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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.W.R.B. J .E. D. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) .vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P . Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. Jan Irvine . United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.D.M. . Ronald Chaney ( artist) . The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged. Dorothy Fryar .
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. . . . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . _ 1 . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . .2 The NBody Problem . 1 . . . . . . . . . . 2 . 1 . . 1 . . . . 1 . . . . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . 1 09 . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . 1 . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . 74 . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . 1. . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . 2. 83 . . . List of References . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . 61 . 1 . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . . . 2. . 1 . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . 2. . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 .1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. 5 . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . List of Reference s . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Solar System .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . xi 5 . . . . . 7. 359 . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . 344 352 355 . . . Exerc ises . . . . . . 390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . Histor ical Background . . . . . List o f Re ferences . . . . . . . . . . 297 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . . . 8. . . 3 87 9. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . 3 84 . . . . . . . . 3 85 9.Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 20 . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . 277 6. . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . . . . 333 . . . . . . . . . 380 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 6 . . . 3 27 . . . 277 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 . . . 258 . . . . . 8 . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . Exercises . . . 379 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . . . . . . . List of References . . . . . . . 25 1 . . . . . . . .4 7. 27 1 . . . . . . 357 . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . .
. . 440 449 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . .6 9. . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . .
was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. as his mother told him in later years. Newman! . Tycho. JarnesR.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. the noble and aristocratic Dane. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. 1 642 . who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. the year Galileo died. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day.CHAPTER 1 TWO. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. Kepler. the poor and sickly mathematician. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. he might have been put into a quart mug. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton.
Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . necessarily moved in circles. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. with the sun at a focus . therefore . is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. TWO. not an explanation of planetary motion .1 Kepler's Laws. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . Since the time of Aris totle . Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . 2 1. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse.1 Still. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!).BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. It fit. The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. Kepler's laws were only a description. One day in 1 685 . The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . Finally .1. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. discoverer of Halley's comet.
Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. more simply. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. when he recovered from his shock. t he Principia. of course . in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. casually posed the question. they speculated whether a force . 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . without mentioning the b et. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. "Why. or . 4 1. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force .Sec. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke .1. Dissatisfied with this explanation.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . in ellipses. 1 .
1 ) (1 . The universal gravitational constant. .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .. .1.G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. . Note that equation ( 1 .n ( 1 . • .12) t o equat i. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll. 1 . . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . has the value 6.11 Newton's Law of Motion .67Ox 1 0. Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. " Figure 1 . 1. 1 2) Fg = . .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites.4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch.1 .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system. / .1 . 1 . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.1 . . G.'�V .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.
m2 • m3 m m.e.. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. X I . solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. a lunar or interplanetary probe.2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. In addition.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(.Sec 1. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies ...e. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . . j.. An important force.. .�I '. At any given time in its j ourney. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. 1. or a planet). an earth satellite . the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. thrust and solar radiation pressure . etc. . . I I I Figure 1. propellants) to pro duce thrust..II I I I " I I I I :. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. . not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. I " '..
6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch .1 . variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies.. 1 equator. Although small.. Thus. • • • z FOTHER . The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. are discussed in Chapter 3 . regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X.2' The NBody Problem Figure .���Y � X n 1. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. 2. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. Y. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . These effects. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities..
perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . F gn where =  Gm . . solar radiation pr essure. Fg. .2.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself. (1. The v ector sum. m'J JI 3 (rj j) .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. thrust. of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r .Se c 1. equation ( 1 . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 .2.5 ) The other external force .. the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . .3) Obviously . etc . The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) .2 ·1 is T composed of drag. II 3 (1.
Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time .2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 .. y .. In other words. Thus.F I dt TOTAL dt (1.28 would not be zero .26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL..I) and all other external forces . d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL...27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'. is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ.. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0.8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch.1 + F OTHER ' (l . . it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma. (1...I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x . z coordinate system.
sun and planets .G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth.G And for i = 0 . Then writin g equation 1 . 1 2 The remaining masses m3 . r JI. m . we get j = j � *i 1 3 . mn may be the moon. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.. Equation ( 1 ..10) ( . Equation (1 . equation ( 1 . ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system .29) reduces to = r· 1 n .2.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . Y.2. mi 0). The only remaining forces then are gravitational. F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. m· J (�i) .. nonlinear.11) 2. expelling mass or relativistic effects.29) is a second order . unpowered flight.1 0) for i = 1.2. vector.1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1.1 2) . differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form. ( 1. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions.2.2.Sec 1 .
r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence.G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch. Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .1 2) into equation ( 1 .2 1 6) each bracket.2. . n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1. 2 1 7 ) . .1 From equation ( 1 .21 1 ) and ( 1 .. Since r 1 2 = .1 4) gives.2. 2.1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .
21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite .9x l O 8 7 .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth.1 Simplifying Assump tions. This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . The bodies are spherically symmetric . mi orbit about the earth. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .2x l O 8 2. Table 1 .3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. 1 . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion . 1 x l 0 10 3. 1. There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 .89 6x l 0 4 2.Sec.2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .3. 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3. Howe ver .6x l O lO 1 . sun and planets on a near earth satellite .3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 . . To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 . s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies.3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies. Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 .
Y'. 1 2. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies.1 ) (1 .3. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. Let (X'. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. remains always similar and irrnovable. 3 2 ) . 1 . we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . Y. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame .3. without relation to anything external.3. which "in its own nature. Y' . Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1.1 . " s However. Y'. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. .GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . Y'. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. Let (X. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. For the time being.12 TWO.2 The Equation of Relative Motion.. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates.
.y X' Figure 1 . Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. Z').3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr.Sec.31) we have = _ r .31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. and acceleration in a nonrotating.33) . 1. ballistic missiles. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X.33). Y'. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . (1 . Y. GIM+ml r Equation (1. Y. Y'. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem.32) from equation (1. Note that this is the same as equation (1. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. Note that since the coordinate set (X. Y. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. velocity. Z'). Z) with its origin in the central body.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r.
called the gravitational GM. "kinetic . Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. It is convenient to define a parameter.3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) .14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch.3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). m. 1 some planet or the sun. namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. M. Then equation 1 .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. If you think ab out the model we have created. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . 1. will be much less than that of the central body . 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . 3 ·4 ) . you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy." That is." for another form called "potential energy . the mass of the orbiting body . Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. If m is not much less than M.
!!. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. 1. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O . v =r and v= f.Sec. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . If the time rate of change of an expression is zero . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. ( 1 . then 1 . Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . C.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. But what about the arbitrary co nstant .lL\I r dt JJ. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that .4. N 0 tlcmg that .' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity.4 frame (the large mass) does not change . r 2. 1 . 5. dt 1:L = O. which appears in .r ) = � r �(r . Therefore.
2 Conservation of angular momentum.42) 1 . Cross multiply equation ( 1 . O.1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. e . The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . rX . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. the earth. as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. We conclude . The expression for � is �. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O.fL 3 .iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . Noticing that . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary.4. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . therefore . Since in general a x a= 0. that the specific mechanical energy. �. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity .iL (rxv) = O. dt . If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. In other words. This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary .g.  ( 1 . of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . 3 4) by r 2 . r. at what distance .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch.
41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. called specific angular momen tum. But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal." "Up" simply means away . (1 . we have shown that the specific angular momentum. we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . 1 . Therefore .The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h.43) v I h = r x v.4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. I Figure 1 . We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. Therefore . h.41 Flightpath angle .
1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I.4274I+2. • ( 1 . In an inertial coordinate system. c o s ¢=Jl. J and K are unit vectors. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . v. 1 85 2 1 + 6. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r.8143 r • v > 0 . The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth.8143 = 35. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). ¢.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. Determine the specific mechanical energy .0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. however. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are .7 1 37J+O. ¢. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . respectively.2778 J + 1 0 .4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. &. = 0. I h = rv c o s ¢. h. V =5.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2.899 X 107 ft. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). (4.4.420 . and the specific angular momentum. r = 12. the zeni th angle . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Ch.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6.5936 1 + 5 . Also find the flight·path angle.
its complete solution is not.. JJ.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .. we see that J!:.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. 1 . Also note that J..Sec. While this equation (1. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v . (h xr) =. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain.51) The left side of equation (1. 1 .5..1 Integration of the Equation of Motion.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4.& .51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ.3 3 r r r since r • i = f .I. �t (B· . . err.( r) r. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. (1..33) is simple.1!y r .
p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. ..53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation.. I r 1 + e cos V p (1.9 cos V (1. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. V.54) . Equation (1. v. + r o Since. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. c and a . To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B.54) . 5. +(81J. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation.53) 1 . in general. h2 where vector r. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . we obtain = 1 h2 /g . (1.
Sec. cp. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. parabola.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. 3.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. 5 . The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. the flightpath angle.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . an exchange of energy between the two forms. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. (See Figure 1 . 4 . We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . ellipse. Before discussing the factors .44) 1 . 2. As r and v change along the orbit.51 illustrates an ellipse. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. potential and kinetic. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant.41 and equation (1 .53) and the equation of a conic section (1.5. There is. not just ellipses. must change so as to keep h constant. however. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. remains constant. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. Although Figure 1. 1. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem.
we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines .52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. 1 Figure 1 . The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone).5 2 illustrates this definition . the section is a hyperbola having two branches. If. the section is an ellipse. If the plane cuts both nappes.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. or a single point. Figure 1. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . the section is a parabola.
the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. F and F'. Figure 1 . F'.53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. The secondary or vacant focus. F. The prime focus.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) .Sec 1 .53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections .
" etc.55) p = a (1 . ( 1 .54)). The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c." "perihelion" or "aphelion. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . In the parabola.5 3 . Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 .e2). The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . a. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . Thus. It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 .24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. is c�lled the semimaj or axis. The dimension.
52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. e = BltL.56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e).= a( 1 +e) . . Quite obviously. 1 ( 1 . By comparing equations ( 1 .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 . In the derivation of equation ( 1 . since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. the trajectory equation. 5.Sec . 1. 1e ( 1 . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . 5. 53)..59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 .53) and ( 1 . B. tL r ( 1 . which points toward periapsis.58) 1 . . we encountered the vector constant of integration.1 0) .4 The Eccentricity Vector. ( 1 .
1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. Therefore.1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. h. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. 1. e = V x (r x v) . equation ( 1 . v ) v . e . is zero. /or any orbit. By comparing equation ( 1 . x v. th .6 RELATING &.6. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth.26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. v. ( 1 .p. e = ( v v ) r . of the satellite. v)v. Figure 1 .p. is equivalent to increasing h.(r . we get • p. and that as h is . r  r .53) and equation ( 1 .. r r p. ( 1 .5. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r .61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). 1 .54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum.. By inspection. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. p.
R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .1 ) predicts . .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . v. We can then write. .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 .  . �' " .e ) . Figure 1 .. 57) p rp = a(1 . is zero. I '. .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle. . (1 . = �. . r I .F �.62) we obtain &.�= � . as a corollary to equation ( 1 .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . p.44).. 1 01) . . .6..increased the parameter.
This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . Many students find equation ( 1 . of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive. Thus. or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in.1 ) therefore p.28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &.56) and equation (1 . Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative .a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . the energy of a satellite (negative .63) misleading. Figure 1 . You should study it together with Figure 1 .6. zero.6. &.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit).63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis. a. 1 and from equation ( l .
5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = .Sec 1 . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. mi. Determine its altitude at apogee. e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . and semimaj or axis. Namely. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. if & is positive .897  e2 ) = 3. 3 n .7 n . specific mechanical energy.. . m i . 2& = 3 . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0.0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. r p = rES + 200 = 3643. m i . & = 2 . semilatus rectum. m i .  a=  '!:. e is greater than I (a hyperbola). = 6.2 Determine its specific angular momentum.Jf5P. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The student should be aware of this pitfall. 0 . For a given satellite . R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit.. and specific angular momentum. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . 6 . 9 n . ra = 1 � e = 4453. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. if & is zero .1 and perigee altitude 200 n . e is exactly 1 (a parabola). 64) Notice again that if & is negative..
Since an ellipse is a closed curve.mi. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. 2a = r a + r = 8097.= 2.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.7·2) .m i .7· 1 . An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 Geometry of the Ellipse. specifically r + 1 .855 = 6 . When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. ( 1 .r Ell = 1 009. = 5. h =. I ( 1 .7 .861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a . the distance between the foci is ( 1 .7· 1 ) B y inspection.JpjJ. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . 1 .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . 1 n.
73) ( 1 . Since r + r' = 2a.7. in general. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .7 . Using equation ( 1 . 1 . when rearranged .71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since.7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .1 .75) which. equation ( 1 . 2 ( 1 . If you refer to Figure 1 .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v. becomes r dt = 11 dll.76) .Sec.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.72) and ( 1 .7. e is defined as combine to yield da. you will see that the .44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . 2 b.74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.72. At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 .
32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . we can rewrite equation ( 1 . is given by the expression So. d A.72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. d v.77) dt 2 = 11 dA.73 Differential element of area . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. 1 Figure 1 . Figure 1 .76) as ( 1 .
since h = /JlP.77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period.75).8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit. 1 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. Thus. 55) and ( 1 . 1 Circular Satellite Speed.e2 ) = JaP and. Naturally.1 ) 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 .79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus .79). the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. Equation ( 1 . so equation ( 1 .78) b =) a 2 . the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. a.8 . proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. incidentally. From equations ( 1 . During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . ( 1 .8.8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . Of course.Sec. 1 .c2 =) a 2 ( 1 . Integrating equation ( 1 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 .
9. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius. The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.1 Geometry of the Parabola. There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know.1 ) .1 . The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. 1 . Another is that.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . F or a low altitude earth orbit.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . circular speed is about 26 .000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 .9.34 TWO . the periapsis radius is just r 1 .82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit .9. 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.000 ft/sec. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again. we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . rCS' from the energy equation.
Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity. Theoretically. from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � .57).9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 .91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l." 1 .Sec. first at a general point a distance . as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero .92) .9.E. r. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back. Of course.2 Escape Speed. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. 1 .= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   ." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .
Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude .1 57. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field.92) =21 . 53374 106 ft = = 36.400 nm above the surface it is only 26.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 .B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J.Since the specific mechanical energy. b . As you would expect. 5 7). 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 8.000 ft/sec.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. 36 TWO .1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . = j. a.. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 . a. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. the semimajor axis.1/2a. Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : .
53374 106 ft 2 43.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21. 8n. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. m i .amr iO. 06748 106 ft 7087.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . rb i t P 7087. m i . where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .8 n. 1 .Sec.
1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. If. 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . Obviously. A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . 1 0. (L l O. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes).1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). 1 . F . The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. 1 0. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . If we consider the lefthand focus. then the righthand branch represents the orbit.1 ) .38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. instead. 1 1 . Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . The parameters a. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles).
1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 .2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity.. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . 1 0. 1 02) becomes ( 1 . the smaller will b e the turning angle . is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed. The angle between the asymptotes. 0. 1 ." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. 1 0. we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value .for the hyperbola.0.but since Sec. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola.1 . on the other hand. we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. 1 . The turning angle . 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . V 00' . If.
the concept is convenient and is widely used. of course . 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. however. It is a fact. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed.3 Sphere of Influence. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . 1 0. Astronomers call thi� ' . 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . 1 . 1 . for all practical purposes it has escaped.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. 1 (1 . we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. It is. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. In other words. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. a million miles) from earth." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit.
" We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. r a' r p' . We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . 1 . h. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . For other problems where the earth. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. Using canonical units determine & .l. 1 . We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. 5 9362 5 . In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 1 The Reference Orbit. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. or other planet. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. e.1 . 1 1 . p. then the value of the gravitational parameter. earth. moon.Sec. will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. J. 1 1 .
[1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 1 67 D U �/T U � = . 5 D U e �2 _ /J. Alt = .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. � = . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 .42).1 . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 .
1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = . 1 .. 5 D U = 9.58) Find r p from equation (1.Sec. 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t.64) Find ra from equation (1. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .61) Find h from equation (1. 25D U EB = 4.5 7)  r a = 1 e p. 5 D U ".4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 .= 4 .7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. = 2. = 3.
000 ft/sec and 4 . c. 2J AK IJK h = AI . a.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch .. Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit.3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. Why. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft.2.000 n mi. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. Find the specific energy of the trajectory. 1 . respectively. Find the eccentricity of the orbit. 1 EXERCISES 1 . 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. 5 81) 1 . 6 J 1 . 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. 2K DU 2 /TU . The orbit eccentricity is 0. &= . b .1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. (Answer : e = 1 . .1 . 1 . Find the period of the orbit.44 TW O. in general. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI .
9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. 354 10" r 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 .Ch .123K = 1 .6 18 = 59° 58') . &. D U /T U DU e. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n.5 rpe r i gee = 1 . (Ans.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. mi during descent? (Ans. hyperbolic. 7 Prove that d. 0 1K v = l + l . p b. r v c. V ft/sec. 2K + . elliptical.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. ¢ =3 = 1 . 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24.5 DU DU DU d. p 1. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . a a. 1. 91 J space. r x ft ) = 3. 4K r r v = . 1 . or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ).000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 .
ellipses and a hyperbolas. p = 3. b . p = 2. p = 2. 1 2 Given that e = �.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . d . p = 6. c.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. e. 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. Determine the maximum altitude attained. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. p = 6. e=O e = .) 1 .6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 .000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = . P 1 . 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.000 ft.2 e = . 1 . (Neglect atmo spheric drag. derive values for e for circles. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0.
What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v.6. * 1 .V O U EB /TU EB ) . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 1 .Ch . c. 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. Show that : b. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. 207 1 . 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. rc = at +b = 0. What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 .1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: .
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
Q and W respectively.4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system.Sec. 2 . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . you may use the same Figure 2. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars.24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . Yw '+. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. When describing a heliocentric orbit .2. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation.Xw UK vectors. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . 2 . The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW.
p. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . T. if you know a and e you can compute p. 3 .3. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . Instead of argument of periapsis. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. 5 . a. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. is substituted for a in the above list. 2 . w.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. time of periapsis passage .1 as follows : 1 .the time when the satellite was at periapsis. K I I . e. in the fundamental plane . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . Another system. Similarly. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . 6. the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size .the angle . It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. Frequently the semilatus rectum. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. 2. i. Obviously . The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . Q longitude of the ascending node.the angle from to periapsis measured h. shape and orientation of an orbit . 4 .
Sec. 2 .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.31 Orbital elements .
Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. earth." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . then both w and Uo are undefined. then b oth W and n are undefined.32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). w and va are all defined. to ' called the "epoch. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. 1 £0 £0 + . n=n+w. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . From Figure 2. both of which are always defined . (2 . in the plane of the orbit.3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) .31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. This is the dire ction in which the sun.3. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 ." Direct means easterly. between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun.1 ) . Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde .60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 .
Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . 2. h. vI vJ v K J (2 .42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. n would have to lie in the orbital plane.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. n an d e. 2 . To be perpendicular to K. t o .4. h. To be perpendicular to h. The node vector.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. 2. n and e.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK .43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . n must be perpendicular to both K and h. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. n. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . or in their intersection which is called the "line of . Therefore . n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 .
4. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. All three vectors. Study this figure carefully .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . We are only interested in its direction. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . h. ex. p.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .4.3. The vector. An understanding of it is essential to what follows . 2 nodes. 2. and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known .2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. In general. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved .1 ." Specifically . B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: .1 1 )). e. Now that we have h.S . The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit.46) Of course . The parameter. the cosine of the angle . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node.1 ) (2 . is obtained from (2 .
:.4. � � h. 2. 2 .) .) c o S Po = � er (2 .1 0) 7 . (2 . Since i is the angle between K and h. (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.49) 6... (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .4 3 . Since n is the angle between I and n.' (2.48) 5 .47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .4. Since Uo is the angle between n and f . Since w is the angle between n and (2.Sec. Since Vo is the angle between e and f.) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° .L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° . e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4. c o s U o = !!.) e.1 1) .
If they don't make sense to you. The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. look at the geometry of Figure 2 . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative).1 and study it until they do .64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . . With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v.1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense .4. 3 . 2 z x 8 . Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2.
Figure 2.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1.Sec. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 . 5 DU e == . VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.
2 3 Figure 2 .5 e == .4 DU p == .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .\ .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .
44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1. 2.Sec.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .
r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node .1 ) p = . .i:.48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). Find p using equation (2 . and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth.1.l h2 . f. e.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 . [ ( f. n.(r . ml .7 4n .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . 7 75 . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. using equation (2 .. i.. From equation (2. Find eccentricity.47) = ..I:!:. ) r .45 ) Since h =.6.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . Find inclination.= 4D U = 13. Using equation (2.. EEl . Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.4.
