley & Sons. d . 3. Eric Temple . Pedro Ramon. Dover Publications. Forest Ray. New York. the MacMillan Company. Bell.t 1 = 0. 1 9 59. 1 9 1 4. 2 .t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 .0. 1 963. Escobal. f 1 = 1 . Inc. Richard H. r 1 = I t 2 . 1 . Davis.
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The result is well known. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. have a very short history . Efforts. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . ironically . begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . longrange ballistic missiles. It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in .CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery .000 V2's had been fired in anger . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. which concern us in this chapter. . Napoleon I 6. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. World War II as "too late .
In July 1 95 4.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. Brigadier General 3 . No German was permitted to enter this separate building. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. Trevor Gardner . The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . After all. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. According to Dr. in June 1 9 53 . convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. 4 Accordingly. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. California.000 pounds thrust.
When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . 6. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. Atlas was a reality. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. Progress was rapid. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. Otherwise. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 .Sec. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. the program had. After three unsuccessful attempts. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. Blasingame . 6 .000 people participating directly. by mid· 1 95 9 . the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path .
what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. It will not be discussed in this text. 6 . 1 Geometry of the Trajectory .ji1Tr. There are..2. Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . Since Va:. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions." etc.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . need not be redefined.2. Figure 6. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. 1 defines these new quantities. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. such terms as "height at burnout. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system.2 The Nondimensional Parameter. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here ." "height of apogee. (6 .2. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point..2. Q . 6 . We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . 6 from launch to burnout.22) . We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. =. however." "flightpath angle at burnout.. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range.
21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .Sec . 6.
It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit.3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . (6. 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit.O/r from equation (6. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point.23) or IQ=2�·1 p . and substitute for V. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6. When Q is equal to 1 .25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 .26) .1 ) .the expression p. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section.2. If Q is greater than 2 .2. 24) 6 .
co s v b o . 'l'. 6 .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) .27) . and co s � = . half the freeflight range angle . 2 Equation. be written as (6.Sec.26) above can. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .f6. lies on each side of the major axis. therefore.
2. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.2./.2. since p = a( 1 .1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. what should the flightpath angle. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry.29) and (6. also becomes known. .1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. . A.1 1) into equation (6. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 .284 . we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2.T.e2 ). the required freeflight range angle.28) p. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1. (6. h = rv cos cp. = r Q C O S2 cp . and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. . If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6. the total range angle. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. e.29) Now. ¢ro.
We could . is called r bo . F'. choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . with a little algebra.In other words. we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent .4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . ¢bo. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle .23 Ellipse geometry 6 . Now. Sec 6 . In Figure 6 . the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . Instead . it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus.2. Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal.
Qb o sin � .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x.2.x) = sin (6.2. shown in Figure 6.24.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . Qb o 2 2 (6. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.1 3) (6. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line .23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. in fact.1 6) . the basis for the so called "whispering gallery." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. that.2.I n 2 and also as rb (6.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . This is. d. � + 'lr) = . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . It means. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .2. F' and the burnout point. for example. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse .000 ) from equation (6. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal.
so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .2.866.1 6) gives us . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory . 6. .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .Sec.9. sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 .
2. If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected.1 6) does not exceed 1 . the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. equation (6 .288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth.21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. Because a = .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. Provided that 'l' is attainable. Nevertheless. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. 2. This would not be a very practical missile trajectory.P/2&. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 .1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. If Q bo is exactly 1 . While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . Figure 6 . Table 6. The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . If Q bo is greater than 1 ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable .
6 .Sec. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories .
skims earth high only .low traj . 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . hits earth Table 6 . During the test firing of a ballistic missile.21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'. cos ¢ b o == 0.625 .11 5 18 1 . vbo = 2/3 DU/TU. the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU.5 DU. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. ha p og ee 0. hits earth 000 > 1 high only .290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Assuming a symmetrical trajectory.low traj .
36° . 600 E. :. 6. What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.08 1 7 DU/TU and . 6 . 08 1 7 ( 1 .Sec. 26.025) = 1 .1 2) . 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39.. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT.2. 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . c os � = + N . Notice or <P b o = :.2. 60 0W .1 . A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. 2<P b o + 64°20.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 .5 The Maximum Range Traject ory .025 DU respectively. We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 .4Deg. Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . versus the flightpath angle . ) (60 n m i ) =2. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . 6 2 1 . 'IT. 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation.
. If the right side of equation (6. 0> <1> <1> � IJ. then..s.1 6) equals exactly 1 . en EO I .� 90 Figure 6.. . s 0> Q) 0 � c .. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory.. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.2.1 7) I (6.'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6.2.pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 . (2<P bO � ) 2 .. 2.. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition . � 80 .7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight .1 8) L__________________� . :. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target..292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell .Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 . be the maximum range condition.
The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .222) . noting that l . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 .6 Time of FreeFlight.Sec:.2. the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . VI 1 800 . 6 . 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o ./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. 'JI . but . By inspection. 2. 2 . From the symmetry of Figure 6. 6 . sin �= 2 2 . This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle .2.7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2).1 9) for maximum range conditions.22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6. 220) for maximum range conditions.Qbo Qb o (6 .cos 2 . We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6.e cos 2 (6..8) .1 7 ). 2. due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified.'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e .
Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . 6 The semimajor axis. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude.27 Time of freeflight (6. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 1). 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . since five variables have been plotted on the figure. e. 28.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . a. and the eccentricity. Figure 6 . In fact . A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. can be obtained from equ ations (6. 2. 23) and (6. 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 .
000 nm. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6. 6 .Sec.750 n m .95 From Figure 6.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.8 period vs. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.075) == 0.25 D U == 7 .884) ( 1 . The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
: : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: . : :/ .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . :: :"/ N .9h Ir. ' .CI�rie� v X I .. . � ren I ("') !XI r » Free . . .aje. :: : J: : : . .� '" �� :... : : . : : .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C.f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . hi.I ' : ' : : : : : : . . . : ' .
OOO nm max = 3. impacting at B. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry.  Vbo 6. 957 Hsi 66. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. For brevity . and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. position. 6 .6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north.2.933 D Urr U � 24.Sec. In Figure 6 . and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors.220) . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first. F or purposes of this example.6C.6X. 8. the crossrange error. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. For a fixed burnout altitude . we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. .77 0 = 0 .6C may be / 9 57 1. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target. .1 � 0.444 n m = 2.32 r ads = 1 33.3 ° From equation (6. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed. 3 . The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . 'l' From equation (6.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.6X and . 2 00 ft/sec . payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount.6C represents the cro ssrange error. The arc length .1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 .3 . 6 . .
if they are in degrees.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. cos . I 1 . Equation (6. for example. . 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation.32) 2 X Figure 6.3. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch . if the intended target had been the north pole . In Figure 6 . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth."2 to simplify equation (6 .1 ) to (6.3 . we get (6.thought of as angles. 3.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles.1 .31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center.
Sec.32 Azimuth error 6 .3 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range .2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. 6(3. a crossrange error. will result.32 is the crossrange error .'l1. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. 6 .33) . Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . are as planned. �C. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . Figure 6 . P. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. before . 'l1. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. 299 Figure 6.
it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it .x ' to simplify equation (6.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 .3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point.3 . <Pbo' In Figure 6.21 about the center of the Earth.3.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.oo a "'00 Fl ight .y I  : : i.0.C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. 6. (6. In other words.. it will hit the target anyway .33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .� I a q.34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.. If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended. cos X � 1 ..path angle . This . If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount .300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch ..\]I.\]I will represent a downrange . An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn . The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6. 6 If we assume that both 43 and .D.0. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 .0. \]I.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth. are shown by a solid line in the figure .
we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o . 6 . then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .1 2) of this chapter .2.3 . 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.36) (6. We could get an approximate value for .'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 . The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation.Sec. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.6.1 0) Qbo I i . The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.8) (6.cot <P b o (6. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.3.
3.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.3. _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6. 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 . 3. Vb Substituting from equation (6.3. Let us first express equation (6.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .3. a'l1 .1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.
the actual range error on a 3 . particular burnout error . is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 .1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0.33. angle errors. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). Figure 6. Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . 3 . 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. 6 . While we need equation (6.Sec. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 .3. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . In fact.000 nm range. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height.3 . equation . If this seems strange. when used in the manner described above.33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. A plot of range versus burnout radius. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way .1 3) This partial derivative .
Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.. 6 however. differentiating the range equation (6 .3.3.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .1 1) implicitly.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . b o 'fJ ' (6 .3. the missile falls short of the target in every case . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . Again.1 4) for small values of .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6. the missile overshoots .3. if burnout occurs too low.2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ. The magnitude of the error is (6.1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation . 6.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = . too slow and the missile falls short.3.3.6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 .
905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . Total downrange error : .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) .3. 1 D U . An analysis of equation (6 .735 = 6 . 649 r ad U D U/T .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 .6V b o + a 'lr .5 x 1 05 D U/TU . There is no crossrange error. like the other two influence coefficients. LW b o = . We will need Q bo (.1 8) would reveal that. A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .9 0 5 D U !TU . ub o = 5 x 1 0 . .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 .4 rad ians. a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error . 1 ) 2 . 3. r bo = 1 .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .905) 2 ( 1 . 6 .4 D U . 735 rad DU r b o ( .6¢ b o = .Sec.1 0.1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range .
for example). That is.735 ( 5x 1. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. both the launch point and the target are in motion.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . ove rshoot 6.649 (5x 1 O . 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . and its azimuth angle. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. The rotation is from west to east. 56x 1 0 . {3. then all three .4. 6. v. 6 =2. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 .4 )+6.5 24 ft/sec. In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar.S ) . we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives.1 . 0.2sin 1 60 o 2 = .56x 1 0. That is.1 0. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . m i .2 1 (.4 ) (3444) � 4 n .4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character.1 . its flightpath angle. <p. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame .4 ) TOT =1 1 .
1>.000 ft/sec. 6 . of 45 0 . an azimuth. and a speed of. A simple example should clarify this point.. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction.1 ) .000 ft/sec." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. Hereafter. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. �. we will refer to measurements of burnout .5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system.4.Sec. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . . Like the observer on the moving train. of 900 (east).I ·=<� • .4.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. of train l \\�.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. (6. An observer at rest would not agree . He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. say 1 .
v. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . Once you have the components of ve. It is. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. �.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . We can obtain the south. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site .43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. Thus. break up V into its components. east .45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v.44) �. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . lies. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. of course.42) The true speed. (6 . v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. this will not be difficult. first. Vs (6 . and up components of the true velocity. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . flightpath angle .
4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . Rather . The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. In Figure 6 . represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. the target will be there also.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. when the missile arrives at point B. so the arc length OA in Figure 6. then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 .Sec. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. Hopefully. 6.43 is just 90 0 L o. The term. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI.4. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively .
0. (6 .43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 .N.N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3. Once we know the total range angle. this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. then a value of . we can solve for the required launch azimuth. (6 .si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . The longitude difference.47) Solving for cos {3.0.48) Again. A. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 .46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target. . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point.0.0. and if.N + wffitA' where . If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.N + w ffitA ) .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target.0. . {3. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions. {3.0. (6 . tA . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. we get c o s {3 = sin L t . we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.
how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate .Sec. and launch azimuth. By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. A. the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . 6 .43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . Needless to say. tA But . (3.
5 1 1 95 v .5022 ta . 1 DU.( . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory .. 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . 85 From Figure 6 .4 5) : v= . .. 1 ) 1 .9 DU/TU. flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 .42) through (6 . 6 . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . 9 s i n 300= .3 ° W burns out at 30o N. Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. 29 . v = .. 33° ¢bo = v E = . 9cos3 00cos 3300= .. 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ ..j( . 339 ) =. 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .675 s (J=333 . 8° v n /3 = v = . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . using Q bo = . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N. Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = .0 58 8cos290 = . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of .. 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 45 ) 2 = . 79 . 339 ) 2 + ( .. 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . 87 9 30.
29 . 334 TU boN = 135° . w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = .13 = 7. 334TU ) =123. tff=3. 3709 �GG (3.7 8 0 . 6 70) =.80° .123 .3. 334)=135° . 2 5 TU :. using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0.85 and ¢bo = 3 0. 77° = . 6.Sec.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . 770 N re = 156. . 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = .we(3. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 .4 . E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again.203. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1.
5 D U!TU 1 . v = 1 6 . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans.2. 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .05 D U = 1 0° . 6 EXERCISES 6 . r b o = 1 .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N. and a spherical Earth.' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . m i .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal .6 ft/sec) 6 .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6.1 9)? Why? 6 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude. .926 D U /TU . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . R = 6 0 n .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 .840.1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 . m i . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. = . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 .
how large can . . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . Do not use charts.'lr ). A lateral displacement .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . 7 I n general. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of .02.2 1 2 run) 6.0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .Ch.6. how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .06 DU.)(.6.83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . 6 .400 n mi. = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. Using the equations si n iL. . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0.98 to 1 . Rtf = 4 . 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8.000 run) 6 . 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . 1 0 During a test flight. 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . (Ans.x and L¥3 be? . Rtf = 5 .02.
.642 DU/TU) .6888 n mi L:. 6 6 .31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . c . How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal.936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:.0 DU for a ballistic missile. or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 .346 n mi long) b. 6 . ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. Is this a high. ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. (Ans.800 nautical miles? (Ans. 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . 7 . b . a.. low.V = 25 . vbo = 0.r = 0. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar .
530 ft/sec. What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum.QL. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . R t of 4. 1 2 00 W. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . 1 5 00 E. b. 3 0 0 E..23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : .700 n mi using a high trajectory. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 .where e is the 6 .'I' = � b. at the same altitude . �bo and analyze the result . 5 DU. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. at an altitude of 2.ri. If the velocity at burnout was 28. Ch ..e . 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range .. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 .092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N. 6 . 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 .¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means.22 The range error equation could be written as: b.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. 6 . 6.4 min) = 6. Q bo + . what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 .. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. i. tff 40. 5 DU and whose perigee is .6 . what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. Do not use charts.
(partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 . elevation . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . Do not assume a nonrotating Earth.2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. or maximum range trajectory? 6 .5 0 .4 rad ian s a.25 An ICBM is to be flight tested. It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 .1 045 .318 V bo =23. low. 92S1 0608. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.1 0 .905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . (Ans. b. 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. v bo = . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 1 200W . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.500 ft/sec=O.66E+20784.48966 = 3 1 5 .0057 ° = . How far will the missile miss the target? 4.6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . c.3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 .
(Ans. 5 7 min) == * 6 . the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6.Ch .1 2 ' . tff 3 2 . == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth.73 n mi. atmosphereless Earth. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. 1 20 OW .649 n mi . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . downrange displacement of burnout point . 0 (Ans. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . rotating.28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c.8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. and r bo � r(fl. Assuming a symmetric orbit. 1. What is the required ¢bo? (Ans.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . L t 54 0 3 1 '. What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 .6 1 8 . What was the freeflight range. What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . 43e . 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . site located 319 During the actual firing.
Space Technology Laboratories. NY. Dornberger . Lt Col Kenneth.1 2) . Garden City. Ernest G . Inc.4) . The MacMillan Company.6Vb o . altitude at bo ::: .800 n mi. Schwiebert. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. 4. Frederick A.3 . NY.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . Los Angeles. NY. 2. Calif. * 6. (Hin t : See section 6. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). V2 . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . 6 * 6. R ff ::: 1 0. 1 95 5 . What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. New York. . Burgess. Doubleday & Company. 1 965 . 5 . Albert D. ed . Wheelon . Gantz . LIST OF REFERENCE S 1.S.02 DU. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . Inc. A History of the U.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . Eric.2.2. Walter. Publishers.3 1 The approximation : * 6. Vol 2. New York . 1 962. "Free Flight . New York. NY.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . 1 960. 3 .320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The Viking Press. 1958. Praeger.
It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never .. . The Moon is the more useful. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. when it is dark. the 32 1 . together with the Earth. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. when it is light anyway. though principally attracted by the Earth. Proctor. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . does.the Moon. about which she moves. of all which. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. since it gives us light during the night. and is. the Sun or the Moon? . . have been discovered. move round the Sun once a year.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. and moving round it.
Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . has given a full account. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . with no less subtility than industry. Lagrange and Laplace .2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. D'Alembert." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction.in this case the Sun. W. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. Even interplanetary trajectories. . W. but because it comes close to being a double planet. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. 7. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. Clairaut . Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . 7 Author in this book. Brown .
��===c==Q. in fact. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition).3 days. .Sec. According to one theory advanced by G.3 04 of the mass of the Earth. These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. As a result . 7 . 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation.:. H. the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. . The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. . Darwin.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . . The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. :. .67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward .400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .. . . . the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. This puts the center of the system 4. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 ..: =j Figure 7. . . .
22 Lunar orbital elements 7. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. In the case of the Moon's orbit . When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements. 7 Figure 7. the orbital elements are constantly .324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants.2. due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun.
