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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
M. . J . Jan Irvine . and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) .R.B.E.W. Dorothy Fryar . Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. Ronald Chaney ( artist) . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged.D. D.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P .
.
2 . . . . . . . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . .2 The NBody Problem . . . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . 1 . . . . . 14 . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . . . . . . 1. .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 01 .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . . . . . 2 . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . 11 . . . . . 1 . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . List of References . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . 2 . 2. . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ 1 . . . . . . . 1 09 . 1 . . 1 . . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . 2 . . . . . 83 . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . 74 . . 2 . . . 1 . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 1 . . . 2. . . . 2. . . . . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . 4 . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . . 379 . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . . . . . 344 352 355 . . . 359 . . . . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . 277 6. . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . 273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 9. 8 . . 25 1 . . . . . . . 26 5 . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . . . . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . . . . . . . 357 . .1 Historical Background . . 8. . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 87 9.Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . Histor ical Background . List o f Re ferences . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . . . Exerc ises .1 Historical Background . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . xi 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . . . . . .2 The Solar System . . . . . . . . 8 . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . 3 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . . . . . . 333 . . . . . . . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . . . 275 . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . 297 6. . 27 1 . . 357 358 . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 . . . . . . . . . List of Reference s . . . . . 258 . . 3 20 . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . Exercises . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . List of References . . . . . 3 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . .6 9. . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . . .5 . . . 440 449 . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tycho. 1 642 . he might have been put into a quart mug.CHAPTER 1 TWO. the poor and sickly mathematician. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. Kepler. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. JarnesR. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. the year Galileo died. as his mother told him in later years. the noble and aristocratic Dane. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. Newman! . there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that.
In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. TWO.1 Still. It fit. discoverer of Halley's comet. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. not an explanation of planetary motion . The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. therefore . is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. Since the time of Aris totle . with the sun at a focus . One day in 1 685 .1 Kepler's Laws. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . 2 1. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside .1. Kepler's laws were only a description. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). necessarily moved in circles. Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. Finally . The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life .
when he recovered from his shock.Sec. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. "Why. t he Principia. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . of course . Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. they speculated whether a force . The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . casually posed the question. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. without mentioning the b et. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. 1 . in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation.1. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. Dissatisfied with this explanation. more simply. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. in ellipses. 4 1.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. or . 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries .
n ( 1 . Note that equation ( 1 . . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them. / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . The universal gravitational constant.3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.1 ) (1 .1 .'�V .4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. . . " Figure 1 . .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 . 1 .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system. .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. 1 .67Ox 1 0. 1 2) Fg = ..1 . We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.11 Newton's Law of Motion . 1.1.G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. / . G.12) t o equat i. has the value 6. • .1 . . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia.
propellants) to pro duce thrust. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body.. m2 • m3 m m. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion.2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. a lunar or interplanetary probe. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body .. . 1. or a planet). To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation.�I '.e. . y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies.. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. I I I Figure 1..e.II I I I " I I I I :. X I . . etc. I " '. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. In addition.. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. an earth satellite .Sec 1.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. j.. At any given time in its j ourney. . thrust and solar radiation pressure . the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. .12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . An important force. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets..
���Y � X n 1. These effects.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities.. 1 equator. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies... Although small. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. 2.2' The NBody Problem Figure .1 . this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. Y. Thus. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. • • • z FOTHER . are discussed in Chapter 3 .
The v ector sum. etc . (1. Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . .2. of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. solar radiation pr essure. Fg. The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where .2 ·1 is T composed of drag.2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r.3) Obviously .5 ) The other external force .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) .2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself. m'J JI 3 (rj j) . F gn where =  Gm .2.. . thrust. the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . . We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . II 3 (1.Se c 1.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. equation ( 1 .
r·I = F TOTAL mj 0. is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ..26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 ...27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.. y .28 would not be zero ...8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch.I) and all other external forces .. z coordinate system.2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL. .. (1.F I dt TOTAL dt (1. In other words.. Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time .I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x . Thus.1 + F OTHER ' (l .
G And for i = 0 . nonlinear.. r JI. The only remaining forces then are gravitational. expelling mass or relativistic effects. ( 1. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions.2. Then writin g equation 1 .11) 2.2. Equation ( 1 . equation ( 1 .10) ( ..2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . sun and planets .2. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 . m . m· J (�i) . F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . unpowered flight. mn may be the moon. mi 0). Equation (1 .29) reduces to = r· 1 n .1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1.2. ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . vector.1 0) for i = 1. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present. we get j = j � *i 1 3 . Y.1 2) .2.G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth.Sec 1 . differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form..29) is a second order . Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le.
1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .1 From equation ( 1 . 2 1 7 ) . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .1 2) into equation ( 1 .10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.1 4) gives.2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1. . 2. .2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence. n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1. Since r 1 2 = .2 1 6) each bracket.2.2.21 1 ) and ( 1 ..G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .
To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of.21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. 1 .2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies.2x l O 8 2.9x l O 8 7 . Howe ver .Sec.6x l O lO 1 . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion .2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n . 1 x l 0 10 3. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 . Table 1 .3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies.89 6x l 0 4 2. mi orbit about the earth. Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3. There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .1 Simplifying Assump tions. The bodies are spherically symmetric . 1. .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth.3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. sun and planets on a near earth satellite .3.
Y'. Y' . which "in its own nature. Let (X. For the time being.3. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 .2 The Equation of Relative Motion.. Y'. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. 1 . . " s However. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'.3. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame .BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it.1 ) (1 . Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. 3 2 ) .1 . Y'. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. Let (X'. Y.12 TWO.3. 1 2. without relation to anything external. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1. remains always similar and irrnovable.
31) we have = _ r . Y. 1. GIM+ml r Equation (1.32) from equation (1. Note that this is the same as equation (1.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem.33) . Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites.33). Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'.Sec.. Y'. Y. ballistic missiles.y X' Figure 1 . or space probes orbiting about 3 r . Z'). noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. Y'. Z'). (1 .31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. and acceleration in a nonrotating. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. Note that since the coordinate set (X. Y. Z) with its origin in the central body. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r. velocity.
Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion." That is." for another form called "potential energy . It is convenient to define a parameter. namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors).14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. Then equation 1 . If m is not much less than M. called the gravitational GM. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. "kinetic . an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. m. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . the mass of the orbiting body .3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. If you think ab out the model we have created. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 .3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . 1. M. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. will be much less than that of the central body . 1 some planet or the sun. you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. 3 ·4 ) ." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation .
Sec. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity.!!. v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4.4. which appears in . Therefore. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . 5.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . I n the next two sections we will prove these statements.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. 1. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that .4 frame (the large mass) does not change . r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. ( 1 .r ) = � r �(r . ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. then 1 . If the time rate of change of an expression is zero . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. 1 . N 0 tlcmg that . r 2. dt 1:L = O. C. But what about the arbitrary co nstant . v =r and v= f.lL\I r dt JJ. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O .
Since in general a x a= 0. The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. at what distance . in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. r. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . �. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . In other words. as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. 3 4) by r 2 .  ( 1 .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy.fL 3 .g. therefore . the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. e . the earth.iL (rxv) = O. The expression for � is �. The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . dt .4. We conclude . that the specific mechanical energy.2 Conservation of angular momentum. If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. Noticing that . O. neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . rX . why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity .42) 1 . This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary.
h.The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. Therefore ." "Up" simply means away .41 Flightpath angle . called specific angular momen tum. Therefore . of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. (1 . But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . we have shown that the specific angular momentum. By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1.43) v I h = r x v. I Figure 1 . We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . 1 .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v.
5936 1 + 5 .8143 r • v > 0 . r = 12.4.4274I+2. (4. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). V =5. c o s ¢=Jl.899 X 107 ft. v. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. &. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . • ( 1 . Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. Ch. = 0. respectively. Also find the flight·path angle.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. ¢.7 1 37J+O. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. In an inertial coordinate system. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. and the specific angular momentum. however. Determine the specific mechanical energy . J and K are unit vectors.420 . I h = rv c o s ¢. h. the zeni th angle .463 K) 1 07 ft and (2.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . ¢.2778 J + 1 0 .54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. 1 85 2 1 + 6. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle .8143 = 35.0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.
1!y r . Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body.( r) r. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. err.51) The left side of equation (1.33) is simple.Sec. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .1 Integration of the Equation of Motion.I.5. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=. its complete solution is not. �t (B· . (h xr) =.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. 1 .. While this equation (1. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .. we see that J!:. 1 . Also note that J.. (1.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. JJ.. . A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain..3 3 r r r since r • i = f .& .51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.
52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. . we obtain = 1 h2 /g . c and a . v. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation.54) .9 cos V (1.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. 5. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. in general. I r 1 + e cos V p (1.54) . If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. +(81J. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. (1.. h2 where vector r.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle.53) 1 . a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. + r o Since. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. V. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1.. Equation (1. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B .
5. not just ellipses. remains constant.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. the flightpath angle.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. 4 . 1. There is.51 illustrates an ellipse. however. 5 . The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. potential and kinetic.41 and equation (1 . (See Figure 1 .3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. ellipse.44) 1 . cp. 2. Before discussing the factors . the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. As r and v change along the orbit. Although Figure 1. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. must change so as to keep h constant. an exchange of energy between the two forms. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . 3.Sec. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. parabola.
the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. or a single point. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). If. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines .52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. the section is a parabola. Figure 1. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to .5 2 illustrates this definition . A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone .22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. the section is an ellipse. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. If the plane cuts both nappes. The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. 1 Figure 1 . in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone.
53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections .53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. The secondary or vacant focus.Sec 1 . the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . F. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. F and F'. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. The prime focus. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. Figure 1 . F'.
for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse ").e2).55) p = a (1 ." "perihelion" or "aphelion. ( 1 . which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 .54)). Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. a. The dimension.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses".5 3 . Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . is c�lled the semimaj or axis. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 ." etc. The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. Thus. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . In the parabola. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter.
59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 .. the trajectory equation. 5. 1 ( 1 . 53). tL r ( 1 .57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . By comparing equations ( 1 . 1e ( 1 .52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !.1 0) .= a( 1 +e) .53) and ( 1 . we encountered the vector constant of integration. In the derivation of equation ( 1 . e = BltL. Quite obviously. . 5. which points toward periapsis.4 The Eccentricity Vector.Sec . ( 1 .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). 1. since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe. .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 .58) 1 . B.
( 1 .1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. e . we get • p. r r p.53) and equation ( 1 . v ) v .44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. /or any orbit. e = V x (r x v) . progressively increasing the muzzle velocity.p. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. p. Figure 1 .. is equivalent to increasing h. h. equation ( 1 .54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum.p.6 RELATING &. of the satellite. and that as h is . Therefore. ( 1 . th . _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . 1.5.6.61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). v. x v. By comparing equation ( 1 . Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth.1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. 1 . v)v.(r .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p.. e = ( v v ) r . If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. By inspection. is zero. r  r .
 . R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec.61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle. p.62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 ..increased the parameter. . of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .e ) . r I . . I '. . 57) p rp = a(1 .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 .1 ) predicts . . = �.� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . as a corollary to equation ( 1 . Figure 1 .. (1 . . �' " . . v. is zero. 1 01) . We can then write.6.62) we obtain &. ..F �.�= � .44).
of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit). while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &.a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l .e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . Thus.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . the energy of a satellite (negative . Figure 1 . Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. 1 and from equation ( l . &. This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . zero.6.63) misleading.56) and equation (1 .63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.6.1 ) therefore p. or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. You should study it together with Figure 1 . a. This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . Many students find equation ( 1 .28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive.
if & is zero . Namely. specific mechanical energy.  a=  '!:. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. m i . For a given satellite . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0.7 n .Sec 1 .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. 0 .897  e2 ) = 3. e is greater than I (a hyperbola). 3 n . Determine its altitude at apogee. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic... But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. = 6. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . e is exactly 1 (a parabola). mi.2 Determine its specific angular momentum.1 and perigee altitude 200 n . . m i . if & is positive . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. and semimaj or axis. ra = 1 � e = 4453. & = 2 . The student should be aware of this pitfall. 64) Notice again that if & is negative. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. and specific angular momentum. 2& = 3 . 6 .0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. m i . e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . semilatus rectum..Jf5P. r p = rES + 200 = 3643. 9 n .
7 .7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa.JpjJ. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.7·2) .861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a .r Ell = 1 009. Since an ellipse is a closed curve. When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant. h =. = 5. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over .855 = 6 .7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. 1 . The method is illustrated in Figure 1 .7· 1 . We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant.m i . ( 1 .= 2. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. specifically r + 1 . 2a = r a + r = 8097.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses.30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a .8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 n. I ( 1 . the distance between the foci is ( 1 . 1 35 x 1 06 ft n.7· 1 ) B y inspection.mi.
equation ( 1 .1 . Since r + r' = 2a.74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis. If you refer to Figure 1 . 2 ( 1 .76) .73) ( 1 .71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. 1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.7.72) and ( 1 . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 . when rearranged .7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 . e is defined as combine to yield da.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit. you will see that the .44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . Using equation ( 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll. in general.75) which.horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.7 . 2 b.72. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .Sec.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 .7.
77) dt 2 = 11 dA.32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 Figure 1 . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. d v. we can rewrite equation ( 1 . is given by the expression So.72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area.76) as ( 1 . d A. Figure 1 .73 Differential element of area .
Sec. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . Of course. 1 . From equations ( 1 . 55) and ( 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . Thus. 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. a. since h = /JlP.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit.77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period.8 . 1 Circular Satellite Speed. so equation ( 1 . The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . 1 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. Integrating equation ( 1 .1 ) 1 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a.75). ( 1 . Equation ( 1 . Naturally.78) b =) a 2 . the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. incidentally.79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 .8.79).e2 ) = JaP and.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 .8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 .8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit.
There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know.34 TWO .9.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . rCS' from the energy equation. The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.1 Geometry of the Parabola. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. 1 . the periapsis radius is just r 1 . Another is that.1 . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 .9. One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . circular speed is about 26 . We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 .1 ) . 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . F or a low altitude earth orbit. The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 .9.000 ft/sec.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.
from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � .= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   .2 Escape Speed. Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity. Of course.E.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.Sec. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back.9. first at a general point a distance . Theoretically. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory." 1 .9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.57).Jf2il ' r  ( 1 . r. as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . 1 .92) .
the semimajor axis. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude .000 ft/sec.Since the specific mechanical energy.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. 36 TWO .. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 .B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8. 8.1 57. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. a.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 .1/2a. 53374 106 ft = = 36. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. b . a. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : .92) =21 . As you would expect. 5 7).700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola.400 nm above the surface it is only 26. = j.
m i . m i . where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .8 n.amr iO.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. 1 .Sec. rb i t P 7087. 8n. 06748 106 ft 7087.53374 106 ft 2 43.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21.
then the righthand branch represents the orbit. 1 0. If. F . A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field .1 ) . Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . instead. The parameters a. 1 0. If we consider the lefthand focus. 1 . we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. 1 1 .38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch .1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). (L l O. then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. Obviously.
If. 1 0. 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity.but since Sec. we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. 1 02) becomes ( 1 .1 . on the other hand. This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. The angle between the asymptotes. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . 0. 1 .0. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. V 00' . 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . 1 0. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin .. 1 .for the hyperbola. the smaller will b e the turning angle . If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. The turning angle .
It is a fact. Astronomers call thi� ' . a million miles) from earth. In other words. for all practical purposes it has escaped. of course . 1 (1 . 1 . we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. It is.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. 1 0. It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. the concept is convenient and is widely used. 1 . absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. however.3 Sphere of Influence. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 .
046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . J. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. e. r a' r p' . Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . moon. For other problems where the earth. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit .Sec. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. p. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . 1 . then the value of the gravitational parameter.l. 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . 1 1 . will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. 1 1 . 5 9362 5 . The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. earth.1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. or other planet. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. 1 . Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. h. 1 The Reference Orbit. Using canonical units determine & .
1 67 D U �/T U � = . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 .1 . [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 5 D U e �2 _ /J.I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . Alt = .42). 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. � = . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1.
= 2.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1.Sec.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 . 25D U EB = 4.61) Find h from equation (1. = 3. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft . 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t.64) Find ra from equation (1. 5 D U "..= 4 .58) Find r p from equation (1.5 7)  r a = 1 e p. 5 D U = 9. 1 .
1 . a.1 . is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. 1 .000 ft/sec and 4 .2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . Why. in general. b . Find the specific energy of the trajectory.. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. Find the eccentricity of the orbit. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system.000 n mi. 5 81) 1 . Find the period of the orbit. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . c. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem.44 TW O. 2J AK IJK h = AI .3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. The orbit eccentricity is 0. respectively. .2. 6 J 1 . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. (Answer : e = 1 . 1 EXERCISES 1 .1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 .4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. 2K DU 2 /TU . &= .
7 Prove that d. &. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. r x ft ) = 3.Ch . 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . 0 1K v = l + l . Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0.123K = 1 . a a. hyperbolic. V ft/sec. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. D U /T U DU e. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . mi during descent? (Ans. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). 4K r r v = .5 DU DU DU d. ¢ =3 = 1 .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. 1.5 rpe r i gee = 1 .8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. elliptical.000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600.6 18 = 59° 58') . 1 . 91 J space. 2K + . p 1. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . (Ans. r v c. p b. 354 10" r 1 .6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth.000 ft) with a velocity of 25.
e=O e = . 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit.000 ft. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. ellipses and a hyperbolas.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points. 1 . d . sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. c. p = 6.2 e = . P 1 . It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. Determine the maximum altitude attained. e. p = 6. 1 2 Given that e = �. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = .6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 .000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. p = 2. b . p = 2. p = 3. derive values for e for circles. (Neglect atmo spheric drag.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m .) 1 .
Show that : b. rc = at +b = 0.Ch . 207 1 . 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . c.6. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans .V O U EB /TU EB ) . * 1 . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. 1 . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun.Sec. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit .4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. Yw '+. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system.2. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section .24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . Q and W respectively. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. 2 . 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system.Xw UK vectors. you may use the same Figure 2. 2 . The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. When describing a heliocentric orbit . Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond .
T. Similarly. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w.the angle . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . Another system. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. p.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . a. w. 5 . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis.the time when the satellite was at periapsis. shape and orientation of an orbit .the angle from to periapsis measured h. Obviously . K I I . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. 3 . 6. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . between the ascending node and the periapsis point.3. is substituted for a in the above list. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . e. Frequently the semilatus rectum. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . in the fundamental plane .3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. if you know a and e you can compute p. Instead of argument of periapsis. time of periapsis passage . i. 2. 4 . Q longitude of the ascending node. 2 . inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector.1 as follows : 1 . The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits.
2 .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.Sec.31 Orbital elements .
3. w and va are all defined. earth. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . From Figure 2. n=n+w. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. This is the dire ction in which the sun." Direct means easterly. to ' called the "epoch.31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . in the plane of the orbit.60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) ." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit).3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . then b oth W and n are undefined. then both w and Uo are undefined. (2 . both of which are always defined . 1 £0 £0 + . Retrograde is the oppo site of direct.1 ) . '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde .
4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. n an d e.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . The node vector. To be perpendicular to K. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . h.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product .41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . n. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. n would have to lie in the orbital plane. h. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . To be perpendicular to h.4. 2. n and e. t o . 2. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane .42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. 2 . vI vJ v K J (2 . 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . n must be perpendicular to both K and h. Therefore . n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes.
In general. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see .S . Now that we have h. p.1 1 )). Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . All three vectors.4. We are only interested in its direction. n and e are illustrated in Figure 2.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l .4.1 ) (2 . The vector.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. ex.1 . 2 nodes. between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. h. n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. The parameter. and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . is obtained from (2 . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 .3. An understanding of it is essential to what follows . The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit." Specifically .46) Of course . Study this figure carefully . e. the cosine of the angle . 2.
2 .. 2.L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° . � � h.47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° . Since Uo is the angle between n and f .) c o S Po = � er (2 .4.) .1 0) 7 . c o s U o = !!.:. Since n is the angle between I and n. (2 .1 1) . Since w is the angle between n and (2.) e.4. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.49) 6.Sec.' (2. Since i is the angle between K and h.. (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2. Since Vo is the angle between e and f.4 3 .48) 5 .
With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v. look at the geometry of Figure 2 .64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. .1 and study it until they do . 2 z x 8 .4. If they don't make sense to you. Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2. The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). 3 .
Sec.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 . VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations. Figure 2. 5 DU e == .
2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 . 2 3 Figure 2 .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .4 DU p == .5 e == .\ .
4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.Sec. 2.
7 75 ..47) = . using equation (2 . Find p using equation (2 . i.I:!:. ml .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). f.6. Using equation (2.i:..48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . e. . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. n.7 4n . Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.45 ) Since h =.l h2 .. Find eccentricity.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 .. EEl . ) r .1 ) p = .1. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node .(r .4.= 4D U = 13. From equation (2. [ ( f.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . Find inclination. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth.