Find argument of periapsis.  Find longitude of periapsis. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis.Sec. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector . II. 2 . va. for this case .. can be determined in this case.n. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. is undefined. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . II. From equation (2 .. 4 .41 0) v a c os.n = COS . Find true anomaily .1 (.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis.49) W n · e W. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 . From equation (2.!!. = cos .:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . .
E)r(r . 1 [6 \ h=rxv=. v)v] =.m i . EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct . From equation (2.85 n . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� . The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .  then from equation ( 1 .25 EB EB D U EB 7748.5 ... 2 Find true longitude o f epoch. = From equation (2.1 ) Find e..6.33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .
From equation (2 . I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 . 2.I Find the true anomaly . . Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .5 Find the inclination.4.5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.49) w: 0 W = cos.Sec. va : From equation (2. From equation (2.11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis.
the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. n.to. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . w and va . shown below. Of the se six elements. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. Let ' s assume that we know p.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. w and v. The method. i .5 2) . changes with time .5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 .72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 . 8. i. lV.5.24): ro to. 8. v. n. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System.ffe si n V (2.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. consists of two steps. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . 2 elements are given. 2. that occurs in a given time . .
si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .Sec.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Before equation (2.54) from equation r (2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = . A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.5 i= p 2.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 . 2. 5P DU E9 (2.25 45{) (2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v). v �[.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.54) r = J � [.
" The phrase in quotes describes what the . Certain vectors. east. 2 2. vector represents. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. suppose you know the south. and it still represents the same thing. For example. its fundamental (xy) plane . and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin ." 2. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. such as position vectors. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. east . It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates.6. or what it represents.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude .6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . have a definite starting point . east a!1d up. suppose you know the south. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . namely. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . the direction of the po sitive zaxis. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. In other words. direction . 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. For example .
" A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S . Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. Figure 2.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite .6. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis.61 illustrates the two frames. 2. and extending along the x. : r Y I ex a . Figure 2.61) . ���________� • . Let us imagine three unit vectors I. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis." In other words. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 . 2. V and W along the x ' . expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame .Sec. y ����.y Y 75 . y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation. y' and z ' axes.
62) Substituting these equations into equation (2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.1 ) yields I. 2 From Figure 2.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.61 we can see that the unit vectors U.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .6. (2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).62) above and equating it with (2. 65) .76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch .63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.
67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis. The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.67) yields the set of equations (2 .64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.64) above . These are summarized belox:: . Rotation about the xaxis. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. 2 .6.  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex . 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2. 68) B '" (2.69) '" axis.66) (2.Sec. . (2 .
78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame .84 shows the angular relationship between two frames.7 . a. 1 ). in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. 2 (2. Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame .4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. Figure 2.6. We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .
is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). (i. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose .e. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. Now.6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . Equation (2.Sec. We can write equation (2.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. Hence . 2.1 .61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. Fortunately. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. The transpose of the matrix D . all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . AB =1= SA ). The inverse of any orth.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. .61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. denoted by D .Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e .
a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [.". "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . By me mo C. gl " n i lly . tluee b ..ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . 2 (2. m1 " fo." a ny mp licat e d . n t rizing th .".. y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. d th yo u will b .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK .Eq to th e IJ K in at . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . a bl . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. anglo . 62. Perifo ca l to th e G Th .n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . mu " in cid 'n ce b .6 .1 2) Figure 2 . 6. th' O ugh w hi ch on . axes in to CO ham . 6. an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . d wi th .. 'o ta t. d w .sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . sh ow n in F ig u " Th . to p' ter ho w co no. th.". basis no ma t . O c M ma t. d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . 5 Tmn ..
then Sec .. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . Figure 2.. from Figure 2.. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I .The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. aQ.63.. .. a K and ap . Thus if a i ' aJ . 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit .63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. For example . R. 2 . To ....
Q I ' W J · W K . 2 from their dot product .sin n sin w cos i .1 4) R23 = .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . ! • P. B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. I • p I · Q J .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i . Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. J and K Thus R = J .6. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 .cos n sin w .6. Similarly. R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .1 3) i. since I and P are unit vectors. the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. a �.82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. P K · P In Figure 2. Now a.63 .
Sec . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix.1 ) and (2. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. 2. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. . relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both .5 .5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . V. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . 2 . In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. In this case either n or w or both are undefined. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired.
7 . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . can also be measured. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located.( N o rt h ) 2. If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . 7 .7 . E and Z shown in Figure 2 . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . EI. The unit vectors S. AZ . is measured clockwise from north . the elevation angle . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight .7. Az. The azimuth angle . 2. The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. the rate at which range is changing.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. p.1 .
Sec.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2.7 .7. from the geometry of Figure 2.7 4) = + P (2 . we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p.1 ) where .72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z.3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r.72 we see that r (2 .and EO/. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 . Az. E I . Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. Thus.75) .73) E l (B I ). p. 2. We will express the po sition vector as (2 . as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky.7 . From Figure 2. /l!L.1 . = Ps PE = P cos Pz.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.
A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2. Unfortunately. things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth. For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .76) .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v.86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . 2 J topo centric frame .
It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. Figure 2. 2 . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth.73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 .Sec.74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame .77) . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. EB x f. where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . (2 . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in . Therefore . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) .73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame .
The angle to Greenwich is 3040 . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 .707 . 5 Z (units are DU).6 1 2 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.E + 1 .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Figure 2. 3535 .1 = [. 5Z (Given) [).612) r = R + P = 2S .866 .612 .5 J . is 2 S E + .707 o .3535 . 300 N Lat . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.
The unit vectors D.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I.. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame .Sec.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. I =J =K=O.4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame .. y. 332J  . . w) . v.79) J. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time .982K . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x.7. It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W .75 ) . y.9 1 81 + 2. (2. z) system (Figure 2 . then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . rotating with respect to the (x. 2. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. We will denote this quantity by w. (2. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero .7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems. z). however.
dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame .7. Hence . . . equation (2 . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. Hence .7.90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . The remaining terms of equation (2. .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . equation (2 . V = w x V and W = w x W .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w .1 0) reduces further to . Similarly.1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA.
. .. .. " F i xed " System ( x. Equation (2. . y..75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA......1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q.... 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u ... � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u.. �:.1 2) . ..y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ . z) '....... W) Figure 2. . .LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 .Sec..71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector.. 2 ....... dt R I (2 .7..7. v v. .. .
1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.7 . 2 iLl F = . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest. Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.7.71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .9!.1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .1 3) into equation (2 .1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.7.where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .7 .7 .7.1 2) to the po sition vector r. The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .) ." Ioox.1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch . Equation (2 . (2 .1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .7.7.JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 . (2 .7.
of course . In the model which has been adopted. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. Sections parallel to the equator are .8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . ae . circles. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. 2 . 2. however . in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted.8.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. It is known . Therefore .Sec. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . If the earth were perfectly spherical. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame .) 2. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude.
2 The Measurement of Latitude. When you are given the latitude of a place . The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude .94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter .8. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point.3 Station Coordinates. Consider Figure 2. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. 2." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field . While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid .08182 == km km L La L ." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight .1 . 1 45 6356. it does complicate the concept of latitude.8. the difference between L and is usually negligible .785 0. 2. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude .8. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .
O . / (2.82. Thus. The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e .!! o . L . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 ." which is illustrated in Figure 2. 2 ..1 ) .8 . 4 km Figure 2. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude . the "reduced latitude .82 ...Sec. 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . c.. It is convenient to introduce the angle (3.8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.
0 O D.82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz.. a2 . Ch .and e = da. 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . b e =a e V� = b2 + d.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But .. c:  0) x Figure 2. I C. for any ellipse .1:  (2 . / . z . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L.82) .
8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . Thus. = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2. d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L .Sec:. 2 . (2 . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . (2. 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .85) .
and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 .8 8) .8. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . If the Greenwich sidereal time . {1. elevation above mean sea level. (2 . {1 ' is known .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components.86) L. The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .8 7) 2.98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . From Figure 2. The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . 2 ( 2 .
2 . the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time .89) .84 shows a spherical earth. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t. L." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame .Sec . Although Figure 2. 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2. The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich .8. the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site .
From (2 .1 0) .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth .8 . 2 j i Figure 2 . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .
Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. This is the time kept by ordinary clocks.1 2) and a s ' a E .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . 2. a Z If a l .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . (2 .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time . 2 . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .1 . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours.6. it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . This should be made clear by F igure 2.Sec.8. The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle .1 2) .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science .9 equation (2 . so .9 .9.
no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. when the earth is near perihelion. a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 . In early January. it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day .09054 mean solar seconds .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . So far. 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2.91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time .
A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. or Zulu (Z) time. Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . For example .2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time .Sec. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. 2. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. . Universal Time (UT).9.is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . 2 .0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. This relationship is illustrated on page 99.3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known .9. Thus. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also .) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . if it . 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year .
74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. Ephemeris and 2. To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent .4 Precession of the Equinoxes.9. ° 229421 1." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] .sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. we express time in decimal fractions of a day. . m i n . 8 9=8 9 0 1 . The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. in addition. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D.
.. so the lunarcaused precession has this same period. The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. As the earth' s axis precesses. the equatorial plane is not . . Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic. Due to the asphericity of the earth... so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation ." with a perio d of 1 8 . The period of the precession is about 2 6. 6 yrs I Figure 2.000 year s . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top .Sec ..92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars. on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 . However . the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly.z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 .6 year s .. 0 0 0 y rs " . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 .6 years.9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . 2 .
296° H = 6 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included.74933340 = 1 . Day  = Long o 57 .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .00 1 + L= 0 .6245 rad ians o 9 .296 degrees west longitude . 25 8=8 g + A = . 6 24 5 . 00 1 From section 2 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . 5 7 .1 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . x= [ z= � ae + � . at 0600 GMT. 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.378km = 0 . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs.
0. 00 1 c o s(S.74) . 2 . 00 1 (S.(0.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.2D UES = (0.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 . Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .72) PE p Pz Ps = .From equation (2.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.6245 )1 + 1 .6971 + .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.346E + O.6245) = . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.7 1 SJ + OK Sec.
77) v = [� ] [ J 0.7·5 ) From equation (2 .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.346E + l .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .46S .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .5 1 .346J + 1 .73 p + (O.46 P =D1 .8 . 3.73Z D U (T U r = 0.1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.0 1 . 1 08 Ch .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .3.610.1 .(0.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .�� lO. 46 = 0.433 . 0.0.061 .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.1 .0588K) From equation (2 .(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .25 0.46 D U /T U (0.1 .0E + 1 .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.84J .Ps = .8 .866 0.
2 . Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . 2. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . and the orb it is uniquely determined. Figure 2.3. p .Sec.8J . These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics.081 . 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . Ei. may be lacking. of course . f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . k. W. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . EI . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. Ai. It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . As Baker S points out . Gibbs is. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this .0.232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found .
1 02) gives (2 . (2 . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . 1 0. we can show that : e ' f = p .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p.5 4). 1 0. who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Notice that C2 may now be divided out. 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass.r.r 3 ) = 0 . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. 1 04) . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . 1 08) .1 ) by (2 . 1 06) Multiply (2 . 1 05 ) and (2 . (2 . (2 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . equation ( 1 . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . 1 05) (2 .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. 1 04) (2 . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . Dotting (2 . then u sing (2 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . 1 03) Cross (2. Q and W. 1 03) by f3 X r l . and the definition of a dot product . 1 0. 2 fine scholar .1 ) successively by fl .
provided N . (2 .1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) .e . (2.1 3) : (2 . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. 2 .1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . N and D have the same dire ction. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. 1 0. Since P. Therefore . 1 0.1 5) .1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 .Let the right side of (2 .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . 1 0. (2 . i. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. equation (2 . 1 0.1 4) (2 . 1 0. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. 1 0 pD = N . 1 09) D. 1 0. D = N P = O' N (2 .
1 9) Since P. and (2 . 1 0.r t ) f2 + ( rt . D and S ve ctors. However . Q and W are orthogonal.1 7) to find e. Therefore. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . since NeQ = pS. 1 0. 1 0. P = Q X W.1 8) N (2 . N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 .1 7) W Q = S S N (2 .1 9) to find W.1 8) to find Q. 1 020) Thus. 1 020) to find P. Then use (2 . ( f  r + e) .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. 1 02 1 ) .1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 .r2 ) f3 ] (2 . 1 01 0) to find p. (2. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . (2 . (2 . 1 0. Before solving the problem. N > o. (2 .52) we can write i X h = p. (2 . 1 0.1 6) . N and S vectors.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. 1 0. 1 0. From equation ( 1 . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 1 0. check N * O and D .
1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . Using the identity ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . v) h and h . D X r + JJ{. the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . = p.E.h = P. ON (2 . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. 1 024) (2 . b) c O .Sec . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np.. h X (h h ) v . v = eP. S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . 2 .( a . 1 025) . e) We can write h v v = .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . 1 0. 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. so c) b . (h xr r = + (a .(h .
Test: 0 10 . 4 . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. possible two body orbit . proceed as follows : For example . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. 2 L + LS (2 . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. find v2 : 2. 1 02 6) Thus. to find any of the three velocities directly . v2 � + L S r2 • .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. 1 . Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . This is not exactly true. = 0 for coplanar vectors. Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . Form L = = 6. shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . This method . Finally . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. using the stated tests. N=FO. N and S vectors. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult .
If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . period and the velocity vector at position two . Since 010. r 1 and r2 . 9701 = 2.0471 O U = 0 . 2 . Form the D . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). and S vectors: D= N S 1 . r1 r2 r3 = 1 . 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. N .0774J 0.Sec.039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .0.9000J + 0.97 ." Thus. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth. P = 0= N  2. eccentricity.047 1 = .5000K Find : P.000K = 0_700J . and the timeofflight between these po sitions. the semilatus rectum. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) .8000K = 0.
270J + 0.960 DU/T U (4. 0408 1 1 .0. 2 S .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .4 to solve for the elements. 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.576J .0.041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.0. 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . 700J . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .270K W= N.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .657K D U /T U 2 0.0804 e = = = 0 . 1r/{: 6.1 .97 o lP = a = 1 . = . .67 TU (89.963K N 1 . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.497 9.963J .1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .
Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 .:S :J: JS L K . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. r = pL [�. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . As a result . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information.1 ) (2 . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination.6 2 : 1 1 .7 2).Sec. L. 3. In either case . [:i:n :: :.g . then ' .z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . (X1 ' < \ � . If we let L . 2. ° 2 . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. 2 . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. (2 . j = 1. 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. 1 1 . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . = OJ + R j . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . 1 1 2) r . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite .
: '< ' . however .' ' " ': .. • 00 . r u. R and R are known at time t2 . p and r. p.J V I . \ •.. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = .. 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . 0 (2 . \ Figure 2. \' P2 i �� G ". f f. .. are not known . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. ':. p. The vectors L.r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . (2 .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . �J 1  . \ [L. I . 1 1 3) (2 . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. L. ' ' :.. L.1 . .1  R ) r3 .[. • ' I . 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . \ ./  L . say the middle ob servatio n . . �� I 1 " _ . � . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . .
12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L. t2 and t3 . 1 1 .three t�es.t 3 ( t 1 .t 3 ) ( t } .t2 L3 ( t 3 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =. 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t2 ) ( t 1 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t . 2 . t2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 1 ) (t 3 .t } ) (t 3 .t 1 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .t 3 ) (t.t2 ) . t } .t 1 ) ( t2 .t3 ) (2 .t3 ( t 2 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t2 ) (t.t 2 .Sec. Since we have the value of L at.t2 ) ( t} .t 1 ) ( t3 . 1 1 6) + 2t .t 1 .t 1 ) ( t. thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 1 ) ( t2 . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t 3 ) L1 + 2t . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t 3 ) L2 (2.
u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce .u R Ir3 J + . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule.u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . LI . p. p.u R Ir3 I + . For the time being. + .ons (2 . .L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . L J . ... 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. in fact .. 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . L L L K K K J . L K + . it is evident that L Dp = . better yet . that if more than three observations are available . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . 1 1 5 ) . I L . 2 . p' and r. 4 Equation (2 .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . however. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . D reduces to L D =2 L I L . 1 1 6) and (2 . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations.u L 1 / r 3 L J + . It should be noted. 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. This. 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. L J I (2 .u L /r 3 .
.. 1 1 2). 1 1 .1 1) Op = . L K . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. L J L I K J!. 1 1 .1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. .L L L J K I p . Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. R . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. 1 1 . From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. R J . O O. 2 . . 2 .1 0) and (2 . L K L J L I K (2. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. . is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. p and r. R R . 0. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 .Sec .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . 1 1 5). 1 1 .1 2) . If we do this we find that . Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . Substituting equation (2 . 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns.1 0) into (2.1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . 1 1 . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. R R I .4 Solving for Velocity .
1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. P. El. D. 1 1 . This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 .2). As a matter of fact . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . 1 1 . 1 1 .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . ° 3 . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . a . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date .1 3) for p. 2 . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . Laplace ' s method fails . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . 1 1 . such as P. k. Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . 2 (2 . a3 .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. ° . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. (2 .1 4) p 2. To obtain the velocity vector . E l .
Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. 2 The Differential Correction equations. 1 21) . the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . The question then arises.::"P 3 . For example .g. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. It may happen . The six residuals are �1 ' . Doppler rangerate. we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. v Kl at t = to are correct. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. 2. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only ." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. . . based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . p) will differ from the computed data.Sec. of course. r K ' v " vJ . 1 2.::"P .::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. 1 Computing Residuals. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. t3 . ts and t6 ' These predictions are . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. \ ' t2 . however . Assuming that the residuals are small. 1 2.::"P 2 ' . t4 . Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. 2.
1 2. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. . (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns.VK . equations (2 . The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. for example . the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. however. NI .r l " v K )p1 ( r l . In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. . NK. rj .. . ap1 . Nj. With the aid of a digital computer. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . D. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. V K ) . 1 2.Vj' D. Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. i.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc.) Then. reduce the residuals to zero . by trial and error. usually 6 for orbit problems) n . The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 2 . The inversion of equations (2 .VI . r K " ' arl D. 2. D. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated.e.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j .
In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. 3 . This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. zero . If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . use 0.tb each of the elements measured. The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. . V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3).. 2 . 2 . for 90% confidence . since p 2 below) . a and (3 are the elements (two here . called the root me an square (RMS) . minimum as described above . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. for the exactly determined case (p or b. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. Solve equation (2 .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e .8 1 ) . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements.g . b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. = = n) .. 4. A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect.
Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2).2. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . the partial derivatives are : . Choo se ex and for the first estimates. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . ex VI. 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x.Assume equal confidence in all data.:. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 .
1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 2.Sec. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 . Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . Thus.
The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear.474 Xi 3 . large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . yet still overspecified number of measurements. we will use a simple . This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. 6 orbit elements) would be used. This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.474 and f3 = 3. To illustrate the method involved. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . In practice. corresponding to the given Xi and compute .360 = . This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals.
865 49.1 05 9.934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .y. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .031  1 = 1 RMS residual /. 474 x 3 ._1. 3 . 0 35 3.000 50.866 4 x . 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l .1 26 0.474 4 0 07 19. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .. E ( V 1.007 0. aa .Sec.0 01 1 3.000 n = Vi 0. ( V i Yi ) 2 4. 2 .Vi 2. 969 ____  Vi .1. .. 934 = 1 .000 1 9.828 0 0.500 8.) 2 n .
75 = lOll :0 17 """'.062 .031 8.474 + . 81 30 8.021 070 20.360.4 1 69. 1 961 0. 1 75 ] 5.36 .001 07 33 b = 0.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2. 105. which is larger than what we started with.. {3 = {3 new .027 12.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .z 10.039 £::.1.733.l Now using (2 . so we iterate.670 3.(X 26 3."""'" �T�� .3. 0 18 0.380708 A = 40.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. 1 22) we have £::. The second iteration yields: £::. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) . = 3. 0..0. 1 96 = 3.304 = ..056 ""' T . 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 . Thus (X new = . 27 A WA = [12.304 0.2.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .
038 [3 = 3 . 2. however. Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . 2 . and finally. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . during orbital decay.5 8 1 . This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. In practice .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0.Sec . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. The next value s of the parame ter are : a = .00 1 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . 1 2. which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations.735 This time the RMS residual is 1 .5 8 2 . However. 2 .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . 7 35 x 3 . The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . .000 . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. 038 . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . in theory. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 .