000 years ago by Hipparchus. This effect . called "evection. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 ." was discovered more than 2 . b.3 1 66 1 days. c. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. The line of nodes.054900489 . The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . 7 .8 days.400 km.Sec. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.
being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. 23 ° 27' . From Figure 7. in l S72.2 Lunar Librations. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. where the Moon crosses from north to south.5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' .326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . its mean value is 5 0 S ' . making one complete revolution in l S . If the Moon's orbit were = .6 years.9 years.6 years." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . rotates westward. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . for only then can Sun.000 years. and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . Thus. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . but more than a century later .2. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. the other . Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . is the descending node . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. d . e .
3 ." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. Actually we see . Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . monthbymonth basis. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. we would see exactly half of its surface . at one time or another.Sec. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. solar pressure . about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. daybyday. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. 7 . SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. among other things. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. the computer time required could become prohibitive .75 0 around each limb of the moon. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. As a result. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . and the terminal attraction of the Moon.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . and 7. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. This permits us to see about 7 . solar perturbations. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca.
7. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions.Q. 2& e = y'1  pia . but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. With this thought in mind. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. It is not important that the analytical method be precise.3..6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.400 km. 7 ..3 . a = :l:!:. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. this will not introduce significant errors. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about ..2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit .0549 . semimaj or axis.
2 10.i..  I. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .c C/) . II.3 . E i= .g' . In Figure 7. k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.:.. 60 \ \ I njection . 1 r1 1 ..31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly...c " 0 . we can solve for va .0 S pe e d . We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10. we get c o s V = 2..Sec. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit... 7 . ...31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .r1 1. j 80 .9 I njection 1 1. e r Figure 7.
For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . . : .. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed .. Actually.. \ 0 �� ' earth " . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.... : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 . the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection..05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 ..J! ... then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. . the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero.: / :1 .3 . As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . In Figure 7. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \.. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . . . 7 .')'. 7 an injection altitude of . 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. to parabolic..330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP.
which we can call 1/1.32. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . . Assuming an inj ection altitude of . Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. Moon from our assumed inj ection point .we will never reach the Moon at all. 1 8 8 km/sec.966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . 3 . if we keep reducing the injection speed . is a function of . If we are trying to minimize injection speed.Sec. In such a case . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. this minimum injection speed is 1 0. the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . In general the sweep angle . the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind.32 we see that. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. 7 . From Figure 7 . The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . due to errors in guidance or other factors. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. as the injection speed is decreased. Assuming no lunar gravity . Eventually . 7 . injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle .4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. 82 km/sec. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . if we try to take longer by going slower. Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter.
332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . But. and wrrft. so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft.. Neglecting lunar gravity. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. for example .33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. . 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . This may be seen from Figure 7 . that is. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj.33 . the initial velocity is too high. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. If.
R s' given by the expression Sec. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the .1 ) . 7.4. 5 However. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . for all practical purposes.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations.0 km/sec. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . only are interested in determining ap. There is. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . In effect. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and.3 00 km." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. 7 .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. however. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon.arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 .It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 .
The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure .4 .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n .4.4.300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth. consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame. 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin.) Then.1 ) can be found in Battin .334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7. Figure 7 .1 ) yields the value Rs = 66. 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit. A full derivation of equation (7 .4." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent . 7 .
Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions.45) COS <P I .r h V 1 I (7 . 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . r 1 . at lunar arrival is (7 . Finally. the radius. from geometry .43) From the law of cosines. VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 .42) (7 .44) . r 1 .Sec. This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. 1 .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee .
1 p ia  a = :l!.4. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .47) 2& e = ".48) (7 .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. p=� (7 . 7 Figure 7.to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.49) (7 .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight. t l . JJ.1 0) .
the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .4.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 . Eo and E1 from Finally.1 5) 2. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .1 3) (7 . 7 . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.Sec. we can determine the eccentric anomalies. .4.1 2) Next.1 6) The phase angle at departure.649 2.4.4.4. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = . Wm = = t 1 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.3 rad/TUEIl (7 .1 1 ) (7 . 1 37 X X 1 0.4.6 rad/sec 1 0 .to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .e 1 r1 __ (7 .
4. The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. (7 .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. (7 . r 1 . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 .4.which we chose arbitrarily . r2 .4.4. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory.42 : V m = 1 . The geocentric radius. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO . then the selena centric radius.4. Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. We will do this in the sections that follow. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is.1 9) . at arrival is completely determined by \ .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. 7 .48) through (7 . 7 .1 8) (7 .45).0 1 8 k m/sec.42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.2 Conditions at the Patch Point . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft . In Figure 7 . It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 .1 6) above . the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch .
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
30 . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .50 � � c 0 i e 1. Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7. «>  0.20 .54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .40 .348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .
5 0 . Figure 7 .52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 .si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 .54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . 5 4 worth noticing.5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. 7 . Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .5 0 and 28 . if we add a coasting arc. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 .52) and Figure 7 . Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date .5 3) . once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . sir! 0 1 . However. b oth of which are undesirable.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.Sec. Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . If lunar declination at intercept is specified. It should be obvious from equation (7 . If lighting conditions are important. 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. 54. From Figure 7 . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon.5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris.5. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. As a result .
56 .05 8 1 65 .020 1 8 1 6 49. 8 0 1 36.27 3 5 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .766 1 7 43 23 .34 28 32 1 7 .460 1 67 .97 28 34 3 9 .254 1 67 .63 1 1 1 .85 1 1 66 .76 28 3 1 09 .3 1 + 1 48 . 5 9 28 34 33 . 078 1 66 . 1 0 1 6. 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.44 28 2 1 1 8 . 1 5 28 34 1 0. . 973 FIgure 1 65 . 7 1 7 1 66 .46 1 1 67 . 1 90 1 67 .1 44.538 1 8 3 6 1 1 . 24 . 1 969 .88 28 33 3 5 .78 1 3 1 .97 29.883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .862 1 65 .47 28 25 3 8 . 2 1 28 34 42 .39 28 3 0 34.949 1 8 05 42.7 1 54. 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.3 1 8 5 .85 4 1 .4 1 3 1 66 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 . .97 28 3 1 47 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .41 7 1 67 .08 28 29 08 .84 60.44 22. 1 0 28 27 29 . 1 9 173.308 1 8 22 22.737 18 1 9 36 .97 1 1 9. 624 1 7 3 5 00.72 1 1 8 25 08. 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 . 24 28 23 34 .242 1 66 . 7 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . 1 67 1 7 29 26 .445 1 67 .95 7 1 7 37 48.970 1 66 . 1 3 .38 + 9 .3 .3 3 3 1 67 .695 1 8 02 54 .449 1 67 .424 1 67 .435 1 65 .376 1 67 . 86 28 26 29 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .58 73.203 28 1 8 49 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .385 1 67 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .32 1 1 67 .05 28 33 1 1 .3 1 9 3 .9 8 9 8 . 5 7 1 1 66 .07 47.963 1 8 27 5 5 . 267 1 67 .00 28 28 1 5 . 1 7 2 1 67 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39. 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8. 8 1 28 32 47 .23 1 23 . 1 4 1 06.3 1 28 29 48 .87 28 34 22.89 28 24 29 .90 28 33 5 3 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . 5 8 67.35 28 1 6 08 .374 1 8 00 07 .45 8 0.998 17 5 7 20. 1 6 +1 6 1 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.
1/1 c ' Thus. the total time . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. it is possible to adjustt l . ao' at this launch time . tt ' is (7 . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day .89) : (7 56) . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . slightly (7 . The launch time. This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . c o s 1/1 t . 84).3 . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept .9 .Sec. we get cos 6a. 5 4). which may be computed from the injection conditions. 5 3 . �. The difference i n right ascension ." 8.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . at the launch point (see Figure 2. !::lX . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc.55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E .53 . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . and may be obtained from equation (2. = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints.5 . 7 . is the same as the "local sidereal time . to' and the right ascension of the launch site .54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 .
7 30 EXERCISES 7 . These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods. 7. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. What additional 6. 7. � . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth.2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth.t I ES Ch .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. . Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts.54) agree. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune .(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . 7 . 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I.426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 000 k m 33 .3 224 . r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. and the exact We now know the injection conditions.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl .4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = . The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.
S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. . 7 . The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384.9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7.Ch . Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .400 k m : a . b.. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . a .6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. Determine the /:. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth.
(Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. Use h bo l OO n mi .Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . <1>0 = = = * 7 . Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. 7 7 . Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . requirement. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. select ro ' vo ' to meet this . 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 .) * 7 . CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. . Specifically. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met.