 Find longitude of periapsis. From equation (2. Find argument of periapsis.n = COS . for this case .:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . 2 . va. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. From equation (2 .Sec.!!.1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector . = cos .1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 .n.. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again ..49) W n · e W. is undefined.1 (. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore . since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . .= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis. II.41 0) v a c os. can be determined in this case. Find true anomaily . II. 4 .
70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . v)v] =..25 EB EB D U EB 7748. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .  then from equation ( 1 .85 n . 2 Find true longitude o f epoch.5 .33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .1 ) Find e. = From equation (2.3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .. EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2..E)r(r .m i . 1 [6 \ h=rxv=. From equation (2. First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .6.
.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. From equation (2. From equation (2 .1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .43) n Find the longitude of ascending node . I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 .5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.4. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r . 2.5 Find the inclination. va : From equation (2.11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .49) w: 0 W = cos.Sec.I Find the true anomaly .
shown below. n. i. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. w and v. Of the se six elements. . Let ' s assume that we know p.24): ro to. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time .72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. v.5. n. w and va .72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . lV. 8. i . that occurs in a given time . The method.to. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. 2. consists of two steps. changes with time .5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. 8. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly .ffe si n V (2.5 2) . 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. 2 elements are given.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 .
Before equation (2. v �[.54) from equation r (2.5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).54) r = J � [.5 i= p 2.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = . 5P DU E9 (2. 2.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 . A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.Sec.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .25 45{) (2.
the direction of the po sitive zaxis. east. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does." The phrase in quotes describes what the . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. For example . and zenith components of "the vector from a radar .6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. vector represents. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. direction . or what it represents. and it still represents the same thing. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. namely. In other words.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . Certain vectors. east . the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. its fundamental (xy) plane ." 2. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . suppose you know the south. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. 2 2. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. such as position vectors.6. have a definite starting point . say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . east a!1d up. suppose you know the south. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. For example. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane .
2 Change of Basis Using Matrices.61) . and extending along the x. y ����. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.Sec. : r Y I ex a .6. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods.61 illustrates the two frames. y' and z ' axes. V and W along the x ' ." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . Figure 2. 2. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis." In other words. 2.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . Figure 2. ���________� • . Let us imagine three unit vectors I. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S .y Y 75 .
65) . V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.62) above and equating it with (2.6.1 ) yields I.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix. (2. 2 From Figure 2.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .62) Substituting these equations into equation (2. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ). We will use subscripts to identify the basis.61 we can see that the unit vectors U.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch .
(2 .69) '" axis. These are summarized belox:: . 68) B '" (2. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes.67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . 2 .66) (2. Rotation about the xaxis.67) yields the set of equations (2 .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2. The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.64) above . 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2. .6.Sec.
in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . Figure 2. So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes.6. We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame .78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . a. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame .si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L .7 .4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames. Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation. 2 (2. 1 ). Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector.
Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e . is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order).!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . AB =1= SA ). if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0.1 . The transpose of the matrix D . (i. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 .Sec. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates.61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. We can write equation (2.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. Equation (2. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. Hence . all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal. denoted by D . . Now. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. Fortunately.e.6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . The inverse of any orth.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2. 2.
tluee b . 5 Tmn . gl " n i lly ." a ny mp licat e d . anglo . By me mo C. 'o ta t. an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . 2 (2.1 2) Figure 2 .. m1 " fo. th. n t rizing th . O c M ma t.6 .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK .".n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame.. axes in to CO ham . d th yo u will b . 6. d wi th .Eq to th e IJ K in at . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am ..sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . mu " in cid 'n ce b . 6. 62.".".ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . sh ow n in F ig u " Th . to p' ter ho w co no. basis no ma t . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . d w . th' O ugh w hi ch on . a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce . Perifo ca l to th e G Th .. P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. a bl . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th .
then Sec . R. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems.. Figure 2.. To .The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . from Figure 2. a K and ap . Thus if a i ' aJ . 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit .63. For example . 2 .63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. aQ. ....... we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I .
6. a �. Similarly. Q I ' W J · W K .cos n sin w . B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides.82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .63 . I • p I · Q J .sin n sin w cos i . J and K Thus R = J . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w.sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . P K · P In Figure 2. P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A.cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i . Now a. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. ! • P. the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .1 4) R23 = . since I and P are unit vectors. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 .6. R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 . 2 from their dot product .1 3) i.
Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. 2 . In this case either n or w or both are undefined. V. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix.1 ) and (2. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements.Sec . 2.5 . . relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need .5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s .7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components.
is measured clockwise from north . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. The unit vectors S. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles. p. 2. EI. The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south.7 .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . 7 .2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame .7 . E and Z shown in Figure 2 . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted .( N o rt h ) 2. The azimuth angle . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . can also be measured. The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite.84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. the elevation angle . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. AZ . the rate at which range is changing.7. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. Az. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth.1 .
from the geometry of Figure 2.73) E l (B I ). We will express the po sition vector as (2 .72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2.75) .72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. E I . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. p. From Figure 2.7.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI. = Ps PE = P cos Pz.and EO/. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 .7 4) = + P (2 .7 . 2. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. Sec.72 we see that r (2 . Thus.7 .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. /l!L.1 . Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .1 ) where . Az.
86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth.76) . Unfortunately.72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . 2 J topo centric frame . A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . For the moment we will assume that equation (2 . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.
If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . (2 . Figure 2. 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . 2 . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) .77) . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. EB x f. where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed.73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . Therefore .Sec.74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame .
3535 .3535 .707 .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .612 . 5Z (Given) [).612) r = R + P = 2S .1 = [.5 J . is 2 S E + .E + 1 .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long. The angle to Greenwich is 3040 . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates. Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.707 o . Figure 2.6 1 2 . 300 N Lat . 5 Z (units are DU).866 .
It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. however. I =J =K=O. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • ..4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. z). v.79) J. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u.7. . 2. Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame .9 1 81 + 2. The unit vectors D. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . (2. y.75 ) . We will denote this quantity by w. V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . w) . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. z) system (Figure 2 ..Sec. y. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . (2. 332J  .982K . rotating with respect to the (x.
dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . .7. equation (2 .1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA.90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . .1 0) reduces further to . V = w x V and W = w x W . Hence .7. equation (2 .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . . Similarly. Hence . The remaining terms of equation (2. You should prove to yourself that U = w x U.
...LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 . v v.. .71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector.. 2 ..... . z) '.. y. . .7.. ...Sec. Equation (2..1 2) . " F i xed " System ( x. .1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q....75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u . �:... dt R I (2 .y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ .. ..... .7.... W) Figure 2......
where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame . (2 .7. The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 ." Ioox.7.) .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 . (2 .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.7. 2 iLl F = . Equation (2 .1 3) into equation (2 .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .7.9!. We will now apply the operator equation (2 .1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .7 . Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .1 2) to the po sition vector r.7.7 .7.1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.7 .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .
Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. If the earth were perfectly spherical. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. circles. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier.8.Sec. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude .8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . Therefore . that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. In the model which has been adopted. of course . latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level.) 2. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. Sections parallel to the equator are .8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. 2 . be' is just the polar radius of the earth. however . We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. 2. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. It is known . ae .
2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level.08182 == km km L La L . The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field .94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . Consider Figure 2. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . When you are given the latitude of a place .1 . The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid .2 The Measurement of Latitude. The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. 2.8. 2.8. While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point.8. The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . the difference between L and is usually negligible . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .3 Station Coordinates." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight .785 0. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . 1 45 6356. it does complicate the concept of latitude.
..82. / (2. L .8 . We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 . Thus. It is convenient to introduce the angle (3.8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 ..Sec.!! o . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal. O . The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e . 2 .82 .1 ) . c." which is illustrated in Figure 2.. 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . the "reduced latitude . 4 km Figure 2.
2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . Ch .. b e =a e V� = b2 + d.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But . c:  0) x Figure 2.and e = da. / . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. for any ellipse .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. z . I C.1:  (2 .. 0 O D. a2 .82) .
Thus.8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . (2. = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2.85) . 2 . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = . (2 .Sec:.
The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .8.83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. 2 ( 2 . (2 .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . From Figure 2. {1 ' is known .8 8) .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components. {1.8 7) 2. and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 .86) L. If the Greenwich sidereal time . elevation above mean sea level.98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .
89) . Although Figure 2." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame .8. the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich .84 shows a spherical earth. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . 2 . L. is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) .Sec .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t.
For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .1 0) .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . 2 j i Figure 2 . From (2 . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.8 .
This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 . 2 .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2.Sec.1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .8.9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6.1 . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval.1 2) and a s ' a E . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .9. aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .9 equation (2 . so .6. This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. (2 . When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle . This should be made clear by F igure 2. A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. a Z If a l .9 . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time .1 2) . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . 2.
1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . when the earth is near perihelion.09054 mean solar seconds . An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . So far. In early January. Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day .
or Zulu (Z) time. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation .9.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis.9.3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . Thus. This relationship is illustrated on page 99. For example . Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 .) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) .2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour.Sec. Universal Time (UT).is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. . if it . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. 2. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . 2 . The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2.
m i n . The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1.9. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent .4 Precession of the Equinoxes. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. ° 229421 1.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . Ephemeris and 2." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . . we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . in addition. 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . we express time in decimal fractions of a day. 8 9=8 9 0 1 . 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years.
so the lunarcaused precession has this same period." with a perio d of 1 8 . As the earth' s axis precesses. the equatorial plane is not . However . The period of the precession is about 2 6. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year .Sec . . the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic.92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars.6 years. the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 ...000 year s . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. 2 ...z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . 6 yrs I Figure 2.9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . Due to the asphericity of the earth. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . 0 0 0 y rs " .6 year s ... on the slow westward precession caused by the sun.
x= [ z= � ae + � .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .74933340 = 1 . 5 7 .6245 rad ians o 9 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6.378km = 0 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 .296° H = 6 . 00 1 From section 2 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included.296 degrees west longitude . 6 24 5 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 .00 1 + L= 0 . at 0600 GMT. Day  = Long o 57 .1 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator. 25 8=8 g + A = .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl .
2 .2D UES = (0. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 . 0.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.74) .(0.4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 . Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = . 00 1 c o s(S.7 1 SJ + OK Sec.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.6971 + .72) PE p Pz Ps = .9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 . 00 1 (S.6245 )1 + 1 . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.346E + O.From equation (2.346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.6245) = .
1 .(0.232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.346J + 1 .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .46S .73Z D U (T U r = 0.04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .Ps = .25 0.�� lO.2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .0 1 .0588K) From equation (2 .46 P =D1 .061 .73 p + (O.0E + 1 .610.0. 0.(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .346E + l .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .8 . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) . 46 = 0.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .866 0.1 .3.4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3. 1 08 Ch .1 .84J .46 D U /T U (0.7·5 ) From equation (2 .77) v = [� ] [ J 0.8 .5 1 .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0. 3.73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.433 .
Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . As Baker S points out . may be lacking. 1 01 Orbit through f 1 .081 . Figure 2. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p .3. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . and the orb it is uniquely determined. well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. W. Ai. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 .8J . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. EI . Gibbs is. It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. p . 2 . it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. k. f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . 2. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . of course .0. Ei.Sec.
who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . (2 . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . Dotting (2 .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 05 ) and (2 . 1 03) Cross (2.1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. we can show that : e ' f = p . 1 0.r 3 ) = 0 . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. equation ( 1 .5 4).r. (2 .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. Q and W. 1 04) (2 . 2 fine scholar . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . 1 0.1 ) by (2 . Notice that C2 may now be divided out. then u sing (2 .1 ) successively by fl . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . 1 06) Multiply (2 . 1 04) . 1 0. and the definition of a dot product . 1 02) gives (2 . (2 . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. 1 05) (2 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. 1 03) by f3 X r l . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . 1 08) . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o .
1 0. 1 09) D. 1 0. Since P. D = N P = O' N (2 .1 3) : (2 . N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h.1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D.e . 1 0. 2 .1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . equation (2 .Let the right side of (2 . 1 0 pD = N . 1 0. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . (2 . 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. i. (2 . N and D have the same dire ction.1 4) (2 .1 5) . 1 0. This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. provided N . (2. Therefore .1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . 1 0.
( f  r + e) . 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 .1 8) N (2 .1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . 1 0. N > o.1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . since NeQ = pS.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . Therefore. 1 0. (2. From equation ( 1 . 1 0. D and S ve ctors. 1 0. N and S vectors. 1 01 0) to find p. 1 0. 1 020) Thus. (2 . Then use (2 .1 6) .1 8) to find Q.1 9) Since P.52) we can write i X h = p.r t ) f2 + ( rt . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. (2 . Before solving the problem. check N * O and D . (2 .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . and (2 . 1 02 1 ) . (2 . 1 0. 1 0.1 7) to find e.1 9) to find W. 1 020) to find P. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . Q and W are orthogonal.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . 1 0. P = Q X W. However .
b) c O . v) h and h . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . v = eP. 1 0.Sec . ON (2 .(h .E. (h xr r = + (a ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . D X r + JJ{. 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . h X (h h ) v .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) ..( a . e) We can write h v v = . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. 1 025) .h = P. 1 024) (2 . Using the identity . so c) b . = p. 2 . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 .
appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. = 0 for coplanar vectors. N=FO. Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. 1 02 6) Thus. proceed as follows : For example . 4 . shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . possible two body orbit . find v2 : 2. Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. This method . 2 L + LS (2 . Finally . to find any of the three velocities directly .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . This is not exactly true. Test: 0 10 . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . Form L = = 6. using the stated tests. v2 � + L S r2 • . N and S vectors. 1 . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult .
039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 .9000J + 0.5000K Find : P. If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .Sec. The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. N . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units).0471 O U = 0 . r 1 and r2 . eccentricity. Form the D . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. and the timeofflight between these po sitions. 9701 = 2.047 1 = . P = 0= N  2. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. the semilatus rectum. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth. r1 r2 r3 = 1 . and S vectors: D= N S 1 ." Thus.97 .8000K = 0. Since 010.0774J 0.0. 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. 2 .000K = 0_700J . period and the velocity vector at position two .
960 DU/T U (4. 1r/{: 6.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .497 9. 2 S . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.67 TU (89.1 . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 .0804 e = = = 0 .963J . = .0.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .0.963K N 1 .657K D U /T U 2 0. then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.270K W= N.0.97 o lP = a = 1 . 700J . 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type. 0408 1 1 .4 to solve for the elements.270J + 0. .576J .
Sec. 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. 1 1 2) r .1 ) (2 . 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. then ' . L.g . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . 1 1 . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . j = 1.:S :J: JS L K . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. If we let L . optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . 2.6 2 : 1 1 . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. [:i:n :: :. = OJ + R j . (2 . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . In either case . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . ° 2 . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 .7 2). 3. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 .z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. 2 . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. r = pL [�. (X1 ' < \ � . Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . As a result .
the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . p. say the middle ob servatio n . �J 1  .J V I .1 . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . • ' I .1  R ) r3 ..r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . I . ' ' :. ':. r u. 1 1 3) (2 .[. . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. � . \ Figure 2. : '< ' .. \ •. \ . however . R and R are known at time t2 . . L. • 00 . L. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . . . 0 (2 .. 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. \' P2 i �� G "... \ [L. The vectors L. f f. �� I 1 " _ . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . are not known . p and r.1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . p. ./  L . (2 .' ' " ': .
t2 ) (t.Sec. 2 . 1 1 6) + 2t . t2 and t3 .t 1 ) ( t.t 1 ) ( t2 .t2 ) .t2 L3 ( t 3 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time . t2 . Since we have the value of L at. 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t 3 ) (t.t2 ) ( t 1 . 1 1 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t 1 .t 1 .three t�es. 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t2 ) ( t} .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ( t 1 . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t 2 ) + ( t 3 .t3 ) (2 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t 1 ) ( t3 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L. t } .t2 ) ( t 1 .t3 ( t 2 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t } ) (t 3 .t 2 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .t 3 ) ( t } . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t 1 ) (t 3 .t 3 ) L2 (2.
This. 1 1 6) and (2 .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. For the time being. p. better yet . L J .ons (2 . must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . It should be noted.. D reduces to L D =2 L I L . it is evident that L Dp = . p' and r. L J I (2 .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch ..u L /r 3 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. + . L L L K K K J . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. in fact . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. p. L K + .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . that if more than three observations are available . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 .. . however. let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . 1 1 5 ) . 2 .L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + .u R Ir3 I + . I L .u R Ir3 J + . . 4 Equation (2 . LI . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f.u L 1 / r 3 L J + .
2 . From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . R R . R R I . If we do this we find that . 1 1 .1 2) . 2 . L J L I K J!. O O. . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . 1 1 .4 Solving for Velocity .1 1) Op = . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section.1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2.. Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. Substituting equation (2 . J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. R J . 0. Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. 1 1 . 1 1 2). p and r. 1 1 . R .1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. 1 1 . . 1 1 . Then _ __ K I L J L L K I .Sec . is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r.. we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2.1 0) into (2. L K . r2 = pL RI = + p (2.L L L J K I p . L K L J L I K (2. Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. . 1 1 5). 1 1 . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I .1 0) and (2 . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . 1 1 .
If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . a3 . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . P.2). then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . such as P. Laplace ' s method fails . 1 1 . D. k. This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . ° . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . 1 1 .1 3) for p. To obtain the velocity vector . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . a . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . 1 1 . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. ° 3 . 1 1 . E l . As a matter of fact . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. (2 . 1 1 . 2 . El. 2 (2 . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v.1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 .1 4) p 2. This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date .
The six residuals are �1 ' . ts and t6 ' These predictions are . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. Assuming that the residuals are small.Sec." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . . the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . t3 . of course. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. r K ' v " vJ .::"P 2 ' .::"P 3 . 1 21) . The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. however . The question then arises. 2. t4 .::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. p) will differ from the computed data.g. Doppler rangerate. 2 The Differential Correction equations. It may happen . "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. v Kl at t = to are correct. 1 2. 1 Computing Residuals. 2. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . . 1 2. \ ' t2 . Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. For example . Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements.::"P . A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit.
to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations.) Then.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . . .1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. V K ) .e. . Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. by trial and error. NI .1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. . Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. With the aid of a digital computer. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary.VK .1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. 1 2 . The inversion of equations (2 . such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. rj . The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. ap1 . usually 6 for orbit problems) n .Vj' D. 1 2. D. however. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method.VI . 2. reduce the residuals to zero . equations (2 .r l " v K )p1 ( r l . New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. i. NK. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. Nj.. r K " ' arl D. D. 1 2. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. for example . (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient.
W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. 2 . b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M).. In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . 3 .. Solve equation (2 .tb each of the elements measured. If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . called the root me an square (RMS) . minimum as described above . for 90% confidence . This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem.g . is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. = = n) . A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . zero . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. a and (3 are the elements (two here . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . for the exactly determined case (p or b. . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. use 0.8 1 ) . 2 . since p 2 below) . This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. 4.
21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. ex VI. Choo se ex and for the first estimates.2. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and .:.Assume equal confidence in all data. the partial derivatives are : . 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch .j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM .
1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 2. Thus. Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 .Sec.
This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . we will use a simple .474 and f3 = 3. To illustrate the method involved. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. In practice. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration.360 = . 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. 6 orbit elements) would be used.474 Xi 3 . This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . yet still overspecified number of measurements. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution.
969 ____  Vi .Sec.0 01 1 3.828 0 0.866 4 x .934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .000 50..1 05 9.474 4 0 07 19. 934 = 1 .Vi 2.. ( V i Yi ) 2 4.500 8. 3 . 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2._1. E ( V 1.007 0.865 49. 2 . 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 . aa .1 26 0.1. . 0 35 3. 474 x 3 .) 2 n .000 n = Vi 0. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .y.000 1 9.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.
81 30 8.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0.062 .�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .2.3. 1 961 0.021 070 20. 0.001 07 33 b = 0.. 105..0. 1 75 ] 5.056 ""' T . Thus (X new = . so we iterate.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .039 £::. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .z 10.380708 A = 40.031 8. 1 22) we have £::. 27 A WA = [12.304 0.36 .360. The second iteration yields: £::.474 + .(X 26 3.670 3.304 = .I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2."""'" �T�� .. = 3.1.l Now using (2 .4 1 69. 1 96 = 3. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .027 12. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'. which is larger than what we started with. {3 = {3 new .733. 0 18 0.