If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected.5 003. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. These detection radars with a range of 2. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. the White Sands Missile Range . manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . and midcourse ICBM inter ception. At present. 1 4 . antisatellite targeting." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). the precomputed 2. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. 1 The Spacetrack System.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). 2 2. 2 . forming "clouds" of space debris. 1 Radar Sensors. 1 3. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. spacecraft failure diagnosis.500 miles make about 1 2 . 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. In addition.
at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. New Jersey. Alaska.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. the FPS43. Turkey. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. and is on active spacetrack alert. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. Greenland. 2. One of the earlier detection radars. while three are located at Clear. Figure 2. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans.Sec. is now on active Spacetrack alert. One FPS49 .s The prototype is located at Moorestown. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir.
This BMEWS station at Clear. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. Alaska.142. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. United Kingdom. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. 2 Figure 2. Florida. In addition. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. Alaska. under the 140ft radome at the left. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is .134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna.
High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy.14. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard.Sec. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering.2 Radio Interferometers. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. When two or . 2. 2.143.
and therefore . 1 4 . In addition to these .3 Optical Sensors. is well established. 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. Alberta. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . 2 . each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . Considering the type of observational data received. Canada . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. the semimajor axis. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used .
it is . 2.400 miles. and the lighting correct. A separate optical system superimposes.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. As a result. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. seeing conditions must be good.Sec. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. Alberta. length with a field of view 50 by 300 .145. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages.
1 4 . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . Further . Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . is relatively accurat e . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression.1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . in any case .000 meters. on the other hand . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . takes time. Doppler rangerat e info rmation. 4 Typical Sensor Errors.) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . In any case . Massachusett s . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. New Mexico site. 2 . for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. For detection radars. I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large .
7 seconds in time would remain. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated.146.Sec 2. lunar attraction. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2.5 Future Developments. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. nonuniform gravitational fields.14. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. 2. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further.
the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. but it also record s target tracks for later playback . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . a continuousw ave . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. In t he system under development . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . Many improvements . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . of the target . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . the t argetrefle cted laser b eam.1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . p. Theoretically . Operating in the SHF b and . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. howeve r . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . Now. 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate .
i. o f the orbit . 1 5 .. The arc CB which forms the • . 18cP  2 .Sec. 1 5 2 . For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . 2 . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . 1 5 . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . respectively with a launch a zimuth .. 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 .1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . F igure 2 . 1 5 . 1 5 . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An.
c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o .e . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . . that the launch azimuth. A direct orbit require s . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . i : c os i = . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . betwe en 00 and 1 80° .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . 1 5 . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . 1 5 ·3 . therefore .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . 2. 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. For a due east launch equat ion (2 . 0 i. For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . f3 ' be easterly . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . L o?" If i is to be minimized .
1 5 .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation .Sec. It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . su r face . 2 . Figure 2 . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n .
9 7 0 . Englan d . 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. J . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . i = 90° . 2 EXERCISES 2 .7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . = u nd ef i ned ) = . = (partial answers : 2.4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. Colorado ( 1 04. e = . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. a solar day or sidereal day? b .89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich.7071 + . Which takes longer .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU.1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . 885.
23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = .2K DU . 2. u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. 3<. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . . (Answer [partial] e = . W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I .Ch.8 I J P = . 1. Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction.) Determine p. Determine the orbital e lements. i . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 .8 2075 . c .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. e. 2 + b . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. 82 u a .
3 1 065 1 5 0.3 5 35 3995 0 1 .5 0 West . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU .4 1 4225 1 1 1 . W.060668 8 3 1 . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . 2.system along the unit ve ctor s P. 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . 2 . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. r3 r l I J K 1 . 6464495 a.4 1 4202 0. F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . PST . 1 0 2.4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . b . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. Q.8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . LST = 63 . Units are earth canonical units. Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . equatorial . a. 1 0 January 1 9 70. Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale .7 6) . (Answer : r = 1 . b . U se of a computer is sugge sted .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. r2 1 . b ut not nece ssary. What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. p = 1 . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . 1 7 1 . 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . C alifornia . the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . 2.
B .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .9 1 420062 4 .5 65 6808 1 0. 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .8 0 . fl f2 f3 d.0 1 .09497879 1 . DU * 2.0 0 .7 0 0 e.20709623 0 .97 0 1 .0 7 .1 .62 1 34384 c.2K with a velo city o f AI . .565 6808 1 0 0 .207 1 25 5 1 .707 1 1 25 5 0.0 7 .8 0 0 .n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f. fl f2 f3 3 .0 0 2 .094964 1 8 0.0 0 2 . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1. 3 6 395 5 26 1 .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 . fl f2 f3 0 . C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.9 1 42 3467 2 .Ch. fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.89497724 0 0 0 1 .0 2 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .94974 1 7 6 .707 1 0 1 0 1 0.6 0.2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.0 2 .97 2 . 1 4  DU/TU.0 0 .0 1 .89497 879 0.6 0.
9 7 .1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. Obj ect b . ( A ns. Obj ect c. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . . ___ e. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 .75 K D U /T U )  . v = 0. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.0078 J 0. 2 a . Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. * 2 . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south.620 1 I 0. Obj ect vernal equinox direction. 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. b. d .1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . Express the coordinates. Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . east and zenith (up) component s? c.17 p 0.
Navy Space Surveillance System. 1 9 1 4. C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man ." in The World of Math ematics . Carl Friedrich. 1 965 . 1 0 . Dover Publications ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . 9 . "The A erospace Vehicle s ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . S . Forest Ray . Academic Pre ss. Jr . NY. E . C leeto n . Space/A ero na utics .Ch. pp 1 08 . L. D avis . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . Angus. No 6 . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . NY . NY . Thomas Nelson and 3. C . Sons Ltd . 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Paul G . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . 1 9 66. Henize . Gauss. New York and London . G . 1 95 6 . Newman . "Space Traffic Surveillance . Moulton . Simo n and S chuster . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . K. Pedro Ramon . Armitage . Inc. John Wiley & Sons. New York . Telescope . Vol 3 . Inc. Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. Baker . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. C ambridge . London . Pierre Simo n . New York . Sky Publishing Corp . 2 .1 1 1 . 5 . E scobal. New York . U. "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera." Vol 48 . November 1 9 67 . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . New York . Second Revised Edition . Edmond Halley . 6. Robert M . NY . 1 962. 4. 8 . 1 9 67 . Laplace . 1 96 3 . 1 95 7 . The M acmillan Company. Mass. Jame s R . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . . 7 . Thoma s.
No 20 . American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Vo1 40. Briskman. 2 1 1 . No 5 . New York. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. Air Force Systems Command. Bate. New York. P. SepOct 1 967. 1 6. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. New York . NY." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. S. 1 4. 1 2 . 1 962. 1 962. 17. 1 966. NY. Colorado. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. the A stronautical Sciences. Cheetham. Roger R. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. USAF Academy." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 970. Davies. New York. Journal of Oct 2. "Future Radar Developments. 1 966. Carson. Inc. Thomas J. 1 5 ." Satellite Control Facility. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. Electronic . R. Robert D . R." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. 1 9 66. p 39 . Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . McGrawHill. and Eller. Gerald C. . NY. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. 1 967 . 1 3 . Sunnyvale." The Vol 1 4. California. NY . "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation.
energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. 1 . will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time .CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. After that . the idea seems to have been forgotten. 1 0. and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. for the next 250 years. ) 00 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky.000 or more miles. or variously eccentric. Goddard. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. according to their different velocity. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. those bodies. and the different force of gravity in different heights. as of 5 .
the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . 1 . Rather . 3 . particularly if it is manned ." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. 3 . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . Manned spaceflight . since it contemplated the use of military hardware . Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. On 4 October 1 95 7 . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch .research. still in its infancy . For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. Project Orbiter. the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. However.
..n w ..: fiD It: 0 It: <t .. . .rrrj.V'h WillI e: � . YEAR a YEARS .///11// ..... I MONTH I .25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" .::: 0(I) "" 20 10 . (I) CD � .J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .+ :=.. � ee. .J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N .. 71.. c. 20K (....rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION . mJ77/1/.(/} � � (I) E � � ... � .. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .. AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 . ..' � S' (1) 0 .. � '" . 11 L ... VI/II � V � .H O URS WEEK ..EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr.J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E .50K �. . .
3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. m . 1 .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . 1 . Figure 3 . 1 ·2 . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . m .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . 3 . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . stated. It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . a p ogee 1 00 n . m . Figure 3 .
1 3 . The vehicle is not allowed to coast .. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . 3 . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude.Sec.or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. as you can see from Figure 3 . It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . 1 2 . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad.
As a result. If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . 3 . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis).1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. 1 5 . You . therefore. 1 .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. Figure 3 . but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible .
5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t. 3 .. 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .. 1 > ..���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS ..�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.9 r�=r�rr. "::> Figure 3 .2 .:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�.Sec.J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*."� ill Q rn o I � fS .D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .
1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 .. I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .. 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.J 5 "' C iii 0. "' "' .
N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . The ascending node moves to the west .40 or greater than 1 1 6. Therefore = . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. completing one revolution every 90 days.6. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 .67 0 /day From Figure 3 . The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. With this perturbation . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi .Q 360 ° per 90 days :. 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. Figure 3 .40 and 1 1 6. which also is due to oblateness.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63.60 . a. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. What is the inclination of the orbit? b.6 0 . 3 . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle.Sec. and oppo. It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days.
6 earth radii above the surface . ground trace of a synchronous satellite. unfortunately. 1 2 this would be 2*. The first stage booster climbs 3 . If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator.000 nm altitude . 3 . 2 . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. 3 Figure 3 . This. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. for example . Figure 3.2. Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . This is. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . 1 . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . of course. 1 The Synchronous Satellite. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian.1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS ." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. On the scale of Figure 3 . The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases.21 shows why. There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . not the case . If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min).inches from the surface.300 nm or about 5 . Of course. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator.2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. however. 3 .
Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr. At apogee of the ascent ellipse.2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more...22 Ascent ellipse .. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 .21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. 3. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm .� � Figure 3 .Sec. burn """ " " . curve is \ " " . . intervals . Dot ted grou nd trace . This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit..... .
Usually this is not serious. and flightpath angle.da a2 = fJ.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . we get a change in .32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction .v (3. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 .  fJ. as they are called . the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. at appropriate points in the orbit. 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit.. /:. a? v. for some other reason. = _ r 2a . 2vdv . 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . we get (3 . if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. dv. (3. fJ. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . speed. a very precise orbit is required. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed.33) or = da 2a2 vdv . 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:.34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. (3 .3 . but . This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis.31) If we solve for '. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. 3 .
whose radius is r2 . In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . a2 6. 3 . therefore . The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are .V v P P (3. Similarly. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. 3 . The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse.34) for small but finite 6. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height.semimajor axis. a 6. called Hohmann transfer orbits.v) . of the orbit given by equation (3 . 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. Since we know r l . along the transfer ellipse. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl .1 . to the large orbit. 4 Jl.h a �  da. We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3.34). Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . Since the major axis is 2a. For example .3. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. whose radius is rl . we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. 2 The Hohmann Transfer.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have." 3 .
(3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch . since p. its speed is ./2 a .37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.31 (3. &.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3.36) = r i + r2 =  and.31 &. 2at Figure 3 . 3 the transfer orbit.
& t = � = . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Although. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required.3. Minimum rp = 2 DU.1 0) (3 .� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. 3 I N. Find the minimum /::. For the transfer traj ectory. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . 3 . ra = 3 DU. . I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3.Sec. to VI ' So .3. the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . i n our example .V required to double the altitude of the satellite .39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 .V implies a Hohmann transfer . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU.
V2 = .346 ft/sec 3 .JfF"= .1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch . I t is obvious from Figure 3 . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits. I::. 1 29 DU/TU = 3.32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .061 DU/TU I::.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.VTOT == .� r 1 1 +e p p (3. We can express this condition mathematically as r = .3.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.707 DU /TU vi r.068 D U/TU V cs =.V1 = . Figure 3.3.313) . 3 V cs 1 = (il = .3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .
p p p  = . we can compute the energy. Knowing and e. (3. in the transfer orbit. respectively .3.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. �. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. 3 .33) and interpret them graphically. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits.3. To satisfy both conditions.1 5) . p p (p. ht. I &. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. and the angular momentum.Sec.1 4) (3. / 2a . I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.I' l l  e ' )l2 p.
</>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>. __ Figure 3. its speed is (3 .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.39) The angle between v1 and va.. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit .33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r .34 /::. we get (3. .1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . p r2.v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.1 is just the flightpath angle . 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 .
31 6) Now.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".3. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3.V. it is not surprising that equation (3 .V.34. after applying a finite b. This is called a simple plane change. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . together with the b. 3 .1 . To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. b. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . ¢l ' is zero. or it can rotate the line of apsides. as shown at the right of Figure 3 .V required. the b. more simply. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3. assuming that we know v and e.1 'I' . 4 . If.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the .Sec. Or.4.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit.310) when the flightpath angle .4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. 1 Simple Plane Change . form an isosceles vector triangle. We can solve for the magnitude of b. (3 . e. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape .V using the law of cosines.41) 3. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. and obtain directly for circular orbits. A velocity change . Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . (3.1 7) reduces to equation (3. b. b.V. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged.3.41 . 3.
vrequired to accomplish the mission. 3 Figure 3 . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . calculate the additional b. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). Therefore . makes b. b .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . DU circular orbit. A plane change of 60 0 . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. a. Determine the total b.V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. . for example .
& t = = �= .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .Vl = V l .0. .__ = .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a. 3. v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( . DU 2 1 Hence . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.1 = \1'1 .1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 .618 = 1 .V l 1 .270. 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.953 DU/TU L. I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.Sec. 1 +� 1 . Therefore at = r2 .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) ..Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit. The given information is: h I = 0.Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' .
387 DU/TU = 1 0. + v�s2. 3 and we must use equation (3.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .= 0 .2(.626) = 0.447) (.042 ft/sec Therefore v = . 31 7 + .253 ft/sec .3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .2 . 4 . 3 87 .704 DU/TU 18.447) 0.V2 . 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 . 2 + 0.(0. 447)(.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.447 DU/TU 2 1 . 1 5 DU/TU 6.V22 v.V2 = y'l'5= 0. 6. v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.626 vcs2 = V't.317) to determine 6.4) (.626) = 0 .
Sec.0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U . 3.078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( . F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .4.447 ) ( .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .1 ) t:::.
a = 2.21 . lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.4 Refer to Figure 3 . 0.449 DU/TU) 3. Ch . (Ans.5 DU . 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. c.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. a.2 Calculate the total 6.76.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 .5 b.2 DU and 4 DU respectively.5 DU/TU. i. 3 . 3 EXERCISES 3 .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of .1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . What is the minimum 6.. i changedall other parameters remained the same. r p = 1 DU e = 0. a plane change or an orbit transfer. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. 1 1 DU and e = 0. 3. 0 . = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2.e. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time .
1 DU 8 1 = 0. 3 .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned.7 3 . 95 DU 8 = 0. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. 0 . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . 34DU2 (fU d. 8 Compute the minimum I::. 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . 9 Calculate the total l::.9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode .56 c. .V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . = 0. (Ans. using Hohmann transfers. 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0.v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. C ompare this with the I::. The . At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. * 3 . P = 1.Ch . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode .412 5 3 . 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . 5 & Design a satellite .
4 . V2 . 1 96 1 . Missiles. Dornberger. . Robert M . Air Force Systems Command . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Principia. 1 . NY. 3 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Space Planners Guide. New York and London . Willy. New York . Walter .. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Ley. Washington . Headquarters. A cademic Pre'ss. L. The Viking Press. and Maud W. 1 9 60. 1 July 1 965 . DC . Rockets. Sir Isaac. Baker. NY . Makemson. 1 95 5 . 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . The Viking Press. 1 962. New York . University of California Press. Vol 2. Newton . 2nd revised ed. 5 . and Space Travel.1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .
.. the determination of the true movement of the planets. I quickly took advantage of the absence. or perhaps usurping them . The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly.CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. of the heirs. who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. . by taking the observations under my care . the solution of the second problem. including the earth . . presupposed the solution of the first. Albert Einstein ! 4 . For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. . . if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . This was Kepler 's first great problem. or lack of circumspection.2 1 77 . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. .
" Kepler points out in his Preface. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. whole grand entertainment would be lost. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . we not only forgive them. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. "What matters to me. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. 1 . When Christopher Columbus. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . but above all to convey to him the reasons. detour. subterfuges. . Thus. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. . (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. I + . 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy .
were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. Moreover. But then without a word of transition. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . in the next two chapters Kepler explains. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. as it were. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. perihelion and aphelion. . again incorrectly .Sec 4. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. however. almost with masochistic delight. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. for now we are going to invade your territory. with the warning: "Ye physicists. without benefit of any preconceived notions. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. His results. never noticing his error. that. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. prick your ears. .
a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . but analytical geometry came after Kepler. as I shall prove further down . 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. he settled on the oval.. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit..2 Finally. He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. . with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. 4 Figure 4 . 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . " Finally. the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. He had . .
but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. 4. The climax to this comedy of errors. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. return e d by stealth through the backdoor. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. are one and the same . and velocity and the timeofflight. made a mistake in geometry. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end. in a moment of despair. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. . Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits .. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler.e . : . for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . but he did not know how. . You: are . until I went nearly mad. de rive the . Ah.' " . .2 T I M EO F .. mine] . . he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature.F L I G HT .and chased away. have persisted to this day.Sec 4.. whereas the two . time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb.: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. In this chapter we will. came when. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. disguising itself to be accepted. believing that this was a quite different . and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. hypothesis. . which I had rejected . . .y it should move in an orbit at all.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . .2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. That is to say. I thought and searched.
using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus.. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.1 ) . 4 existed .2. 7T a b .182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY . In going part way around an orbit. We will pursue a lengthier.e .. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. A ' in Figure 4. P. i.A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch .21 Area swept out by r .l .1 ) i s the area � .2.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . where the true anomaly is v . the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit .. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse.. ''"'''"'. (4. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use . The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use .. say from periapsis to some general point.2.2 .'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. but more motivated. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. 4.
perpendicular to the major axis. 2 T i M EO F . From analytical geometry. E E Circle : . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . A dotted line . Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle .l. 22 Eccentric anomaly.F L I G HT . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse. \/2 a2 _ .Z x2 + .Sec 4 .
4 Hence . It Tollows directly from equation (4. A2 .22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 . sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis.a E) . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons.23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . oos E and whose (4. .�rea PSV minus the dotted area.
27) (4. and whose altitude is (a si n E ). Obviously .T = 4 ( E ." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion. in order to use equation (4. E.we get � ( E .26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation . v.24) E .e si n E (4. cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4. to its corresponding true anomaly. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). minus the triangle .F L I G H T . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.e si n E ) I (4.2 T I M EO F . From Figure 4.28) .24)." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E .Sec 4. whose base is (a CDS E).22. substituting into equation (4.2 .e sin E (4. Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally. Kepler introduced the definition M = It .1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' .27) reduces to (4.e si n Ai yields E) . Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .
from Figure 4.to = lP (t . 4 E E. so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then . In general we can say that t  to = 4.to = ( t .( t o . + t . The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis. E Figure 4 .T o ) .T) .( Eo  E) (4. In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a .(to . when v is between o and n.24 left).[ 2kn + (E . we can say that t .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically. Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.T ) .29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.24 right.28).T) .e Sin .
28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.82 ( E . From equations in section 1 .1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .21 6) V 1 .2. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.+ COS (4.Sec 4.J1=82 d E (4.1 2) (4.8 si n E ) V r .1 3) (4.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .1 1 ) easily integrable .2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.2.2.7 .2.2. .2.F L I G H T .8 E ) dE (4.82 f: ( 1 .21 2).E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.2.2 T I M EO F. From equation (4.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
(4 .Sec 4. From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. a trialanderror solution is indicated. 4. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) .1 3) ro va v t" . Figure 4.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. But now we have a problem.4.4.1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. Fortunately . In one sense . the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. a.47) has been used to eliminate z. va' a and the trial value of x.1 2) is transcendental in x.2 Solving for x When Time is Known .4.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e . 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa. since equation (4. Therefore .4 4. Equation (4 . we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . ( 1 .
4.1 = x 2 C + x .1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . xn .41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q. (4. B and C are coplanar vectors.41 6) dx x . and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z . 1 dt r (4.4. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) .41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible. Thus A.4. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.3 The f and 9 Expressions. we must then calculate the corresponding and v. Substituting for r in equation (4. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane.32). 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .42. the four vectors fO ' (4. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. With x known.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight. 4 . and A and B are not colinear.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.41 9) . it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. the iteration may be terminated.
x. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates.where f.4. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. = fg. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities.1 9) gives Sec 4 .. however.4. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 .. in equation (4. the left side of the O . We can isolate the scalar .. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q.1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h . f and g.4.. g . g.420) This equation shows that f ...1 8) into equation (4. f and 9 are not independent. g . if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity... First..4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4. f. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable . Crossing equation (4.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w .