7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Academic Press. A stronautical Guidance. Robert M. Battin. an d Maud W. Second Edition. Makemson. Richard H . Berkeley and Los Angeles. Isaac . Abelard Schuman. Inc. 6. NY. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. Clyde . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Newton. 3 . Garden City." ARMA Document DR 220. Gamow.1 6. New York. George . The Moon . University of California Press. 1 962. Baker. November 1 95 9 . 1 9 5 9 . . NY. The Story of the Moon . Doran and Company. 1 943 . McGrawHill Book Company. Principia . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. 2. L. Doubleday. 5. London and New York. Fisher. New York. 4. NY.Ch. 1 964. 1 967.
.
we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. C opernicus. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. two eyes. such as the seven metals." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. and a mouth . two nostrils. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . which it were tedious to enumerate . From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. etc.. But the tide of opinion ebbed. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . two ears. compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . At first it was not understood . By 1 507 he was 357 . Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. indeed. two luminaries. two unpropitious.
Neptune.2. 8. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. Mars.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. . The "law. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. 1 2 . Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets.2. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. indeed. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. 8. at the age of 70. Saturn. are spread much more widely throughout the system. 6. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false .358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Uranus. the members of the solar system. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. Jupiter . If we write down the series 0. comets." as may be seen in Table 8 . and Pluto . In addition. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . ." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. nevertheless. 3. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. . ." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. Venus. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. diameter.1 . 1 Bode's Law. Earth. some of which pass near the Sun.
20 9.8 5 .2.52 2. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.39 0.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . 0 is presented in Table 8 .0 1 9 . 8.6 3 8 . this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune . 8. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun.6 2.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets. 1 7 39.4 0.2 1 0.65 5. Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune . Table 8 . The sixth orbital element. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. Except for Mercury and Pluto .00 1 . is its path .72 1 . The size.7 1 .2 Table 8.52 1 9. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit. Only for brief periods.8 77.0 1.Sec.28 3 0. compared with the total mission duration.21 Actual Distance 0.22. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 8.
. 074 1 83 ° .7233 1 . 0482 .004 3 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° .828 1 7 1 °.405 undefined 49 ° .275 222 ° .. 0 1 67 .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° . 1 39 1 1 3 ° . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.203 9. 1 7 3 9 .) 00 .394 0° .28 3 0.684 93 ° .5 24 5 .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c. 76 ° . 1 1 1 326 ° .497 1 3 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a .0539 . 05 1 4 . 7 73 1 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 . 0934 .76 .. 5 73 1 75 ° .5 1 9 1 9 .322 1 00 ° .096 1 88 ° .005 0 .850 1 ° .306 2 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 000 1 °. 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° .225 237 ° ..441 73 ° .000 1 . 1 42 1 02 ° . 8 94 341 ° . 2056 . 0068 . 1 3 6 47 ° .489 0° .773 1 7° .970 7 6 ° .2583 7 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° . 38 7 1 .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° ..400 276 ° .870 L.
00 3 3 3 43 2 .24 1 .232x l 0 4 3 .257x l O s 3 .2 1 4.8 8 1 1 1 .7 5 7 .9? 1 ..8 1 7 1 .3 . 1 4 1 3 .04 29.3 05x 1 04 1 . 0 1 1 64.268x 1 0 B 3 .896x 1 0 6 3 .986x l O s 4.000 1 .6 1 7 .000 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .74 2 .0 95.5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . 5 227.49 4.8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .6 1 5 1 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .80 5 . 1 1 49 .65 6.05 6 .06 9 .46 84.3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .820x 1 0 6 6 .8 6 29." .8 247 . 1 08 3 1 8 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .79 24..87 3 5 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.795x 1 0 7 5 .9 1 08 .
Just as in lunar trajectories.v required. S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. however. from the standpoint of /:. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. The Hohmann transfer. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . was the Hohmann transfer. this consideration is important. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. if continued past the destination planet .3l . If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers).3 . For transfers to mo st of the planets. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. 8. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible .
3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / . Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.v required for an interplanetary mission. \ _.Sec. Nevertheless.' ." . The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .u o_____+. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::. 8. Therefore ..d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit. . either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip..31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit.V.
the difference between the heliocentric speed. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time.3.78 kIn/sec. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 . From Table 8.33) In Table 8 . transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. The heliocentric speed.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. for the Hohmann transfer. t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. • . The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29. 3 .3 .where f.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit. B (8 . r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit.1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. then. In any case .3 and should be reviewed .l 0 (8 .
22 the radius to Mars from the Sun. 1 2 5 8 . 40.748 . In other words .74 6.295 1 .9 1 6 1 . 8.099 1 .60 Table 8. Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.345 1 .28 27.397 22.42 4 1 . From Table 8 . rE9> are respectively : .05 4 1 .04 1 6.Sec. Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars. VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . r d = 1 . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer . rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .5 1 46 . t2 .31 1 05 .3 9 1 1 .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.73 38.28 32.57 .379 1 . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.524 A U From equation (8 .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence. 1 6 30.07 4 1 .78 46.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .9  2 .
2 Phase Angle at Departure.9 d ays 8. The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . v . Thus. where is the angular velocity of the target planet.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.32) the heliocentric speed .t1 ) wt .VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.34) __ (8 . the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 . 8 From equation (8 .099A U/TU 0 = 32. From equation (8 . and is illustrated in Figure 8 . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .3. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points.35) wt (t2 .3. the phase angle at departure .32 for a Mars trajectory.7088 years = 258.73Km/sec .t 1 = 1T = 4. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.
.. .Sec.1 76 .. . Figure 8. 367 . . 'Yl (8 . and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct. pp 1 60. . Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself.. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet.3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. . The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun.. ...36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place .32 Phase angle at departure. .. 8. If we miss a particular launch opportunity. .
368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .38) .07 5 . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again.3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. 340 .530 . rad/yr 26 . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.09 1 .37) (8.W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. 1 3 1 . yrs 0. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km.04 1 . 3 ·2.32 1 .v 1 determined. 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �. Thus.3. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.025 Synodic Period.213 . so W EfJ7 s . Mars and Venus.w t I (8 .00 Table 8.0 1 1 . Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .01 1 . 8.03 8 . if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.60 2.2 1 7 3 .32 In a time .07 1 1 0.
.. . . ..39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . .. � _ i t_ r b_ .:V.. (8 . . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. .r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<.33 / . . 8 . . � Figure 8. .. .Sec. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 .. ". . . �. '?.310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . .. f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. '\ . .
98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . From Figure 8. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola. Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 . fI.1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars.33 .34 we see that the angie .6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . 3.1 1 ) becomes = 2 .2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. is given by cos fI =  §. so equation (8 . C but since e = da for any conic.the injection speed . the angle . km/sec.39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . For transfer to one of the outer planets. This may be seen by solving equation (8 .3. fI. we may write . the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.
3.3.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .1 e where the eccentricity . 3.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 . conditions : = (8 .Sec.34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola . is obtained directly from the injection (8 . 8 .1 2) e. 3 T H E PATC H E D.1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8.
3. then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity.35 Interplanetary launch (8 .36.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Generally.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth. 8. At arrival. cfJ as shown in Figure 8. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 .3. however.4 Arrival at the Target Planet.3.
36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 .3. 3.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 . 8 .1 8) .Sec.1 6) (8.1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. (8 . 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 . 3 . 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.
then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. 3 7 . From Figure 8 . will be directed toward the center of the planet. the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. 3.The angle . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure.36). In Figure 8. e. 3 7 we see that  (8 . resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory.s i n if> 2 v (8 . If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if.3 . This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . 8 . . then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. in Figure 8. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . It also means that the relative velocity vector. 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it.320) y = x si n e (8.
X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.322) .Sec. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit . (8 .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f.lt/ 2 X _ . 8 .
328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. Solving equation (8 . y. 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 .327) for y Yields (8 . 324) (8. 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . we obtain . the speed at periapsis is simply . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance. 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet .(8.376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .326) Because angular momentum is conserved.
If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. then a much smaller target must be considered.329).Sec.329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . The given information is . the "inwact parameter. The. b. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 .328) we 'get (8 . " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 .05 DU. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size.t 3  rt (8 .launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission. The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.39. 8. rt This particular offset distance is called b . V2 + 2fJ.
energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .099 A U/TU = :.39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .099 .1 VI = 1 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 . 3 .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl. 6V 1 = 1 .1 :: 0.099 A U/TU 0.05 D U 1 .
v = 2v si n L 2 /::. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept. the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.43 DU/TU .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.v (8 .07 6 ft/sec 2 .Sec. departure Figure 8 . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .4. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8. 8 . t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.044 8 . From Table 8 .1 ) . 1 39 + 1 .905 = = 379 37 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.4.1 .