This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. 2 . 2. we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations.Sec . 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . in theory.500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth.735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . In practice . However. The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . 1 2. the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. during orbital decay.5 8 1 . 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 .00 1 . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . 7 35 x 3 . Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. 038 . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . 038 [3 = 3 . and finally. Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . however.4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. 2 . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how .5 8 2 . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. . W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0.000 . The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight .
antisatellite targeting. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR)." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). and midcourse ICBM inter ception. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. the precomputed 2. 1 The Spacetrack System.500 miles make about 1 2 . about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. At present. 2 2. 1 4 . the White Sands Missile Range . 2 .5 003. forming "clouds" of space debris.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. These detection radars with a range of 2. 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. 1 3. 1 Radar Sensors. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . spacecraft failure diagnosis. In addition. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar.
the FPS43. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. is now on active Spacetrack alert.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. Alaska. Turkey.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. Figure 2.Sec. and is on active spacetrack alert. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. while three are located at Clear.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. New Jersey. 2. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. Greenland. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. One FPS49 . Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. One of the earlier detection radars.
under the 140ft radome at the left. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. Florida. 2 Figure 2. This BMEWS station at Clear. Alaska.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . In addition. Alaska. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna.142. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. United Kingdom. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear.
over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. 2. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver.143.14.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2.2 Radio Interferometers. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. 2. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. When two or . High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia.Sec.
In addition to these . After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. Alberta. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used .3 Optical Sensors. and therefore . SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. Considering the type of observational data received. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. the semimajor axis. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. is well established. Canada . 2 . 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . 1 4 . The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal .
Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object.145. A separate optical system superimposes.400 miles. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. Alberta. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight.Sec. seeing conditions must be good. it is . the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. on the same strip of Cinemascope film.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. As a result. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. 2. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . and the lighting correct.
One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. Further . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . is relatively accurat e . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. Doppler rangerat e info rmation. 1 4 . New Mexico site. on the other hand . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec .000 meters. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. In any case .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 .1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Massachusett s . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. in any case . . 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. For detection radars. The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. 2 . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . takes time. 4 Typical Sensor Errors. Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error .
Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects.5 Future Developments.7 seconds in time would remain. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. lunar attraction. 2. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further.146. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. nonuniform gravitational fields.14.Sec 2. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .
The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . Theoretically . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. Many improvements . howeve r . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. In t he system under development . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . but it also record s target tracks for later playback . Operating in the SHF b and . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . Now. 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . p. the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . a continuousw ave .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . of the target .
Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth.1 Ground trace sat ellite is. at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 .. 1 5 2 . 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . 2 . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . 1 5 . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle .Sec.1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . The arc CB which forms the • . 1 5 . i. {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. F igure 2 . respectively with a launch a zimuth . 18cP  2 . 1 5 . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . o f the orbit . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime .. 1 5 . For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth .
cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . 2. For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . L o?" If i is to be minimized . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . For a due east launch equat ion (2 .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . betwe en 00 and 1 80° . f3 ' be easterly . 0 i. 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit .e .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . i : c os i = . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . 1 5 ·3 . that the launch azimuth. . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . 1 5 . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . therefore . A direct orbit require s . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things .
1 5 . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n .Sec. It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . 2 . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . Figure 2 .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . su r face . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day .
i = 90° . 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. = (partial answers : 2.5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d.89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . Englan d . a solar day or sidereal day? b . 9 7 0 . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . Which takes longer . J . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich.7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. Colorado ( 1 04. 2 EXERCISES 2 .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. 885. Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. e = . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c.7071 + . = u nd ef i ned ) = .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .
2.8 I J P = . e. 82 u a . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 .7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . c .2K DU . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. 1. 3<. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. Determine the orbital e lements.8 2075 . 2 + b . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction.Ch. (Answer [partial] e = . W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. i .) Determine p. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU.
U se of a computer is sugge sted . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . b ut not nece ssary.4 1 4225 1 1 1 . W. Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . 1 7 1 . 6464495 a.7 6) . b . b . a.060668 8 3 1 .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. Units are earth canonical units. 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. 2.system along the unit ve ctor s P.3 5 35 3995 0 1 .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . 1 0 2. PST . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . 2 . (Answer : r = 1 .5 0 West . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . C alifornia .4 1 4202 0. p = 1 . equatorial . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . r3 r l I J K 1 . 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . 1 0 January 1 9 70. LST = 63 . r2 1 . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. 2. 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch .3 1 065 1 5 0. Q. Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis .
97 2 . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .707 1 0 1 0 1 0.9 1 420062 4 .62 1 34384 c.1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .0 2 .94974 1 7 6 .207 1 25 5 1 . fl f2 f3 d. 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .0 0 . fl f2 f3 3 .0 7 .7 0 0 e.565 6808 1 0 0 .0 0 2 . fl f2 f3 0 .09497879 1 .0 1 .0 0 2 . B .1 .6 0. C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.0 1 .094964 1 8 0.5 65 6808 1 0.2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.0 0 .89497724 0 0 0 1 . 1 4  DU/TU.707 1 1 25 5 0.62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .8 0 . .9 1 42 3467 2 .2K with a velo city o f AI . 3 6 395 5 26 1 .89497 879 0. fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.97 0 1 .0 2 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.6 0.20709623 0 . DU * 2.0 7 .Ch.8 0 0 .
( A ns. Obj ect vernal equinox direction. east and zenith (up) component s? c.17 p 0. 2 a . Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south.0078 J 0. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 9 7 . A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N .75 K D U /T U )  . 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. Express the coordinates. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . d . Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. Obj ect c. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. b. ___ e. Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . Obj ect b .620 1 I 0. v = 0. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . * 2 . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . .1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a .
Henize . U. Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. 2 . K. C leeto n . London . 1 96 3 . Pierre Simo n . Second Revised Edition . Carl Friedrich. Academic Pre ss. Laplace . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. The M acmillan Company. Forest Ray . Simo n and S chuster . 1 0 . 8 . C . 6. A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . New York . NY . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . 4. Mass. John Wiley & Sons. D avis . Thoma s. "The A erospace Vehicle s . No 6 . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . 1 95 7 . "Space Traffic Surveillance . C ambridge . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . New York . NY." in The World of Math ematics . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. Inc.Ch. Pedro Ramon . 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 1 9 67 . S . NY . 1 9 1 4. Edmond Halley . Armitage . 5 ." Vol 48 . . Angus. Thomas Nelson and 3. 1 965 . 1 9 66. 1 962. Memo ires de 1 78 0 . 9 . Gauss." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . NY . November 1 9 67 . E scobal. Newman . 1 95 6 . L. Sons Ltd . 7 . Inc. New York and London . Telescope .1 1 1 . Vol 3 . Dover Publications . G . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . Navy Space Surveillance System. Jame s R . Sky Publishing Corp . Moulton . Robert M . Baker . E ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . Paul G . Jr . New York . Space/A ero na utics . New York . pp 1 08 . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris .
Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Roger R. Sunnyvale. the A stronautical Sciences. 1 962. 1 967 . American Society of Mechanical Engineers. P. Colorado. Cheetham. Davies. New York. Inc. "Future Radar Developments. NY. McGrawHill. S." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. California." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. R. Journal of Oct 2. SepOct 1 967.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch ." Satellite Control Facility. No 5 . 1 9 66. R. Gerald C. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences." The Vol 1 4. 1 2 . Robert D . . Carson. 1 3 ." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. and Eller. NY. 1 970. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. 2 1 1 . No 20 . Thomas J. Air Force Systems Command. Electronic . NY . 1 6. USAF Academy. 1 4. 1 966. Bate. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. New York. p 39 . New York. 1 5 . 1 962. 17. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. NY. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. 1 966. Vo1 40. Briskman. New York .
or variously eccentric. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . ) 00 . Goddard. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. After that . those bodies. as of 5 . and the different force of gravity in different heights. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. 1 . It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. 1 0.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights.000 or more miles. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . for the next 250 years. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. according to their different velocity. the idea seems to have been forgotten.
1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . since it contemplated the use of military hardware . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. Project Orbiter. On 4 October 1 95 7 . For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. 3 . Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. Manned spaceflight . 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. 1 . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. 3 . However. still in its infancy . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 ." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. particularly if it is manned .research. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. Rather . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I .
. ..J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl ... .. c. 20K (. 71.. YEAR a YEARS . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 .. VI/II � V � . � ee. . I MONTH I .. (I) CD � .n w .V'h WillI e: � .::: 0(I) "" 20 10 . � '" .(/} � � (I) E � � ....J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .H O URS WEEK ...rrrj. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION .: fiD It: 0 It: <t . 11 L . ..25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" .. .. � .J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E .' � S' (1) 0 . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N ..///11// ..50K �.+ :=.EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr.. . mJ77/1/.....
3 . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. Figure 3 . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . a p ogee 1 00 n . 1 .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. m . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . radiation and meteorite damage considerations.2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . stated. m . Figure 3 . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . m . 1 .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . 1 ·2 .
3 . there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. 1 3 . as you can see from Figure 3 . 1 2 . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. The vehicle is not allowed to coast . The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster.or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth.Sec..!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of .
You . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. 1 . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . As a result. 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). Figure 3 . The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 1 5 . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. 3 . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. therefore.
���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.. 1 > .J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .Sec. "::> Figure 3 .:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�. 3 .2 ...5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.."� ill Q rn o I � fS .9 r�=r�rr. 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .
I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .J 5 "' C iii 0.J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 . "' "' ..1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch . 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0..
Figure 3 . With this perturbation . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . completing one revolution every 90 days.60 . The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. a. What is the inclination of the orbit? b. and oppo.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. The ascending node moves to the west . 3 . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. Therefore = . 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63.Sec. which also is due to oblateness. It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit.40 and 1 1 6.Q 360 ° per 90 days :. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude .6 0 . 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 .N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 .6.67 0 /day From Figure 3 .40 or greater than 1 1 6. 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days.
Of course. 3 Figure 3 .000 nm altitude . 3 .1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . ground trace of a synchronous satellite. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude.21 shows why. 1 2 this would be 2*. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. 2 .2. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . 1 . of course. If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . On the scale of Figure 3 . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. however. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. 3 . 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . This is. not the case .300 nm or about 5 . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase .inches from the surface." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. This. Figure 3. for example . 1 The Synchronous Satellite.2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse.6 earth radii above the surface . The first stage booster climbs 3 . Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. unfortunately. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame .
Sec. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more. . the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit. Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr.21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically.. At apogee of the ascent ellipse... This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 .. Dot ted grou nd trace .2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s.22 Ascent ellipse . curve is \ " " .. This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit. burn """ " " . intervals .� � Figure 3 . 3...
for some other reason. speed. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . a? v. Usually this is not serious.3 . (3 . This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis.31) If we solve for '. and flightpath angle. we get (3 . = _ r 2a . /:. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . dv. 3 . we get a change in . but .v (3. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. a very precise orbit is required.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch .  fJ. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed.33) or = da 2a2 vdv . at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged.. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . 2vdv . fJ. at appropriate points in the orbit.34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. (3. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. as they are called .32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height.da a2 = fJ. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude .
4 Jl. called Hohmann transfer orbits.34). 3 . 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. along the transfer ellipse. whose radius is r2 . The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. therefore . Similarly. Since we know r l . The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height.semimajor axis.h a �  da. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. whose radius is rl . we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. 3 .v) . of the orbit given by equation (3 . 2 The Hohmann Transfer. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec .3.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. to the large orbit. We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. Since the major axis is 2a. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. a 6.V v P P (3." 3 . For example .34) for small but finite 6. a2 6.1 .
3 the transfer orbit.31 (3.37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3. &.31 &.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch ./2 a . its speed is . (3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. 2at Figure 3 .36) = r i + r2 =  and. since p.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3.
39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . For the transfer traj ectory. ra = 3 DU.3. to VI ' So .V required to double the altitude of the satellite . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . 3 I N. Find the minimum /::. Minimum rp = 2 DU. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit .1 0) (3 . Although.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . & t = � = . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU.Sec. 3 .V implies a Hohmann transfer .1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. . The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. i n our example .3. the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::.
3 V cs 1 = (il = . I t is obvious from Figure 3 .061 DU/TU I::.346 ft/sec 3 . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.3.3. We can express this condition mathematically as r = .V1 = .1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .JfF"= .707 DU /TU vi r.V2 = . Figure 3.3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.� r 1 1 +e p p (3.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.068 D U/TU V cs =.32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.VTOT == .313) . I::.
�.Sec. (3. and the angular momentum. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 .33) and interpret them graphically. 3 . Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area. ht. we can compute the energy.1 5) . Knowing and e. To satisfy both conditions. p p p  = .3. / 2a .1 4) (3. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. I &. respectively . p p (p.3. in the transfer orbit. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits.
we get (3. __ Figure 3.1 is just the flightpath angle .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit . . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 .39) The angle between v1 and va.v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.34 /::. p r2.. its speed is (3 .1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r .
3. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. e. as shown at the right of Figure 3 .34.41) 3. (3 .V required.1 . We can solve for the magnitude of b. and obtain directly for circular orbits. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. 3 .4. A velocity change .1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit.V. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above .V. 1 Simple Plane Change .Sec. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3. it is not surprising that equation (3 . we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. This is called a simple plane change. ¢l ' is zero. the b. assuming that we know v and e.3. b. b.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".41 .V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. Or. If.310) when the flightpath angle . b.V using the law of cosines.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . (3.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. together with the b. more simply. form an isosceles vector triangle. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side .V. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. 3. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . or it can rotate the line of apsides. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3.31 6) Now.1 7) reduces to equation (3. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . after applying a finite b. 4 .1 'I' .
If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. DU circular orbit.170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . makes b. calculate the additional b. a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized.41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . Therefore . Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N .V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. A plane change of 60 0 .vrequired to accomplish the mission. b . 3 Figure 3 .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. for example . a. The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Determine the total b. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required .
1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.V l 1 . & t = = �= . 1 +� 1 . DU 2 1 Hence .1 = \1'1 . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0. The given information is: h I = 0.270. 3.618 = 1 .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) . I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.Vl = V l .Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.0.Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a. .Sec. Therefore at = r2 .. v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .953 DU/TU L.__ = .
2 .V2 .042 ft/sec Therefore v = .626) = 0 .447 DU/TU 2 1 .704 DU/TU 18. 3 87 .317) to determine 6.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 . + v�s2.447) (.253 ft/sec .626 vcs2 = V't.447) 0.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.387 DU/TU = 1 0.(0.V2 = y'l'5= 0. 1 5 DU/TU 6. 31 7 + .V22 v. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .2(. 447)(. 6. v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.626) = 0. 4 . 2 + 0.4) (.3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.= 0 . 3 and we must use equation (3.
V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 . F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .1 ) t:::. 3.447 ) ( .4.0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .Sec.
0.e.2 DU and 4 DU respectively. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. a plane change or an orbit transfer. 0 .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. What is the minimum 6.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. 3.5 DU .2 Calculate the total 6. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . 3 .5 DU/TU. (Ans. c. 1 1 DU and e = 0. i. i changedall other parameters remained the same. 3 EXERCISES 3 .5 b.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S .76. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a. r p = 1 DU e = 0.21 . What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of . = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . a.. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.4 Refer to Figure 3 . Ch . a = 2.449 DU/TU) 3.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.
v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. 9 Calculate the total l::. 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. (Ans.7 3 . 3 .1 DU 8 1 = 0. The . using Hohmann transfers. 34DU2 (fU d. beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . 95 DU 8 = 0. 5 & Design a satellite . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. 8 Compute the minimum I::. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. P = 1. 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . = 0.Ch .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = .412 5 3 .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned.9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode .V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . C ompare this with the I::. * 3 .56 c. . 0 . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 .
1 . Robert M . The Viking Press. 1 96 1 . Principia. . Rockets. The Viking Press. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. NY . and Space Travel.. V2 . 1 July 1 965 . A cademic Pre'ss. New York . NY.1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Makemson. Air Force Systems Command . Missiles. Willy. 1 95 5 . New York and London . Washington . Headquarters. Baker. 1 962. 4 . Dornberger. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 2. Space Planners Guide. DC . 2nd revised ed. 1 9 60. University of California Press. Walter . Berkeley and Los Angeles. 3 . and Maud W. 5 . Newton . 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . Sir Isaac. L. Ley. New York .
Albert Einstein ! 4 . .. presupposed the solution of the first.CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . the determination of the true movement of the planets. or lack of circumspection. the solution of the second problem. . or perhaps usurping them . For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event.2 1 77 . if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . by taking the observations under my care . . including the earth . Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. This was Kepler 's first great problem. . of the heirs. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. . . . I quickly took advantage of the absence.
. Thus. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle." Kepler points out in his Preface. I + . 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . detour. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 1 . . He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. we not only forgive them. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. but above all to convey to him the reasons. whole grand entertainment would be lost. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . When Christopher Columbus. "What matters to me. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . subterfuges.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion.
with the warning: "Ye physicists." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . that. for now we are going to invade your territory. as it were. perihelion and aphelion. never noticing his error. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. prick your ears. But then without a word of transition. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. without benefit of any preconceived notions. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. . Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars.Sec 4. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . His results. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. almost with masochistic delight. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. . Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. again incorrectly . He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. Moreover. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. however. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times.
after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. He had .. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work.2 Finally.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch .. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. . he settled on the oval. 4 Figure 4 . with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . . as I shall prove further down . " Finally. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately .
. : . what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on.e . Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. made a mistake in geometry. You: are . have persisted to this day.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal.y it should move in an orbit at all.. which I had rejected . but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. in a moment of despair. . he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'.. Ah. came when. .F L I G HT . . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. I thought and searched. . In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. . . We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . That is to say. hypothesis.and chased away. . de rive the .Sec 4. until I went nearly mad. The climax to this comedy of errors. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to .: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. .2 T I M EO F . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. disguising itself to be accepted. whereas the two . time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. and velocity and the timeofflight. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . are one and the same . but he did not know how. return e d by stealth through the backdoor. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. mine] . witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. 4. . believing that this was a quite different . Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . In this chapter we will. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses.' " . and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit.
A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. (4. We will pursue a lengthier.21 Area swept out by r . P. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see.l . but more motivated. ''"'''"'. A ' in Figure 4. where the true anomaly is v .22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . 4 existed ..2. i. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus.e .2.. say from periapsis to some general point.1 ) i s the area � ..182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY . 7T a b . This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use . derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments..1 ) . ''' The only unknown i n equation (4.2 . 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use .. 4. In going part way around an orbit.2.
E E Circle : . A dotted line . the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . 2 T i M EO F . Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . perpendicular to the major axis.Z x2 + .F L I G HT .l. 22 Eccentric anomaly. \/2 a2 _ . From analytical geometry.Sec 4 . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse. The angle is called the eccentric anomaly.
22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 . oos E and whose (4. it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . 4 Hence .�rea PSV minus the dotted area.From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . It Tollows directly from equation (4. From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . A2 . .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 .a E) .
v.Sec 4.22." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E . and whose altitude is (a si n E ). E. Kepler introduced the definition M = It .24) E . Obviously .2 . cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .F L I G H T .e si n E (4.27) (4.1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' . which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians).e sin E (4. From Figure 4." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion. minus the triangle . substituting into equation (4.27) reduces to (4. we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.24).25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.e si n Ai yields E) . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .T = 4 ( E . whose base is (a CDS E). to its corresponding true anomaly. Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .we get � ( E .e si n E ) I (4. Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally.28) .2 T I M EO F . in order to use equation (4.
from Figure 4.(to . Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.[ 2kn + (E . The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .( Eo  E) (4. 4 E E. so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .to = lP (t . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically. In general we can say that t  to = 4. + t .T o ) .( t o .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4.24 left).28).e Sin . In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . E Figure 4 . we can say that t .T) .T) .to = ( t . when v is between o and n.24 right.24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.T ) . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .
2.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .2.21 6) V 1 . From equations in section 1 .2.82 ( E .2.8 si n E ) V r .1 1 ) easily integrable . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .2 T I M EO F.1 3) (4.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.F L I G H T .2.1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a. .1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.J1=82 d E (4.21 2).82 f: ( 1 .Sec 4.1 2) (4.7 .2. From equation (4.+ COS (4.8 E ) dE (4.2.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. Figure 4.2 Solving for x When Time is Known . 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) .1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given.47) has been used to eliminate z.4.Sec 4. since equation (4. In one sense .1 3) ro va v t" . we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign .aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. Equation (4 . (4 .4 4. 4.4.1 2) is transcendental in x.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e . Therefore . va' a and the trial value of x.4. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . Fortunately . ( 1 . But now we have a problem. a. a trialanderror solution is indicated.
it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q. xn .4.41 6) dx x . Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r. we must then calculate the corresponding and v. (4.42. B and C are coplanar vectors. 4 .32). To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z . the four vectors fO ' (4.4.4. the iteration may be terminated. With x known. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 1 dt r (4.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y .3 The f and 9 Expressions. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. Substituting for r in equation (4.41 9) .1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . Thus A. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. and A and B are not colinear.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible.1 = x 2 C + x .
the left side of the O .. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. g .. First.4. f.1 9) gives Sec 4 .420) This equation shows that f . We can isolate the scalar ..1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h . however. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities. f and g. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .. in equation (4.4. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q..4. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity.. g . g. f and 9 are not independent. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 . Crossing equation (4..tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w .1 8) into equation (4. = fg..4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4.where f. x..
426) . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x.42 1 ) We can isolate (4. From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .4. . x + Co cos v = .e2 )  r . .X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .4. yw x .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ . o .1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4. (4.425). x wYw . ) .424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x. Xw .4.423) (4.w o Yw h (4.E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .a l e + Sln Y.425) Combining equations (4.1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw . 4 h (4. (4.34) and (4.
. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .a  mitions of z.a Va 2 = 1 9.. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4.sin r  � (4. ro ...42 1 ) c /Ii.32).42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4. e quation (4.. x =� cos x + c r . 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.4. x + co h = ..426) and (4.429) into equation (4..426) through (4 . e quation (4..Va • W . x = 0 at t = o . (4.43 1 ) .43 0) 0 1 f C a = .. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4..43 0) f (4.427) and using the definition of the universal variable .. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C .1 ) .a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum. r.Sec 4 .(e sin � + cos � )..429) Substituting equations (4. ro ro ..428) yw ..
436) .433) (4.4. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .4·3) � r o .435) (4.. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l ..1 ) and (4 . r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.4.1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 . � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .] � a .202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .32) (4..c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.4.
1 9) .434) . Obviously .43 1 ) and (4. 1 . 1 The Physical Significance of and z.Sec 4. Va x (4.43 5) and (4. 3 . Also. 2 .43 6) . to 4. 5 .4 . la . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. 4 .4. the expression (t would replace 4 . if we are going to use equation (4.1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. Note also that if were not zero . Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4. Si n va = Va =  c o s . note that equation (4. in any of the equations where z appears.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation.e E). 4 . x + Co cos [ � . can be used.x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . then compute r and r from equation (4 . its definition. 5 .420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions.1 8).5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation.1 ) Va = _ E .4. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero). but we have not said what and z represent. Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. then compute v from equation (4.34) (4.[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos .4. From and determine r and a.
(4 .1 3) .F 0 1  Va I E . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x .204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . (4 .5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.E o l .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).57) . we get x= D . 5 ·1) at time x = 0.Do . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.3 4) and (4. To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f.53) from (4 . we can conclude that = V'ii I F .53) Subtracting equation (4.55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .5 4) (4. therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12. (4 .52) whenever is negative .56) la. + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .4. a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r. 1 (4.
I z = I F .when z is positive . 5 .8) Figure 4 .5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. so Sec 4. 5 .1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . a. Therefore . In computing the semimaj or axis.5. either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.to 4 .F a ) '· z is zero. 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem.5 9) . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4. If imaginary.
In the case of elliptical orbits. Furthermore . When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. we get for elliptical orbits.fZi3 = q .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .a � eFz ± 2x 3 . / ( .. then Z will be a large negative number . C = 1 . so S � V0r eFz 2 . a = ± x 3 .All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. wherever it occu rs.. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. with £X. Use this for a first guess ... since X = foE.v y� ( .. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 .. convergence will be extremely rapid.cosh .ji11. ( t a to) . can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp..P)/ 2.6F.a vG ) .5 .e . X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. . if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. so s i n h fi .5. and .:z. is large.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number.
tohATci ( l . where appropriate . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.L ( t .5.r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.sign (t .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .£.r:z .t o ) 2x 3 � + t . Thu s .a .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before.sign in the above expression .t o ) x ::::: sign (t .t o ) � ( 1 .t o ) #a ( 1 ] .t o ) Fa . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t ..to is positive. 4 .a eFz sign ( t . so Sec 4 . 5 .t o ) sign (t . vice versa . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) . Anytime t .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term. .Q) eV La 2J.1 1 ) . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4. 5 .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J. recognizing that X will be positive when (t .tJ is positive . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the . we get � S .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4. X will be positive and . Therefore.
we can write equation (4.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 . use equations (4. so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .5.5. use equations (4.4.1 3).cosh . = Similarly.208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz.. . z cos i � . If z is near zero .1 2) and (4 .Ji . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0. if z is negative .".1 1 ) We can write equation (4.0 6 + .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive.1 1 ) .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .1 0) as C where = i C = .1 0) and (4.5.4.s i n i V} = i si n i B . 1 .7! + . Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .4. (4.4.1 0) (4.(1  . s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 .s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .1 1 ) as But i v:z .5. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 . 4 (4 .4.1 3) COS .. .4. Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .
. ..Ji! + Ji!.5.1 4) ·· 1 .+ . (4Ir) 2 . The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .. (611)2 etc. .5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z ..� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4. Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . 0 . .. The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 . 0 'j (4..5.1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .Sec 4.
266  .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 2& . it is not surprising that the derivatives. we get I � = fz. va = Therefore & = 1. t=2 T U9 ra = I.3S ) .5.)] P (4.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x. and v at = t=2 T U .s i n z dz 2z [ 0. 1 .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . dC /d z and dS /d z .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves. I dS = _ ( C . r a .[i) z ] (4 . 39 5 .2C ) . Find r. 4 functions .zS .5 .[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. Differentiating the definition of C. Given ra = I D U va = 1 .( 1 . va > � a= :l = 1 . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . 1 K .
8 1 6 1 .8 1 6 x n+1 . 2 2 x 3 ' etc.. 1 . 705 .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.277 dXn 1 .t o x_ 21Tya lP :.. X l Zl y"""a6E or x . 58+ .t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.1 .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ . xn tn fit After three iterations. y'ii"(t .007 2..705 2 .58 1 . tn toward t = ZTU.973 a Using equation (4. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places. solving for t .4.58 1 ..1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 .82 1 1 .Since x = and .222 = 1 . 24 1 = 1 . we can make a 2 __ = 1 ..4. using a slide rule .1 .000 1 . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.821 1 .12. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: ..6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.1 4) and (4.222 Repeating the process.8 2 1 1 .279 1 .t.8 1 6 1 .222 1 .58) 2 1 .266 ( 1 . 58+.
yw and r in terms of D.Then from the definitions of f. But first some useful identities will be presented. E or F.2. 4.1 ) From Figure 4. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly .031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit.1 we can see that X w = r cos v .._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. f = 0. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. But . r = _.6. E and F.2) . g = 1 .6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. since e = 1 .. f = 0.JPt::. Finally. and 9 = 0. E and F. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D.8801 Ch .. 1 24. v. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4.32 1 1 + 1 .0.6. we will derive expressions for xw . g.6. as D = v'P tan � 2 . we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY .1 7). (4. for the parabola. 236K g. 880 1 1 . Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v.321 . f. D.6 . 4 4..A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0.
2 If we substitute from equation (4. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.1 ) .64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.6.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.65) .63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r. (4.Sec 4 .62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .
66) v . Using r • r = and equation (2. 4 rr.6. For the eccentric anomaly .Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product.62 Perifocal components of r .62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .1 ) .J7!. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4. r • v. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known.s i n p v = ffp ta n v . (4. The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown. in Figure 4 .
we can say that I yw = Q. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . I Substituting from equations (4.Sec 4 . we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .6. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. yw Just as we did for the parabola.67) (a si n E ) a But . 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4.8) and simplifying.67) and (4 . 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . (4.1 0) e sin E also.62. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .24) . M  (4.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4.6. (4. e illS E we get another useful  �. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4.
1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation. E is imaginary .Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . F is imaginary. v..6. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4. we obtain E = .22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words. e cos E from equation (4.6..1 3) . relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly.6.6. solving this equation for • v .!.:. is given by e si n rr = r = $a . when F is a real number .. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.e Si n r E Finally .1 0) . when E is a real number..1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4. The . we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E .28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4..
range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. The rectangular components of a general position vector.1). Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF.Il a •v (4. Similarly.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v .el = a (cos i F .6.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. In Figure 4 .a r  (4. 6. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .61 6) r e cosh F = 1. r. 6. 6. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning.1 8) .e ) .1 4) Xw = a(rosh F . so Yw = a � sinh F.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.  But i si n iF = si n h F. But l cos i F = cosh F .1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.67) we can write Sec 4 .e) . = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.6 . 4. may be written as (4. From equation (4. so (4.6.
ji! sin v p (4. r0 · = 1 . 626) . V.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y .c os I 9 ' = v'f. we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = .vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf ..A F U N CT I O N O F T.x"..V _ 2 1 .. Figure 4..c o s tv ) (4.JiLP. are yw = r sin v (4. 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:..1 . ( ... 623) .63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .: o s /:.624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) ._ c��V P IW (4. where tv = v . so 1 � L (I ... (4. 62 1) (4... tan p /:.6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4.:. .V.P ( 1 . 4 +. and note that h = . the rectangular components of the velocity vector .625) (4. ..p ..I M E Ch .42 1 ) .
627) But.e cos E o ) .1 (4..to ) .cos L'!.e 2 ) cos E .E .67) and (4.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .6. 629) f = 1 . E rr . (4. = . the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.( L'!.Ji!.e2 ).� ( 1 . we get f = a( cos E .42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .a ( 1 .I Jlla sin E. From equations (4.63 2) . o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4. (4.6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .e) v! fJa( l .sin L'!. Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .4. using equation (4.!Ji8 sin L'!. Similarly.6.63 0) (4.6.E) 9 r _ 0 j. yw 9 and (t .a E sin E . r (4.E ) . Thus Xw Sec 4.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .E ) f = .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.e2 ) v.e2 ) = 1.68) .1 0).cos L'!.63 1 ) (4.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .
629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.634) (4.  E.63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch . The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .6F ) .(1 E .to) . . and Sma1l4 tells us: " But.t o ) . In classical terms. 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4. � V a3 ( t . ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.4 Kepler Problem Algorithm. Kepler himself realized this. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign .63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .2 6) is one equation in one unknown .j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F . of course ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself.6.[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .2k7T + M o .. (4.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) . M can be obtained from = (4.63 6) 4. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true. A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some . cosh 6F ) . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .26) Even though equation (4. the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E . and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it. (4.
638) n dM/d E I E=E n . compute the mean anomaly. but this is not very accurate. E It would.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . M n . E n+ l E + M . we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next .63 7) Now. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. of course . that results from this trial value .64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. select a new trial value. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4.Sec 4 . We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. � Figure 4. ' (4.
636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . even when e is nearly 1 . va and the timeofflight. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits.5 + .222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation.  .4. 5. Solve for V if needed. 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.4. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated.when e is nearly 1 . Once E i s determined by any method. 4 . Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. Determine f and V from equations (4. however. t . equation (4.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. p and va· 2 . 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . where d M / d E l E = En En.1 9).4 0) EXERCISES 4. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. dE Therefore.2. e. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem.1 2) . From fa and va determine r 0' a. 2.t ' are given.5 cos V DU .1 8) and (4. 1 .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .e cos En (4. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F).6. d M = 1 e cos E .M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. It can be used for LW or�E . e. 3 . Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration.
Ch . find r and v for . to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans.348J +  1 . corresponding to l:J) of 600• . 4.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. (Ans. TOF = 5. (partial Ans. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. i.6 For the data given in problem 4. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. glven fO' vO' and t. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P.3.5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead.85 TU) 4. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse.4 If.3 Given l:J) = ffP. Find the values of f. find the universal variable.e. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 .. how should the area of search for x be limited. V = 3481 . 625) . Explain why this must be so .5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. x. f = 4 .
(Ans. TOF = 2.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. e = .. and give your analytic reasoning behind. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. Va and w and will solve for f. == 1 . f and g. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. 4 . 2. 4 4 . 5. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 .to and solve for f and v. 7 The text. 1 1 For problem 4. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value.73 TV) 4.99). 4 . 5 DU. g. with a perigee above the north pole. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans.51 0) and (4.9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. in equations (4. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory.10 rp 4 . 4 . 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 .1 1).5 DU. e = . then . an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. Va and t .5 . Develop. 1 0. ra == 2. 9 At burnout.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. Do the same for problem 4. Le. if X == x (t ) .
r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. 1 95 1 . Philosophical Library. A New York. Battin. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t .. NY.16 * 4.E.43 5) and (4. NY. The Macmillan 3 . .6 TU) .I:!:.( t . g. Albert. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. r. r3 fJ. New York.630) through (4. 1 7 Derive the expression for g . Wise.0 + . Robert. The University of Wisconsin Press. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. 4. 2.. f and 9 in terms of (t . Madison. Small. = .1 8). NY. Richard H.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. L'. 2. o 4 ..to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Company. 1 95 9 . A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. 4 . New York. Guidance . 1 964.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9.. Kepler. See equations (4.. 1 963 . 4. equation (4. Koestler.2 . The Sleepwalkers. 63 2). 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly.43 6). Stahlman. Arthur. Einstein.
1 947. Unpublished notes. pp 1 05 . K. Bate. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. 1 965.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Brooks. . Herrick. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. W. Vol 70.1 28 . H . 8. Lemmon." A cta Vol 36. K. pp 3093 1 5. 1 9 1 2 . Vol 3 1 . Moulton. S. Redondo Beach. Sundrnan. 1 1 . . to Celestial Mechanics. W ." ARS 1. Vol 275 . F . pp 1 89. Vol 70. N. 7. 1 96 1 . 1 0. H. 9. 4 5 . J. Stumpff. 1 9 1 4. W. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. E. Sperling. and 1. "Universal Variables.1 92." A stron. Mathmatica. 1 965. The MacMillan Company.1 79. 1 965 . Goodyear. Forest Ray. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. 1 2." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems." A stron.ach. Roger R. pp 66066 1 ." A str. New 6. California. pp 1 08. H. United States Air Force Academy . A n Introduction York. J.
Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . a 24yearold German mathematician.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. 227 5. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. But. Uranus. in the first year of the 1 9th century. in 1 7 8 1 . so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars..
The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. Because of its importance. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss."the Gauss problem. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. and for convenience in referring to it later. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. The object turned out to be Ceres. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. exactly 1 year later. If they paid some attention to philosophy .2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION .228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. 5." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . and the direction of . I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. Hegel asserted. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. but for a different reason. no less. no more .
. . or the "long way. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. The relationship between the four vectors f l . therefore.. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations." through an angular change greater than 7r. / I I I I I Figure 5 .".21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. p.. but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case.. particularly if the parameter. 5 . Sec . / .. 2. . appears in the denominator of any expression... the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. Obviously . the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M .SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ . If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r)." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. .. the orbit is a degenerate conic.1 . It is not surprising.motion.
cos �E ) .sin �E ) � JJ. 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . bv . 3. the solut �on to .23) Actually. what we have is three equations in three unknowns.cos �V .27) and (5 .( 1 . g.25).( 1 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary ..2. There are seven variablesf1 . f and g. a 9 = 1 . Use equations (5.1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f. f. Test the result by solving equation (5 . (5 . 23) and (5 . a or �E.24) Si n �E (5 . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. From equation (5 . so 2 . 2.. n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E .( 1 . Consider equations (5 .y'ii8 .25 ) (5 . (5 .cos �E ) f = 1 .26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . t. (5 .cos �v) = 1 .24) arid (5 .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . (5 . r . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. a and �E.22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f.23). but the first four are known.230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .22) r2 a ( 1 . 27) . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. r2 P p rI . p. 2.. g..1 ) (5 . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 .cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. p. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns.
. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. a and L'£ or 6F.c x2 y. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. p. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution.Sec. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. = 1 . adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. In each case . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4.( 1 . In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. however.3 2) . { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. g . including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. r1 (5 . introduced in Chapter 4. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. let's write the expressions for f. and would enable us to use the universal variables. x and z. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. This last step is perhaps the most important of all.1 ) (5 . since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work.:t x3 S. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . 3 . a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 .cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. 5 .
1 ..34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.j A equation (5 .A .v y.v) • 9 = = IE.c o s b.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch .39) . 5 X2 (5 .... as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.v (5 .38) y... A y= .. we obtain A..36) may be written (5 .( c o s b.31 ).232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .jE: . P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b.v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 . rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.v) (5 .1I 1 � . ( 1 . yields X C.viI x ( 1 zS) \ .37) I y = r 1 + r2 .33)  (5.v ) 1 c o s b. ( 1 c o s b.( 1 c o s b.33) and cancelling vwp from both sides. we get r 1 r 2 (1 . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 . p r1 j .i n b.
420). the last term of this expression may be simplified. by using equations (5 . 5 . I" � \ ·1 fr .1 0) (5 . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .34).on simplllw.Sec. From equations (5 .3.3.31 5) (5 .31 3) (5 . so that (5 . we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But. 32). y.35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . thi 't "p. can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.qr::oo .31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .1 4) 1 The velocity.31 7) . +.37 ) and (5 .LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. (5 .1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .1 6) (5 . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: . 3. 3.=1' Ig =r2 =.3. rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 .1 ).ff. and the auxiliary variable . .".r I (5 . A.38).: r I .32) and (5 .. we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 .
37).E2 and z = .1 2) (5 . which converges more rapidly. (5 . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. Determine x from equation (5 . this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.31 9) . Although any iterative scheme .31 6) and (5 .1 4) and (5 . evaluate t. y. A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. 5 1 . Pick a trial value for z. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4. Determine the auxiliary variable.4. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. a Newton iteration.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i .31 5). From f ' f and the "direction of motion.31 3).0. 5. 3. 7 .39). may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. 3. If it is not nearly the same . 9 and 9 from equations (5 . 4.3 . The derivative.= 3 x 2 . When the method has converged to a solution. dt / dz.4." evaluate the I 2 constant.dz dz dz 2yy dz . may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. A.S + X 3 _ + .31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 . from equation (5 .31 8) ( ) (5 . 6.3.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. using equation (5 . 5. 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 .31 7).1 0) and (4.1 1). Since z = . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 .1 0) .P .0.3. 2 . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .
5 . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 .32 1 )  .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .320) (5 . 5 . i n section 4 .z S) dS _ . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 . we showed that y. we get ( 1 . .=  dS (C .Sec. 3 .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .39) for dy = dz  But.
Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM. equations (4.01 + + O.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . 5 so.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit).+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .318)." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.320) and (5 .6J + 0. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S.236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .319) and (5 . These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 . we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .324) _  (5 . Using universal variables.OK DU.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.4. we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0.326) .41 1 ).322) into equation (5 .1 0) and (4. 51 r2 = 1. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.  (5 . D M � si g n (1T L'>. ill rl .v) . There is only one path for a given direction of motion.323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . "direction of motion": rl =0.7K DU. determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .
from equations (4.37) does when .39). For ease of numerical solutions.. 5 . 327) r1 = 1 . 23287446 yT12 vm . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . 0488088482 + 1 .321 radians Using (5 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 .0.6V short way = 5.6V is small.3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . a convenient form of equation (5 . 0000 + 1 .1 5) .Sec.28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = .6V > 1T). 5 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 . 0488088482 + 1 .962 radians LW long way = 21T . 86474323 = 1 .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).1 4) and (4. A A l ong way =1 .28406 = 1 .5. Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . 0000 1 .327).CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = .1 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 .28406 ( __ ) = 0 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (. 28406 ( __ = 3 .
05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0...3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 ..238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch ..28406 y'3.. the desired time o f flight is : .1 0).780 1 9540 1 /2 0. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : . from the given data.3.23287446 0.489482706 (6") . Since �t for this problem is less than 1 . Y l o ng = 3.9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration. 1 ..28406 y'0.444689 m 0.672625 1 6 TU + through 6.86474323 = 1 . 1 3 min = 0445 z . so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.86474323 2.3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 . Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative. (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.0 we do not normalize.. 0432z = 1 3..23287446 t l o ng = 0... Step 5: Using equation (5 .
5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .6009 1 852 .3 . W e have : � 104 (within 0.58 1 43981 VI = 0.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2. 1 1 39209665J  0.60 1 874421 .94746230 A = 1 .50634848K v2 = 0.4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.28406 Y = 0.31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 . 5 .6 1 856634 = 0.5288 97 1 4 = 2.1 3). (5 .83236253 Using equations (5 .02234 1 8 1 1 .79852734 v2 = 1 .8826885334K v2 = 0.1 5).314).250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.Sec. (5 .3.36 1 677491 + 0.0.0.989794 D U/TU 0.83073807 v 2 = 1 .3.t .96670788 z = x 0.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .0. 1 7866539741 + 1 .76973587J .t solved .554824 D U /T U f = 3.1 6) and (5 .9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.63049 1 80961 1 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>. (5.28406 Y = 4.842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.5544 1 39777J 0. 74994739 VI = 0. 7499473 9 t = 0.
zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 . where f::1) is less than 7T. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of.= 0. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4.2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.31 .39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 . From equation (5 .39). the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. yet equation (5 . Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell .1 O} VC . 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. For "short way" trajectories.52). and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position).9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions.38) and (5 . This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative. In other words. the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths. The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .
?S.cos !:::.4.6V COS . 5.)2 cos .c o s x =..I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x. The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . a and ""E.va si ./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .25). for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. This check is only necessary when is positive.42) into equation (5. hence. and 2 solving for p. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.cos ""V ( 1 . r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.V ) a (5 .cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) .v. we obtain 5.j1 . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E..6V p � .c o s ""E si n ""E . a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .4. (sin xl i .23).Sec.. The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .4.6V V 1 .4 TH E p. From equation (5 .4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5.1 ) and si n  COS . 5. we get  . F or "long way" trajectories y is positive . we can solve for a and get 1 . It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity.
45) and simplify.v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .2 Expressing a as a Function of p.J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 . The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.E Solving for cos2..45) ± Using these same definitions. we get Ll.E) •  k = k Ll.46) Ll. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 . (5 .E CO � = ± p= k = .4.Q p ) 2 (5 .E .44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.48) k .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5. 2 Ll.E ( k . and noting that � c os '2 .43) 5.Qp y'2ni p .E Q ± y'2ni C O S . 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.c o s bJ)) (5 . we obtain m p a= (5 . (5 . a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .43) as Ll.
5. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . Sec. 2. Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . 5.. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . 5 . am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . a may not be smaller than some minimum value .where k.. .3 Checking the Trial Value of p.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 .1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr.4 T H E p. The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later .6.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 .!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . however. Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined.4. we need to determine � (or . Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic.F in case a is negative).4 . First . The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero.
(5 .F (5 .E a If yield is negative.6.41 2) (5 .s i n .24) and (5 . 9 and f from equations (5 .24) or the corresponding equation involving . F 1 .1 3) . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.E from equations (5 .6. we can compute f. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that. p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .6. F ) . there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation. F . The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.4.23) and (5 . In Figure 5. If we look at "long way" trajectories.. we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like ..42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length. although t approaches infInity for this orbit.6.4 The t vs P Curve . the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .E .vi. let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 . 5 c o s .( 1 . let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way. If a is positive. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .6. To get a feeling for the problem. Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. If (. we can determine .Tar (si n h .From the trial value of P and the known information.F is positive.6.4.25).6.1 0) = = 1 .41 1) c o sh .E ) (5 .a r1 (1  f) (5 .23). we see that the limiting case of .6.25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .4.F: (5 .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .6.6.49) Since we always assume ." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .
43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight. for t:sv greater than IT.I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse ... lie within the prescribed limits. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 . P must lie between P j and infinity..zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. From the discussion above.. P must lie between o and P j j . P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case . t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j .. Since it is important thar the first trial value.. For l'J) less than IT..... In Figure 5 ... we should first compute P j or P j j . as well as all subsequent guesses for p. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 .. 5 .42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 . Sec.4 T H E p.
 � " . The solution is then bracketed and. b . '" E 0> '" .. from equation (5 .246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE .4.4. The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution. Several simple methods may be used successfully. • . In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p. one that gives too small a value for t. . . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5.� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. 0 Q + y2in k  (5 .. . ell .4.1 4) Q . by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . .. 5 1 :co .43 k p a rameter .46).yLri1 (5 . I .5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. and one that gives too large a value. we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). p )0 p" .1 5) 5 .
... .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p. always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5.. . .. . .. then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t . . . . .1 ) (t n .4.1 and Pn . . 5 .1 6)..... .. 4 T H E p... . .1 ) (5. . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. . . . .. .4. . O��_4o P n..44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration .... It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer.1 6) This scheme can be repeated. . . . If tn. but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p.t n . .Sec. ... tn t .P n . . ..... ..... ..t n ) ( P n .I Figure 5 .. then a better estimate of p may be obtained from .....
24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  .r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .41 7).1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p.iri equati �n (S. From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S . we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . fl3  fJ. ( � . 41 9) .41 8) (S . � ( S . (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .4.248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.4. 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.si n L'> E l .
E / dp and noting.4 T H E p.420) From equation (5 .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k . we obtain .Qp ) Q.Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .47).( k . 5 .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .2 dp k ( k .Sec. that ( k . from equation (5 .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .2mk2 Qp 2kQp .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 . bE d�E .4 8) .
_ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.1 9). and (5 . (5 .42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 . (5 .= .1 8) from (5 . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .4.4.Qp) si n 6E JJ.42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .. 5 (5 . p(k h JJ.250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch . which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + ..Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .� (6E .6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.423) .6E JJ..
F.4. t and . the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. should be used in equation (5 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 . Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.1 5). solve for a from equation (5 4 . Sec.4. 7 .1 1 ) . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. 25). (5 . 5 . 6. 4 . Q and m from r] . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo .49) and (5 . As stated earlier .2·3).4. 9 . Evaluate 9 from equation (5 .4. equations (5 .1 2) or (5 . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained.24) and (5 . Solve for f. 9 and f from equations (5 . Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 .6E or Ll. Solve for Ll. 3 .27) and (5 . 2.1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.8).1 0) or equation (5 . we will develop and use the f and 9 series. Pn . the values of g. 8 .To evaluate the slope at Pn . Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola.1 4) and (5 . a. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .II using 2 . using equations (5 . 5 251 .4. r and Ll. 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . 5 . Evaluate the constants k. Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. Solve for t from equation (5 . 5 .22). of p.E or Ll. The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a. as appropriate .422) or (5 .4.F obtained from the trial value.423). This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter.44). Using the trial value. 2 .
5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . 5 2) (5 . Therefore. 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.54) we have the following recursion (5 .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . we write equation (5 . 5 5) r r (5 . 5 9) .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v.252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .57) (5 . (5 . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . (5 . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 4) for n = O. 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 .
51 3) rr and the definition of p. q.Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .5. 5 .5. p and q which will be useful later .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .515) =  ur.and the equation of motion f  (5 .1 7) .5 11 ) (5 . this can be (5 . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .51 2) u .5W)  (r .51 6) (5 . 5 . p. We define them as follows : O. as we shall u . v are known . From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. 5 . u L. 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .
57) and (5 .U .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . r r (5 . 522) q = .(v) 2 . 5 20) (5 . = .1 8) Using the definition of P. . ) _ 24 (r . 5 . r) (v) 2 . d q = d t . 5.U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. 1 1 1 1 .p (u + 2q ) . _ [1 1  2 (v .23 r· (V) r   u. Summarizing: (5 . ) .r .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 .3u p (5 . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 . . 5. . v) _ 1 u. (5 .
.3 u p ( u . = r 0. p and q.u G 4 = u ( u . = .u G = .30p p + 3 q ) .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u . Fs = F4 . = .u r = . 5.r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .6 u 2 p = .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . Writing equation (5 .1 5u p ( u .3p ( u + 2q ) . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.6 u 2 p = .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .t!:.Sec.54) for n = 1 .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ . F3 = F .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. = F 1 r + G 1 .
1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u . Referring to equations (5 . .5.4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious. ) .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 . .523) . therefore.54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .52) and (5 .526) .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .524) (5 . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. Vo (5 . 5 = U (u .Gn n.tao Comparing with equation (5 .1 .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .
F 1 = 0. 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 . G 1 = 1 . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 . G = O. F 2 = 'U. G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).30q .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) .90q .51 .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) . 5 .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .3q .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) . G = 30up(1 4p2 . G = u.2 1 q .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .6q .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.28q . F = 3up 3 F = u(.1 5p 2 + 3q + U).Sec.1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .
Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods.258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u .2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. 2·5). we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . 7) (5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 .f (r I .0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . (5 . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large .2·3). p. 7) r I g (r I . 5. From equation (5 . The f and 9 series may be used .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. f I .24) and (5 . This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large.5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 .5·29) . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse.51) + 9= 7  1 .6. The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 .5·27) + ' (5 . 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . r I . 5. 5 . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only.
61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. becomes dt (1 .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. This .61 Sector and triangle area (5 . . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . As. 5.6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .Sec. so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. thus Figure 5 . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6.77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . L£ .
43) and using the identity.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss.6. If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 . let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �.2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b." + l( 1 .2 The First Equation of Gauss. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. .6.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .62) (5 .64) = 2 (2� co s � )3. 5.2E ) 2 .' l'2 2 2 (5 . The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression. 4 � c o s b. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 .c o s b. E ) . but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.
65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .24) and (5 .£Q. From the first of these equations.2 2 L (5 .2 ( 1 r1 r .67) 1 cos l:>v =.JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.. equation . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 . L ( l:>E .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 .L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 .61). Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.6 .L . Using the identity.. t/y.s i n l:>E ) .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 . (5 . .. si n l:v cos � ...(5 .= . so .65).61 ) becomes si n l:v . 3 The Second Equation of G auss. n l:> E ) . Si.Sec. 5 .1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .s i n l:>E ) .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.. ( .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .
Unfortunately. 22) completes the solution. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 .43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. so a trialanderror solution is necessary. and so on." 5 . S + 1 .1 ) = W (LE .25).4 Solution of the Equations . (5 . 27) and (5 . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. p. The first step is to evaluate the constants. 23). more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y.69) cos f = 1 . the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . (5 . To review what we have done so far.1 0) . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w.64) and solving for y. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . and one more unknown. y and LE .s) .1 ) . We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. a good first guess is y � 1 . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E.from (5 . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. recall that we started with three equations. 24) and (5 . in three unknowns. !:JJ and t. (5 . n = 2 si n 3 LE . This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . Next. pick a trial value for y. 6.si n LE ) we may write. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . y 2 ( y .cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . equations (5 . from r I ' r2 . (5 . We then added another independent equation. a and LE. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns.6. When convergence has occurred.6. s and w.64) and (5 .69) are transcendental. y. since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 .262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .6.Si. which is known as "the second equation of Gauss.2(� .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E.
cosh 2 .69) and · (5 . 6.1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 . )� s + 1 .c:. For this reason.cE.Since the equations above involve . S. F. equation (5 .F = rush .0.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.1 0) may become greater than one.E and . Noting that .1 2) = X = . F s i n h 3 "2 .S ) y (5 . they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical. F = si nh .c:.E is imaginary.c:. the righthand side of equation (5 .F . we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.c:.c:.c:. i sin i.F 2 ) · (5 .5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.6.c:.6.c:. Using the identity. If the given timeofflight is short.6. equation (5 . x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 . Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables. then .F is real.F .c:. as y2 = W S + x .c:.c:.1 0) may also b e written as Sec.c:.c:.s i n . indicating that�.c:. If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic. Since we already know that when .69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 . 6.6. difficulties may be anticipated any time .E is imaginary.F whenever the right side is greater than one . 5 .c:.F and COS i .F .c:.F are close to zero.69) and to determine y.1 2) become indeterminate.c:.F will be zero and both equations (5 .c:. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section.c:.1 1 ) s i n h ..c:.E . .E s i n 3 . E = i . E or .
( 1 + §. Determine p from equation (5 . (s + x ) · 1 (5 .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . 7 .Y:i.43).23).1 4) Now. 5 . zero. or negative. X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 .24).6. 3 . determine 6.6. The type of conic orbit is determined at this point.1 3).63).61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &.F from equation (5 .6.25) and (5 . Determine X from equation (5 . Evaluate f. . The result. E as a power series in x. g . ) . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. 2 6. parabola. 2 . and then expressing 6. /:.. or hyperbola according to whether x is positive..1 0) or (5 . is . 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s.1 5) 1 .. the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. (5 .62) and (5 . 1� = 2 3 1. . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit.264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E .]) and t using equations (5 . Compute the constants. 6 .26). Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 .1 (5 . .6. from rl . the orbit being an ellipse. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 .6.1 4). Depending on the type of conic. 2. replacing CDs 6. f.2 Ch . s and w. r2 . 4.27) and (5 . and 9 from equations (5 .E or 6.22). which is developed by Moulton. it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x.6.1 1). problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . (5 .6 . .
Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. The £:. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 ." In all but the simplest cases. To make the problem even more specific. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time ." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. �atellite intercept and rendezvous.Sec.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . ballistic missile targeting. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. 5 . and ballistic missile interception. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. 72. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. To avoid generalities. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . Usually. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 .
.. ." \ t a rg e t / \ .. ". ".. I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 ...� ' . \ •• • • • • • .�: :.. 7 ..� . 5 i nterceptor .. ��y V \" _ .266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .. I n .f. r.". at t.\... . ) / ot t.1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem ..7. �/ �/ ". fI }/ \ \ ..' ':..1 .. e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.
7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 .Sec. we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . which is when the intercept will occur. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. 5 . we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 .
the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . launch vel. 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. " .238 km/sec. But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. . we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . \ \ \ Figure 5 . . . �v? �v . . . .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . . 5 them.
In summary . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. the better . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . In Figure 5 . 5 .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . 5 . the launch site will have moved eastward . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t .7 . From Figure 5 . Because of earth rotation.2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission .5 .7 . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission.
V plot for example intercept problem .) z :J « ..7.J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .O F ..4 /':. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.
the three components of r2 . Although we have examined a very specific example . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 .Sec.86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . P3 .8 . t2 . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . another method will be develope d . 5 . 82) t2 so (5 . v2 • P I ' P2 . P3 · . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6.1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. i. 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 .8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .85) (5 .e.84) (5 . (5 .
8·7) (5 . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . L3 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . 8. L2 .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . the components of f2 and V2 .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . Rz . Estimate the magnitude of f2 . b . � into equations (5 . y and z .8. 5 to (5 . i. R1 . y. the components of Vz be X. y and Z . f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . ' r2 .8. 526) and (5 . in fact only six of the equations are independent.e. and eliminating the K components. Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c.8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns.8) (5 .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch .
(5. b.V required for intercept? 5. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6.6 Derive equation (5 .t2 and t2 t } are not too large. 5 . EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter.423) for hyperbolic orbits. Y. Accuracy. 5. . Usirlg specific numbers.Ch .4 Verify the development of equation (5 048). f2 I + J DU).31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a.31 ). c.39). I I I I  x. 5 Z.32). 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04.1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l.31 3) through (5 . Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . Limitations.41 .2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. f. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . =: =: 5 . e . The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. Ease of computation. Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 .522). which are the components of f2 and v2 . Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 .526) and (5 . using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. 5.1 5. Z. but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times.527). and (5.3 Verify equations (5 .
d. 5.8 using the universal variable.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . The universal variable method . vI = 0. rl r2 p. (Ans. The original Gauss method. b. + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . although a few iterations can be made by hand.274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . h = 1 . (Ans.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 . The piteration technique.00256 (J + K» . r2 'and the distance between them. as a function of rI r2 . 5 . r2 . = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5.tl = 1 . t2 . Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. c.t l determine v2 using a. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. d.7 .0922 TU. 1 1 For the following data sets for r I .009 (. 5 Given two position vectors rI .J + K). which will contain both position vectors.9 Repeat problem 5 . 5 . Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use.
1 9 59. NY. Pedro Ramon. 1 964.0.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. Herrick. New 6.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = ." in The World of 1 . 1 . 2I D U t2 . Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. Escobal. Dover Publications. Inc. New York.t 1 = 0. d . Forest Ray. 1 9 1 4. Battin. Liu. McGrawHill Book Company. Appendix A. Bell. 4. 3. f l = 0 . Richard H. r 1 = 2I t2 . r 1 = 41 t 2 . Simon and Schuster. Mathematics. A n Introduction York. "The Prince of Mathematicians. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . r 1 = I t 2 . 1 956. New York.6J + 0. and A. 1 965. John Wiley & Sons. 2 . to Celestial Mechanics. . NY. Vol 5 . a. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 .2J Use "long way" traj ectory.7K D U t 2 . A stronautical Guidance.Ch .J D U Use "long way" trajectory. (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . New York.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. 51 + 0.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. c . Moulton. the MacMillan Company.4804847 1 1 2 +0. Inc. NY. (Answer : v = 0. NY. f 1 = 1 . Davis. S. New York. Gauss.66986 9921+0 . 1 963. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. Methods of Orbit Determination.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . Eric Temple . Carl Friedrich.
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begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. longrange ballistic missiles. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. have a very short history . It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. .000 V2's had been fired in anger . Napoleon I 6. The result is well known. ironically . which concern us in this chapter. The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . Efforts. World War II as "too late . By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 .
No German was permitted to enter this separate building. According to Dr. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. Brigadier General 3 . 4 Accordingly. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. in June 1 9 53 . The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers.000 pounds thrust.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. Trevor Gardner . After all.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. California. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . In July 1 95 4. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle.
by mid· 1 95 9 . While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant.Sec. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path .000 people participating directly.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. Otherwise. 6. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. Blasingame . 6 . it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. Atlas was a reality. After three unsuccessful attempts. the program had. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. Progress was rapid. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority.
Figure 6.2.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 1 Geometry of the Trajectory . During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 .ji1Tr. Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere .1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions.. 1 defines these new quantities.22) . We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude.2. Since Va:. 6 from launch to burnout.2. 6 . 6 . We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . such terms as "height at burnout. It will not be discussed in this text.2. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . need not be redefined." "height of apogee. Q ." etc. (6 . We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations." "flightpath angle at burnout. There are..2 The Nondimensional Parameter. however. =. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories..
2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .Sec . 6.
3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit.25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.1 ) . It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2.26) . and substitute for V.2.O/r from equation (6. If Q is greater than 2 . 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit.23) or IQ=2�·1 p .282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . (6. When Q is equal to 1 .the expression p.2. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. 24) 6 . This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.
be written as (6. therefore. 2 Equation. half the freeflight range angle . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .co s v b o .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) .27) . and co s � = .f6. lies on each side of the major axis.26) above can. 6 . 'l'.Sec.
28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6.2. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.T. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and.2. since p = a( 1 .2. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. . (6.e2 ).1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. e. ¢ro. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2.29) Now. . also becomes known. what should the flightpath angle. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. . If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry.1 1) into equation (6. the total range angle. h = rv cos cp. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.28) p. = r Q C O S2 cp . the required freeflight range angle. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 .29) and (6./. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. A.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions.284 .
with a little algebra.2. the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . Instead . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . Now. In Figure 6 . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r.23 Ellipse geometry 6 . is called r bo .In other words. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . F'. We could . Sec 6 . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . ¢bo. it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent .4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal.
that. for example. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal.1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery. This is. light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line ." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .Qb o sin � . � + 'lr) = .2.2. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s.I n 2 and also as rb (6. It means.1 3) (6.24. in fact. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. d.2. F' and the burnout point. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .000 ) from equation (6.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . shown in Figure 6.2. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . Qb o 2 2 (6. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � .1 6) .x) = sin (6.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 .
the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .2.Sec. 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .1 6) gives us . sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals . .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .9.24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .866. 6.
Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. equation (6 . so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. Because a = . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. Table 6. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. If Q bo is exactly 1 . A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose .1 6) does not exceed 1 . 2. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. Figure 6 . While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. 2. An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 .P/2&. This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . If Q bo is greater than 1 . Nevertheless.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . . Provided that 'l' is attainable. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth.
2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.Sec.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 6 .
the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU. vbo = 2/3 DU/TU.low traj .5 DU. Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :. During the test firing of a ballistic missile.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. skims earth high only . ha p og ee 0. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . hits earth Table 6 . hits earth 000 > 1 high only .625 .low traj .21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'.11 5 18 1 . cos ¢ b o == 0.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max.
'IT is less than 1 80 ° . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . :.4Deg. 60 0W .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. 6 . 600 E.5 The Maximum Range Traject ory .2. versus the flightpath angle . 36° . Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . 6.1 .08 1 7 DU/TU and . Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. 26.025 DU respectively. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . 6 2 1 . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . 08 1 7 ( 1 . Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . 'IT. 2<P b o + 64°20. c os � = + N . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry.. ) (60 n m i ) =2. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. Notice or <P b o = :.Sec.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.025) = 1 .2. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N.1 2) . 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
If the right side of equation (6. :...292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell .. 0> <1> <1> � IJ. There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .2.s.1 6) equals exactly 1 . One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 . 2. � 80 ..2. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target. . A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .1 8) L__________________� ..pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 . en EO I ..26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.� 90 Figure 6.7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight . (2<P bO � ) 2 ..'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6.1 7) I (6. be the maximum range condition. then.. s 0> Q) 0 � c .:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .
Sec:. VI 1 800 .'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . 2.Qbo Qb o (6 ..222) . By inspection.8) . noting that l . due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified.1 7 ). 6 . 6 . 2 . From the symmetry of Figure 6. sin �= 2 2 ./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6.7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2).e cos 2 (6. We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6.2.2.6 Time of FreeFlight. 2. This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . but . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory . 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. 'JI . If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .1 9) for maximum range conditions. the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 .cos 2 . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . 220) for maximum range conditions.
a.1 1). 6 The semimajor axis. and the eccentricity. 23) and (6.27 Time of freeflight (6.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. Figure 6 . can be obtained from equ ations (6. e. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. 28. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . 2. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . since five variables have been plotted on the figure. In fact . 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile .
000 nm.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.25 D U == 7 . What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM.8 period vs. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.Sec.884) ( 1 .95 From Figure 6. 6 . altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6.750 n m . The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.075) == 0. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.
N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. :: : J: : : .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : .. . . : :/ . :: :"/ N . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C.CI�rie� v X I . hi. : : .I ' : ' : : : : : : .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . : ' . .aje.. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free .9h Ir. ' . . . . : : . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: ..� '" �� :.
3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed.933 D Urr U � 24. 'l' From equation (6. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. .3 ° From equation (6.3 . The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . In Figure 6 .1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. the crossrange error.220) .2. impacting at B.6C represents the cro ssrange error. 3 . 8. For a fixed burnout altitude .6C.1 � 0. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal. position. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 .6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north.6C may be / 9 57 1. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.  Vbo 6. F or purposes of this example.6X. suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point. .6X and . payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ .77 0 = 0 . at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount.32 r ads = 1 33. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first.Sec. The arc length . 6 .444 n m = 2.OOO nm max = 3. 957 Hsi 66. 2 00 ft/sec . and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. . range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa. 6 . For brevity .
we get (6.3 . X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch . if the intended target had been the north pole .1 . cos . In Figure 6 .32) 2 X Figure 6. Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center. . If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. 3. the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. we can use the small angle approxunatlOn.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . for example.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point .31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X.1 ) to (6. if they are in degrees."2 to simplify equation (6 . Equation (6.thought of as angles. 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane .3. I 1 .
the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 .'l1.32 Azimuth error 6 . P. 6(3. �C. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . 6 . The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown .Sec. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6.32 is the crossrange error .3 . Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . Figure 6 . 299 Figure 6. are as planned.33) .2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. will result. a crossrange error. before . 'l1.
it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it . 6. 6 If we assume that both 43 and . are shown by a solid line in the figure .D.0. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn .3.3 .4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. In other words.0. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount .oo a "'00 Fl ight .33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended. if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.0.3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point.x ' to simplify equation (6.y I  : : i.� I a q.C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation..\]I.\]I will represent a downrange . <Pbo' In Figure 6..33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .. This . \]I..300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch .34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 .21 about the center of the Earth.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range. it will hit the target anyway .path angle . (6. cos X � 1 .
But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation. 6 . we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .2.1 2) of this chapter .Sec.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .3 .3.cot <P b o (6.8) (6.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 . 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6. The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.6. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .1 0) Qbo I i .36) (6.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x. We could get an approximate value for . The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation.
Vb Substituting from equation (6.3. a'l1 .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3.1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .3. _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) . Let us first express equation (6.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .3.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = . 3.
33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 .1 3) This partial derivative . angle errors.33.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . A plot of range versus burnout radius. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. In fact. 6 .3. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot).Sec. the actual range error on a 3 . remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . particular burnout error . when used in the manner described above. equation . For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) .1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient.000 nm range. Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative .3 . 3 . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . If this seems strange. Figure 6. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. While we need equation (6. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a.
000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .3. The magnitude of the error is (6. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 .1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = .2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.3. Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . the missile falls short of the target in every case . differentiating the range equation (6 .1 4) for small values of . too slow and the missile falls short. .3. if burnout occurs too low.3. the missile overshoots . b o 'fJ ' (6 .1 1) implicitly. is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .3. 6.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Again. 6 however.3..1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.
a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 . 6 .905) 2 ( 1 .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range . r bo = 1 .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . 1 D U . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . 649 r ad U D U/T .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . We will need Q bo (.6¢ b o = . There is no crossrange error. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. . An analysis of equation (6 .735 = 6 . 735 rad DU r b o ( .9 0 5 D U !TU . Total downrange error : . LW b o = . ub o = 5 x 1 0 .1 8) would reveal that. 1 ) 2 .3.6V b o + a 'lr . like the other two influence coefficients. ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error .5 x 1 05 D U/TU .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .4 rad ians. Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.Sec.4 D U .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . 3.1 0.
The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed.735 ( 5x 1.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating.1 . 56x 1 0 . we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives.649 (5x 1 O . {3. v. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation. then all three . We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. m i .4. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . for example).4 ) (3444) � 4 n .5 24 ft/sec.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . its flightpath angle. both the launch point and the target are in motion.4 ) TOT =1 1 . We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation.2 1 (.4 )+6. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . 0. That is. The rotation is from west to east.1 0.1 . 6 =2. That is. ove rshoot 6.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar.56x 1 0. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. and its azimuth angle.2sin 1 60 o 2 = . In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 . <p.S ) . 6.
we make our measurements in a moving reference frame .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . we will refer to measurements of burnout . Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 .4. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. (6. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. of 900 (east). A simple example should clarify this point.1 ) . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. Hereafter. 1>.I ·=<� • . the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. 6 . �. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. .Sec. of 45 0 . we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . an azimuth.4..41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . Like the observer on the moving train. An observer at rest would not agree .5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction.000 ft/sec.000 ft/sec. and a speed of. say 1 . of train l \\�.
Once you have the components of ve. flightpath angle . then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . of course. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. break up V into its components. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. east . finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy.44) �. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . first.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6.42) The true speed. It is. and up components of the true velocity. �. Thus. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. this will not be difficult. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . Vs (6 . v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . v. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. lies. We can obtain the south. (6 .
so the arc length OA in Figure 6. Rather . In Figure 6 .4. the target will be there also. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch.43 is just 90 0 L o. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight .2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. when the missile arrives at point B.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched.Sec. The term. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . 6. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . Hopefully. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate .4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. If the coordinates of the target are ( 4.
47) Solving for cos {3. If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.0. (6 . this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . we get c o s {3 = sin L t . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . A. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target.0.N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. tA . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 .0. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . The longitude difference.0. and if.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight.48) Again.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 .N + wffitA' where .N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . (6 . (6 . Once we know the total range angle. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .0. The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. . should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. then a value of .si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target. by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3.N. {3.0. {3. . we can solve for the required launch azimuth. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point.N + w ffitA ) .
A. the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess.Sec. In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. Needless to say. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . 6 . In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . (3. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . and launch azimuth. tA But . " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value .
4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited.. EXAMPLE PROBLEM ..9 DU/TU. Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . 85 From Figure 6 .0 58 8cos290 = . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 .5022 ta . 45 ) 2 = . 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = .. 339 ) =.( . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 29 . 6 . 79 .. 8° v n /3 = v = . . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of .675 s (J=333 . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( .3 ° W burns out at 30o N... 9cos3 00cos 3300= . 1 ) 1 . using Q bo = .. 1 DU.42) through (6 . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 .j( . 87 9 30. 9 s i n 300= . 33° ¢bo = v E = . 5 1 1 95 v .4 5) : v= . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N. flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . 339 ) 2 + ( . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . v = . 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory .
77° = .3. 2 5 TU :. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 334 TU boN = 135° . 3709 �GG (3. 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . 29 .13 = 7. 6.123 . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = . 334TU ) =123.we(3. tff=3.Sec. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1.85 and ¢bo = 3 0. . w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . 6 70) =.4 .203. 770 N re = 156. 334)=135° .7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � .80° .7 8 0 . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again.
2.6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6.040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . and a spherical Earth. m i . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude. 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 .05 D U = 1 0° . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 . 6 EXERCISES 6 .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . m i .5 D U!TU 1 . R = 6 0 n .1 9)? Why? 6 . v = 1 6 . r b o = 1 . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.926 D U /TU .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans.6 ft/sec) 6 . = .840.4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 .
8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. 1 0 During a test flight. an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .06 DU. What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . 7 I n general.02. Using the equations si n iL. 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. (Ans. how large can .400 n mi. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . A lateral displacement . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o .6.2 1 2 run) 6. he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 .98 to 1 . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. Do not use charts. Rtf = 5 . 6 .02. Rtf = 4 .Ch.j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. .000 run) 6 .x and L¥3 be? . .'lr ).0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .6. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of .)(.
what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . low. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 . 6 6 . 6 .642 DU/TU) . a.346 n mi long) b.. b . 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . (Ans. 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 .800 nautical miles? (Ans. Is this a high.r = 0. ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a.31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .. 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . 7 . ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:.V = 25 . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi.0 DU for a ballistic missile.6888 n mi L:. c . vbo = 0.
700 n mi using a high trajectory. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.6 . 1 5 00 E.QL. Do not use charts. 6 . 5 DU and whose perigee is . determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 . Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . i. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . at the same altitude .'I' = � b.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N.e . 6 . What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum.22 The range error equation could be written as: b. Ch .530 ft/sec. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans.. R t of 4.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. tff 40. Q bo + . 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N.23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ).4 min) = 6.. b. 3 0 0 E. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 .where e is the 6 .. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. 6. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . at an altitude of 2. 5 DU.ri. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. �bo and analyze the result . If the velocity at burnout was 28. 1 2 00 W..
7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . low. 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of . (Ans.66E+20784.1 0 . b.0057 ° = . elevation . 1 200W .48966 = 3 1 5 .500 ft/sec=O.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high.4 rad ian s a. Do not assume a nonrotating Earth.5 0 .3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 . 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. or maximum range trajectory? 6 . c.1 045 . v bo = . How far will the missile miss the target? 4. (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . 92S1 0608.318 V bo =23. and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20. 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .
the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . 43e .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . and r bo � r(fl. in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. What was the freeflight range. 1. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain .649 n mi . downrange displacement of burnout point . L t 54 0 3 1 '. What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. 1 20 OW . == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. tff 3 2 . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . site located 319 During the actual firing. 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 .Ch . 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 .1 2 ' . N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 .73 n mi. 5 7 min) == * 6 .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . rotating. == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. atmosphereless Earth. (Ans. 0 (Ans. . 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. Assuming a symmetric orbit. What is the required ¢bo? (Ans.6 1 8 . 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory .
Gantz .1 2) . Wheelon . R ff ::: 1 0. Praeger. New York. 1 962. altitude at bo ::: . * 6. Vol 2. Garden City. 5 . New York . 1 965 .1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile.3 . Burgess. Calif. NY. 2.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . A History of the U. Walter.800 n mi. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts.2. V2 . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . NY. New York. Eric. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). Dornberger .02 DU.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . LongRange Ballistic Missiles .S. (Hin t : See section 6. 6 * 6.2. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. Frederick A. The Viking Press. Publishers. NY.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . 1958. ed . Ernest G . Doubleday & Company. The MacMillan Company. 1 960.6Vb o . NY. Inc. Albert D. Space Technology Laboratories. 1 95 5 . 3 . Schwiebert.3 1 The approximation : * 6.4) ." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. "Free Flight . Los Angeles. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. 4. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. Inc. . Lt Col Kenneth.
the Sun or the Moon? . and is. does. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . move round the Sun once a year. . of all which. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. when it is light anyway. . since it gives us light during the night. have been discovered. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . together with the Earth. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. the 32 1 . The Moon is the more useful. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . when it is dark. about which she moves. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. and moving round it. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. though principally attracted by the Earth. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime.. Proctor.the Moon.
W. D'Alembert. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . Lagrange and Laplace .2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. Even interplanetary trajectories. but because it comes close to being a double planet. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. Brown . What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . . which are the subj ect of the next chapter.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . with no less subtility than industry.in this case the Sun. 7. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. has given a full account. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. W. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. 7 Author in this book. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. Clairaut . In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler.
The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. . ��===c==Q. 7 . .21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . According to one theory advanced by G. .3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system.3 04 of the mass of the Earth. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition).:. in fact. the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. . 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 .3 days.400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . . .. .: =j Figure 7.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . H. This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . :. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. This puts the center of the system 4. . As a result . Darwin.. . The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. . son of the great biologist Charles Darwin.Sec. the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. .
324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane.2. In the case of the Moon's orbit . 7 Figure 7. the orbital elements are constantly . for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you.22 Lunar orbital elements 7. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon.
000 years ago by Hipparchus. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a.3 1 66 1 days. their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. called "evection. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes ." was discovered more than 2 . The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. This effect .400 km. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 .Sec. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . c. The line of nodes.054900489 . The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' .8 days. 7 . b.
5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . but more than a century later . If the Moon's orbit were = . 23 ° 27' . the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . From Figure 7. Thus. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . is the descending node . where the Moon crosses from north to south. the other . for only then can Sun. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period.6 years." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic.9 years. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. e . making one complete revolution in l S . Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . When the descending node is at the vernal equinox.6 years. in l S72. d . and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. rotates westward.2.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum.2 Lunar Librations.000 years. its mean value is 5 0 S ' .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference .
Actually we see . The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit.Sec.75 0 around each limb of the moon. Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. and 7. daybyday. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. the computer time required could become prohibitive . The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. at one time or another. As a result. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs.3 . 7 . ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. monthbymonth basis. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. solar perturbations. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. solar pressure . lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. This permits us to see about 7 . we would see exactly half of its surface .Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. among other things.
Q.3 . 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. 7 . 2& e = y'1  pia .3... this will not introduce significant errors. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . 7.6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit .. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. a = :l:!:. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .400 km. semimaj or axis. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . With this thought in mind.0549 . It is not important that the analytical method be precise.
i..31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly... In Figure 7. we get c o s V = 2. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit. k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression. II. 1 r1 1 .g' . 60 \ \ I njection . e r Figure 7. E i= .. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH .M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .. 7 .2 10..0 S pe e d .3 .. We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .9 I njection 1 1.r1 1.c " 0 .  I. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit. .c C/) .. we can solve for va . F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10.. j 80 ..:.Sec.
\ 0 �� ' earth " ... In Figure 7. the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection.: / :1 .3 . . As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic .. Actually.J! .330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 .. : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 . We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed . 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. 7 ... .... to parabolic.')'. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point. then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP.. It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.. 7 an injection altitude of . : . the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero..32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \.
Sec. as the injection speed is decreased. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . is a function of . 1 8 8 km/sec. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. if we keep reducing the injection speed . injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. which we can call 1/1. Moon from our assumed inj ection point . the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . . Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . If we are trying to minimize injection speed.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . From Figure 7 .32. 3 . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 .we will never reach the Moon at all. we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. 7 . Eventually . Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. 82 km/sec. due to errors in guidance or other factors. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. In general the sweep angle . The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . In such a case . Assuming no lunar gravity .32 we see that. the injection conditions are not exactly as specified.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. 7 . 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. if we try to take longer by going slower. we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . this minimum injection speed is 1 0. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases.966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. Assuming an inj ection altitude of .
the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. But.. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. . Neglecting lunar gravity. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.33 . so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. for example . and wrrft. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted .332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. This may be seen from Figure 7 . In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. that is. the initial velocity is too high. If. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj.
It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . however.arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. 5 However. 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon.1 ) ." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . only are interested in determining ap. 7 . It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and.0 km/sec. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 .3 00 km. . 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. for all practical purposes. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis.4. There is. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. R s' given by the expression Sec. In effect. 7.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact.
) Then.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n .1 ) can be found in Battin .4.300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth.4 . 7 . 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.1 ) yields the value Rs = 66. 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon. a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h .4. the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7. A full derivation of equation (7 .334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.4. Figure 7 . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure ." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .
r 1 .45) COS <P I .43) From the law of cosines. Finally. This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables. 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. 1 . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions.Sec. The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 .44) . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. the radius. at lunar arrival is (7 . r 1 .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . from geometry .42) (7 . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 .r h V 1 I (7 .
41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.48) (7 . t l . p=� (7 . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. 1 p ia  a = :l!.1 0) .49) (7 . a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .4. JJ.47) 2& e = ".to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 Figure 7.
1 5) 2. we can determine the eccentric anomalies.4.1 3) (7 . the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 . .4.Sec.to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .1 2) Next.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 . Wm = = t 1 . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. 1 37 X X 1 0. 7 .4. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .6 rad/sec 1 0 .1 1 ) (7 . Eo and E1 from Finally. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.1 6) The phase angle at departure.4.e 1 r1 __ (7 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .4.3 rad/TUEIl (7 .4.649 2.
7 . We will do this in the sections that follow.48) through (7 . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center.2 Conditions at the Patch Point .1 6) above .which we chose arbitrarily . Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . r2 . the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO .4. r 1 .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.4. It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. In Figure 7 . then the selena centric radius. The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . 7 . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition.4.0 1 8 k m/sec.4.45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. (7 . The geocentric radius. Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. at arrival is completely determined by \ .1 9) .1 8) (7 .4. We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft . is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth.42 : V m = 1 . (7 .45). result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
50 � � c 0 i e 1.54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .20 .30 . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .40 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7. «>  0.
Figure 7 . It should be obvious from equation (7 . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 .3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 .5 0 . b oth of which are undesirable.5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit.5 3) . 7 . The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon.Sec. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . 5 4 worth noticing. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . From Figure 7 .54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . sir! 0 1 . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. However.52) and Figure 7 .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. if we add a coasting arc. If lunar declination at intercept is specified. 54. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. If lighting conditions are important.5.5 0 and 28 . As a result . we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct .si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7. Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28.
1 69 1 8 1 4 03 .97 28 3 1 47 .254 1 67 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . 1 3 .46 1 1 67 .45 8 0.6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.3 1 8 5 .7 1 54.342 1 7 40 3 5 .460 1 67 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 .970 1 66 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .35 28 1 6 08 . 1 4 1 06. 24 28 23 34 .862 1 65 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.4 1 3 1 66 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.39 28 3 0 34.56 . 8 0 1 36.737 18 1 9 36 .385 1 67 .376 1 67 .58 73.020 1 8 1 6 49. 973 FIgure 1 65 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .78 1 3 1 .695 1 8 02 54 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40. 624 1 7 3 5 00. 1 0 1 6.34 28 32 1 7 .07 47. 7 .90 28 33 5 3 .3 1 28 29 48 .445 1 67 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .85 4 1 . 1 7 2 1 67 .63 1 1 1 .3 3 3 1 67 . 5 7 1 1 66 . 1 0 28 27 29 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .9 8 9 8 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .44 22.32 1 1 67 . 86 28 26 29 .00 28 28 1 5 .85 1 1 66 .41 7 1 67 . 1 969 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 .3 1 9 3 . 2 1 28 34 42 .203 28 1 8 49 .97 28 34 3 9 .3 1 + 1 48 .95 7 1 7 37 48. 7 8 o 1 8 33 26. .424 1 67 .05 28 33 1 1 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .374 1 8 00 07 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 . 7 1 7 1 66 . 24 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .23 1 23 .27 3 5 .97 29.87 28 34 22.76 28 3 1 09 .3 .84 60.998 17 5 7 20.308 1 8 22 22. 267 1 67 . 5 9 28 34 33 .05 8 1 65 . 8 1 28 32 47 .72 1 1 8 25 08.88 28 33 3 5 .435 1 65 .963 1 8 27 5 5 .97 1 1 9.1 44.08 28 29 08 .949 1 8 05 42.44 28 2 1 1 8 . . 1 90 1 67 . 1 5 28 34 1 0. 1 9 173.449 1 67 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .242 1 66 .89 28 24 29 .47 28 25 3 8 . 078 1 66 .38 + 9 .766 1 7 43 23 . 5 8 67.
3 . is the same as the "local sidereal time . c o s 1/1 t . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE.89) : (7 56) . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . The launch time.53 . 7 . 5 3 . at the launch point (see Figure 2. I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . !::lX . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . 5 4). plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc.57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E .Sec. to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . 84). �.54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. to' and the right ascension of the launch site . The difference i n right ascension .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time.5 . it is possible to adjustt l . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch." 8. ao' at this launch time . slightly (7 .si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . the total time . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . tt ' is (7 . 1/1 c ' Thus. and may be obtained from equation (2. Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . we get cos 6a.9 . which may be computed from the injection conditions.
7. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I.t I ES Ch . r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier. � . 7.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = . 7 30 EXERCISES 7 .3 224 . . The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact.2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. 000 k m 33 .54) agree. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . What additional 6. 7 . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.426 k m 2 /sec2 6.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. and the exact We now know the injection conditions.
. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. 7 . 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° .. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. b. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c.Ch . Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7.400 k m : a . The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. Determine the /:. a . Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b .9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .
(Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. <1>0 = = = * 7 . select ro ' vo ' to meet this . 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. 7 7 . given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Use h bo l OO n mi . Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters.) * 7 .Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. Specifically. . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. requirement.
1 943 . A stronautical Guidance. NY. University of California Press. an d Maud W. 4. Doubleday. Isaac . 5. Principia . 6. The Moon . McGrawHill Book Company.1 6. Academic Press. L. 1 964. Fisher.Ch. Inc. Second Edition. 1 9 5 9 . 2. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Richard H . 1 962. Gamow. New York. 1 967. Baker. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. Doran and Company. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. New York. The Story of the Moon . 3 ." ARMA Document DR 220. . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. NY. November 1 95 9 . Battin. London and New York. George . Robert M. Makemson. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Clyde . Abelard Schuman. NY. Garden City. Newton.