(4. o . Xw .426) .4.4.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.a l e + Sln Y. yw x . x + Co cos v = .E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .e2 )  r . From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .42 1 ) We can isolate (4. .1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4. ) .1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw .425).425) Combining equations (4.w o Yw h (4. 4 h (4. we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x. (4.34) and (4. . x wYw .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.423) (4.
..sin r  � (4.a Va 2 = 1 9. e quation (4.. ro .. ro ro .32). e quation (4.. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4.429) Substituting equations (4.(e sin � + cos � ).......426) through (4 .43 0) f (4.1 ) .. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C ..Va • W .a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum. 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4. x + co h = . x = 0 at t = o . Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4. x =� cos x + c r .426) and (4.43 1 ) .43 0) 0 1 f C a = .. (4.427) and using the definition of the universal variable .42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin . r.429) into equation (4.Sec 4 .42 1 ) c /Ii.4.a  mitions of z.428) yw .
1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.433) (4.4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY . vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l ..1 ) and (4 . � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .4.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .] � a . r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.436) .435) (4. r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 ..32) (4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.4.4·3) � r o .
Va x (4. 2 .5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation.4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . 1 .434) . if we are going to use equation (4. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t.43 1 ) and (4.34) (4. Also.4.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation.43 6) . then compute r and r from equation (4 . 1 The Physical Significance of and z. From and determine r and a. The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter.4.4. Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. but we have not said what and z represent. 5 . the expression (t would replace 4 . Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4.43 5) and (4. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4. note that equation (4.420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. can be used. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).1 9) . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme .[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . 4 . to 4.Sec 4. in any of the equations where z appears. 3 . x + Co cos [ � . la .1 ) Va = _ E . Si n va = Va =  c o s .1 8).e E). Note also that if were not zero .x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . then compute v from equation (4. Obviously . 4 . its definition. 5 .4 .1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit .
a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .Do . (4 . we get x= D .3 4) and (4. (4 . we can conclude that = V'ii I F .52) whenever is negative .5 4) (4.56) la.57) . Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f. since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4. 5 ·1) at time x = 0. Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x . 1 (4.53) Subtracting equation (4.53) from (4 . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .4.1 3) .E o l .F 0 1  Va I E .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r. (4 . therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E .
from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer.1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . a. 5 .5 9) .F a ) '· z is zero. A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. If imaginary. I z = I F .5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . so Sec 4.when z is positive .8) Figure 4 .to 4 . In computing the semimaj or axis. Therefore . 5 . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.5. either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.
wherever it occu rs.5 . so s i n h fi . / ( . since X = foE.. is large.cosh .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z . In the case of elliptical orbits.All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a... can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. so S � V0r eFz 2 .6F..v y� ( . we get for elliptical orbits.a � eFz ± 2x 3 . a = ± x 3 .:z. convergence will be extremely rapid. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. ( t a to) .ji11. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 .. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period.a vG ) .1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period.fZi3 = q . C = 1 . When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. . if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. Furthermore . Solving for X and letting lP = 2n.e ..P)/ 2. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. with £X. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp.5. and .. Use this for a first guess . then Z will be a large negative number .
The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4. Thu s .sign (t .t o ) Fa . 5 .t o ) #a ( 1 ] . Anytime t . .L ( t . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) . 4 . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t .sign in the above expression .t o ) 2x 3 � + t .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations. so Sec 4 .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.tohATci ( l .1 1 ) .a eFz sign ( t . we get � S .Q) eV La 2J.r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J. X will be positive and .to is positive.to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.5. if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .. 5 .t o ) sign (t . vice versa . where appropriate . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.t o ) x ::::: sign (t . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence . Therefore.tJ is positive .t o ) � ( 1 .r:z .£.L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before. recognizing that X will be positive when (t .a .
use equations (4. 4 (4 . we can write equation (4.4. s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 . z cos i � .4.s i n i V} = i si n i B . (4.1 3) COS .5. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.Ji .cosh .1 1 ) . If z is near zero ..4.1 0) and (4.1 0) as C where = i C = . use equations (4.(1  . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.1 3).1 0) (4.4.5.1 2) and (4 .5.7! + .y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .0 6 + .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 ..1 1 ) as But i v:z . = Similarly.1 1 ) We can write equation (4. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive. if z is negative .4.B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.4.51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 . so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .". .5. . 1 .
0 'j (4. .1 4) ·· 1 . . 0 ... Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .Ji! + Ji!. The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 .5.5. (611)2 etc.Sec 4.� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4..5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z .. . (4Ir) 2 ..1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ ..+ .
r a . 39 5 .5 . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . 4 functions .2C ) .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM.( 1 . can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . Differentiating the definition of C.266  . va > � a= :l = 1 .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S .zS . we get I � = fz. 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x. and v at = t=2 T U . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . Given ra = I D U va = 1 . I dS = _ ( C . t=2 T U9 ra = I.12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0.[i) z ] (4 .5. va = Therefore & = 1.s i n z dz 2z [ 0. 2& . 1 K . dC /d z and dS /d z . it is not surprising that the derivatives. 1 .3S ) .)] P (4.c o s y!? 3 ( VZ.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s . Find r.
12.Since x = and . 1 . y'ii"(t .t. xn tn fit After three iterations. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.. tn toward t = ZTU. 58+.222 1 .277 dXn 1 ..5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ . using a slide rule .8 1 6 1 .821 1 .1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 . we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.705 2 .58 1 . X l Zl y"""a6E or x ..222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.. 24 1 = 1 .58 1 .1 .8 1 6 1 ..58) 2 1 .8 1 6 x n+1 .007 2.266 ( 1 .973 a Using equation (4.1 . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary. we can make a 2 __ = 1 .82 1 1 .222 = 1 .. solving for t . 58+ .8 2 1 1 .1 4) and (4.t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.4.222 Repeating the process.000 1 .4.t o x_ 21Tya lP :. 2 2 x 3 ' etc. 705 .279 1 .
6.321 .6 . we will derive expressions for xw . g.2.1 7). (4.Then from the definitions of f. Finally. f = 0. yw and r in terms of D.0.32 1 1 + 1 .. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0..JPt::.1 ) From Figure 4. E and F. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit. 880 1 1 . 236K g. and 9 = 0.6. for the parabola. f. E or F. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. 1 24. as D = v'P tan � 2 . E and F. since e = 1 .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. D. v.1 we can see that X w = r cos v .2) . r = _. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . 4. g = 1 .. f = 0.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY ._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. But .6..8801 Ch . But first some useful identities will be presented. 4 4. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D.
1 ) .Sec 4 .65) . yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 .6.1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) . (4.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system. the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4. 2 If we substitute from equation (4.61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.
52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known.J7!.6.62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. 4 rr. (4. r • v.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.66) v . in Figure 4 . Using r • r = and equation (2. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown.s i n p v = ffp ta n v .62 Perifocal components of r .1 ) . For the eccentric anomaly .
6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4.67) (a si n E ) a But .Sec 4 .6. (4.1 0) e sin E also. (4. M  (4. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r . To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E .67) and (4 . yw Just as we did for the parabola. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) .6. I Substituting from equations (4. e illS E we get another useful  �. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .24) . we can say that I yw = Q. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4.8) and simplifying.62.
For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.6. when F is a real number . is given by e si n rr = r = $a . relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly..22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.. E is imaginary .216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . F is imaginary. when E is a real number. solving this equation for • v . v.e Si n r E Finally . e cos E from equation (4..!.28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4. we obtain E = ..1 3) .6. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.6.:.6.1 0) .. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E . The .
el = a (cos i F . may be written as (4. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.6.6 . Similarly. 6.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. From equation (4.a r  (4. Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF.61 6) r e cosh F = 1. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .67) we can write Sec 4 .1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.6.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . 6. The rectangular components of a general position vector.e) .e ) .1 4) Xw = a(rosh F . so Yw = a � sinh F. But l cos i F = cosh F .Il a •v (4. In Figure 4 .  But i si n iF = si n h F. so (4.1).1 8) .range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. 6. r. 4. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.
_ c��V P IW (4.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) . and note that h = ... tan p /:..: o s /:.V _ 2 1 . we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = .c os I 9 ' = v'f.. r0 · = 1 . 62 1) (4.625) (4.c o s tv ) (4. V.624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) .1 . Figure 4. the rectangular components of the velocity vector .ji! sin v p (4.6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4. ..218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y .. 623) .V. where tv = v . ( ... (4..JiLP.. so 1 � L (I . 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.P ( 1 . are yw = r sin v (4.. 4 +.vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf . 626) .I M E Ch .:.p ..A F U N CT I O N O F T.. .x".42 1 ) .
68) .1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .E . we get f = a( cos E .e2 ). E rr . (4.I Jlla sin E.63 1 ) (4. 627) But. r (4. From equations (4.67) and (4. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .6. yw 9 and (t . Similarly.sin L'!.a ( 1 .63 2) .to ) .!Ji8 sin L'!.628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.E) 9 r _ 0 j. = .e2 ) v. (4.6.6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .1 0).e cos E o ) .e) v! fJa( l .63 0) (4.a E sin E .e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 . 629) f = 1 .4. o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.1 (4.( L'!.cos L'!.e2 ) = 1. using equation (4.e 2 ) cos E . Thus Xw Sec 4. Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .cos L'!.a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .6.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .Ji!.� ( 1 ..E ) f = .E ) .
and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it. and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. M can be obtained from = (4. the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .t o ) . ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.2k7T + M o . A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .  E. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) . with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true.26) Even though equation (4.629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable . cosh 6F ) ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself. (4.4 Kepler Problem Algorithm. In classical terms.220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch .(1 E . � V a3 ( t .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . of course . Kepler himself realized this. 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4. from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly . (4.2 6) is one equation in one unknown .6F ) .63 6) 4.63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .634) (4.to) . ..6.
compute the mean anomaly. M n . we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . of course . Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve.638) n dM/d E I E=E n . but this is not very accurate. E n+ l E + M .Mn En+ 1 ' from (4.Sec 4 .63 7) Now. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. � Figure 4. E It would. ' (4. that results from this trial value . select a new trial value.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem.
1 9).5 + . we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits.4. 5. 2. even when e is nearly 1 . From fa and va determine r 0' a. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. va and the timeofflight.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y .when e is nearly 1 .4 0) EXERCISES 4. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. p and va· 2 . 1 . e. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. however. d M = 1 e cos E . It can be used for LW or�E . The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation.2.6. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M .  . Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F).5 cos V DU . Determine f and V from equations (4.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. dE Therefore. e.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.1 8) and (4.1 2) .t ' are given. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. 3 . equation (4. where d M / d E l E = En En. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence.e cos En (4.4. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. 4 . Solve for V if needed. Once E i s determined by any method.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. t .
in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. x.348J +  1 .6 For the data given in problem 4..85 TU) 4.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. V = 3481 .3 Given l:J) = ffP.Ch . i. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. (partial Ans. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. find r and v for . how should the area of search for x be limited. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4.4 If. (Ans.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. f = 4 . corresponding to l:J) of 600• .e. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . Find the values of f. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. TOF = 5. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. 625) . find the universal variable. glven fO' vO' and t. Explain why this must be so .5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. 4. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P.3.
if X == x (t ) .5 DU. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 .5 . 2. and give your analytic reasoning behind. ra == 2. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. == 1 . Va and w and will solve for f. e = ..9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . Va and t . 5. 4 .99). 5 DU. then . 7 The text.73 TV) 4. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 .1 1). e = .224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. in equations (4. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value.10 rp 4 . Le.to and solve for f and v. 4 . 1 0.51 0) and (4. 4 . 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. TOF = 2. 1 1 For problem 4. (Ans. Develop. g. f and g. 9 At burnout.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. with a perigee above the north pole. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. 4 4 . Do the same for problem 4. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0.
L'.43 5) and (4.6 TU) . g.. Company. 4. 1 963 . Small.630) through (4.( t . Kepler. NY.1 8).tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. 2. 1 95 9 . The Sleepwalkers. New York. Albert.r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. A New York. Wise.0 + . 1 7 Derive the expression for g . 1 964. Robert.. New York. Madison. 1 95 1 . 4 . The University of Wisconsin Press.2 . Guidance . . r. r3 fJ.43 6).to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.. See equations (4. equation (4. Stahlman. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola.. Richard H. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t .E. Arthur. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . o 4 . Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. NY.. The Macmillan 3 .I:!:. 2. Einstein. = . 4. Philosophical Library. NY. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. f and 9 in terms of (t . 63 2). LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Battin.16 * 4.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . Koestler. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D.
" ARS 1. Vol 3 1 . K. S. Vol 275 . W. Herrick. Mathmatica.1 28 . 1 9 1 2 . Stumpff. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. Vol 70.ach. Sperling. Bate. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. and 1. New 6. 1 0. United States Air Force Academy . 1 947. pp 66066 1 . Lemmon. 4 5 . W. A n Introduction York. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. pp 3093 1 5. H. J." A cta Vol 36. J." A str. E. Goodyear. pp 1 08. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships.1 79. 9. The MacMillan Company. 1 965. California. . N. Unpublished notes. Redondo Beach. Sundrnan. 1 2. 1 96 1 . Roger R. Brooks." A stron. Moulton. H .1 92. 8." A stron. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. 1 1 . 1 9 1 4. K. . F ." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. Vol 70. 1 965 . H. pp 1 89. to Celestial Mechanics.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . pp 1 05 . 7. 1 965. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. W . Forest Ray. "Universal Variables.
But. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. a 24yearold German mathematician. in 1 7 8 1 . CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars.. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. Uranus. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. 227 5.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. in the first year of the 1 9th century.
This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . Because of its importance. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. no more . Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5. and for convenience in referring to it later. but for a different reason. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. If they paid some attention to philosophy . Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. The object turned out to be Ceres. no less. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them."the Gauss problem. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . and the direction of . The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. Hegel asserted. exactly 1 year later. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres.
" through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. . the orbit is a degenerate conic. 2. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way.. .SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ . The relationship between the four vectors f l .21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . therefore.". appears in the denominator of any expression. / .. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. particularly if the parameter.. / I I I I I Figure 5 . f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M .motion." through an angular change greater than 7r.1 . 5 . that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations.. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. It is not surprising.. p.... Obviously . or the "long way. Sec .
f. so 2 . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E .( 1 . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . bv .25). From equation (5 .. r .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f.sin �E ) � JJ. this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent.23) Actually.25 ) (5 .22) r2 a ( 1 . Consider equations (5 . r2 P p rI .23).. p.230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . t. 3. We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . g. (5 .1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f.. what we have is three equations in three unknowns. (5 .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si.26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 .. 2. 27) . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . a and �E. a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. so a trialanderror solution is necessary . the solut �on to . 2.y'ii8 . but the first four are known. g. The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature.1 ) (5 .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . 23) and (5 .24) arid (5 .cos �E ) f = 1 . Test the result by solving equation (5 .24) Si n �E (5 . p. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. There are seven variablesf1 .( 1 . 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . a 9 = 1 .2.cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . (5 .cos �V . (5 . a or �E. f and g.cos �E ) .cos �v) = 1 .( 1 . Use equations (5.27) and (5 .
This last step is perhaps the most important of all. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work.( 1 . we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. and would enable us to use the universal variables. let's write the expressions for f. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. 5 .1 ) (5 . A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . however.:t x3 S. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated.. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. r1 (5 . a and L'£ or 6F. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. In each case .c x2 y. x and z.3 2) . What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. 3 . g . If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. introduced in Chapter 4. p.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . n 6V r2 = t  = 1 .Sec. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. = 1 .cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I.
33)  (5.39) ... as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.( c o s b.v) • 9 = = IE.34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange. yields X C.A .v ) 1 c o s b.viI x ( 1 zS) \ .. A y= . we get r 1 r 2 (1 ..c o s b.j A equation (5 .37) I y = r 1 + r2 . P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b.. we obtain A.v (5 .1I 1 � .V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch . 5 X2 (5 .35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .jE: .( 1 c o s b.. rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b. p r1 j . ( 1 . 1 ..v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 . ( 1 c o s b..v y. such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.i n b.38) y.232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .v) (5 .36) may be written (5 .31 ).
32) and (5 . y.Sec.=1' Ig =r2 =. thi 't "p.1 ).34)..1 4) 1 The velocity.3. I" � \ ·1 fr .qr::oo . and the auxiliary variable . .3. we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 . rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 .31 5) (5 . 5 . 3. we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But. v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . A.on simplllw.3.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .31 7) .35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 . (5 .37 ) and (5 .r I (5 . so that (5 . the last term of this expression may be simplified.31 3) (5 .31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . +.420). 32). From equations (5 .: r I .". to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: . by using equations (5 . 3.LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ.1 6) (5 .1 0) (5 . 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .ff. can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves. 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .38).
A.E2 and z = .1 4) and (5 . 3. 5. 7 . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . 9 and 9 from equations (5 . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly . y. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. a Newton iteration." evaluate the I 2 constant. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . Determine the auxiliary variable.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 .0. dt / dz.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 4. 5.3 . 3. 6. then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. From f ' f and the "direction of motion.= 3 x 2 . Determine x from equation (5 .39). Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.dz dz dz 2yy dz . (5 .31 7).0. 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 .31 6) and (5 .S + X 3 _ + .3. evaluate t.1 1). When the method has converged to a solution.31 5). Since z = .1 2) (5 .31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .31 8) ( ) (5 . which converges more rapidly. If it is not nearly the same . 5 1 . 2 .3. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.1 0) and (4.31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. using equation (5 . may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. The derivative.1 0) .37).31 9) .4. A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section.4.P .31 3). from equation (5 . Although any iterative scheme . Pick a trial value for z.
5 .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS . we get ( 1 .32 1 )  .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . 5 . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 .=  dS (C . we showed that y.z S) dS _ .Sec.31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 . 3 . i n section 4 .320) (5 . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .39) for dy = dz  But.2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 . .
326) .OK DU. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . "direction of motion": rl =0. determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .7K DU. 51 r2 = 1. Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period.319) and (5 . D M � si g n (1T L'>. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 . I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S.4.322) into equation (5 . ill rl .v) .320) and (5 . At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .6J + 0.318).1 0) and (4. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z. These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 . There is only one path for a given direction of motion.325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.+ 5! 7 ! _ _ . To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero. 5 so. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .  (5 . equations (4.41 1 ). Using universal variables." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.324) _  (5 .01 + + O.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 .32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit). we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 .
For ease of numerical solutions. 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .28406 = 1 . a convenient form of equation (5 .Sec. A A l ong way =1 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 .6V > 1T).1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).37) does when .962 radians LW long way = 21T . 5 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 .0. OM = +1 we have "short way " (.5.1 5) .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .1 4) and (4. 0488088482 + 1 .321 radians Using (5 . 327) r1 = 1 . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . 86474323 = 1 . 23287446 yT12 vm .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = . 0000 1 .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 .327).39).6V is small.1 . 0000 + 1 . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 .6V short way = 5.CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = . 0488088482 + 1 .3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . 28406 ( __ = 3 .. 5 . from equations (4.
23287446 0. Y l o ng = 3.28406 y'0. (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.780 1 9540 1 /2 0...68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration.28406 y'3..238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .0 we do not normalize. 0432z = 1 3. 1 . from the given data.672625 1 6 TU + through 6.. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 .3. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.86474323 2.3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .. the desired time o f flight is : . Step 5: Using equation (5 ..86474323 = 1 .. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.23287446 t l o ng = 0.3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .489482706 (6") .. 1 3 min = 0445 z ..05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0..444689 m 0. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : .1 0).
94746230 A = 1 . (5 .3 .4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .8826885334K v2 = 0.989794 D U/TU 0.79852734 v2 = 1 . 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.83236253 Using equations (5 .t .t solved .9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.Sec.63049 1 80961 1 .76973587J . (5.60 1 874421 .02234 1 8 1 1 .0.96670788 z = x 0. 1 1 39209665J  0.3.0.1 6) and (5 .28406 Y = 4.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 . 1 7866539741 + 1 .5544 1 39777J 0. W e have : � 104 (within 0.58 1 43981 VI = 0.5288 97 1 4 = 2. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.1 3).314).6009 1 852 .31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .1 5).3.28406 Y = 0.36 1 677491 + 0.0.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0. 5 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.554824 D U /T U f = 3.50634848K v2 = 0.6 1 856634 = 0. 74994739 VI = 0.83073807 v 2 = 1 . 7499473 9 t = 0. (5 .250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.