380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun ..7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years..4. 8 as derived in equation (3 ..1 )) . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel. 8. _  /' .62 DUJTU� 8. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) . 8. 8.5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 . 8.1 ) . (Ans. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. 8.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units.8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.3.3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 .32. 5 for the planet Jupiter. " . EXERCISES 8 .3 .. 7.. 8 .
Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 .l:. .9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. vesc = 1 . 1 DUE[) radius. where 8. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .35) ITbo no . M = 5. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.l:. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. If c = 9 .l:. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.l:. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.000 ft/sec. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i.l:.v = 1 5 .394 DUe/TU� b .V = 0.v ? (Ans. a.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j ..900 ft/sec. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj .Ch. It can be shown that .348 DUe/TUE9> .V required? (Ans.V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =. 1 00 ft/sec) c. v = 39 .
0.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . What is the 6.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. 0. (Ans..0. Find the hyperbolic excess speed. The mission will begin in a 1 .046 DU� /TU � b .Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units....73 1 DU8TU� b .5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. Find the 6..0. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans.5 DUEI1 circular orbit.V at apogee or perigee? 8. 09 DUe/TU$) = . 1 3 (This problem is fairly long.28 AU2 /TU2 . 0. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. v= 0. 8. so work carefully and follow any suggestions.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6. 3 . 0. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 . 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 .? (Ans. a. What is the 6.. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans.which results if the same 6.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars.. 8 8 . a.254 AU/TU� . The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. (Ans.V of . � = 0.. What is the 6.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. 1 DUe/TUEl1.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0.V is applied at perigee. = 0. 6.9 00 ft/sec) 8 . 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. v=' (Ans. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .
(Ans. For a given planet. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. Vrrw = 0. (Ans. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. for the above transfer. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. P.5 AU. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0.87 TU� b . 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. 0. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion.5 AU? (Ans. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. O o) 8.) (Ans.373 AU/TU � f. then find h. c.3 9 DU oITU& 2 .2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. called the turning angle .4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. 0.2 AU/TU� d.867 AU/TU� e . 3 . 1 . 1 4 a. <P2 and vll1II in that order. Compute the phase angle at departure. 'Y1 . 8 .Ch. 1 . Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity.050 ft/sec) 8 . What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 .
pp 430434. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. 1 . LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Assume circular. Vol 2. No 2 . 1 963. * Ch . 1 969.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. 8 8. Washington. W . Fimple . What would be an estimate of the return b. 3 . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. Newman. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. New York. 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. James R. transfer time. 1 967. 4 . NY. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . 1 95 6 . The World of Mathematics. 1 96 1 .where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet.V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . D C . London. . U S Government Printing Office . and the angular rates of the planets. coplanar planet orbits. Simon and Schuster. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office." AIAA Journal. Vol 1 . R.
" "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . it is found that there seem to be distinct. but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. " Webster 9 ." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. There is always some variation 385 . We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). and at times unexplainable . Macroscopically .
9 . about a century later. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical.from the norm. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. and relativistic effects. except the motion of the perigee. solar radiation effects. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. The wind gust was a perturbation. In fact. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example .) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. Brown 's papers of 1 897. 6 .1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. Fortunately. magnetic. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. Then. meteoroid collisions. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . M. atmo spheric drag and lift. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . E. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. etc. which had not been treated by Newton . Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values.
and variation of elements techniques are discussed. 9. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text .Sec. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . With the capability for orbital flight . Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. 9 . The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. Encke. It was developed by P.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. In particular. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . H. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . the Cowell. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. a section discussing methods and errors is included . Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. See section 1 .
Sun and planets. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . the equation would be (9 . including all the perturbations.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. y = vy (9.2. For the twobody problem with perturb ations.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. r=Y �r (9 . F or numerical integration equation (9 .22) would be further broken down into the vector components.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration. the equations would be . ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically.
the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. Even in double precision computer arithmetic. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. Classically. 8 .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. Intuitively. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff.23).25) . satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon.Sec. This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error .22). Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . and he would be correct . Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates.'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 .Il m ( 3 . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. There are some disadvantages of the method . The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. 9 . In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . In spherical coordinates (r. ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2. When motion is near a large attracting body .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea .24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 .
contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . Presumably . and . this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field .g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. 9 (9 . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known .'l. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. in our case . "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere .31 The osculatil. The term connotes the sense of contact. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . 9.25) As a reminder.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. In the Encke method . reference or b i t Figure 9. In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated.
This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. Note that at the epoch.. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 . 9. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration.3. the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.. 9 . At that time .3 . the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 .1 ) .1 ) .1 ) and for the osculating orbit. respectively . Let r and p be the radius vectors to .3.33) we obtain . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits.3 2) into (9 . or epoch.1 ) and (9 . = p ( tb ) p p to = 0.  (9 .Sec. and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .32)  Sr.to ) ' p (9 . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. Now w e will consider th. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . be defined as (see Figure and . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit.33) Sub stituting equations (9 . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. 3 .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. r + � r3 r = a t .
A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:.6r ) . so r can be obtained from 6r and p...37) . So .392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . 6r (to + .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation .3 6) Equation (9 .6r] r3 r (9 .6.34) then becomes (9.was to obtain more accuracy. theoretically. 6r. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout . p is a known function of time .. one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method.3 / 2 (9 .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .t) can be calculated numerically. However.35) 3 3 r _ (9 . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object . For a given set of initial conditions.
/  Our problem is not yet solved . o y . OZ are the cartesian components o f or.Sec. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . Now some ways of calculating q must be found. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . however. Expanding.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. In terms of its components Figure 9. since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. 9 .
3. 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9. <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9.(1 . 3. /) y2 . . . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.1 0) (9 .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .38) and (9 .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q.31 2) .2q So q =  Now. (9 .37). There are two methods of solution at this point .( 1 .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .37) becomes (9 . 9 From equation (9 .38)  1 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .
e . If.t).t where k is the step number.nowing p (to ) .1 2) may be slightly faster. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. p 229). Calculate r = p + (jr. d .3. Vol 2.Sec.t) from equation (9 . Rectification should be initiated when . calculate (jr (to + t:. q( to + t:. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated . The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. k. 9 .t) . t:. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) .t) 2 .t ) from equation (9 . Knowing 5r(to + t:.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker .t) calculate 1 .t . r (to ) . Then the tables could be u sed to find f . For an integration step.> a specified constant. If equation (9 .3 8) 3. b. and 5r 0 at this point. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. g. q (to ) O. although the use of equation (9 . In (jr p v as described earlier.3.1 0). Go to step c with t:. a.t replaced by kt:.39) is recommended for use with the computer. The method using equation (9 . v = p + (jr. but of the order of magnitude of 0. (jr 0.3. Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. c. Otherwise (jr p .does not remain quite small. f(to + t:. f. = = = = = p continue. rectify and go to step a .t to get (jr{ to + kt:. so larger step sizes can be taken. Integrate another t:.01 ). Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit .1 2) is used. p(to + t:.
it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . Then e � . Thus. For instance. e eccentricity. a . 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit.3. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs.6. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . Though. this method may seem more difficult to implement. at the outset.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six .4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. = . A similar check could be made on i . From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) ./l m {m s . they would remain constant. etc . then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. In the absence of perturbations. one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time .t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. See equation (9 . Similarly. if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v.6.cSr ) (9 .1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. from the Encke method 9.
9 . In this section two sets of parameters will be treated.4 .I OOS . This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. n. Eventually .. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . w and. r.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . . reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired.variations (e. It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. p 246. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. Vol 2 .n (t . R (unit vector R). i. 9 . for a table of parameter sets). Therefore . The axis S is . where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M .g. 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. .Sec. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily.T (or M) will be used. e. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations .. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . The standard orbital elements a. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. � . along the instantaneous radius vector. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow.and dM ?. 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations.
4. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G. = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9.rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly . W.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt . The third axis. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .43) . 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.
� 2& ' = 399 (9 . expressions for found.44) (9.4 and . 9.43).46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a . dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .46) and F S (9 . (9 .Sec.49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations. so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .45) To express this in known terms.48) Substituting in equation (9. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed..4. Differentiating the conic equation Qr.!I=8!" nr from (9 .1 0) .48) we find da dt = (9. This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .1:!:. (9 .44).
la _ (9 04. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h. 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .4.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .2 )% a = (1 .) Since h = hW. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation. r hW + h da S dt (9 .1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.�) % J.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0)..lae dt h $) a dt .