.
two eyes. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. indeed. and a mouth .CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. which it were tedious to enumerate .. But the tide of opinion ebbed." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. two nostrils. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . two ears. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . By 1 507 he was 357 . The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . such as the seven metals. At first it was not understood . C opernicus. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . two luminaries. two unpropitious. compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. etc.
" The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. . 6. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. nevertheless. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. are spread much more widely throughout the system.2. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . The "law.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .2. Venus. Neptune. Mars. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. comets. Uranus. indeed. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . . Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . 1 Bode's Law.1 ." as may be seen in Table 8 . and Pluto . If we write down the series 0. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. . Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. Saturn. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . the members of the solar system. In addition. 8. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. Jupiter . 1 2 . 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. ." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. 8. Earth. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. 3. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. diameter. some of which pass near the Sun. at the age of 70.
8 5 . this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune . which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.65 5. is its path . 1 7 39.2 1 0.21 Actual Distance 0.00 1 . A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .52 2.Sec. 0 is presented in Table 8 .6 2. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . 8. The sixth orbital element.72 1 . Only for brief periods.52 1 9.2 Table 8.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.2. Except for Mercury and Pluto . 8.8 77. The size.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun.20 9. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets. Table 8 .4 0.39 0. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.0 1. compared with the total mission duration. 8. Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.22.0 1 9 .6 3 8 .7 1 . the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic.28 3 0.
.ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28.322 1 00 ° ..225 237 ° .203 9.) 00 . 1 1 7 265 ° .28 3 0.497 1 3 ° .441 73 ° .. 000 1 °. 1 1 1 326 ° . 1 42 1 02 ° .684 93 ° .394 0° . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.870 L. 05 1 4 .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° . 38 7 1 .2583 7 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° . 0068 .5 1 9 1 9 .405 undefined 49 ° .828 1 7 1 °. 1 3 6 47 ° .400 276 ° . 0934 . 074 1 83 ° . 7 73 1 ° . 2056 . 0482 . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .004 3 ° . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° .489 0° . 0 1 67 .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . 8 94 341 ° .5 24 5 .773 1 7° .850 1 ° ... 76 ° .0539 .306 2 ° . 1 7 3 9 . 5 73 1 75 ° .76 .005 0 .275 222 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .000 1 .970 7 6 ° .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.7233 1 .096 1 88 ° .
65 6.05 6 .7 5 7 .8 8 1 1 1 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .6 1 7 .0 95.." ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .8 6 29.24 1 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .000 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.87 3 5 .79 24. 0 1 1 64.80 5 .49 4.46 84. 1 4 1 3 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .232x l 0 4 3 .04 29.257x l O s 3 .820x 1 0 6 6 .9 1 08 .986x l O s 4.74 2 . 1 1 49 .8 247 .2 1 4.9? 1 ..3 05x 1 04 1 .896x 1 0 6 3 .8 1 7 1 .000 1 .6 1 5 1 .3 . 1 08 3 1 8 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .268x 1 0 B 3 .06 9 .795x 1 0 7 5 . 5 227.
The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory.3 . If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . was the Hohmann transfer. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . 8. The Hohmann transfer. the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar.3l .362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . from the standpoint of /:. Just as in lunar trajectories. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. this consideration is important.v required. we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. For transfers to mo st of the planets. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. if continued past the destination planet . however. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth.
3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / .. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip. Therefore . Nevertheless.V..Sec. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8." .v required for an interplanetary mission. \ _.d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit. 8.u o_____+.' . the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::. .
r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit.where f. • . for the Hohmann transfer. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time.3 . VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . In any case . and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit.33) In Table 8 . From Table 8. t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. B (8 . then. the difference between the heliocentric speed. 3 .1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .l 0 (8 .l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun.3 and should be reviewed .3. The heliocentric speed.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system.78 kIn/sec.32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion.
VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . rE9> are respectively : .60 Table 8. Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.42 4 1 . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.04 1 6.28 32.22 the radius to Mars from the Sun.28 27.74 6. Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.379 1 .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence. t2 . rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.73 38. 1 6 30.05 4 1 .295 1 .9  2 . 8. In other words .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .78 46.57 .748 .5 1 46 . 1 2 5 8 .397 22.07 4 1 .9 1 6 1 .3 9 1 1 . r d = 1 .524 A U From equation (8 . From Table 8 . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer . 40.Sec.31 1 05 .345 1 .099 1 .
35) wt (t2 . Thus.32 for a Mars trajectory. 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4. vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected. where is the angular velocity of the target planet.32) the heliocentric speed .t1 ) wt . The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points.3. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.t 1 = 1T = 4.3.4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .7088 years = 258. the phase angle at departure . 8 From equation (8 . The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 .099A U/TU 0 = 32.34) __ (8 . The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . From equation (8 . and is illustrated in Figure 8 . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.2 Phase Angle at Departure.9 d ays 8. v .73Km/sec .
The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. .32 Phase angle at departure. pp 1 60.. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct.Sec. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun. 367 .. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet. . If we miss a particular launch opportunity..3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " .. . 8... . . Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself.. .1 76 . Figure 8.. . 'Yl (8 .36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . .
then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. yrs 0. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed. Thus.213 . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 .07 1 1 0. Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .v 1 determined.04 1 .3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again.025 Synodic Period.60 2.00 Table 8. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ . 340 . so W EfJ7 s .01 1 .32 1 . Mars and Venus. the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.w t I (8 .0 1 1 .3. rad/yr 26 .530 . 8. 3 ·2.2 1 7 3 .32 In a time . we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.03 8 .07 5 .37) (8. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km.09 1 . 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period.38) . 1 3 1 . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth.
 '?.. ..33 / . 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . '\ . . .310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in .. �.. . . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. 8 . . ". .r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. . . � _ i t_ r b_ . � Figure 8.:V.. .Sec. (8 . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola.39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 .. . . . .. .
6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8. From Figure 8.2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed.39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .the injection speed . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. so equation (8 . fI. 3.1 1 ) becomes = 2 . C but since e = da for any conic. the angle . km/sec. is given by cos fI =  §. fI.1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. we may write .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 . This may be seen by solving equation (8 .34 we see that the angie .33 .3. For transfer to one of the outer planets.
1 e where the eccentricity . 3. is obtained directly from the injection (8 .3.Sec. 3 T H E PATC H E D.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .1 2) e. conditions : = (8 .3.1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. 8 .1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .
4 Arrival at the Target Planet. 8. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. cfJ as shown in Figure 8.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.36.3. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle .3. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . Generally. At arrival. however. then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 .3.35 Interplanetary launch (8 .
1 6) (8.1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. 3. 3 .1 8) .Sec. sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 . 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 .3. 8 . 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 .2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. (8 .
38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet.36). where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . 3. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . will be directed toward the center of the planet. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . 3 7 we see that  (8 . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . 8 . e. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. 3 7 .3 . If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. in Figure 8.320) y = x si n e (8. 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure.The angle .s i n if> 2 v (8 . . 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. In Figure 8.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . It also means that the relative velocity vector. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. From Figure 8 . resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory.
8 .37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f. X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit . (8 .lt/ 2 X _ .322) .Sec.
)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. the speed at periapsis is simply . Solving equation (8 .327) for y Yields (8 . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet . we obtain .(8. 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance. W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .326) Because angular momentum is conserved. y. 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . 324) (8.
only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b .Sec. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 .t 3  rt (8 .328) we 'get (8 . This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. The. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. rt This particular offset distance is called b . V2 + 2fJ.05 DU. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. the "inwact parameter.329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. The given information is . " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .329).39. b.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . 8. then a much smaller target must be considered. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking.
099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.05 D U 1 .099 A U/TU = :.099 . 3 .1 :: 0. 6V 1 = 1 .099 A U/TU 0.1 VI = 1 .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .
{32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept. 8 .07 6 ft/sec 2 .v (8 . This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.4. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .4.43 DU/TU . t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::. departure Figure 8 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .Sec. the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.1 ) .905 = = 379 37 . From Table 8 .v = 2v si n L 2 /::.1 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.044 8 . 1 39 + 1 .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.
32.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units.. 8. 8. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. " .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun .4.. 8 as derived in equation (3 . EXERCISES 8 .62 DUJTU� 8. 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.. 8 . (Ans.8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.1 )) .7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years.. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .3. 8. 7. _  /' . 5 for the planet Jupiter.3 .3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 .. 8.380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 8.1 ) .5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .
v = 39 . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. where 8.l:.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.v = 1 5 . 1 00 ft/sec) c.�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. If c = 9 . vesc = 1 .35) ITbo no .v ? (Ans.000 ft/sec.l:. It can be shown that . The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit.V required? (Ans.Ch.l:.V = 0. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the .348 DUe/TUE9> .000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit . M = 5. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 . lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. 1 DUE[) radius. r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j . .900 ft/sec. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .l:.V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.394 DUe/TU� b .l:. a..
v= 0.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. 6.. The mission will begin in a 1 .73 1 DU8TU� b . 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans.. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 .V is applied at perigee.. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans. 0.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.0. 09 DUe/TU$) = .. (Ans. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 .458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0.0.046 DU� /TU � b . Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units.0.254 AU/TU� . 1 3 (This problem is fairly long. What is the 6. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .9 00 ft/sec) 8 . a.V at apogee or perigee? 8. 1 DUe/TUEl1. (Ans. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6.. � = 0. so work carefully and follow any suggestions. 8.28 AU2 /TU2 ... What is the 6. 8 8 . Find the 6. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0..? (Ans. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. v=' (Ans.which results if the same 6. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 .5 DUEI1 circular orbit.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. What is the 6. a.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. Find the hyperbolic excess speed. 0. 0.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans.Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units. = 0.V of .9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . 3 .
3 9 DU oITU& 2 . (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. for the above transfer. 1 . Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. called the turning angle . (Ans.050 ft/sec) 8 .373 AU/TU � f.87 TU� b .Ch. (Ans. it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0.) (Ans. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. 0. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . Vrrw = 0. For a given planet. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. 'Y1 . Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. <P2 and vll1II in that order. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination.2 AU/TU� d. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. 8 . The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans.5 AU? (Ans. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. 1 4 a. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . c.867 AU/TU� e .4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . 0. 1 . What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. P.5 AU.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. 3 . O o) 8. then find h. Compute the phase angle at departure.
Vol 1 . The World of Mathematics. . 1 95 6 . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. Assume circular. 8 8. W . 3 . Washington. 1 . Newman. transfer time. James R. What would be an estimate of the return b. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. U S Government Printing Office . pp 430434.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. Fimple . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. 4 . 1 963.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. Vol 2. D C ." AIAA Journal. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney .V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . coplanar planet orbits. New York. * Ch . No 2 . Simon and Schuster. NY. R. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . London. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. 1 96 1 . and the angular rates of the planets. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. 1 969. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 1 967.
irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. it is found that there seem to be distinct. Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . and at times unexplainable . After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. There is always some variation 385 .CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . " Webster 9 . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. Macroscopically . " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion .
In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. etc. which had not been treated by Newton . Brown 's papers of 1 897. 6 . 9 . Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . E. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. In fact. M. about a century later. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. solar radiation effects.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. magnetic. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. atmo spheric drag and lift. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . The power and all directional controls are kept constant.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. Fortunately.from the norm. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. except the motion of the perigee. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. meteoroid collisions. The wind gust was a perturbation. and relativistic effects. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. Then. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus.
This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . See section 1 . This is the main emphasis of this chapter. In particular. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. a section discussing methods and errors is included . It was developed by P. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. Encke. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . H. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. 9. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. and variation of elements techniques are discussed.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. the Cowell. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . With the capability for orbital flight . 9 .Sec. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem.
23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .2. 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. Sun and planets.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. r=Y �r (9 .22) would be further broken down into the vector components. the equation would be (9 . and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. F or numerical integration equation (9 . For the twobody problem with perturb ations. y = vy (9.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . including all the perturbations. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. the equations would be .
Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. In spherical coordinates (r. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. Intuitively. Classically. the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation.3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . There are some disadvantages of the method . 9 . When motion is near a large attracting body . 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2. Even in double precision computer arithmetic.  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea .Sec. roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small.22). It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. and he would be correct . In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic .25) .23).Il m ( 3 .24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . 8 .'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 . Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time .
Presumably . in our case . "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . reference or b i t Figure 9. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere .'l. In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . and .31 The osculatil. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field .25) As a reminder. Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . In the Encke method . 9 (9 . The term connotes the sense of contact. contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. 9.
The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. 3 .1 ) and for the osculating orbit.3 2) into (9 .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. Let r and p be the radius vectors to . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit. be defined as (see Figure and .32)  Sr. Now w e will consider th.3.  (9 . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r .1 ) .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit .33) we obtain .Sec. 9 . This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. 9. or epoch. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it.. the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . respectively . neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 .33) Sub stituting equations (9 .3 . At that time . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .3..to ) ' p (9 . r + � r3 r = a t . Note that at the epoch. = p ( tb ) p p to = 0.1 ) and (9 .1 ) .
was to obtain more accuracy.lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch .6r ) . 6r (to + ..lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . so r can be obtained from 6r and p. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout . p is a known function of time . So .35) 3 3 r _ (9 .392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .3 / 2 (9 .37) ..34) then becomes (9.3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation .. For a given set of initial conditions. == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .6.6r] r3 r (9 . However. A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:. one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method.t) can be calculated numerically.3 6) Equation (9 . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object . theoretically. 6r.
Sec. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. however.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . 9 . OZ are the cartesian components o f or. since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved./  Our problem is not yet solved . R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . o y . In terms of its components Figure 9. Expanding. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit .
It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.37) becomes (9 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.31 2) . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. . .2q So q =  Now. but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.37).(1 .38) and (9 .( 1 . 3.38)  1 .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ .1 0) (9 .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 9 From equation (9 . /) y2 . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 . There are two methods of solution at this point .3.39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. (9 .
t replaced by kt:. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . Otherwise (jr p .1 0). r (to ) . Rectification should be initiated when . k. p(to + t:. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. p 229). but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . Calculate r = p + (jr. Knowing 5r(to + t:.3. calculate (jr (to + t:.1 2) is used.3. If equation (9 . Go to step c with t:.t . In (jr p v as described earlier. e .is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. d . v = p + (jr. b.t ) from equation (9 .01 ). so larger step sizes can be taken. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) .t) 2 . but of the order of magnitude of 0. c. The method using equation (9 . 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .nowing p (to ) .t) calculate 1 . (jr 0.t) from equation (9 . a.t). and 5r 0 at this point. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . Vol 2.t) . If. although the use of equation (9 . g. 9 .does not remain quite small. = = = = = p continue. f(to + t:. rectify and go to step a . Then the tables could be u sed to find f .> a specified constant. q( to + t:. q (to ) O. f.Sec. Integrate another t:.t to get (jr{ to + kt:.t where k is the step number. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid.1 2) may be slightly faster.3 8) 3. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary.39) is recommended for use with the computer.3. t:. Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. For an integration step.
In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration .3. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r .4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs.6. 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. See equation (9 ./l m {m s . they would remain constant. = . A similar check could be made on i . From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . Thus.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. a . Similarly. etc . In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously.6. Though. from the Encke method 9. if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time .23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. at the outset. Then e � . For instance. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. this method may seem more difficult to implement. A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six .396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . In the absence of perturbations.t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . e eccentricity.cSr ) (9 .
.Sec.n (t .I OOS . e. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. R (unit vector R). The axis S is . reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. � .. 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis.and dM ?. 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. . 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . for a table of parameter sets). 9 . n. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . along the instantaneous radius vector. The standard orbital elements a. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. Vol 2 . . 9 . or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. i.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for .4 . r. w and. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time .To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . Therefore . In this section two sets of parameters will be treated.T (or M) will be used. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . p 246. 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements.g.variations (e. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. Eventually . It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity .
9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9. W. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.43) . = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 . The third axis. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9.4.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.
Sec.!I=8!" nr from (9 .� 2& ' = 399 (9 . (9 . (9 .46) and F S (9 .43).4 and .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.4. Differentiating the conic equation Qr.o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .48) Substituting in equation (9. This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.1 0) . the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed. dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .44) (9..45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.1:!:.44).48) we find da dt = (9.45) To express this in known terms. expressions for found. 9. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .
400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .la _ (9 04.�) % J. r hW + h da S dt (9 .1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.lae dt h $) a dt .4. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.2 )% a = (1 . Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.) Since h = hW.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0). the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h..1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.
4.1 6) we obtain .sin QL = dt ..1 8) .n di dt (9 .1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .4.h cos i rF s h2 . 4 .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 .4. so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .Sec.1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r). 9 .4. K .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.4. 1 e2 (9 . K) � (9 .4.
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 .e .vc . • . .45 1 ) .5 1 ) correct to first order in J.45 0) should be small.4.vt 2p. . . 9 .v which can be easily solved for c. (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9. c = ve 2 p. and V are small. Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion .2p.4. The constant of integration.at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 . is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics. . ] (9 .2 (at + C)2  . VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.v {at + c ) c (9 .2 p. 4 where c will be the parameter..Sec.45 1 ).4. .J.vt .2p.v 2p. Since p. From equation (9 . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence .5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v. the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 .v = . allowing c to vary with time .450) and solving for e we find (9 . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation.vat a+v a .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l .2p.. C.45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. {at + c) + 3p.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p.454) + 2p. but more practically we would consider � = v .
1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. or has not carefully selected. 5 . Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. his integration method. at best. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. highly questionable. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. Unfortunately. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. economical in computing time. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. 9 . The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. b . The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. should be the criteria. efficiency. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. . such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. allow as large a stepsize as possible. d.e. storage and complexity. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. In theory.. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . such as the disturbing function. not expediency. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. 9 in detail. 9 . accuracy. c.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree.
5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations.388.5 (9.864.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2.276 + 3 . Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation. The larger the . 9 .476. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. They are roundoff and truncation errors. Obviously .57 = 7 . The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. 5 . It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors.28 + 3. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. 4. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number.843. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.accumulated roundoff error .Sec. 9 . the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. In fact. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors.567 = 7. Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ .388. For instance . 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e .476. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. 2 Integration Errors. Baker (v 2. and f.
There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. in the equivalent Taylor series expansion.63) dx dt (9. Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. In general. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. We will treat the first order equation . any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. the larger the truncation error. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize.62) (9. Thus.1 ) . The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation .= f(t. 9 .414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . 9. Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . Of course . The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. Gill. 9 stepsize. EulerCauchy and Bowie . GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). h.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes . errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. 1 RungeKutta Method.6. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. AdamsMoulton. 6 .
x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . x n . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .. X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . easy to implement .( 1 + y.k +. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .( 1 . and stepsize is easily changed .% ] + k 2 [ 1 .Sec.64) 1 1 + . This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n . Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error.65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . 9 .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .6.] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h . In general. have a relatively small truncation error. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . They are relatively simple .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method.yV:.) k2 6 3 l2 (9.63) and n is the increment number.h ) k3 +. The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. they are faster than the singlestep methods. x n + k 3 ) (9. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. 9 .yry. It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .
. 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. . 3 /8 .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. 3 9.\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + .67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . .1 f . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0.\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas).6. The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . 5 / 1 2 .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 .beginning and after each stepsize change. The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme .\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . 1 /2 . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. 25 1 /720.
The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.Sec. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. .61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . 9 . The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. This method. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).69).x n+1I I (P 270 (9.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. for instance. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired.x n + (5 5 f ri . In equation (9.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.59 f n . Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +.1 + 37 f n2 .6. the error terms are not generally known.
h ) .6 . .12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . The GaussJackson method is one of the best. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ".LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. n + 1 2 n i \. It is. and most used.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . though it also includes a corrector. 9. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. x.2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k.° n + . It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type.1 f(t n + h).2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n.8 k . though. n + � 84 "x. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. "x. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods.6. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.1 f(t n h) 2 2   . The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter.1 ' etc.1 .4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ".f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n . 9 like other multistep methods.° n 60480 (9.
However. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. is ¢ = � [1 . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b.6.1 ) One such potential function. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. 2 and NASA C R. 9. but only the simpler forms will be treated. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. 9. p/r. V. is known. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. Some of them become quite complex.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker.e presented in this section.Bashforth) methods are preferred.1 The Nonspherical Earth .l 005). Table 9.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion .7. according to Vinti.I n=2 r (9.72) . the accelerations can be found from (9.5 Numerical Integration Summary . including some which were not discussed in this chapter. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. ¢. 9 . 9 . 2 . If the potential function.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic.7.6.
Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. 9 CI) . it could be very fast. very difficult to determine proper size. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. Vol t . Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required.
where J. r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L ..7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .L = gravitational parameter Sec..7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r . if> = I!:.  I. 9.2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 ..( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .J s � ( � ) (35� .74) . = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 ..30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.] (9 .2.e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .
6 .03)x 1 0. l )x 1 0.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr.5 ± O.6 6 (0.6 ± O. p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � .70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).64 ± O. l )x 1 0.6 J = (0. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients. y.l ( �) 3 ( 3 . I )x 1 0. . The first term in x. 1 5 ± O. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.3003 ""6 ) + . These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0.5)x 1 0.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J . 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J . l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 . Vol 1 .76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 . . Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 .422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .44 ± O. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .. which are slightly in variance .6 J4 = (1 .57 ± O.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .
9 . Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . but will not be presented here. Vol 1 . There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only).Sec. by definition. term) to the RSW sy stem. Therefore . However. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). the drag coefficient. C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . Thus.s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w.. simply use r3 r= where . The equations are formulated in the geocentric .. and other parameters.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion .2 Atmospheric Drag. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . To do this. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric.Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. equatorial coordinate system. care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . p 147).7. There are a few ctmtiol). 7 Drag. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33).. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . s 9.
This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. though small.3 Radiation Pressure.424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch.7 . etc.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. 9 .n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . In the geocentric.ie. y .t b ae ==ic. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. but the reader can find this in other documents. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. altitude above an oblate Earth.78) z . .lli. Equation (9 . 9 m p C O A . equatorial coordinate system.7 . Radiation pressure.ilc coffc. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. z refer to the geocentric. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).
See equation (9.4. m = mass of vehicle (grams) . y. . but a major force . iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 .25). 9 where A = cross section f = 4. z directions. EXERCISES 9. Prove this assertion . Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . m (9. but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation.2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} .79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. 9 .4349 0 x . Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).Ch. 7 .4 Thrust. 9 . 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . 9. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation.1 5) .3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. 9 . the variation of eccentricity.
Brouwer. London .445)." NASA CR. Moulton .426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . A. Baker. M. Feb 1 968. 9 9 . M. A. and Wilf.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. * 9 . Inc. Mendez. John Wiley and Sons. 9 . Academic Press. 3 . Jr .000 n mi. 5 . and Clemence. L. Academic Press. Methods of Celestial Mechanics. J . New York. Planetary Coordinates for the. Allione . * 9. F . . C . 4. S . The Macmillan Co . 1 9 1 4. * 9 . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. DC. 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. D. . LIST OF REFERENCES 2. 1 . New York. R. G. . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. New York. Robert M . 1 960. Ralston . New York. Blackford. M. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. Vol VI. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. 6.. and Wl). L. 1 967.l 005 . Washington. 1 96 1 .ittouck. M. Years 1 9601 980. Guidance.
John Wiley and Sons. New York. Maud W. 2nd ed. L. 1 5 . New York. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. Robert M. 1 4 . Part 1 . . Hildebrand. P. R. 1 0. C.Ch . A . Smart. 1 3 . 1 968 . 1 963. Dubyago . 9 . Paul. 1 95 3 . Published privately by the Author. Inc. Celestial Mechanics. Jr. Academic Press. New York. W . P . Methods of A strodynamics. DC . Orbital Flight Handbook. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . New Yark. 1 2. R . 1 96 1 . New York. Plumber. Battin. M. E . D. Inc. F . Cambridge University Press. B . R. Townsend. The Macmillan Co. 1 1 . Washington. Ann Arbor. Michigan. 1 948 . McGrawHill. NASA SP33 . 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). H. New York. The Computation of Orbits.. M . 1 6. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. New York. Escobal. New York. Baker. . Jr and Makemson. McGrawHill. Vol 1 . 1 95 6 . Th e Determination of Orbits. Escobal. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1 964. G. 8 . Herget. A stronautical Guidance . 1 96 5 . Longmans. Dynamical A stronomy . 1 967. Methods of Orbit Determination. John Wiley and Sons.
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. 2506844773 deg min 7.092567257 x 107 ft 3963 . and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 . Ile Angular Rotation.05883 36565 � TV.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 . 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. 'Derived from those values of Il .. Speed Unit I� TU.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance..407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7.9053682 8 km' . 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 ..68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . 1 .908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. r. 1 328 2 1 days 9.. English Units Metric Units 2. 2593 6.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 . I DU� TUi. 1 Center. .784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. we 0. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4..922786 NM 1 3 . Canonical Units I DU. 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself. 1 97 5 .77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .24764 11sec 806 . 44686457 min 6378. r. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter. 3.
APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.3 14 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A. 1 2 64963205 0 .5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.239446309 x 1 0. foot = 0. 1f = 3 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .4 3 .e . there is no roundoff or truncation.8 9.9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .08 1 52366 0 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .07 1 0 1 50424 4 . i.903665 5 64 x 1 0 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .2342709 5 .
A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . K) and (p. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . Q. I DEFINITIONS Vector. (Example : 3 or A). An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. Examples are displacement. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. time or any real signed number. C.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. not a null or zero vector. W). If A i s a vector . J. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. temperature . A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. force and acceleration. speed. Thus. length of a vector . 43 1 . Scalar. Unit Vector. Examples are mass.relationships involving vector quantities. velocity .
it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude .. 1 Similarly. regardless of the position of their origins. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). . and A and B are not collinear.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. B and C are coplanar vectors. Coplanar Vectors. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. If A. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB.
2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . Scalar or Dot Product. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.C. denoted by A • B. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .1 ) I AI cos B .2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors. e I I l (C . Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A . is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin.. l . The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors.l ) C.2.B which is the same as A + (B).
22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A . .(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them. 23 ) (C.1=J .B + A . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A.. That is. if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . B and C form a right handed system.24) (C. sma l lest ang le ( L e .8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C .J =K . < 180° ) AxB =C . A o A = Aft.K= 1 I . denoted by A x B . K are unit orthogonal vectors.(B + C) = A .J = J o K=K o I = O where I . The cross product of two vectors A and B. then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + . J .
then A X B = O.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. J.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. K are unit orthogonal vectors. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C .27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. e < In fact A x B = . the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where .C. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I.
Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .29) Scalar Triple Product.A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C. BI C1 . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .
B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 . The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K . The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .2.1 2) (C.B3 C) + A ( B3 C .1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product. 2.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .l 3) (C.2. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C. The vector triple produce.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 . denoted b y A x (B x C) .2.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .C.3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.21 4) C.
... dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ...with itself. thus .. K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P... " ... v C P K y ....... .. then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + .....YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of .. .... .438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o .9.. x J Then the velocity relative to the (I.. ...
from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) . dr v = . v = wT . The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path.C.. VE LOCITY 439 which. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w.3 b.T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle.= . the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . In this special case then.= .
longitude. The radar determines p. Az. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). range rate . I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . EI. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . Use standard unit conversions given in the text. AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. From the 440 . azimuth. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). positive to the east) of the launch site. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. latitude of the launch site. elevation. D . It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . Its geodetic latitude. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. EI. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. elevation rate . The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . p.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . and of the satellite (R and V). azimuth rate. The input to SITE should be latitude. The input to TRACK should be range. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods.
8 S 1 7 5. . Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .01 2035 7 5 .044 1 8440. LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . UT. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 .05 1 37. LST) .5 3 0 . . 0) = (.63745829) z = . Following are five sample sets of data for site location. Input UT as a decimal (i. e . UT. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . .5 90 . LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). GST _ 1 . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. 3 315 .57 76.62624920) = (. 5. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 .07 1 05 . a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. .775 1 80 1 9. LST and LONG are in radians. DAY. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 .08 30. 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . PI . BEGIN REAL D.ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . GST. observation time and radar tracking data.05 1 9 5238) . 1 4923608.MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT . 5 7 5 for data set 3). INTEGER DAY.5 3 4 ON 4 5. An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG.74933340. E 7 2 . y. 8 0.2045 72 1 6 .7 5.75 components are : (.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 .7 . 22 1 0. If the above program is used.48 201. REAL LONG. .5 1 35 . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. 2 2 29.7 . 9 W 0 1 9 05. 007 N 1 04 . LST. 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 .26347 1 9 8 .74933340. . . .27907 599.75 1 003 9 1 . . GST.5 . .8 N 7 8 . 6 8 2.D. = (.0027379093®2®PI®D . 040075.3 . 6 . 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . PI.. END OF LSTIME .
From this information you are required to fmd : a. 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . 1 29579 1 9 .1 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). 6 2 . 5 . d. .4 1 722472 . 0) (.9 1 046 1 80. It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity.2 VI .1 . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . . parabolic. The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach. 00001 . The type of trajectory (circular.703 .001 1 0 .9 1 . 1 0 0 2 . 49 0 0 2. 48 4 0 2. Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth. hyperbolic).707 . 7 0 3 VK .1 0 22.8 .6 0 . c. elliptical.49 0 .293 . Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 .4 1 4 0 0 65 . 0 1 7 45 .4 1 4 2. b .9 0 2 0 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. .01 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach.001 5 30 0 .. 01 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. rectilinear. 05 .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29.85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse .5 0 .
61. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. Also for an ellipse. b. c.5 . use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. 1 38878 . If your iteration process is efficient. and dt/dx for each iteration. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. 61 (calculated) . x should never be greater than 2m. 1 5 0689 1 . a . you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. To determine when convergence has occurred. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x.5 . If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. RJ 61 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z).025 9 1 7 .0.jiL d. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x.3 D. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4.7 .5 0 0 .8 .4 of the text for guidance .3 1 0 . Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 .
00 1 074 ..1 . Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations.999 o 1 03 D. One of the data sets tests this situation.. bt. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points. For ellipses limit z to (211')2 .4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . 1 362596) = (0.00006057 ..002 1 7 7 1 ..w).1 . In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z.. I�I :::. 0 .01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 .6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight.. 1 06 1 0. 0.. . 1 8 1 . I t . R2 V2 = (0. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.t c l :::. 1 0.6 for 1 :::. For instance note that y can never be negative . 0003 6 1 ..9 20 . It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11')..5 1 . 3..70655823. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives.. 1 65 08 . t :::. and sign (7T . Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. Given r l ' r2 ..444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.
6 .6 .7 .4 .6 . Also print t:J) and a for each data set .6 . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (. print out a message and go to the next data set .66993 1 97 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D. so a check should be made for that condi tion.3 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT.6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite.3 . 1 2298 1 44. .201 .2 .2 1 . and the location of an interceptor launch site .1 .0001 +1 .3 .4 . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .8 5 +1 . .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .4804847 1 .. location of the tracking site .4 1 . 1 . x. 7 for further discussion o f this project .7 0 1 0 20 1 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight. 1 92 1 62 1 2 . .66986992. y. D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM .5 .2 . Check for this case . time of radar observation.4 .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .7 0 1 0 1 .5 . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem.1 specifies the long way. See section 5 .S = (0. 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .1 .9378 1 789) = 4.2 .0 . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. The following data i s i n canonical units.6 . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.
If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. c. f. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . the desired increment size for reaction time . TRACK.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . the number of reaction times desired . Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . This will aid you in verifying your solution . Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. d.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . b . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . When you point out your arrays.3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. Make some provision to print out all of your input data. KEPLER and GAUSS. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . g. Times should be read in as minutes. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. To make your program flexible .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. and the number of timeofflight increments desired . e .
0. 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 . 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 . of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.038 .6 1 3 km EI = 56.1 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 .92 deg/sec 1 .5 p = 1 86.44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4. The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9. You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs. of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei . 844 **** **** **** 35 7 .74.338 **** **** **** 10 8 .
LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site . LATL.448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL.
INDEX .
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440448 Computer solution differential correction. 1 4. 1 09. 1 8 8 . 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 1 5 . 56 Circular satellite orbit. 422 gravitational parameter.9 8 gravitational constant. 9498 transformations. 3 4 Collision cross section. 84 ecliptic. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 374 Computer projects. 3 8 9 . 109 B akerNunn camera. 277320 computation chart. Tycho. 423 Azimuth. 4043 Celestial equator. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method.1 3 1 G auss problem. 74 right ascensiondeclination.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 24 Apparent solar time. 6. 349 Angle of elevation. 2427 Apogee. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 203 Aphelion. 429 Astronomical Unit. 1 8 3 mean. 429 flattening. 8 4 Copernicus. 5 5 heliocentric. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 3 5 8 . 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 60 Argument of periapsis. 246 Brahe. 5 3 . 5358. 5 7 principal direction. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 4 gravitational h armonics. 1 00. 20. 2 1 . 74 geocentricequatorial. 57 perifocal. 102 Apoapsis. 24 height adjustment. 74 BMEWS. 2 1 2 B asis. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 84. 54 fundamental plane. 5 3 . 4 3 0 Conversions. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 4 1 . 429 lunar distance. 84. 3 2 3 masses. 1 09 Angular momentum. 1 22. 9 3 . 60 and universal v ariables. 94. 1 8 5 true. 297299 451 . 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 3 9 0 station. 56 Celestial sphere. 54 orbit plane. 28 1 B arker's equation. 5 8 Aristotle. B urnout. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 3 2 5 . 1 620. 296 geometry. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 7483 Coordinate systems. 279 C anonical units.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 3 3 period of. 2 3 4. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 2 Astrodynamic constants.
4 G ravitational parameter. 264 eccentric anomalies. 1 54. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 60 true longitude at. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 2 9 . 1 4 0 . 4 Newton's law of. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables.2 1 2 parabolic. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 25 1 . 2 8 2 time. 25 1 258. 1 0 6 mean. 1 8 8.1 3 1 Direct ascent. 221 hyperbolic. 2 1 . 4 G alileo. apparent. G auss problem. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 56. 25. 40. 2 3 0 . 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 3 89 nbody. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 3 00 launching. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 1 8 2. 1 0 twobody. 4 1 9. 1 42.1 1 6 Gravitation. 3 0 . 54 Elements of orbit. 2 1 ff. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 2 9 7 . 5 8 . 3 22 trajectories. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. Carl Fredrich. 1 04 Escape speed. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 58 from position a n d velocity. 8 7 . 3 6 8 local. 1 0 3 G round track. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies.3 9 6 Energy.1 4 3 .3 0 6 numerical integration. 306 EarthMoon system.93 .1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 26 ff. 3 1 .riod o f . 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 227 418 ( y ) . 4 1 2 Euler angles. function o f true anomaIles. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 22827 1 . 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 26. 62 Ecliptic.3 3 pe. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 7 G ravitational constant. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 1 7 equations.452 Declination.1 90. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 1 8 1 . 60 Dot product. 423 424 Earth oblate. 3 5 . zenith angle. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 84. 6 1 Elevation angle. 9. 2 1 2. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 1 22. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 1 0 6 precession. 2 3 3 . 1 60 low altitude. 3 5 0 Epoch. 444 algorithm. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 3 5 . 2 4 . 1 8 8 . 94 . 62 vector. 20 1 202 f and g series. 5 5 Geocentric latitude.1 5 5 Direct motion. 1 1 7. 8 0 f and g expressions. 9 4 Geoid. 4 3 3 Drag. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 1 0 9 . 2 1 2. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 3 90 . Elliptical orbits. 2 0 . 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous.2 1 4 Eccentricity.
Edmund. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 1 1 7 Latitude. 2 1 . gravitational parameter. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 2 H alley's comet. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 20 Least squares solution. 1 . 3 8 1 Hohmann. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 3 57 . 3 69. 1 57 Line of nodes. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 1 56 vector. 2. 1 0 1 . 6 rotation of.I N D EX H alley. 3 9 6 constraints. 94 geodetic. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. argument of at epoch. 1 6 3 . 2 Heliocentric constants. 207 I nclination. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 2 7 7 . 3 24 . 3. 1 0 2 Meridian. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node .1 8 1 first. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 22. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 3 59374. 1 5 6. 3 65 noncoplanar. 3 80 Kepler. 62 . 2. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 3 9. 62 longitude of ascending. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. limitations. 1 7 Local sidereal time. 6. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems.8 9 derivatives i n . 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 238. 2. 1 4 1 . 2.1 6 6.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 3 5 0 free return. 4. 3 7 0 Integration. 3 69 . 1 02 Mean solar time. 1 5 1 . 5 1 . 1 9 8 . 234.9 3 Mu ( � ) . 3 7 9 . Greenwich. 9 9 . 3 1 Manned flight. 8 9 . Isaac. 5 Newton. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 2 second. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 2 6 5 27 1 . 58 regression.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories.3 8 4 general coplanar. 3 62 . 3 24326. 1 1 7 derivatives. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 1 7 7. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 1 5 6. 1 52 Mass of planets. 1 4 1 . 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 3 1 6 Injection. 3 27. true at epoch. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 8 Node ascending. 7. J ohann. 247 Newton's laws. 8 6 . 3 1 Moon.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 3 0 3 . 3 64. 1 0 twobody.3 05. 5 8 Longitude. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 1 8 8 . 54 Heliocentric transfer. 2 8 8 . 3 44 . 3 9 6 M otion. 60 Latus rectum. 1 03 Minor axis. 94 reduced. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 1 8 5 . 60 Lunar trajectories. 220 Mean motion. 22 1 . 3 26 orbital elements of. 6 . 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. equations o f nbody. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 1 Kepler's equation. 1 80 third. 3 89 trajectories. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. numerical rotation of.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 3 8 .
24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 2 4 . 5 symbols. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters.9 8 Optical sensors. flightpath angle. 2427 argument of. 1 69 Orbit determination. 3 60 physical characteristics. 423 due to the moon. 1 1 Retrograde motion.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 3 8 7 . 3 3 3 . 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 3 8 6 general. 56. 1 9 3 . 1 0 9 Rectification. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 220 classical formul ations. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 83 from optical sightings. 22727 1 Orbit plane.3 7 9 lunar. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method.1 22.3 44 Periapsis. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 60 Right ascension. 1 62 . 9 3 . 3 6 1 shape of. 24 height adjustment. 2 1 .3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 4 1 9 . 1 62 O rbit. 20. 1 3 Rendezvous. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 3 4 1 Period. 2 0 .1 59 examples. 3 9 0 Parabola. 5 1 . 6 1 from sighting directions. 34. 58 determination from position and velocity. 440448 Q parameter. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits.3 9 0 Encke's method. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 57 Perigee. 1 90 Numerical integration. 1 6 Potential function. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 1 5 1 . 3 3 Perturbations. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 94 Potential energy reference. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 1 09 . 3 44 . 3 90 . (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 420 c riteria for choosing. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 26527 1 Residuals. 1 5 6 . two body.1 22 from position and velocity. 4 1 4 sum squared. 203. 3 59 . 3 24 .3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 425 Phi ( � ) . 443 algorithm. 27 1 273 from three position vectors.454 Nu (v ) .1 76 inplane changes. 2 4 Periselenium. 1 0 3 P rojects. true anomaly. 424 thrust. 1 1 7.1 50. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 2 1 . 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 3 24 . 3 9 0 Relative motion. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 2 1 2 computer solution. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 4 1 2425 errors. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 3 1 . 1 1 7 . 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 20 Polar radius. 6 1 o f moon. 1 1 7 .
2 1 at epoch. 2 8 8 .1 0 9 apparent solar. 2 8 7 maximum range. 1 6 3 . 1 9 1 development of. 58 Semi minor axis. 9 9 . 4. 2062 1 0 use of. Universal gravitation. 4 3 1 Velocity. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 1 02. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 4 1 8 Surveillance.3 59 orbital elements. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 5 radio interferometers. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product.8 9 derivatives in. 20 Semimajor axis. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes.4 3 9 d o t product. 8 4 . 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 2 1 7 parabola.1 4 assumptions. definition of. 23. 99. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 425 Thrust perturbation. 8 6 . 1 1 Units. 4 3 7 unit.1 40 Selenocentric.9 8 of planets. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame.1 8 8 . 5 8 Time zones. 40. 1 3 6 radar. 1 5. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 40 Unit vectors. 30. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 20. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 1 03 local sidereal. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 1 0 1 . 2 1 5 hyperbola. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 1 9 1 225.1 9 8 Time o f free flight.4 3 9 Velocity components. canonical. 4 3 7 . 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 3 5 ellipse. 9 9 . 3 27. 1 0 3 Universal variables.1 69 Hohmann. 1 9 1 . 9 3 . 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 1 3 2. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 9 Sidereal time. 1 8 8 universal variables. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust.1 40 errors. 1 0 1 .1 9 0 if. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 6. 3 6 1 Solar time. 1 6 6. 1 52 Station coordinates. 1 3 1 . 44 1 mean solar. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 1 9 high.1 0 4 Solar system. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 3 5 8 . 4 3 3 triple product. 85 Traj ectory equation. 1 8 1 . 1 3 1 . 7 Universal time. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 425 Time. 1 8 (see Nbody . 4 3 7 . 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 1 6 Sputnik. 1 3 8 optical. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 1 . 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 23. 3 1 Sensors. 287 low. 9. 99. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 1 8 1 . 3 60 physical characteristics. 1 9 3 physical significance of.1 6 6 True anomaly. 1 0 3 universal. 1 8 8 . 1 6. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of.
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