076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position).39).2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . yet equation (5 .31 . This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . For "short way" trajectories.1 O} VC . Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4. where f::1) is less than 7T.38) and (5 .636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 . In other words.zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation . 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .= 0.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative. From equation (5 .39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .52).
if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.Sec.4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity.42) into equation (5. for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.1 ) and si n  COS .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.6V COS .. 5. (sin xl i .?S.4.6V p � . hence.6V V 1 . r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 .c o s x =.c o s ""E si n ""E . This check is only necessary when is positive. we obtain 5. The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .va si .4. a and ""E.cos !:::.j1 .4 TH E p.25).v. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique. a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p ./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity . The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns. From equation (5 ..cos ""V ( 1 .4. 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . we can solve for a and get 1 .V ) a (5 . 5. and 2 solving for p. we get  .23).cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) .)2 cos .. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive .
2 Ll. (5 . we obtain m p a= (5 .45) and simplify.2 Expressing a as a Function of p.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .43) 5. and noting that � c os '2 .E Solving for cos2.E CO � = ± p= k = . 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll. (5 .v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .E) •  k = k Ll.Q p ) 2 (5 . We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .48) k .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.4.J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.Qp y'2ni p .45) ± Using these same definitions. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll. The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.E .. we get Ll.E Q ± y'2ni C O S .242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.E ( k .46) Ll. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .43) as Ll.c o s bJ)) (5 .
Sec.4 . Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. we need to determine � (or .F in case a is negative). 5. 5 .6.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr. 5.. Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses).4. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048).where k. we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later .41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . 2.. however.!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic.3 Checking the Trial Value of p. First . a may not be smaller than some minimum value . .4 T H E p.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 .
41 2) (5 .a r1 (1  f) (5 . although t approaches infInity for this orbit. we can compute f. we see that the limiting case of .6.6. 5 c o s .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 . The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .4.4. there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.24) or the corresponding equation involving .24) and (5 . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i . (5 .6.6. let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .From the trial value of P and the known information.6. If a is positive.1 3) .s i n . In Figure 5. F 1 .25).42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.6. let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way..F (5 .E ) (5 . we can determine ..6.F is positive.4.6.F: (5 .1 0) = = 1 .Tar (si n h . To get a feeling for the problem. Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. F . the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving . 9 and f from equations (5 . If we look at "long way" trajectories. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.41 1) c o sh . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero. F ) .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .E a If yield is negative.( 1 .E from equations (5 . If (. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.vi." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like .4 The t vs P Curve .E .6.23).49) Since we always assume .6.23) and (5 .
t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j . From the discussion above. For l'J) less than IT. P must lie between P j and infinity.zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 .4 T H E p.... P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case . for t:sv greater than IT.I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse . Sec. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 .. In Figure 5 .42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 .. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight.. we should first compute P j or P j j ...43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories... as well as all subsequent guesses for p.. lie within the prescribed limits.. P must lie between o and P j j .. 5 . Since it is important thar the first trial value.
1 5) 5 . In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p.46). b .4. I . . ell .yLri1 (5 . '" E 0> '" . • . The solution is then bracketed and.246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . � " . p )0 p" .5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p.� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain.. Several simple methods may be used successfully.. 0 Q + y2in k  (5 . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two .43 k p a rameter .1 4) Q .. Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). 5 1 :co . . from equation (5 .4.4. . one that gives too small a value for t. and one that gives too large a value. . The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution.
44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration . ...4... ... . ..1 6) This scheme can be repeated.1 ) (t n .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p. . .Sec.. . O��_4o P n.I Figure 5 .. .P n .. .. . ... .. . .t n ..I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn.. . .. .. . then a better estimate of p may be obtained from .. It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer... 4 T H E p. . .1 6)..1 and Pn .4... tn t . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. .. ... then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t .. .1 ) (5. .. 5 .t n ) ( P n . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5. ... . ... If tn. ..
r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S . � ( S . ( � .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.4. fl3  fJ. 41 9) .si n L'> E l . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .41 8) (S . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .iri equati �n (S.41 7).4.
2mk2 Qp 2kQp .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.2 dp k ( k .420) From equation (5 .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .Qp ) Q. that ( k .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .4 T H E p.4 8) . bE d�E .E / dp and noting.47).Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .( k . we obtain .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE . 5 .Sec.k2 ] 2 [ (2m .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m . from equation (5 .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .
5 (5 .423) . (5 . _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.6E JJ. which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .Qp) si n 6E JJ.42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F ..420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .4.si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 . (5 .42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .1 9).� (6E .. p(k h JJ.4. and (5 .COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .= .1 8) from (5 .. By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .
Evaluate 9 from equation (5 .24) and (5 . We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 . The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a.E or Ll. using equations (5 .44). should be used in equation (5 .422) or (5 . r and Ll.6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .4.1 5). Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . Solve for f. 8 .1 4) and (5 . As stated earlier .4. 5 .22). 5 . Solve for Ll.F.27) and (5 .1 1 ) . 2 .4. Q and m from r] .1 0) or equation (5 . solve for a from equation (5 4 .4. Using the trial value. 2. 5 251 . This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. a.8). Pn . Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.423). 4 . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . 6. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector.4. 25). of p. The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear.6E or Ll.F obtained from the trial value. we will develop and use the f and 9 series. 7 . equations (5 . 9 . 9 and f from equations (5 .4. Solve for t from equation (5 . 5 . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES .2·3).49) and (5 . Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola.1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. as appropriate . 3 . (5 .To evaluate the slope at Pn . t and . Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. Sec. the values of g.II using 2 . Evaluate the constants k.1 2) or (5 .
(5 .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn .54) we have the following recursion (5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. 5 5) r r (5 . we write equation (5 . 5 9) . 5 2) (5 .57) (5 . Therefore. 5 4) for n = O. (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 .
p and q which will be useful later . 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .5. q.5. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec.5 11 ) (5 .5W)  (r . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 . 5 . We define them as follows : O. as we shall u .1 7) . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 . 5 . v are known .51 3) rr and the definition of p. p.51 2) u . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . u L.Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. this can be (5 . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate.51 6) (5 . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .515) =  ur.and the equation of motion f  (5 . 5 .
5 20) (5 . _ [1 1  2 (v . = . 1 1 1 1 .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . r r (5 .1 8) Using the definition of P.r . 5. ) . Summarizing: (5 . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . v) _ 1 u.p (u + 2q ) .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly.1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 . 5 .3u p (5 . .U . .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5.(v) 2 .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = .57) and (5 . d q = d t . (5 . .23 r· (V) r   u. q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r . 522) q = . ) _ 24 (r . r) (v) 2 .
Writing equation (5 . = .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) . p and q.30p p + 3 q ) . = F 1 r + G 1 .3 u p ( u .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \.u G 4 = u ( u .Sec.1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .t!:.u r = .3p ( u + 2q ) .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ . = .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .u G = .6 u 2 p = .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.1 5u p ( u .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u . F3 = F .54) for n = 1 . = r 0.. ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = . 5.6 u 2 p = . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . Fs = F4 . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.
1 .526) . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 .5.1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q . . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 . Referring to equations (5 . .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. 5 = U (u . Vo (5 .tao Comparing with equation (5 .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 . ) .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .524) (5 .52) and (5 .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .Gn n. therefore.523) .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .
7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) .28q . F = 3up 3 F = u(.30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 . G = O.20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .51 .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.Sec.u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 . F 2 = 'U.94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O. 5 .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .30q .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) . G 1 = 1 . G = 30up(1 4p2 .3q .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .90q . F 1 = 0.6q . G = u.2 1 q .
7) (5 .5·27) + ' (5 . 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. 2·5). 7) r I g (r I . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u .2·3). This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . (5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . 5 . The f and 9 series may be used .0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . f I .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. p.6. r I .f (r I .5·29) .2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. From equation (5 . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . 5.51) + 9= 7  1 . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 .24) and (5 .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. 5.
Sec. 5. 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6.6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD . The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. L£ . so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. As. This .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA.61 Sector and triangle area (5 . thus Figure 5 . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. becomes dt (1 . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ .
62) (5 .260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 .6.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.43) and using the identity. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . .2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b.6. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one. If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.2 The First Equation of Gauss. 5.2E ) 2 . but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large. 4 � c o s b. x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 .' l'2 2 2 (5 .64) = 2 (2� co s � )3.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss." + l( 1 . this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression. E ) .V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .c o s b.
equation .6 .1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression. ( . Si.cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .£Q.L .. we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.Sec. From the first of these equations.s i n l:>E ) . . si n l:v cos � .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.24) and (5 .. t/y. 5 .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J. (5 .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 .65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .. 3 The Second Equation of G auss.(5 .61 ) becomes si n l:v .67) 1 cos l:>v =. so .. Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 . L ( l:>E . Using the identity.2 ( 1 r1 r ..65).2 2 L (5 .s i n l:>E ) .61). n l:> E ) .= ..L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .
there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . 6.64) and solving for y.1 ) . which is known as "the second equation of Gauss. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. S + 1 . in three unknowns. 22) completes the solution. (5 . We then added another independent equation. and so on. using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 .2(� . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. 23). The first step is to evaluate the constants.Si.si n LE ) we may write.6. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 .1 ) = W (LE . y 2 ( y .1 0) .from (5 . (5 . pick a trial value for y.4 Solution of the Equations . recall that we started with three equations. n = 2 si n 3 LE . y. a good first guess is y � 1 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary.6." 5 .69) cos f = 1 . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . equations (5 . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. a and LE. To review what we have done so far.43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated.262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .6. When convergence has occurred. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . (5 . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations.69) are transcendental. s and w. and one more unknown. 27) and (5 . !:JJ and t. (5 . Unfortunately. p.25). from r I ' r2 .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. Next.64) and (5 .s) . y and LE . 24) and (5 . more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y.
F are close to zero.c:.c:.F .c:. .E is imaginary.c:. F = si nh .c:. the righthand side of equation (5 .Since the equations above involve . E = i .c:.0.1 2) = X = .s i n . E or . 6.E and .F . 5 .c:.1 0) may also b e written as Sec.69) and to determine y.E is imaginary. If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic. then .F = rush . For this reason. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.F . The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section. )� s + 1 .F whenever the right side is greater than one . If the given timeofflight is short.c:.F is real.c:.F will be zero and both equations (5 .c:.1 1 ) s i n h . Noting that .c:.c:.cE.c:.F and COS i .c:.E s i n 3 . they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.c:.6. 6.E . F.6.F 2 ) · (5 .69) and · (5 .c:.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.c:. S. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 . Using the identity. F s i n h 3 "2 .c:. difficulties may be anticipated any time .6.69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 . indicating that�. as y2 = W S + x . Since we already know that when . equation (5 . i sin i.1 0) may become greater than one.S ) y (5 .c:.1 2) become indeterminate. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y .c:..E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.cosh 2 .1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .6. equation (5 . Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.
43).E or 6. determine 6. ) .1 3). Compute the constants. parabola.23). or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. Depending on the type of conic. s and w.61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution.. . 1� = 2 3 1.6. replacing CDs 6. The result.264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . which is developed by Moulton.]) and t using equations (5 . Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 .1 4).22). .25) and (5 .6. ( 1 + §. Determine p from equation (5 .1 (5 .. 2 .2 Ch . 2 6. from rl .6 .1 1).1 5) 1 . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 .1 4) Now. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit.24).1 0) or (5 .27) and (5 . is . E as a power series in x. 7 .62) and (5 . 6 . the orbit being an ellipse. Evaluate f.6.1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . 3 . r2 . f.6. (5 . it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x.F from equation (5 . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point.6. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. and then expressing 6. Determine X from equation (5 . 2. 4.6. (s + x ) · 1 (5 . or negative. and 9 from equations (5 . . . g . (5 . problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . 5 . The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 ..26). zero. the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point.63). /:.Y:i.
Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . �atellite intercept and rendezvous." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. The £:. ballistic missile targeting. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. 5 ." In all but the simplest cases.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. and ballistic missile interception. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . To avoid generalities. Usually. To make the problem even more specific. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. 72. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination.Sec.
5 i nterceptor .... ". . 7 . \ •• • • • • • .1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem ... e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary. �/ �/ ". r. ��y V \" _ ." \ t a rg e t / \ ..� ... I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 .". ) / ot t.� ' .7..' ':. ".266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .\.... at t... .1 .�: :.f.. I n .. fI }/ \ \ .
We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200.Sec. which is when the intercept will occur. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . 5 . the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor.7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily.
But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. 5 them. . Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. " . . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . . �v? �v . we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight.238 km/sec. The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. . . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. \ \ \ Figure 5 . .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . . . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . launch vel. .
There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. 5 . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec.7 . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . the better . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. From Figure 5 .5 . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . In Figure 5 . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. Because of earth rotation. In summary . 5 .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site .7 .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . the launch site will have moved eastward .
J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .4 /':.270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .O F ..7. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .V plot for example intercept problem .) z :J « ..F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.
1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. 5 .84) (5 . P3 . the three components of r2 . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . v2 • P I ' P2 . Although we have examined a very specific example . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. (5 .8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .85) (5 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. P3 · . 82) t2 so (5 . i. t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 .e.8 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis .Sec. now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. t2 . another method will be develope d .
Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . the components of f2 and V2 . ' r2 . b .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . y and Z . Estimate the magnitude of f2 .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x. and eliminating the K components. 5 to (5 . Rz .8·7) (5 .e. Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. L3 . the components of Vz be X.T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch . L2 .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . 8.8) (5 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . R1 . y and z . � into equations (5 .8.L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. 526) and (5 . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z .8. 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . i. y. in fact only six of the equations are independent.
Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 .32). f2 I + J DU). 5. .31 3) through (5 .\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . e . I I I I  x.423) for hyperbolic orbits.522).41 .2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. Ease of computation. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6.527). c.6 Derive equation (5 . 5 . The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.t2 and t2 t } are not too large.4 Verify the development of equation (5 048). and (5.31 ).Ch . Usirlg specific numbers. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04.1 5. 5 Z. 5. b.526) and (5 . EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter.V required for intercept? 5.1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. (5. using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy.3 Verify equations (5 . Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. Accuracy. Z. Limitations.31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . which are the components of f2 and v2 . =: =: 5 . f. but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. Y.39).
t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . t2 . r2 'and the distance between them.t l determine v2 using a. (Ans. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. p 1 + J + K DU DU 5. d. as a function of rI r2 .J + K). Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. h = 1 .00256 (J + K» . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 .0922 TU.tl = 1 . rl r2 p.7 . which will contain both position vectors.8 using the universal variable. vI = 0. d. 5 . b. 5 . c.9 Repeat problem 5 .06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 . = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series.009 (. r2 .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. (Ans. The piteration technique. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. although a few iterations can be made by hand. 5 Given two position vectors rI .8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . The universal variable method . 5. 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . The original Gauss method.
Davis. 3.66986 9921+0 . McGrawHill Book Company. A stronautical Guidance. Liu. 2 . New York. Eric Temple . New York. Escobal.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. a. . Forest Ray. 1 9 1 4. A n Introduction York. 1 956. r 1 = I t 2 . Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . Dover Publications.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. S. John Wiley & Sons. Appendix A. NY.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . 1 963. NY. New 6. r 1 = 2I t2 . Carl Friedrich. f 1 = 1 . Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. d .t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory.Ch . Simon and Schuster. Inc.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . Pedro Ramon. Richard H. New York. 1 ." in The World of 1 . a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H.6J + 0. to Celestial Mechanics. f l = 0 . 1 9 59.7K D U t 2 . Vol 5 . r 1 = 41 t 2 . NY. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. 2I D U t2 . Mathematics. "The Prince of Mathematicians.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. New York.t 1 = 0. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . NY.4804847 1 1 2 +0.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. and A. 1 964. Herrick. Gauss. Moulton.0. c . (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. Methods of Orbit Determination. 51 + 0. the MacMillan Company. 1 965. Battin. Bell.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . 4. Inc. (Answer : v = 0.
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ironically . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . World War II as "too late . . Efforts. which concern us in this chapter. Napoleon I 6. The result is well known. The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. have a very short history . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries.000 V2's had been fired in anger . 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. longrange ballistic missiles.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery .
In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. 4 Accordingly. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. in June 1 9 53 . Trevor Gardner . The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . Brigadier General 3 . After all. In July 1 95 4. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . According to Dr. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket.000 pounds thrust. California.
When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. 6. Blasingame . the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . From 2 main contractors at the beginning. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . the program had. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. After three unsuccessful attempts. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . Otherwise. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. by mid· 1 95 9 .000 people participating directly. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. 6 . Progress was rapid. Atlas was a reality.Sec.
Since Va:. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system..22) . Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere .2. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . (6 ." "height of apogee. however. It will not be discussed in this text. 6 . such terms as "height at burnout.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point.ji1Tr. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. Figure 6.2. Q . We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch ." etc.. =. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics.2. need not be redefined.2. 6 . We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. 6 from launch to burnout. There are.. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory . what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories." "flightpath angle at burnout. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here .2 The Nondimensional Parameter. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions. 1 defines these new quantities.
Sec .21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 . 6.
282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch .2.25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit. the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. and substitute for V. 24) 6 . rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 . This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.23) or IQ=2�·1 p . the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.the expression p. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. When Q is equal to 1 . the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point.26) . It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2.1 ) .3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . (6. If Q is greater than 2 .O/r from equation (6.2. Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section.
26) above can.22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) . half the freeflight range angle .27) . be written as (6.Sec. 2 Equation. therefore. 6 . lies on each side of the major axis.co s v b o . and co s � = . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 . 'l'.f6.
and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. the required freeflight range angle. .1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6. .28) p. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 .1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions.284 . we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile.T.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. e. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. = r Q C O S2 cp .29) and (6. .1 1) into equation (6. h = rv cos cp.e2 ). ¢ro. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. what should the flightpath angle. the total range angle.29) Now. (6.2.2.2. A. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1./. also becomes known. since p = a( 1 .28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6.
it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r.2. it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . is called r bo . Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . Instead . We could .4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. F'. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . In Figure 6 .In other words. Now. and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse .23 Ellipse geometry 6 . Sec 6 . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . ¢bo. with a little algebra.
I n 2 and also as rb (6. � + 'lr) = .x) = sin (6. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x.Qb o sin � .286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � .2. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering.2. It means.000 ) from equation (6. that. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . d. This is.1 3) (6. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . shown in Figure 6. F' and the burnout point.2.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 . in fact.2.1 6) . 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal.24. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery. Qb o 2 2 (6. for example.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a ." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.
sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .866.1 6) gives us . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = . 6.Sec.9.24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory . .2.
The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. 2. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 .1 6) does not exceed 1 . If Q bo is greater than 1 . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory.21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. 2. If Q bo is exactly 1 . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. equation (6 . Nevertheless. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Figure 6 . there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. Table 6.P/2&." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. Because a = . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . Provided that 'l' is attainable. This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 .
Sec. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 6 .
5 DU. ha p og ee 0.low traj .1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1.625 . range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . During the test firing of a ballistic missile. skims earth high only . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU. hits earth 000 > 1 high only .11 5 18 1 .21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :. cos ¢ b o == 0. hits earth Table 6 . vbo = 2/3 DU/TU. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM.low traj . Assuming a symmetrical trajectory.
26. 60 0W . 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) .025 DU respectively. c os � = + N . 6 2 1 .2. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. 6 . Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . :. Notice or <P b o = :. 'IT. 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry.5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle .2. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 .2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . 'IT is less than 1 80 ° .1 2) . ) (60 n m i ) =2. <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . versus the flightpath angle . As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. 600 E.Sec.025) = 1 .1 . 6. We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . 2<P b o + 64°20.. What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.4Deg. 36° .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N.08 1 7 DU/TU and . 08 1 7 ( 1 .
:.292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell . be the maximum range condition.'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6. (2<P bO � ) 2 . . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition . A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution . A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target.2.2. 2. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must..:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .. � 80 . If the right side of equation (6. en EO I .� 90 Figure 6.1 8) L__________________� .s...pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 .26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory.7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight ..Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 .. 0> <1> <1> � IJ. s 0> Q) 0 � c .1 6) equals exactly 1 . then..1 7) I (6.. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.
We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6.e cos 2 (6. noting that l .2. 220) for maximum range conditions. VI 1 800 . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .222) .Qbo Qb o (6 .1 7 ).6 Time of FreeFlight. The value of E can be computed from equation (4 .. This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . By inspection. but . 6 . the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6. 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. 2.1 9) for maximum range conditions. 6 .8) .'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . 2. 2 . From the symmetry of Figure 6. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .2.cos 2 .7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). 'JI . due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. sin �= 2 2 .Sec:.22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4.
2. In fact . 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. and the eccentricity.27 Time of freeflight (6. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. a. 23) and (6. can be obtained from equ ations (6. 28. Figure 6 . Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . e. since five variables have been plotted on the figure.1 1). The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. 6 The semimajor axis.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch .
750 n m . It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM.884) ( 1 .Sec.25 D U == 7 .95 From Figure 6. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.8 period vs. 6 .000 nm. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.075) == 0. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.
.CI�rie� v X I .9h Ir. . . : :/ . . . : ' .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : .. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. :: :"/ N .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . . : : . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: . : : . .I ' : ' : : : : : : .aje. hi. :: : J: : : . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C..� '" �� :. ' .
As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian.6C represents the cro ssrange error. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 .77 0 = 0 .3 . The arc length . . payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. 2 00 ft/sec . 6 .6C. F or purposes of this example.Sec. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point. For brevity . 'l' From equation (6.2.OOO nm max = 3. For a fixed burnout altitude . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A.3 ° From equation (6.  Vbo 6. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance .933 D Urr U � 24.32 r ads = 1 33. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit.6C may be / 9 57 1.6X. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa. 8. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . 957 Hsi 66.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north. 6 . In Figure 6 . we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. position.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories.1 � 0.444 n m = 2. . impacting at B. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. 3 . If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. . the crossrange error. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point.220) . at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry.6X and .
cos . I 1 . If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . 3. we get (6."2 to simplify equation (6 .1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 .31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . if they are in degrees. In Figure 6 .1 . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation.3 . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr.32) 2 X Figure 6.1 ) to (6. if the intended target had been the north pole .3. for example. . you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. Equation (6.thought of as angles.
6 . P. �C. Figure 6 .32 is the crossrange error . Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range .'l1.33) . 299 Figure 6. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error.32 Azimuth error 6 . If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. 'l1. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C.3 . The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown .Sec. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . 6(3.2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. will result. before . are as planned. a crossrange error. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth.
33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 . cos X � 1 .3 .\]I will represent a downrange .path angle ..y I  : : i. it will hit the target anyway .0.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 .4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it .C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.D..x ' to simplify equation (6.. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount . 6 If we assume that both 43 and .0.oo a "'00 Fl ight . This .3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point. (6.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.21 about the center of the Earth.0.34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r. \]I.300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn . are shown by a solid line in the figure . An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.\]I. In other words..3.� I a q. <Pbo' In Figure 6. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended. if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth. 6.
The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.cot <P b o (6. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 . We could get an approximate value for .Sec.6.3 .39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.8) (6.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. 6 .1 2) of this chapter . If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3.1 0) Qbo I i .'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .3. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .2.36) (6. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .
2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants. a'l1 .3.3.1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.3. _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .3. Let us first express equation (6. 3.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Vb Substituting from equation (6.1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.
Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section.1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. A plot of range versus burnout radius. In fact. 6 . Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case.3. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6.3 .000 nm range. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height.33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors.1 3) This partial derivative . the actual range error on a 3 . particular burnout error . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . equation . The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. If this seems strange.Sec. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. Figure 6. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . angle errors. While we need equation (6.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). 3 . when used in the manner described above.33. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative .
2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .3.3. too slow and the missile falls short.1 1) implicitly.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 . the missile falls short of the target in every case .1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = .1 4) for small values of . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.3.31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6. if burnout occurs too low. . Again.000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .3. differentiating the range equation (6 . 6.3. the missile overshoots .1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation . Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . b o 'fJ ' (6 .6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler . The magnitude of the error is (6.3.. Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots .304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 6 however.1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6.
649 r ad U D U/T .4 rad ians.905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo .5 x 1 05 D U/TU .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) .Sec. ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error . LW b o = . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 6 . 1 D U . An analysis of equation (6 .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . Total downrange error : . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .905) 2 ( 1 .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] . ub o = 5 x 1 0 .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 .9 0 5 D U !TU .1 0. r bo = 1 .1 8) would reveal that. like the other two influence coefficients. There is no crossrange error. 735 rad DU r b o ( . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . 3. Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.735 = 6 . We will need Q bo (.3. A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = .4 D U .6V b o + a 'lr . . 1 ) 2 .6¢ b o = . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high.
6 =2.4 ) TOT =1 1 . The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 .2sin 1 60 o 2 = . both the launch point and the target are in motion. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar.4. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . Relative to this inertial XY Z frame .S ) . then all three . The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation.1 . <p. 6.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .1 0. v.735 ( 5x 1. ove rshoot 6. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. That is. {3.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed.5 24 ft/sec. 56x 1 0 . and its azimuth angle. its flightpath angle. In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another.56x 1 0.4 ) (3444) � 4 n . That is. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. for example). we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives. The rotation is from west to east.649 (5x 1 O . 0.2 1 (.4 )+6. m i .4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it.1 . 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation.
of train l \\�. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . and a speed of. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 .000 ft/sec. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. 6 .I ·=<� • . Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . of 45 0 .1 ) . 1>.1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . say 1 . an azimuth. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . .4.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 .4. we will refer to measurements of burnout ." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. �. of 900 (east). and the azimuth considerably less than 900 .. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle.5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. An observer at rest would not agree . Hereafter. Like the observer on the moving train. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. (6. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. A simple example should clarify this point.000 ft/sec.Sec. Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction.
by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve .44) �. flightpath angle . (6 . v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. It is. Vs (6 . and up components of the true velocity. We can obtain the south.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . �. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . of course. Thus. east . If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. v. break up V into its components. first.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. lies. Once you have the components of ve. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . this will not be difficult.42) The true speed.
If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. In Figure 6 .43 is just 90 0 L o. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. the target will be there also. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . 6. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. when the missile arrives at point B.Sec. Hopefully. The term.4. so the arc length OA in Figure 6. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate .42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . Rather .2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  .
{3.0.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target. this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . then a value of . should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6. {3. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point.48) Again.N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3. and if. (6 . . A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . we can solve for the required launch azimuth.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 .0. tA . Once we know the total range angle.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . If you are firing the missile the "long way" around. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.47) Solving for cos {3. A. (6 . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point.0.N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. The longitude difference. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .N.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (.N + wffitA' where .N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 .0.N + w ffitA ) . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . (6 . we get c o s {3 = sin L t .0.0.
43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . 6 . tA But . and launch azimuth. By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6.Sec. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. Needless to say. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . (3. In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . A.
8° v n /3 = v = . 79 . 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . 87 9 30.5022 ta . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N. 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited.j( .. v = . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 .9 DU/TU.. 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = .0 58 8cos290 = . using Q bo = ... EXAMPLE PROBLEM .42) through (6 . 45 ) 2 = . 6 . 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( .. . 9 s i n 300= . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . 339 ) =. 9cos3 00cos 3300= . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of .. 33° ¢bo = v E = . 1 DU. 29 .. flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 .3 ° W burns out at 30o N.( . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ .675 s (J=333 . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed.4 5) : v= .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . 339 ) 2 + ( . 1 ) 1 . 85 From Figure 6 . 5 1 1 95 v . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry.
Sec.123 . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = .13 = 7.203. .4 .we(3. 770 N re = 156.7 8 0 .3.80° . 334TU ) =123. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 6 70) =. 29 . 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . tff=3. 6. 334)=135° . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. 3709 �GG (3. 77° = .85 and ¢bo = 3 0. 334 TU boN = 135° . E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . 2 5 TU :. w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 .
3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0.4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6.6 ft/sec) 6 . m i .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . and a spherical Earth.1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 . R = 6 0 n . 6 EXERCISES 6 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude.040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . v = 1 6 .05 D U = 1 0° . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans.926 D U /TU . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. m i . . r b o = 1 .1 9)? Why? 6 .5 D U!TU 1 . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . = .2.' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse .840.
6.2 1 2 run) 6. how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .Ch. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of . 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + .02. 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . 7 I n general. . Rtf = 4 .0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. (Ans. 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory .98 to 1 . . Using the equations si n iL. 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0.'lr ).)(.02. 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . 6 .400 n mi. = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . 1 0 During a test flight.x and L¥3 be? . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. Rtf = 5 .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . how large can .6. A lateral displacement .000 run) 6 .06 DU. Do not use charts.
800 nautical miles? (Ans.346 n mi long) b. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 .r = 0. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . a.642 DU/TU) . How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. vbo = 0. or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 ... ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. Determine the error at the impact point in n mi.936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 .V = 25 . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Is this a high. low. b . (Ans. c .6888 n mi L:. 7 . 6 . 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range .0 DU for a ballistic missile. 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. 6 6 .
6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . 1 2 00 W.'I' = � b.22 The range error equation could be written as: b. If the velocity at burnout was 28. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 .e . Do not use charts. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . 1 5 00 E..23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. R t of 4. 6 . at an altitude of 2. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range .where e is the 6 . Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . Ch .4 min) = 6. i.. 5 DU...530 ft/sec.700 n mi using a high trajectory. �bo and analyze the result . Q bo + . b.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ).ri. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 . 5 DU and whose perigee is . What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum.QL. 6 . tff 40.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.6 .600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. 3 0 0 E. 6. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity. at the same altitude . 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi.
1 200W . Do not assume a nonrotating Earth.318 V bo =23.4 rad ian s a. v bo = .48966 = 3 1 5 . How far will the missile miss the target? 4.5 0 .02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high.66E+20784. low. and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N.0057 ° = . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of . b.1 0 . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . elevation .25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.500 ft/sec=O.3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . c.6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . or maximum range trajectory? 6 . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 .905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . (Ans. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20. 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 . (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .1 045 . It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 . 92S1 0608. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44.
== == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 43e . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N .1 2 ' . 1 20 OW . rotating. Assuming a symmetric orbit. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 .400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. and r bo � r(fl. site located 319 During the actual firing. 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. L t 54 0 3 1 '. 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . atmosphereless Earth.6 1 8 . tff 3 2 . What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . downrange displacement of burnout point . 1. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain .Ch . 5 7 min) == * 6 . 0 (Ans. What was the freeflight range. What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b .73 n mi.649 n mi . (Ans.8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6.28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans.
5 . Albert D. Burgess. Eric. R ff ::: 1 0. Garden City. and truncate all terms third degree and higher).1 2) . NY. Wheelon . Doubleday & Company. Inc. Lt Col Kenneth. * 6. New York . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . A History of the U. 1 965 . Gantz . Praeger. The Viking Press.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . altitude at bo ::: . Vol 2.4) .3 . 1 960. 1 95 5 . LIST OF REFERENCE S 1.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 .S.2.02 DU.800 n mi. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Los Angeles. 3 . NY. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. Dornberger . ed . 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. V2 . New York. 2. (Hin t : See section 6. New York. The MacMillan Company. Inc. Publishers. 1 962.2. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. Schwiebert. Ernest G .6Vb o ." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. 6 * 6. 4. NY.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . Walter. "Free Flight . Calif. .3 1 The approximation : * 6. Frederick A. NY. Space Technology Laboratories. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . 1958.
when it is light anyway. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . and moving round it. does. when it is dark. and is. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. of all which. the 32 1 .. together with the Earth. . . the Sun or the Moon? . The Moon is the more useful. move round the Sun once a year. though principally attracted by the Earth. Proctor. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A.the Moon. have been discovered.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. since it gives us light during the night. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . about which she moves.
7.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . Brown . A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. D'Alembert. . not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. but because it comes close to being a double planet. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. W. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . Even interplanetary trajectories. W. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . has given a full account. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . 7 Author in this book. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. with no less subtility than industry. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Lagrange and Laplace .in this case the Sun. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. Clairaut .
the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . . in fact. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. . .3 days. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . . As a result . This puts the center of the system 4.3 04 of the mass of the Earth.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . .. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. Darwin. This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . .:. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. According to one theory advanced by G. . son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. H. . the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. 7 .. ��===c==Q.Sec. . :.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface .400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . . These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. .: =j Figure 7. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition).
324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . In the case of the Moon's orbit . due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun.2.22 Lunar orbital elements 7. the orbital elements are constantly . When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. 7 Figure 7.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane.
called "evection. The line of nodes.8 days. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27.Sec." was discovered more than 2 . The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 .000 years ago by Hipparchus. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes .400 km. b. c. This effect .054900489 . 7 . Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384.3 1 66 1 days. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' .
the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference .6 years. e . is the descending node . The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. but more than a century later . In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. its mean value is 5 0 S ' . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary.6 years. If the Moon's orbit were = . d . When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. making one complete revolution in l S . Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis.23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . rotates westward. the other . where the Moon crosses from north to south. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S .000 years. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. for only then can Sun.5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . 23 ° 27' .2. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic.9 years. From Figure 7. in l S72. so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth .2 Lunar Librations. Thus. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' .
ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. solar perturbations. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit.3 . actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. we would see exactly half of its surface . As a result. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. solar pressure .Sec. 7 . at one time or another. the computer time required could become prohibitive . daybyday. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. among other things. This permits us to see about 7 . At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. and 7. monthbymonth basis. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date .75 0 around each limb of the moon." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. Actually we see .
With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed.. semimaj or axis.0549 . _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . 7 . 2& e = y'1  pia .328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. a = :l:!:. It is not important that the analytical method be precise. this will not introduce significant errors. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions.3.6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about .. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = .. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories.Q. 7.400 km.3 . With this thought in mind.
Sec.  I..M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 . E i= ... 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit.g' . II. 7 .31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed . we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit..2 10.. we can solve for va .31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly. 60 \ \ I njection .. 1 r1 1 ..9 I njection 1 1. We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.c " 0 .c C/) . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.0 S pe e d . j 80 ..r1 1. e r Figure 7..i. In Figure 7..:.3 . we get c o s V = 2. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10. .
For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point. the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection.32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. . If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP.330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . .J! .3 .: / :1 ..32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . In Figure 7.. 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . \ 0 �� ' earth " .. : ... then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit... the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero. to parabolic. . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . 7 an injection altitude of .')'.. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed . 7 .. .. As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . Actually. : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 ... \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \.
32 we see that. Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . Eventually . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 .966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. if we keep reducing the injection speed . 7 . 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . 1 8 8 km/sec. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . as the injection speed is decreased. is a function of . 3 . Moon from our assumed inj ection point . .32. both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . From Figure 7 . In general the sweep angle . an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon.Sec. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. 7 . if we try to take longer by going slower. In such a case . the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. due to errors in guidance or other factors. We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. this minimum injection speed is 1 0. 82 km/sec.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind.we will never reach the Moon at all. Assuming no lunar gravity . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . Assuming an inj ection altitude of . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . which we can call 1/1.
Neglecting lunar gravity. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted .33 . the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. If. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft.. . But. that is. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. and wrrft. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. for example . the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. the initial velocity is too high.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. This may be seen from Figure 7 .
arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. In effect.1 ) . 7. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . There is. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . for all practical purposes. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance .0 km/sec.4. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we .3 00 km. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . only are interested in determining ap. R s' given by the expression Sec. however. 7 .It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon.encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 ." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. 5 However. .p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact.
4. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon. A full derivation of equation (7 .4 . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.4. consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.1 ) can be found in Battin . Figure 7 .4. a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h .334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit. 7 . The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth.1 ) yields the value Rs = 66." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.) Then.
44) .Sec.46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee .r h V 1 I (7 . r 1 . from geometry .45) COS <P I . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. r 1 . the radius. 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration.42) (7 .43) From the law of cosines. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. 1 . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . Finally. Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. at lunar arrival is (7 . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables.
t l .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 . 1 p ia  a = :l!.47) 2& e = ".49) (7 . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p.1 0) .48) (7 .to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined. 7 Figure 7.4.41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight. p=� (7 . JJ.
to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 . 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = . the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .4. Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.4.e 1 r1 __ (7 .649 2. 1 37 X X 1 0.1 3) (7 . Eo and E1 from Finally.4. 7 . Wm = = t 1 . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually. .Sec.1 2) Next.6 rad/sec 1 0 .1 6) The phase angle at departure.1 5) 2.4.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .1 1 ) (7 .3 rad/TUEIl (7 . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.4. we can determine the eccentric anomalies.4. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .
2 Conditions at the Patch Point .4. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO .0 1 8 k m/sec. a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . (7 .4. r2 . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 .4.45). It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body.which we chose arbitrarily .1 8) (7 . We will do this in the sections that follow.1 6) above .4. r 1 .48) through (7 . In Figure 7 . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. (7 . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail. is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . at arrival is completely determined by \ .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails.42 : V m = 1 .1 9) .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. 7 . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact .4. The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . then the selena centric radius. 7 . The geocentric radius. it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
50 � � c 0 i e 1. 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .20 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.30 . «>  0.40 .54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .
once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 .3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . b oth of which are undesirable.5 0 .5 0 and 28 . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . If lighting conditions are important. If lunar declination at intercept is specified. As a result .54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . However.Sec. then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7. 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. 5 4 worth noticing. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .52) and Figure 7 . we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . Figure 7 .52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles.si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . sir! 0 1 . It should be obvious from equation (7 . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. 7 . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. if we add a coasting arc.5. From Figure 7 . Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. 54.5 3) .
020 1 8 1 6 49.95 7 1 7 37 48. 5 7 1 1 66 . 1 969 .08 28 29 08 . .862 1 65 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .385 1 67 .84 60. 7 1 7 1 66 .766 1 7 43 23 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 . 1 6 +1 6 1 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .89 28 24 29 .88 28 33 3 5 .63 1 1 1 .56 . 5 9 28 34 33 .9 8 9 8 . 7 .374 1 8 00 07 .97 29.58 73. 1 1 28 22 1 7 .05 8 1 65 .376 1 67 .72 1 1 8 25 08. 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 .435 1 65 .308 1 8 22 22. 86 28 26 29 .85 1 1 66 .7 1 54. 1 3 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .963 1 8 27 5 5 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .97 28 34 3 9 . 8 0 1 36.203 28 1 8 49 .23 1 23 .3 3 3 1 67 .47 28 25 3 8 .254 1 67 .44 22.538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.34 28 32 1 7 .3 .32 1 1 67 .46 1 1 67 .460 1 67 . 1 0 28 27 29 . 24 28 23 34 .4 1 3 1 66 .27 3 5 . 1 7 2 1 67 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .76 28 3 1 09 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .242 1 66 . 5 8 67.78 1 3 1 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.3 1 28 29 48 .424 1 67 .00 28 28 1 5 .90 28 33 5 3 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch .970 1 66 . 1 5 28 34 1 0.998 17 5 7 20.2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0. 1 4 1 06. 973 FIgure 1 65 .07 47.85 4 1 .3 1 8 5 . 8 1 28 32 47 .3 1 + 1 48 . 1 90 1 67 .3 1 9 3 .1 44.949 1 8 05 42.05 28 33 1 1 . 1 9 173.449 1 67 . 1 0 1 6. 624 1 7 3 5 00.44 28 2 1 1 8 .695 1 8 02 54 .35 28 1 6 08 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26. 267 1 67 .38 + 9 . 2 1 28 34 42 .39 28 3 0 34. .45 8 0.737 18 1 9 36 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .97 28 3 1 47 .445 1 67 . 24 .41 7 1 67 . 078 1 66 .87 28 34 22.97 1 1 9.
\ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. 5 4). 1/1 c ' Thus. To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. 7 . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . c o s 1/1 t . and may be obtained from equation (2. between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . The difference i n right ascension . slightly (7 . it is possible to adjustt l . the total time ." 8. 84). 5 3 . !::lX . which may be computed from the injection conditions.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 .3 . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . at the launch point (see Figure 2. The launch time. �.9 . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . ao' at this launch time . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . we get cos 6a. tt ' is (7 .Sec.53 . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc.54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. is the same as the "local sidereal time .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E .5 .89) : (7 56) . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch.
. r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier.t I ES Ch .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. 7. � . 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I.3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact.3 224 . 7 . These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. 7. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. 000 k m 33 . What additional 6.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon.2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = . and the exact We now know the injection conditions.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts.54) agree.
I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec . Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. 7 . 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. Determine the /:. . Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. a .Ch . b.. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 .9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b .6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384.400 k m : a .
A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. requirement. select ro ' vo ' to meet this . <1>0 = = = * 7 . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (.) * 7 . (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. . There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 .Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion).354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 7 . 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. Specifically. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. Use h bo l OO n mi . 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit.
Principia . Gamow. Clyde . The Moon . NY. University of California Press.1 6. Garden City. Fisher. New York. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1 9 5 9 . 6. Second Edition. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. 1 967. Robert M. 2. London and New York." ARMA Document DR 220. Baker. NY. George . Richard H . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. November 1 95 9 . 4. Academic Press. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. Doubleday. 1 964. Battin. New York. Abelard Schuman. an d Maud W. The Story of the Moon . NY. McGrawHill Book Company. Makemson.Ch. Inc. 5. 1 943 . . 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Newton. A stronautical Guidance. 1 962. 3 . Isaac . Doran and Company. L.