1 6) we obtain .Sec.�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'. K) � (9 .4.sin QL = dt .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r). 4 .4.1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.1 8) .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .4.4. 9 . K ..4.h cos i rF s h2 ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .4.1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 . 1 e2 (9 . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .n di dt (9 .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
2p.5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l .v 2p.Sec.4. but more practically we would consider � = v .5 1 ) correct to first order in J. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P. c = ve 2 p. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . {at + c) + 3p.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v. . • . C. . . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. .2 (at + C)2  . 4 where c will be the parameter. From equation (9 . 9 .454) + 2p.v {at + c ) c (9 . ] (9 . Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion . allowing c to vary with time . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.e .vat a+v a .vc .45 0) should be small..45 1 ).2p.4.vt 2p. Since p.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p..at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .2 p. The constant of integration.45 1 ) .2p.v = .vt .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9.v which can be easily solved for c.4. . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence .J. and V are small. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.450) and solving for e we find (9 .
9 . The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. at best. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. economical in computing time. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. Unfortunately. 5 . The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed.e. storage and complexity.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . In theory. . highly questionable. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. efficiency. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b.. should be the criteria. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. his integration method. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. or has not carefully selected. c. such as the disturbing function. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. allow as large a stepsize as possible. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. d. not expediency. b . Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. 9 in detail. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. 9 . accuracy. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent.
9 . 4. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. The larger the . p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ .28 + 3.57 = 7 . In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree.567 = 7.476. 2 Integration Errors. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method.5 (9.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit.accumulated roundoff error . 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . Obviously . Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places.276 + 3 . In fact. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as .5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2.843. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation.388. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . and f.388. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation.Sec. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . They are roundoff and truncation errors. For instance .864. In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits.476. 9 . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . 5 . Baker (v 2.
6. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. AdamsMoulton. There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . 6 . Gill. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. 9 . errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. h. the larger the truncation error. in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. We will treat the first order equation . Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . EulerCauchy and Bowie . Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. 9 stepsize. Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . 1 RungeKutta Method. Of course . In general. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change .= f(t. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes .1 ) . The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. 9.63) dx dt (9.62) (9. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. Thus. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared).
2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.yry.( 1 + y..yV:. x n + k 3 ) (9.6. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n . have a relatively small truncation error. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .h ) k3 +. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 . 9 . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. They are relatively simple .) k2 6 3 l2 (9.% ] + k 2 [ 1 . One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step .Sec. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. 9 . In general. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . they are faster than the singlestep methods. and stepsize is easily changed . easy to implement .( 1 . This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure.k +.63) and n is the increment number.64) 1 1 + . x n . x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.
\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . 5 / 1 2 . The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . 3 9.67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). 3 /8 . . In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas.\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0. 1 /2 .6. . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods.\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9.1 f . 25 1 /720. 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k.66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme .beginning and after each stepsize change.
Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).6.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. the error terms are not generally known. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.59 f n . . This method.x n+1I I (P 270 (9.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . for instance. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9. 9 . The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9.x n + (5 5 f ri .Sec. In equation (9. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .9 f n 3 ) 24 (9.69).1 + 37 f n2 .
The GaussJackson method is one of the best.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n .° n 60480 (9. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. and most used. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ".° n + . requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter.1 f(t n + h).1 . x.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. though.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n.8 k . 9.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . "x. It is.h ) .6 .1 ' etc.6. . It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. 9 like other multistep methods. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k. though it also includes a corrector. n + � 84 "x. n + 1 2 n i \. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ".1 f(t n h) 2 2   . Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods.
9. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b.1 ) One such potential function. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. 9 . The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. the accelerations can be found from (9.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods.e presented in this section. ¢. However. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. is known.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker.I n=2 r (9. 2 and NASA C R. is ¢ = � [1 .6. according to Vinti. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams.l 005).5 Numerical Integration Summary . Table 9. 9.7.72) . Some of them become quite complex.6.1 The Nonspherical Earth . but only the simpler forms will be treated.Bashforth) methods are preferred. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. 9 . If the potential function. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . V. 2 . but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works.7. p/r. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize.
very difficult to determine proper size. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. 9 CI) . **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . it could be very fast. Vol t . * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps.
r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .2.( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .where J.� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> . 9. = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .J s � ( � ) (35� ..  I..J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .. if> = I!:.74) .7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .L = gravitational parameter Sec..42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .] (9 .
which are slightly in variance . 1 5 ± O.5 ± O. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � .6 6 (0.1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J .6 J4 = (1 .3003 ""6 ) + .57 ± O.75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .l ( �) 3 ( 3 .64 ± O. I )x 1 0.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.5)x 1 0. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients. .(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 . . l )x 1 0.6 J = (0. 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J . Vol 1 .6 ± O.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .6 . l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .44 ± O. These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . The first term in x. y.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2.. l )x 1 0. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.03)x 1 0. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.
2 Atmospheric Drag. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). To do this. Vol 1 . term) to the RSW sy stem. and other parameters.Sec. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. 9 . care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . by definition.. 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . Therefore ..Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . Thus. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. the drag coefficient. There are a few ctmtiol). simply use r3 r= where .7. The equations are formulated in the geocentric . equatorial coordinate system.. 7 Drag. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. p 147). will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . s 9. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth .77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. However. but will not be presented here. C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only).s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation .
t b ae ==ic. 9 .424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. z refer to the geocentric.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . y . equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. Radiation pressure. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density.7 .7 . Equation (9 .7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. altitude above an oblate Earth. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. etc. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo). x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. .ilc coffc.lli. equatorial coordinate system. though small.ie.78) z .3 Radiation Pressure. but the reader can find this in other documents. In the geocentric. 9 m p C O A .
. 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. z directions.4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates. Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. y.4349 0 x . but a major force . iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation.2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} .Ch. Prove this assertion . 9 . 7 . EXERCISES 9.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm). See equation (9.4. . m (9. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x .3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method.79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. 9 . the variation of eccentricity.1 5) . m = mass of vehicle (grams) . 9. 9 where A = cross section f = 4.4 Thrust. 9 .25).
F . Allione . * 9. 6. M. Jr . 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. J . Moulton . and Wl). * 9 .. * 9 .000 n mi. L. . 3 . R. 1 967. Vol VI. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit.l 005 . Planetary Coordinates for the. 1 . 4. Mendez.ittouck. . The Macmillan Co . Inc. LIST OF REFERENCES 2. L. Robert M . 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . Years 1 9601 980. 1 960. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques.445). Academic Press. London . M. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. and Clemence. A. 9 9 . DC. M. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Blackford. John Wiley and Sons." NASA CR. .426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. Baker. New York. C . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Ralston . Academic Press. New York. D. A.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . 1 9 1 4. New York. S . Washington. 1 96 1 . M. Brouwer. New York. 9 . Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. G. Feb 1 968. Guidance. 5 . and Wilf.
B . H. Battin. Escobal. 1 96 5 . 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . 9 . . Jr. E . G.Ch . A stronautical Guidance . NASA SP33 . Plumber. 1 1 . M . 1 4 . D. 1 964. John Wiley and Sons. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). Vol 1 . 2nd ed. W . Methods of Orbit Determination. New York. Maud W. R. Townsend. 1 948 . Orbital Flight Handbook. New York. Ann Arbor. Hildebrand. 1 95 6 . Longmans. Michigan. McGrawHill. Dubyago . 8 . Baker. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. R. DC . 1 6. M. Methods of A strodynamics. Published privately by the Author. 1 0. New York. John Wiley and Sons. Paul. R . 1 967. New York. Jr and Makemson. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. F . The Macmillan Co. 1 3 . Dynamical A stronomy . Th e Determination of Orbits. 1 5 . Inc. New York. Celestial Mechanics. Cambridge University Press. New Yark. 1 963. 1 96 1 . A . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Robert M. C. Escobal. 1 968 . 1 2. 1 95 3 . McGrawHill. The Computation of Orbits.. L. Herget. P. Smart. Part 1 . Academic Press. New York. P . Inc. New York. Washington. .
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.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius.24764 11sec 806 . and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 . 44686457 min 6378.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. 3. 'Derived from those values of Il .092567257 x 107 ft 3963 . 1 . r.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 . r.. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 .. we 0.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4.05883 36565 � TV. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter. 1 328 2 1 days 9. . 1 97 5 .4959965 x 1 0' km 5 .292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance. 2593 6..9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .. 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. 1 Center. Speed Unit I� TU.. 2506844773 deg min 7. English Units Metric Units 2.77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .9053682 8 km' . I DU� TUi.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29. Ile Angular Rotation.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself. Canonical Units I DU.922786 NM 1 3 .
APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii. _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.e . foot = 0.2342709 5 .08 1 52366 0 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 . 1 2 64963205 0 .01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .3 14 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .4 3 .07 1 0 1 50424 4 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .239446309 x 1 0. 1f = 3 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .8 9. there is no roundoff or truncation.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 . i.
Unit Vector. Examples are mass. Q. speed. Thus. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations.relationships involving vector quantities. length of a vector . In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . I DEFINITIONS Vector. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. 43 1 . The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . W). Scalar. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. not a null or zero vector. K) and (p. time or any real signed number. If A i s a vector . temperature . C. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. Examples are displacement. force and acceleration.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. velocity . vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . (Example : 3 or A). J.
Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). B and C are coplanar vectors.. . it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . If A.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. and A and B are not collinear. 1 Similarly. Coplanar Vectors. regardless of the position of their origins. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a.
B which is the same as A + (B). Scalar or Dot Product. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C . denoted by A • B. From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A . is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin.1 ) I AI cos B . The "dot" product of two vectors A and B.2.2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors. l .. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.l ) C. C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle.C.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . e I I l (C .
A o A = Aft. J . denoted by A x B . then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible . sma l lest ang le ( L e . That is.B + A .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . B and C form a right handed system. 23 ) (C.K= 1 I .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A .24) (C.(B + C) = A . .1=J .(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I .J =K .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.J = J o K=K o I = O where I . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. < 180° ) AxB =C . K are unit orthogonal vectors. The cross product of two vectors A and B. is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them..8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C .
27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. K are unit orthogonal vectors. then A X B = O. J. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel.C. e < In fact A x B = . the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C .(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C.
BI C1 .29) Scalar Triple Product.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C. from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.
2.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .B3 C) + A ( B3 C .C.B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C . is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C. The vector triple produce.2.1 2) (C.2.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C. denoted b y A x (B x C) . The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .l 3) (C.21 4) C.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 . 2.
.....9.. . . K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P.. ..438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o . " ...... ........with itself.. v C P K y ...... dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 . x J Then the velocity relative to the (I. thus ... then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + .YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of ..
v = wT .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle.C. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. In this special case then. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path.= . dr v = .= . This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .3 b. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T .. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. VE LOCITY 439 which.
EI. AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. D . Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. p. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . The radar determines p. elevation rate . I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. azimuth rate. Az.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. EI. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . Its geodetic latitude. elevation. positive to the east) of the launch site. It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . Use standard unit conversions given in the text. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). The input to TRACK should be range. longitude. latitude of the launch site. and of the satellite (R and V). range rate . The input to SITE should be latitude. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . azimuth. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). From the 440 .
END OF LSTIME .48 201.62624920) = (. Input UT as a decimal (i. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x .26347 1 9 8 .74933340. DAY. 007 N 1 04 .2045 72 1 6 . E 7 2 .63745829) z = . 2 2 29. 6 8 2.08 30. 040075. . 22 1 0.7 5. . GST _ 1 . GST. 0) = (. . . GST. . 5 7 5 for data set 3). UT.7 . : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . BEGIN REAL D.74933340.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . LST.75 1 003 9 1 . 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 .07 1 05 .3 . REAL LONG. Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 . LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. .75 components are : (.044 1 8440. .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. UT.05 1 37. 8 0. 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 .8 S 1 7 5.27907 599. LST) . 3 315 .0027379093®2®PI®D .775 1 80 1 9. 1 4923608. 9 W 0 1 9 05. 5. 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 .01 2035 7 5 . PI . If the above program is used. e .. 6 .05 1 9 5238) . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. y.5 . 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 .8 N 7 8 . PI.5 90 .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .D. .5 3 0 .5 3 4 ON 4 5.7 . LST and LONG are in radians. observation time and radar tracking data. = (.57 76. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . INTEGER DAY. Following are five sample sets of data for site location. .5 1 35 .
9 1 . 6 2 . .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29. 0 1 7 45 .6 0 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach. 49 0 0 2.49 0 .5 0 . The type of trajectory (circular.1 0 22. 48 4 0 2. Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. b . 0) (. Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.703 . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (.001 5 30 0 . . hyperbolic). 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 .1 .2 VI .707 .9 0 2 0 .4 1 4 2. Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . 7 0 3 VK . c.4 1 722472 . parabolic. From this information you are required to fmd : a. 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth.4 1 4 0 0 65 . For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). elliptical. 05 .293 .1 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. 5 .85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. 01 .9 1 046 1 80. 00001 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix.4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . 1 0 0 2 .8 .001 1 0 . . rectilinear..01 . 1 29579 1 9 . d.
x should never be greater than 2m. RJ 61 .7 . a . If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations.5 0 0 . Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x.0. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61.3 D. Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used.5 . If your iteration process is efficient.8 .4 of the text for guidance . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . To determine when convergence has occurred. you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. Also for an ellipse.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. 1 5 0689 1 . On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. 1 38878 .5 . b. 61.025 9 1 7 . 61 (calculated) . and dt/dx for each iteration.jiL d. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). c. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 .3 1 0 .
. For instance note that y can never be negative . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. I t .. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 ..1 . For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . 0.. t :::. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11').w)..444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine.. 1 0.t c l :::.5 1 . 1 06 1 0.9 20 . 0 . Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . R2 V2 = (0.6 for 1 :::.70655823.6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight.1 .999 o 1 03 D. and sign (7T .4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. . 1 65 08 .. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives.002 1 7 7 1 . 1 8 1 . bt. 00 1 074 . Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text... 1 362596) = (0.01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points. 0003 6 1 . If there is no convergence in 50 iterations.00006057 ... I�I :::. Given r l ' r2 . 3. One of the data sets tests this situation.
6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. Check for this case .6 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 ..3 .S = (0. . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. The following data i s i n canonical units. 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (. D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM . time of radar observation. x.4 . See section 5 .4 .4 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .6 .1 specifies the long way.66986992.2 . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem.3 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z .1 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.0001 +1 .201 . print out a message and go to the next data set . 7 for further discussion o f this project . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. .3 .4804847 1 . and the location of an interceptor launch site . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .2 1 .2 .6 .6 .2 . y. location of the tracking site . Also print t:J) and a for each data set .0 . so a check should be made for that condi tion.1 . 1 .7 .7 0 1 0 1 .5 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT.5 .4 1 . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.66993 1 97 .7 0 1 0 20 1 . . The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .9378 1 789) = 4.6 .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .8 5 +1 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight. 1 2298 1 44.
Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . This will aid you in verifying your solution . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . the number of reaction times desired . KEPLER and GAUSS. TRACK. e .05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top .45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 .3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. To make your program flexible . g. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . and the number of timeofflight increments desired .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. Times should be read in as minutes. The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. Make some provision to print out all of your input data. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. When you point out your arrays. f. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target.446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. c. the desired increment size for reaction time . d. b . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time .
5 p = 1 86. The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.038 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .1 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 . 844 **** **** **** 35 7 . of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei . 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.338 **** **** **** 10 8 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.6 1 3 km EI = 56. 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 .92 deg/sec 1 .0.95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .74.
LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LATL.
INDEX .
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277320 computation chart. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 1 5 . 3 3 period of. 1 09. 4 gravitational h armonics. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 54 orbit plane. Tycho. 4 3 0 Conversions. 102 Apoapsis. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 84. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 349 Angle of elevation. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 374 Computer projects.9 8 gravitational constant. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 1 22. 1 620. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 2 3 4. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 94. 5358. 246 Brahe. 203 Aphelion. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 1 09 Angular momentum. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 56 Celestial sphere.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 6. 74 BMEWS. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 3 9 0 station. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 429 flattening. 5 3 . B urnout. 3 2 3 masses. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 3 8 9 . 74 geocentricequatorial. 24 Apparent solar time. 429 lunar distance. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 1 00. 60 Argument of periapsis. 5 3 . 57 perifocal. 9498 transformations. 297299 451 . 9 3 . 2427 Apogee. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 1 4. 109 B akerNunn camera. 24 height adjustment. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 423 Azimuth. 2 1 2 B asis. 3 4 Collision cross section. 4043 Celestial equator. 279 C anonical units.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 20. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 2 1 . 4 1 . 1 8 5 true. 5 7 principal direction. 5 5 heliocentric. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 7483 Coordinate systems. 84 ecliptic. 28 1 B arker's equation. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 8 4 Copernicus. 429 Astronomical Unit. 60 and universal v ariables. 84.1 3 1 G auss problem. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 1 8 3 mean. 422 gravitational parameter. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 3 5 8 . 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 296 geometry. 1 8 8 . 5 8 Aristotle. 3 2 5 . 54 fundamental plane.