.
At first it was not understood . compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe .. such as the seven metals. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . two ears. By 1 507 he was 357 . C opernicus. two nostrils. But the tide of opinion ebbed. etc." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. which it were tedious to enumerate . and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . indeed. two eyes. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. and a mouth . two unpropitious. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. two luminaries.
diameter. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. . 1 Bode's Law. Earth. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. . 6. nevertheless. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion." as may be seen in Table 8 . Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . 1 2 . An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. The "law. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies.2." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. 3. 8.1 .2.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . the members of the solar system. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . Jupiter . If we write down the series 0. comets. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . Uranus. Mars. are spread much more widely throughout the system. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. In addition. ." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. . and Pluto . indeed. Saturn. at the age of 70. some of which pass near the Sun. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. Venus. Neptune. 8.
72 1 . Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. is its path .4 0.00 1 .52 2. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. Table 8 .23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.0 1 9 .21 Actual Distance 0. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.8 5 .8 77.65 5.Sec.20 9. 8.2 1 0. compared with the total mission duration. Only for brief periods.28 3 0.39 0. 0 is presented in Table 8 . The sixth orbital element.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.22.6 2. 8.2 Table 8. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune . 1 7 39. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 .2. 8. The size. Except for Mercury and Pluto .0 1.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .52 1 9.7 1 .6 3 8 . shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.
1 7 3 9 .000 1 .275 222 ° .096 1 88 ° . 0 1 67 . 1 42 1 02 ° .405 undefined 49 ° . 2056 .. 1 1 1 326 ° .773 1 7° . 8 94 341 ° .225 237 ° .394 0° . 5 73 1 75 ° .400 276 ° . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (...004 3 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .497 1 3 ° .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.7233 1 .5 24 5 .489 0° .306 2 ° . 0068 . 0482 .0539 .005 0 . 7 73 1 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .2583 7 ° ..970 7 6 ° ..684 93 ° . 05 1 4 .322 1 00 ° .870 L. 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° .828 1 7 1 °.5 1 9 1 9 . 1 3 6 47 ° . 76 ° . 000 1 °.) 00 . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28.28 3 0.441 73 ° .203 9. 1 1 7 265 ° . 0934 .850 1 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° .76 . 074 1 83 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . 38 7 1 .
7 5 7 .." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .04 29.795x 1 0 7 5 .896x 1 0 6 3 .257x l O s 3 .8 1 7 1 .87 3 5 .9 1 08 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.3 .820x 1 0 6 6 .8 247 .232x l 0 4 3 .3 05x 1 04 1 .8 8 1 1 1 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .. 0 1 1 64. 00 3 3 3 43 2 ." .268x 1 0 B 3 .46 84.79 24.6 1 7 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .05 6 .74 2 . 1 08 3 1 8 .49 4.986x l O s 4.5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .000 .0 95.24 1 .8 6 29.3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .80 5 . 1 1 49 .9? 1 .06 9 .65 6. 5 227.8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 . 1 4 1 3 .6 1 5 1 .2 1 4.000 1 .
we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit.v required. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method.3 . While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . Just as in lunar trajectories.3l . however. 8. this consideration is important. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. if continued past the destination planet . For transfers to mo st of the planets. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. was the Hohmann transfer.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. from the standpoint of /:. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. The Hohmann transfer. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers).
the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::..3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / . Nevertheless." .31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit.Sec. Therefore . \ _.u o_____+.v required for an interplanetary mission. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by . .' . Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit..V. 8. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip.
for the Hohmann transfer. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time. The heliocentric speed. B (8 . • .31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.3 and should be reviewed .1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .l 0 (8 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f.where f. In any case .3 .3. 3 . then. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . the difference between the heliocentric speed.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun.33) In Table 8 . and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit. From Table 8.1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system.78 kIn/sec. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 . transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit.32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion.
05 4 1 . t2 .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .31 1 05 . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.74 6.099 1 .28 27.60 Table 8.345 1 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun. 40.28 32.Sec.397 22.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure . r d = 1 . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars. Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits. In other words .748 .73 38.42 4 1 .379 1 . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.5 1 46 . 8.524 A U From equation (8 . rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun. 1 2 5 8 . rE9> are respectively : .57 . From Table 8 .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .9 1 6 1 .78 46.04 1 6.07 4 1 .3 9 1 1 .295 1 . VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . 1 6 30.9  2 .
3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . and is illustrated in Figure 8 .3.9 d ays 8.t1 ) wt .t 1 = 1T = 4.2 Phase Angle at Departure. vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .34) __ (8 . The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.099A U/TU 0 = 32.VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. v . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure. 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.7088 years = 258. the phase angle at departure . where is the angular velocity of the target planet.35) wt (t2 . the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8. 8 From equation (8 . Thus.3. The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . From equation (8 .73Km/sec .32 for a Mars trajectory.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .32) the heliocentric speed .4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .
'Yl (8 .. .32 Phase angle at departure.1 76 .. ....36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . If we miss a particular launch opportunity.3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . .. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct. 8.. Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet. 367 . pp 1 60. . . Figure 8. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.Sec.. . . .
2 1 7 3 . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth. Mars and Venus.w t I (8 .60 2.530 .025 Synodic Period. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ . Thus. 1 3 1 .07 5 .01 1 . the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.03 8 . so W EfJ7 s . we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.32 1 .04 1 .W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �. we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again. Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::. 340 . Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. yrs 0. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated.3.32 In a time . 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period.0 1 1 . 8.00 Table 8. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.v 1 determined.38) .07 1 1 0. rad/yr 26 . 3 ·2.09 1 .3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence.213 .368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .37) (8.
. . . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 ..310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . .Sec. ..33 / . '\ .r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<.39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 .. '?. (8 . . . .. . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. � Figure 8. .:V. � _ i t_ r b_ . . ". .. .. �. 8 .. . .
3. is given by cos fI =  §.1 1 ) becomes = 2 .3.the injection speed .33 . This may be seen by solving equation (8 . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola.6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . C but since e = da for any conic.34 we see that the angie .1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 . between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola.2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. we may write .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . fI. From Figure 8. fI. For transfer to one of the outer planets. km/sec.39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8. the angle . so equation (8 .
Sec.34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola . 8 . 3.1 e where the eccentricity .3.3. 3 T H E PATC H E D. conditions : = (8 .CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8.1 2) e. is obtained directly from the injection (8 .1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .
the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle .3. Generally.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . cfJ as shown in Figure 8.3.4 Arrival at the Target Planet. then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . At arrival. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 . the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity.36.3. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.35 Interplanetary launch (8 . The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth. 8. however.
36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 . sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .Sec. 8 . 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 . 3 .1 6) (8.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. 3. 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.3.1 8) .1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. (8 .
v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . 3 7 we see that  (8 .36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there.320) y = x si n e (8. will be directed toward the center of the planet. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it.The angle .36).3 . 8 . then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. in Figure 8. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . e. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if.s i n if> 2 v (8 . 3. . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. From Figure 8 . It also means that the relative velocity vector.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . In Figure 8. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. 3 7 .
3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .Sec.38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f. 8 . (8 .lt/ 2 X _ . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.322) .37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.
327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance.327) for y Yields (8 . 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . we obtain .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = . y. the speed at periapsis is simply .326) Because angular momentum is conserved. Solving equation (8 . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . 324) (8.(8.)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 .
then a much smaller target must be considered. The given information is . V2 + 2fJ. only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . b. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . " since any offset less than this will result in a collision . The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed.39. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun .329).329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . 8.05 DU.Sec. The. rt This particular offset distance is called b .3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size.328) we 'get (8 .launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission.t 3  rt (8 . " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. the "inwact parameter.
1 :: 0. 6V 1 = 1 .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl. energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .099 . 3 .099 A U/TU 0.1 VI = 1 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .05 D U 1 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .099 A U/TU = :.
From Table 8 .1 ) .4. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .044 8 . 8 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic.905 = = 379 37 .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept. 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 . departure Figure 8 .v (8 .4. 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.1 .Sec. 1 39 + 1 . t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.07 6 ft/sec 2 .43 DU/TU .v = 2v si n L 2 /::. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept. the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.
1 )) . 5 for the planet Jupiter. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) ..3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 .. 8 as derived in equation (3 .62 DUJTU� 8. 8.7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years. (Ans.2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun .4.. 8.3 . " .1 ) . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel. 7. 8.. 8 .8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .3. EXERCISES 8 . 8.32. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. 8..380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units. _  /' .
8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence .35) ITbo no .l:. where 8.l:. 1 DUE[) radius. a. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .v = 1 5 ..v ? (Ans.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission.000 ft/sec. v = 39 . Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i.l:. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.l:. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the .Ch. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit . vesc = 1 .348 DUe/TUE9> . M = 5. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years.V required? (Ans. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 .V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.V = 0. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit.900 ft/sec. It can be shown that .394 DUe/TU� b .l:. 1 00 ft/sec) c. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . . If c = 9 .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans.
. 8 8 .73 1 DU8TU� b .. � = 0..9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. Find the 6. 8. 6. 0.V is applied at perigee.0... 3 ..Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units. v= 0.046 DU� /TU � b .. (Ans. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 0.which results if the same 6. What is the 6. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. The mission will begin in a 1 .. 1 DUe/TUEl1. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . 09 DUe/TU$) = .V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.254 AU/TU� . (Ans. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0.5 DUEI1 circular orbit.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 .5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. Find the hyperbolic excess speed. = 0. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 . a. 0.28 AU2 /TU2 .V at apogee or perigee? 8. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6.0. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a.? (Ans. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . What is the 6.9 00 ft/sec) 8 . so work carefully and follow any suggestions.V of .0. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. v=' (Ans. a. What is the 6.
1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 .87 TU� b .4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 .What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. for the above transfer. (Ans. Compute the phase angle at departure.3 9 DU oITU& 2 . then find h. c. 0. 1 . <P2 and vll1II in that order. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . 8 . 1 4 a. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity.Ch.2 AU/TU� d. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. O o) 8.050 ft/sec) 8 . (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. called the turning angle . 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. For a given planet. 1 . Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount.) (Ans.5 AU. (Ans. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. P.373 AU/TU � f.867 AU/TU� e . 'Y1 . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. Vrrw = 0.5 AU? (Ans. 3 . show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . 0.
Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. D C .V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. 1 967. New York. U S Government Printing Office .V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . R. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 ." AIAA Journal. 4 . The World of Mathematics. coplanar planet orbits. 3 . and the angular rates of the planets. Newman. 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney .where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. Fimple . transfer time. What would be an estimate of the return b. 1 963. NY. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. pp 430434. London. Vol 1 . 1 95 6 . 1 96 1 . Assume circular. Simon and Schuster. 1 969. * Ch . James R. W . No 2 . Vol 2. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. 1 . Washington. . 8 8. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet .
Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. it is found that there seem to be distinct. irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm ." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. " Webster 9 . " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. There is always some variation 385 . but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. Macroscopically . one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . and at times unexplainable .
6 . Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. solar radiation effects. atmo spheric drag and lift. meteoroid collisions. which had not been treated by Newton . Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . The power and all directional controls are kept constant. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. Fortunately. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. and relativistic effects. except the motion of the perigee. magnetic. Then. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. 9 . M. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 .1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. E. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust.from the norm. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The wind gust was a perturbation. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. In fact. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . about a century later. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. Brown 's papers of 1 897. etc.
Sec. This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. Encke. H. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. the Cowell. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. See section 1 . It was developed by P. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. With the capability for orbital flight . This is the main emphasis of this chapter. In particular. 9 . Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . a section discussing methods and errors is included . The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . 9. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations.
22) would be further broken down into the vector components. the equation would be (9 . 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. For the twobody problem with perturb ations. including all the perturbations.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body .2. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. r=Y �r (9 .1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration. the equations would be . Sun and planets.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . y = vy (9. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. F or numerical integration equation (9 .
Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation .25) . and he would be correct . satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. There are some disadvantages of the method .22). Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . 8 .Il m ( 3 .24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 .'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . Classically. When motion is near a large attracting body . ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2. It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. In spherical coordinates (r. This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . Even in double precision computer arithmetic. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. 9 .23). This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method.Sec.3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . Intuitively. roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small.
This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed .390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . Presumably .25) As a reminder.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations.'l. The term connotes the sense of contact. In the Encke method . "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. and . the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. in our case . it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known .3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell.31 The osculatil. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. 9. In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. 9 (9 . reference or b i t Figure 9. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field .
Now w e will consider th.3.e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method.1 ) and (9 . the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . Note that at the epoch. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch).Sec. Let r and p be the radius vectors to . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit.  (9 . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 . 9. Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. respectively . the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.33) Sub stituting equations (9 .1 ) . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r .32)  Sr. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration.3 2) into (9 .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit . r + � r3 r = a t .33) we obtain . neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 .. 9 . 3 . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits.to ) ' p (9 .1 ) and for the osculating orbit.1 ) ..3 .3. At that time . or epoch. = p ( tb ) p p to = 0. be defined as (see Figure and . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it.
3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch ... == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object . so r can be obtained from 6r and p. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .6r] r3 r (9 . theoretically. 6r (to + .3 / 2 (9 . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .6r ) . However.37) .. 6r. So .3 6) Equation (9 .35) 3 3 r _ (9 .was to obtain more accuracy. A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:. p is a known function of time .392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .t) can be calculated numerically. one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method.6.34) then becomes (9.lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . For a given set of initial conditions.
we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . In terms of its components Figure 9. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. however.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox.Sec. Expanding. OZ are the cartesian components o f or. since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . o y . R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / ./  Our problem is not yet solved . 9 .
2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q.1 0) (9 .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .38)  1 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.37).(1 . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. There are two methods of solution at this point . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .3. .( 1 .38) and (9 .31 2) .2q So q =  Now. 9 From equation (9 . (9 . . /) y2 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9. 3. It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 .37) becomes (9 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.
nowing p (to ) .1 2) may be slightly faster.3.t) .01 ). It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. (jr 0. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . k. q (to ) O. c. although the use of equation (9 . d . The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. Go to step c with t:.3. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. Otherwise (jr p .Sec. p 229). r (to ) . e .1 2) is used. and 5r 0 at this point.t where k is the step number. f(to + t:.t) calculate 1 . rectify and go to step a . t:. Vol 2. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated . 9 . p(to + t:. q( to + t:. v = p + (jr. a. The method using equation (9 .t . but of the order of magnitude of 0. b.t) 2 .3 8) 3.t). = = = = = p continue. so larger step sizes can be taken. Calculate r = p + (jr. g. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body.39) is recommended for use with the computer. Knowing 5r(to + t:.t to get (jr{ to + kt:. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker .t) from equation (9 . calculate (jr (to + t:. If.t ) from equation (9 .3. For an integration step.1 0).> a specified constant.does not remain quite small. Then the tables could be u sed to find f .t replaced by kt:. If equation (9 . In (jr p v as described earlier. Integrate another t:. Rectification should be initiated when . f.
it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small./l m {m s . The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) .r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . For instance. In the absence of perturbations. this method may seem more difficult to implement. from the Encke method 9. A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . See equation (9 .6.3. Thus. etc .4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs.cSr ) (9 .6. Similarly.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. they would remain constant.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. a . Then e � . The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. = . one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . e eccentricity. at the outset.t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . Though. A similar check could be made on i . In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration .
These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. Therefore . where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. n. p 246.. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method.and dM ?.. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . The standard orbital elements a. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary.g. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . . 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. Vol 2 .4 . e. 9 . w and.T (or M) will be used. along the instantaneous radius vector. 9 .variations (e. Eventually . The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations.Sec. � .I OOS . The axis S is . . R (unit vector R). for a table of parameter sets). 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis.n (t . i. r. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow.
= dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 . The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9.41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9. The third axis.4.43) . is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly . W. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.
dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .45) To express this in known terms.48) we find da dt = (9.44).Sec. 9. expressions for found.49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.1:!:.45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .4.46) and F S (9 .44) (9. (9 .� 2& ' = 399 (9 .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:. Differentiating the conic equation Qr.!I=8!" nr from (9 .48) Substituting in equation (9.. (9 .o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .43). This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .4 and .1 0) .
1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation. r hW + h da S dt (9 . 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .) Since h = hW.2 )% a = (1 .4. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.la _ (9 04. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .lae dt h $) a dt .�) % J..
1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 .. K .4.1 8) . 1 e2 (9 .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).4.n di dt (9 . 4 .Sec.1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .h cos i rF s h2 .4.4. but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) . 9 . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h. K) � (9 .1 6) we obtain .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .4.sin QL = dt . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .4.si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
v which can be easily solved for c.e .Sec.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. {at + c) + 3p.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics. C. The constant of integration. but more practically we would consider � = v . allowing c to vary with time . VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.2p. Since p.v = .2 p.vc .2p. 9 .450) and solving for e we find (9 .45 1 ).J.454) + 2p.2 (at + C)2  . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9. . 4 where c will be the parameter.at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 . c = ve 2 p. .vat a+v a .vt 2p. • .v {at + c ) c (9 . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence .45 0) should be small. and V are small..5 1 ) correct to first order in J.4.vt .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . ] (9 .2p.45 1 ) .4. . Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion .v 2p. . ..4. From equation (9 .
41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. Unfortunately. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. 9 . should be the criteria. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. storage and complexity. highly questionable. at best. his integration method. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. allow as large a stepsize as possible. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. c. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a.e. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. accuracy. not expediency. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. 9 in detail. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. or has not carefully selected. 5 . The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. d. efficiency. b . . In theory. 9 . The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. economical in computing time. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS .. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. such as the disturbing function.
Sec.388. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. 9 . 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places.5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. 4. 9 . 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2.843.476.388.276 + 3 . In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. Baker (v 2. They are roundoff and truncation errors.28 + 3. The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic.567 = 7.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2.476. 2 Integration Errors. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. Obviously . but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method .864. In fact. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. The larger the .5 (9. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. and f. For instance .accumulated roundoff error .57 = 7 . it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . 5 . Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit.
There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. 6 . in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes .6. Gill. 9 .414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. 9 stepsize. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . Thus. EulerCauchy and Bowie . We will treat the first order equation . GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. the larger the truncation error. In general. h.1 ) . AdamsMoulton. 1 RungeKutta Method.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. 9.= f(t. Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems.62) (9.63) dx dt (9. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. Of course . The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation .
.( 1 + y. and stepsize is easily changed .63) and n is the increment number.64) 1 1 + . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + . 9 . In general.( 1 .) k2 6 3 l2 (9. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods . 9 .Sec. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h .yV:.yry. they are faster than the singlestep methods.] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h . easy to implement . x n + k 3 ) (9. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors. X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error.6.% ] + k 2 [ 1 . have a relatively small truncation error. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 . They are relatively simple .k +. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .h ) k3 +.2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. x n . X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .
In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas.\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 5 / 1 2 . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 . 25 1 /720. 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas).\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. . . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0.6. 1 /2 . 3 /8 .67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 3 9.1 f .beginning and after each stepsize change. .
6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.59 f n . This method. for instance. In equation (9. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. the error terms are not generally known. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas.1 + 37 f n2 . The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9.69).x n+1I I (P 270 (9. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +.x n + (5 5 f ri . Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l .69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 . .9 f n 3 ) 24 (9.6. 9 .Sec.
It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods.1 f(t n + h). x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". though. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. It is. . x.1 f(t n h) 2 2   .° n + . n + 1 2 n i \.6 .2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k.8 k . The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n .4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.° n 60480 (9. though it also includes a corrector. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. 9 like other multistep methods. The GaussJackson method is one of the best.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n. 9. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type.1 ' etc.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) .h ) .6.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ".1 . and most used. n + � 84 "x.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. "x.
7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. the accelerations can be found from (9. 9 . but only the simpler forms will be treated. 2 and NASA C R.l 005). The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique.5 Numerical Integration Summary . V. is ¢ = � [1 . Some of them become quite complex. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. However. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works.e presented in this section. 9. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. according to Vinti.Bashforth) methods are preferred. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic.72) . 2 .1 The Nonspherical Earth . is known. If the potential function. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric.6.7. p/r.I n=2 r (9. 9. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. ¢.1 ) One such potential function.6. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques.7. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . Table 9. 9 . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits.
very difficult to determine proper size. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � . Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. Vol t .z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. 9 CI) .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. it could be very fast.
where J.] (9 .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�..J s � ( � ) (35� . 9.L = gravitational parameter Sec.. r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 . = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .2.J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) . if> = I!:.  I.�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .74) .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 ...7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .
but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.5 ± O. l )x 1 0. 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity . 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9. The first term in x. y.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2. I )x 1 0..44 ± O.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).6 J = (0. 1 5 ± O.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 . Vol 1 . .1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J . which are slightly in variance . Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 .l ( �) 3 ( 3 . l )x 1 0.64 ± O. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. .6 . l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .6 6 (0.57 ± O.5)x 1 0.3003 ""6 ) + .422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � .03)x 1 0.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .2205 2" 6 16 r r (9. These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0.75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .6 ± O. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.6 J4 = (1 .
To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w..2 Atmospheric Drag. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . Therefore . and other parameters. but will not be presented here. However. simply use r3 r= where .7. term) to the RSW sy stem.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . To do this. The equations are formulated in the geocentric . There are a few ctmtiol). frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). p 147). if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. by definition. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. 9 .. C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 .Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . equatorial coordinate system. s 9. 7 Drag. Vol 1 . The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . the drag coefficient. A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. Thus.s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation .Sec.. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere .
7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. y .78) z . z refer to the geocentric. Radiation pressure. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. In the geocentric. altitude above an oblate Earth.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . Equation (9 . though small. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude .3 Radiation Pressure. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here.7 .7 . 9 . This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. equatorial coordinate system.lli.424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. 9 m p C O A . . can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).ilc coffc.ie. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. but the reader can find this in other documents.t b ae ==ic. etc.
z directions.Ch. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . the variation of eccentricity. See equation (9. Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming.2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} .5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm). 9 where A = cross section f = 4. m = mass of vehicle (grams) . 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . but a major force . 9 .3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method.25). . 7 .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates.79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters.4 Thrust.1 5) . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. m (9.4. .4349 0 x . 9 . Prove this assertion . y. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . 9 . 9. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. EXERCISES 9.
5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . The Macmillan Co . Washington.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . L. and Clemence. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. F .000 n mi. . DC. New York.ittouck. Years 1 9601 980. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. Vol VI. 3 . Jr . Ralston . and Wl). and Wilf. 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. Blackford. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. 1 . A. Feb 1 968. New York.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . . 5 .445). Allione . Robert M . C . John Wiley and Sons. 1 96 1 . 1 967. M. London . New York. S . 9 9 . Moulton . Mendez. A. D. * 9. * 9 . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. 1 960. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Brouwer. M. G. . A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. M. J . Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. Academic Press. Planetary Coordinates for the. Inc.. Academic Press. LIST OF REFERENCES 2. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. 9 . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Guidance. New York. R. L. 1 9 1 4." NASA CR. 4. * 9 . 6. M.l 005 . Baker.
M . New York. DC . The Macmillan Co. New York. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. McGrawHill. Battin. Townsend. Inc.. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Th e Determination of Orbits. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). Hildebrand. Jr and Makemson. 1 948 . New York. A . F . B . H. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . 1 963. 1 0. John Wiley and Sons. 9 . Escobal. Dynamical A stronomy . 1 3 . 1 2. 1 96 5 . Dubyago . R. 1 4 . Escobal. R . M. Smart. John Wiley and Sons. 1 1 . . C. New York. Vol 1 . Ann Arbor. Longmans. L. Inc. 1 96 1 . 1 968 . 1 5 . Celestial Mechanics. Methods of Orbit Determination. P . 8 . G. Michigan. Herget. A stronautical Guidance . R. W . New York. 2nd ed.Ch . E . Published privately by the Author. 1 95 3 . NASA SP33 . New York. Maud W. New Yark. 1 6. 1 964. Cambridge University Press. Part 1 . 1 967. Paul. P. New York. 1 95 6 . Orbital Flight Handbook. Baker. McGrawHill. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. . Plumber. The Computation of Orbits. Methods of A strodynamics. D. Academic Press. Robert M. Jr. Washington.
.
44686457 min 6378..0226757 x 1 06 sec 29.9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .092567257 x 107 ft 3963 .77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .05883 36565 � TV. 3.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter.9053682 8 km' . English Units Metric Units 2.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance.922786 NM 1 3 . 2593 6. Ile Angular Rotation. we 0. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4. 1 97 5 . 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. r. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter. 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. Canonical Units I DU. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.. 2506844773 deg min 7.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 . r. I DU� TUi. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . 1 328 2 1 days 9. Speed Unit I� TU. .24764 11sec 806 .. 1 Center. 'Derived from those values of Il . and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 ....68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . 1 .327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .
344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 . .07 1 0 1 50424 4 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0. foot = 0.01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .8 9.77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 . there is no roundoff or truncation.239446309 x 1 0.e .08 1 52366 0 . 1f = 3 .5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 . 1 2 64963205 0 .4 3 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.3 14 .2342709 5 . i.
velocity . J.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. Unit Vector. Examples are mass. I DEFINITIONS Vector. Thus. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . If A i s a vector . vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . W). speed. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text.relationships involving vector quantities. force and acceleration. 43 1 . In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. length of a vector . then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. time or any real signed number. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . C. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. not a null or zero vector. temperature . Scalar. (Example : 3 or A). K) and (p. Examples are displacement. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. Q.
Coplanar Vectors.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. and A and B are not collinear. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B .. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. regardless of the position of their origins. . they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. B and C are coplanar vectors. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. 1 Similarly. If A.
C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. Scalar or Dot Product.B which is the same as A + (B). l . denoted by A • B. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.l ) C.1 ) I AI cos B .C. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .2.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . e I I l (C .
J .1=J .8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A . < 180° ) AxB =C . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them. sma l lest ang le ( L e .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . denoted by A x B .J =K . then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . B and C form a right handed system. That is.24) (C.K= 1 I . if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible . K are unit orthogonal vectors. 23 ) (C.J = J o K=K o I = O where I .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I .B + A . The cross product of two vectors A and B.. A o A = Aft.(B + C) = A .
e < In fact A x B = . 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C.C.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. then A X B = O. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . J. K are unit orthogonal vectors. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C.
Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C.436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .29) Scalar Triple Product. BI C1 . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.
B3 C) + A ( B3 C .B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 . The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .C. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product. The vector triple produce.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.2.2.l 3) (C. denoted b y A x (B x C) .(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.2.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .21 4) C. 2.1 2) (C.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.
.... ..with itself.. " ....YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of .. ...438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o .. K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P.... . v C P K y .. dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ..9. ......... then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + . thus ... x J Then the velocity relative to the (I..
In this special case then.. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path.C. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w.= .3 b. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle.= . VE LOCITY 439 which. dr v = . Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . v = wT .
From the 440 . elevation rate . positive to the east) of the launch site. azimuth rate.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . Az. azimuth. The radar determines p. EI. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . and altitude above mean sea level are specified . p. D . EI. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . The input to SITE should be latitude. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). The input to TRACK should be range. longitude. elevation. Its geodetic latitude. latitude of the launch site. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . range rate . AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. and of the satellite (R and V).
7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897.3 . 6 .775 1 80 1 9. . observation time and radar tracking data. Following are five sample sets of data for site location. GST _ 1 .0027379093®2®PI®D . GST. Input UT as a decimal (i.D. If the above program is used. UT. PI. INTEGER DAY. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . . E 7 2 .74933340. PI . e . LST. . UT.5 3 0 . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. GST. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 .26347 1 9 8 . 9 W 0 1 9 05. 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . 5 7 5 for data set 3).07 1 05 . LST) .2045 72 1 6 . 1 4923608. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). 6 8 2. . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 .8 S 1 7 5. 2 2 29.08 30. 007 N 1 04 .5 1 35 . 3 315 . y.75 1 003 9 1 . 5.5 3 4 ON 4 5.5 90 . = (. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. DAY. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . . . LST and LONG are in radians. 8 0. 0) = (.MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .63745829) z = .7 5.75 components are : (.ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 .8 N 7 8 .57 76. . BEGIN REAL D.5 . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . .27907 599.7 .05 1 9 5238) . An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. .7 . 22 1 0.74933340. 040075. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x .. REAL LONG. .044 1 8440.48 201. Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .62624920) = (. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . END OF LSTIME .01 2035 7 5 .1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 .05 1 37.
49 0 0 2. Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth. 1 29579 1 9 . elliptical. d.9 1 046 1 80. . 05 . . For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK).293 .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29.4 1 722472 . 7 0 3 VK . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 .703 . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (.4 1 4 0 0 65 .1 .9 1 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. 5 . 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system..49 0 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.1 0 22.4 1 4 2.4 1 3 59 3 1 7 .01 . c.8 . . 0) (.6 0 . hyperbolic).2 VI . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. 01 .001 1 0 . 00001 . The type of trajectory (circular.442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. 48 4 0 2.5 0 . Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . rectilinear.85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . 6 2 .9 0 2 0 . From this information you are required to fmd : a.1 . 0 1 7 45 . b . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity.001 5 30 0 . parabolic. 1 0 0 2 .707 .
Also for an ellipse. 1 38878 .5 0 0 .8 . you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time .7 . 1 5 0689 1 . Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 . Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. and dt/dx for each iteration.4 of the text for guidance . Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram.025 9 1 7 . 61 (calculated) . c.3 D. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered.5 . 61. Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. RJ 61 . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. To determine when convergence has occurred.5 . When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds.3 1 0 . You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.jiL d. x should never be greater than 2m. If your iteration process is efficient. a . On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. b. The following data is given in e arth canonical units.0. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods.
..1 .002 1 7 7 1 . I�I :::..00006057 . It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z.. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. R2 V2 = (0. 0 .4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later.t c l :::. bt.. 3... . 1 06 1 0.. 1 8 1 . For instance note that y can never be negative . and sign (7T . If there is no convergence in 50 iterations.. Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. 1 65 08 . For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . 00 1 074 .999 o 1 03 D.444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.9 20 . t :::. 1 362596) = (0. 1 0. I t . 0003 6 1 ..1 . One of the data sets tests this situation. 0. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 .6 for 1 :::.w).5 1 . find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine.. Given r l ' r2 . You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives.70655823..6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight.01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points.
6 . See section 5 .6 .4804847 1 . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.S = (0.6 .7 0 1 0 20 1 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT.6 . The following data i s i n canonical units.2 .9378 1 789) = 4. . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. and the location of an interceptor launch site .0 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.7 0 1 0 1 . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .5 . x.2 .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite.0001 +1 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 . Check for this case .5 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . 1 . 7 for further discussion o f this project .7 .4 .1 .4 . location of the tracking site .3 .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .2 1 . 1 2298 1 44. The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the . Also print t:J) and a for each data set .3 . time of radar observation.8 5 +1 .66993 1 97 .1 specifies the long way. y.1 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .. Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target.66986992.3 . print out a message and go to the next data set . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (. This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. so a check should be made for that condi tion.4 1 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.201 . .2 . .6 .4 .
KEPLER and GAUSS. e . Times should be read in as minutes. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . f. c. list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . g. The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. This will aid you in verifying your solution . b . the number of reaction times desired . Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . the starting value of timeofflight increment size. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units.3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . TRACK. To make your program flexible . Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74.446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . Make some provision to print out all of your input data. When you point out your arrays. d. assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 .45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . and the number of timeofflight increments desired .05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . the desired increment size for reaction time .
038 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs. The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9. 844 **** **** **** 35 7 .0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .1 .92 deg/sec 1 .338 **** **** **** 10 8 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No. of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .5 p = 1 86.09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .74. 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 .0. 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8. 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .6 1 3 km EI = 56. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .
LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LATL.
INDEX .
.
4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 3 4 Collision cross section. 84 ecliptic. 20. 349 Angle of elevation. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 5358. 1 00. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 1 22. 297299 451 . 296 geometry. 2 Astrodynamic constants.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 9 3 .9 8 gravitational constant. 60 Argument of periapsis. 1 09 Angular momentum. 1 8 3 mean. B urnout. 429 lunar distance. 429 Astronomical Unit. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 54 fundamental plane. 2427 Apogee. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 4 3 0 Conversions. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 56 Celestial sphere. 4 1 . 246 Brahe. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 6. 279 C anonical units. 5 8 Aristotle. 2 1 2 B asis. 1 8 5 true. 2 1 . 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 2 3 4. 277320 computation chart. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 109 B akerNunn camera. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 1 5 . 5 3 .INDEX Acceleration comparison. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 3 8 9 . 4043 Celestial equator. 102 Apoapsis. 423 Azimuth. 3 2 5 . 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 3 9 0 station. 422 gravitational parameter. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 74 geocentricequatorial. 84. 84. 54 orbit plane. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 3 5 8 . 24 Apparent solar time. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 60 and universal v ariables. 57 perifocal. 94. 5 5 heliocentric. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 374 Computer projects. 7483 Coordinate systems. 24 height adjustment. Tycho. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 8 4 Copernicus. 3 3 period of. 203 Aphelion. 9498 transformations.1 3 1 G auss problem. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 1 4. 5 7 principal direction. 28 1 B arker's equation. 1 8 8 . 1 09. 429 flattening. 5 3 . 5 3 5 8 spherical. 1 620. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 4 gravitational h armonics. 74 BMEWS. 3 2 3 masses.
20 1 202 f and g series. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 3 90 . 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 1 04 Escape speed.1 3 1 Direct ascent. 3 00 launching. 3 0 . 1 0 3 G round track. 221 hyperbolic. 60 true longitude at.3 3 pe. 1 60 low altitude. 1 0 6 precession. 2 3 0 . Carl Fredrich. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 1 8 8. 56.3 0 6 numerical integration. 9. 25 1 258. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 8 0 f and g expressions. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 8 7 . 94 .riod o f . G ibbsian orbit determination method. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 6 1 Elevation angle. 264 eccentric anomalies. 54 Elements of orbit. Elliptical orbits. 1 1 7. 3 6 8 local. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 2 3 3 . 62 vector. 2 0 .1 5 5 Direct motion. 2 4 . 4 G ravitational parameter.93 . 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 7 G ravitational constant. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 227 418 ( y ) . 5 5 true anomaly a t . 2 1 2.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 25. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. apparent. G auss problem. 3 22 trajectories. 2 1 ff. 297299 I N DEX in plane.1 90. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 3 1 .1 1 6 Gravitation. 84. 2 8 2 time. 1 8 2. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 1 0 6 mean. 1 8 8 . 3 5 . 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 1 0 twobody. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude.3 9 6 Energy. 4 Newton's law of. 3 5 0 Epoch. 4 3 3 Drag. 4 G alileo. function o f true anomaIles. 1 7 equations. 2 9 7 . 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous.2 1 2 parabolic. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 2 1 2. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 22827 1 . 3 5 . 2 9 . 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 1 0 9 . 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 1 54. 5 8 . 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 1 4 0 . 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 40. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 25 1 . 3 6 6 Differential correction. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 444 algorithm. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 60 Dot product. 2 1 .1 4 3 . 1 22. 26. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 9 4 Geoid.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 4 1 9. 423 424 Earth oblate. 3 89 nbody. zenith angle. 1 42. 306 EarthMoon system.452 Declination. 62 Ecliptic. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 26 ff. 1 8 1 . 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 58 from position a n d velocity.
argument of at epoch. 3 8 . true at epoch. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 8 Node ascending. 3 89 trajectories. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 2 1 . 1 4 2 Inertial system. 3 57 . 3 24326. 3 1 6 Injection. 2 H alley's comet. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 3 7 9 . 20 Least squares solution. 60 Lunar trajectories. 94 geodetic. 3 59374. limitations. 8 9 . 247 Newton's laws. 6 rotation of. 3 62 . 3 9 6 M otion. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 1 8 8 . 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 62 longitude of ascending. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 5 Newton. Isaac. 60 Latus rectum. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 3 4 5 ephemeris.9 3 Mu ( � ) . gravitational parameter. 6 .1 8 1 first. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 2.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 1 1 7 derivatives. 220 Mean motion. 2. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 1 8 5 . 3 1 Manned flight. 22 1 . 3 80 Kepler. 207 I nclination. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 1 56 vector. 3 7 0 Integration.3 05. 62 . 2 6 5 27 1 . Edmund.I N D EX H alley. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 4. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 2. 3 5 0 free return. 1 Kepler's equation. 1 7 7. 1 57 Line of nodes. 3 44 . 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 3 1 Moon. 1 5 6.3 8 4 general coplanar. Greenwich. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 1 5 1 . 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 22. 1 02 Mean solar time. 1 0 2 Meridian. 1 03 Minor axis. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 2 8 8 . 3 69 . 1 1 7 Latitude. numerical rotation of. 3 26 orbital elements of. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 5 8 Longitude. 1 5 6. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 3 27. 1 80 third. 1 0 1 . 3 9 6 constraints. 3 64. 3 65 noncoplanar. J ohann. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 8 6 . 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 9 9 . 3 0 3 . 5 1 . 6. 2 Heliocentric constants. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 1 . 1 9 8 .3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 3. 3 9. 1 52 Mass of planets. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 2 7 7 . 1 0 twobody. 7. 1 4 1 . 234.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 58 regression. 1 7 Local sidereal time. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 94 reduced. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. equations o f nbody.1 6 6. 3 2 1 3 5 5 .8 9 derivatives i n . 2. 238. 2 second. 1 6 3 . 3 69. 1 4 1 . 3 24 .
1 3 Rendezvous. 1 09 .3 44 Periapsis. 3 3 Perturbations. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 94 Potential energy reference. 9 3 . 424 thrust. 3 9 0 Relative motion.9 8 Optical sensors. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 2 1 . 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 1 1 7 . 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 3 1 . 34.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 3 3 3 . 4 1 9 . 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 5 1 . 420 c riteria for choosing. 203. 1 6 Potential function. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 1 5 1 . 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 26527 1 Residuals. 1 0 3 P rojects. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 1 1 7 .1 22. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag.1 59 examples.3 7 9 lunar. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 83 from optical sightings. 57 Perigee. 6 1 from sighting directions. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 2 4 . 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 1 5 6 .454 Nu (v ) . 2 4 Periselenium. 3 6 1 shape of.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 1 69 Orbit determination. 1 9 3 .3 9 0 Encke's method. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 3 24 .1 22 from position and velocity. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 2427 argument of. 2 1 2 computer solution. 1 0 9 Rectification. 3 60 physical characteristics. 220 classical formul ations. 3 59 . 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 20. 5 symbols. 22727 1 Orbit plane.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 2 0 . 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. two body. 425 Phi ( � ) . 1 62 O rbit. 3 44 . 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 6 1 o f moon. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 2 1 Osculating orbit.1 76 inplane changes.1 50. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 20 Polar radius. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 3 8 7 . 4 1 2425 errors. 440448 Q parameter. 3 9 0 Parabola. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 1 62 . 60 Right ascension. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 423 due to the moon. 3 90 . 2 1 . 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 4 1 4 sum squared. 3 24 . 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 1 1 7. 443 algorithm. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . flightpath angle. 3 4 1 Period.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 24 height adjustment. 3 8 6 general. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. true anomaly. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 56. 1 90 Numerical integration. 58 determination from position and velocity.
2 8 8 . 9 9 . 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 1 3 1 . 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 287 low. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 1 0 1 . 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 3 5 8 . 3 1 Sensors. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 40 Unit vectors. 1 8 8 . 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 2 1 at epoch. 2 1 7 parabola. canonical. 425 Thrust perturbation. 9 Sidereal time. 9 3 . 30.1 9 0 if. 23. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 1 0 3 universal. 1 1 Units. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions.8 9 derivatives in. 1 6. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical.1 69 Hohmann.9 8 of planets. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 1 3 2.1 0 4 Solar system. 6.3 59 orbital elements. 40. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 1 03 local sidereal. 4 3 7 unit. 85 Traj ectory equation. 1 5. 58 Semi minor axis. 4 3 3 triple product. 8 6 . 4 1 8 Surveillance.1 40 errors. 1 3 5 ellipse.1 4 assumptions. 1 8 1 . 20. 60 True longitude at epoch. 5 8 Time zones. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy.1 0 9 apparent solar. 1 3 1 .4 3 9 Velocity components. 99. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 9. 4 3 7 . 20 Semimajor axis. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 44 1 mean solar. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 4. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 425 Time. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 3 27. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 2 8 7 maximum range. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 3 6 1 Solar time. 1 6 6. 1 6 Sputnik.4 3 9 d o t product. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 9 9 . 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 1 52 Station coordinates. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. Universal gravitation.1 6 6 True anomaly. 1 8 1 . 4 3 7 . 23.1 8 8 . 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 8 (see Nbody . 1 9 1 development of. 99. 7 Universal time. 1 1 . 1 02. 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 2062 1 0 use of. 1 9 1 . definition of. 1 3 8 optical. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 4 3 1 Velocity. 1 0 1 . 1 8 8 universal variables. 1 6 3 . 5 radio interferometers. 1 9 1 225. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 1 3 6 radar. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 1 9 high. 8 4 . 1 9 6 derivatives of.1 40 Selenocentric.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 3 60 physical characteristics.