3 1 . 5 8 . 1 8 8.1 4 3 . 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 423 424 Earth oblate. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 2 0 .1 3 1 Direct ascent. 26. 60 true longitude at. 1 0 6 precession. 40. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius.1 5 5 Direct motion. 1 0 twobody. 1 60 low altitude. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 58 from position a n d velocity. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 1 8 2. 2 1 2.93 . G ibbsian orbit determination method. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 26 ff. 1 1 7. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 4 G ravitational parameter. 1 8 1 . 3 5 8 G amma G auss.1 90. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 8 0 f and g expressions. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 94 . 6 1 Elevation angle. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 3 0 . 2 4 . 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 25.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 2 1 ff. 3 89 nbody. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 1 0 9 . 264 eccentric anomalies. 3 5 .452 Declination. 9 4 Geoid. 3 6 8 local. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method.3 9 6 Energy. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. G auss problem.2 1 2 parabolic. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 3 5 . 7 G ravitational constant. 2 3 3 . 62 Ecliptic. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 84. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 4 3 3 Drag. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 1 42. 56. 2 9 7 . 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. function o f true anomaIles. 1 0 3 G round track. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 2 8 2 time. 3 90 . 227 418 ( y ) .3 0 6 numerical integration. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 1 54. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 2 9 . 1 04 Escape speed. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 1 7 equations. 22827 1 . 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 306 EarthMoon system. 2 1 2. 1 4 0 . apparent. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 1 22. 60 Dot product. 25 1 258.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 8 7 . 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 62 vector. 4 G alileo. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian.3 3 pe.riod o f . 3 00 launching. 444 algorithm. 1 8 8 . 54 Elements of orbit. 1 0 6 mean. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. zenith angle.1 1 6 Gravitation. 20 1 202 f and g series. 221 hyperbolic. 3 5 0 Epoch. Elliptical orbits. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 25 1 . Carl Fredrich. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 3 22 trajectories. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 9. 2 1 . 4 1 9. 4 Newton's law of. 2 3 0 . 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time.
1 8 8 . 3 59374. 3 9 6 M otion. 1 57 Line of nodes. 5 1 . 1 4 1 . 1 5 6. 5 8 Longitude. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 3 8 1 Hohmann.8 9 derivatives i n . 3 24 . 3 69. 2 1 . 2 second. 22. numerical rotation of. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 3 9 6 constraints. Edmund. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 3 57 . 22 1 . 9 9 . 3 80 Kepler. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. gravitational parameter.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 1 7 7.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 1 0 2 Meridian. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 2 6 5 27 1 . 3 24326. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 1 Kepler's equation. 1 9 8 . 1 5 1 . 20 Least squares solution. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 3 0 3 . 6 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 6 rotation of. Isaac.9 3 Mu ( � ) . 1 0 1 . 207 I nclination. 3. 7. 2 8 8 . 3 1 Moon.1 6 6. 3 89 trajectories. 2 Heliocentric constants. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 3 65 noncoplanar. 3 1 6 Injection. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 3 7 0 Integration. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer.3 8 4 general coplanar. 3 5 0 free return. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 2. 1 6 3 . 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 2. 1 03 Minor axis. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 3 44 . 3 62 . 234. 62 longitude of ascending. 1 56 vector.3 05. 1 8 5 . 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 247 Newton's laws. 3 8 . 2. 1 5 6. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 1 02 Mean solar time. 1 .1 8 1 first. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 3 1 Manned flight. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. true at epoch. 6. 1 1 7 derivatives.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. Greenwich. equations o f nbody. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 3 9. 1 80 third. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 2. 1 4 1 . 94 reduced. 3 7 9 . 220 Mean motion. 3 69 . J ohann.I N D EX H alley. 3 26 orbital elements of. 4. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 2 H alley's comet. 60 Latus rectum. 238. 1 52 Mass of planets. 1 1 7 Latitude. 60 Lunar trajectories. 58 regression. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. limitations. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 8 6 . 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 1 0 twobody. 94 geodetic. 62 . 54 Heliocentric transfer. 5 Newton. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 2 7 7 . 8 9 . 3 27. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 8 Node ascending. 3 64. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. argument of at epoch.
5 symbols. 3 44 . 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 443 algorithm. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 34. two body. 3 9 0 Parabola. 203. 1 0 3 P rojects.454 Nu (v ) . 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories.1 22. 424 thrust. 6 1 from sighting directions. 1 3 Rendezvous. 3 8 6 general. 1 9 3 . 4 1 2425 errors. 4 1 8 RungeKutta.3 44 Periapsis. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 2 4 Periselenium.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 4 1 9 . 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 3 4 1 Period. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 2 4 . 2 0 . 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 5 1 .3 7 9 lunar. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. true anomaly. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 20. 1 6 Potential function. 3 1 . 424 R ange and rangerate data.1 76 inplane changes. 3 90 . 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 20 Polar radius. 26527 1 Residuals. 3 24 . 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 6 1 o f moon. 1 1 7. 1 1 7 . 1 69 Orbit determination. 1 5 1 . 94 Potential energy reference. 1 1 7 . 2 1 . 1 1 Retrograde motion. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 1 62 O rbit.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 423 due to the moon. 1 0 9 Rectification.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. flightpath angle. 3 3 3 . 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 1 90 Numerical integration. 220 classical formul ations.1 50. 56.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 22727 1 Orbit plane. 60 Right ascension. 3 24 . 2 1 Osculating orbit.1 59 examples. 2 1 . Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 420 c riteria for choosing. 58 determination from position and velocity.1 22 from position and velocity. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 1 09 . 2 1 2 computer solution. 83 from optical sightings. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters.9 8 Optical sensors. 1 5 6 . 3 9 0 Relative motion. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 3 8 7 . 4 1 9 radiation pressure.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 57 Perigee. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 9 3 . 2427 argument of. 3 59 . 24 height adjustment. 425 Phi ( � ) . 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 1 62 . 4 1 4 sum squared. 3 3 Perturbations.3 9 0 Encke's method. 3 60 physical characteristics. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 3 6 1 shape of. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 440448 Q parameter. 1 3 2 outofplane changes.
1 0 1 Spacetrack.1 0 9 apparent solar. 23. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 1 9 1 development of. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 40. 1 3 2. 2 8 7 maximum range. 1 6 Sputnik. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 9 3 . 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 1 5. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 4. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 7 Universal time. 1 0 1 . 1 9 6 derivatives of. 2 1 at epoch.1 4 assumptions. 5 8 Time zones. 99. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 40 Unit vectors. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 425 Time. 8 6 .4 3 9 Velocity components. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 1 1 . 43 1 4 3 9 cross product.1 6 6 True anomaly. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 2062 1 0 use of. 1 6 6. 4 3 7 unit. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 1 0 3 universal. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 1 3 6 radar. 1 9 1 225. 1 8 1 . 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 60 True longitude at epoch.1 8 8 . 9. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 1 3 5 ellipse. 20 Semimajor axis. 44 1 mean solar. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. canonical. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 3 5 8 . 8 4 . Universal gravitation.9 8 of planets.1 40 errors. 4 3 7 .4 3 9 d o t product. 4 3 7 . 60 Twobody orbit problem.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 4 3 3 triple product. 1 3 8 optical. 3 60 physical characteristics. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method.3 59 orbital elements. 1 03 local sidereal. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 3 6 1 Solar time. 3 27. 1 9 high. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system.1 40 Selenocentric. definition of. 20. 9 9 . 1 8 (see Nbody . 1 8 8 universal variables. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 1 1 Units. 1 8 8 .8 9 derivatives in.1 0 4 Solar system. 1 9 1 . 3 1 Sensors. 1 52 Station coordinates. 23. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 30. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 1 6. 1 6 3 . 425 Thrust perturbation. 287 low. 6. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 58 Semi minor axis. 5 radio interferometers.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 1 0 1 . 85 Traj ectory equation. 2 1 7 parabola. 1 3 1 . 2 8 8 . 9 Sidereal time. 9 9 .1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 1 02. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 99. 1 3 1 . 1 8 1 . 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions.1 9 0 if. 4 3 1 Velocity.1 69 Hohmann. 2 3 5 evaluations of.
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