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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
Dorothy Fryar . The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . Ronald Chaney ( artist) .R.B.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P .W. J . United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.M. Jan Irvine . . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.D. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. D.E.
.
. . . . . . . List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . Exercises . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . 11 . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . . 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit .. . . . . . . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . 1 01 . 1 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . 5 . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . 1 . . . . 1 17 ix . _ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Constants of the Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . 2 . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . . 1 . . 83 . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . 1 09 . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . .2 The NBody Problem . . . . . . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . 14 . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . 2. . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . 2. . . 1 . . . . . . . . . 93 . 2 . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . 1 .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . .
7 . . . . List of Reference s . . . . . . 379 . . . . . . . . . . List o f Re ferences . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . . 8. . . . 273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . . . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . . . 3 27 . . . . . . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . .2 The Solar System . . . . . . . 344 352 355 . . . . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . 8 . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . 390 . . . . . . . . . 275 . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 9. 359 . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . .1 9. 333 .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1 . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . . 5 . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . . Histor ical Background . 7.2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 . Exerc ises . . 3 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 5 . . . 8 . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1 . . . . . . . . . . 297 6. . . . . . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . 3 87 9. . . . . . 357 . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 . . . . . . . . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . 279 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 43 1 . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 449 . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . .5 . .6 9. Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . .
1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. Tycho. as his mother told him in later years. the year Galileo died. Newman! . It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton.CHAPTER 1 TWO. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. the poor and sickly mathematician.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. the noble and aristocratic Dane. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. he might have been put into a quart mug. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. JarnesR.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. Kepler. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. 1 642 .
It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. Since the time of Aris totle . One day in 1 685 . Kepler's laws were only a description. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . therefore . But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. necessarily moved in circles. TWO. The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. It fit. 2 1. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!).2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. Finally . Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 .1 Kepler's Laws. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. not an explanation of planetary motion .1. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun.1 Still. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. discoverer of Halley's comet. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. with the sun at a focus .
The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. "Why.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. 1 . The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun.Sec. when he recovered from his shock. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . in ellipses. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. they speculated whether a force . "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. 4 1. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. of course . without mentioning the b et. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. casually posed the question. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. Dissatisfied with this explanation. or . more simply. t he Principia. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . Give me a few days and I shall find it for you.1. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.
Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. has the value 6.4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. G. Note that equation ( 1 . " Figure 1 . . . • . . . 1 2) Fg = .1.. .1 .G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m.11 Newton's Law of Motion . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.n ( 1 . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 .'�V .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 . . The universal gravitational constant.1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.1 . / . 1.3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. 1 .67Ox 1 0.1 .12) t o equat i. 1 .1 ) (1 .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system.
The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}.e. propellants) to pro duce thrust. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. a lunar or interplanetary probe. . . . f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. X I ..�I '. etc. an earth satellite .2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i.e. I I I Figure 1. m2 • m3 m m. I " '. In addition.. At any given time in its j ourney. An important force. . the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. 1.. or a planet). For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies .. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present...Sec 1. thrust and solar radiation pressure . .. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . j.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(.II I I I " I I I I :.
The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. are discussed in Chapter 3 . Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells..1 .. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . Although small. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 equator.���Y � X n 1. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. Thus. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies.. Y. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. 2. • • • z FOTHER . the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator.2' The NBody Problem Figure . These effects.
Fg. of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. .2.2. II 3 (1.. F gn where =  Gm . the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . . .2 ·1 is T composed of drag.I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where .5 ) The other external force . equation ( 1 . The v ector sum. etc .2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself. m'J JI 3 (rj j) .3) Obviously . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. thrust.2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. solar radiation pr essure. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r .2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation .Se c 1. (1.
.. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL. Thus.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 .I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x . .. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0. In other words. Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time . (1..8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. y . is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ.27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'..I) and all other external forces ..28 would not be zero . d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL.1 + F OTHER ' (l .2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody..F I dt TOTAL dt (1. z coordinate system.26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma..
m .11) 2. Equation ( 1 .1 0) for i = 1.. expelling mass or relativistic effects. Then writin g equation 1 .Sec 1 . vector. nonlinear. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions.2.1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1.29) reduces to = r· 1 n . m· J (�i) .2.2. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form. mi 0). Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.G And for i = 0 . we get j = j � *i 1 3 .1 2) . unpowered flight.. ( 1.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . Equation (1 . F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc .G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth.2. equation ( 1 . Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. sun and planets .29) is a second order . ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . r JI. The only remaining forces then are gravitational.2.10) ( . 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .. Y. mn may be the moon.
2.1 4) gives.2 1 6) each bracket.2.2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.1 From equation ( 1 . . n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.21 1 ) and ( 1 .G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1. . Since r 1 2 = .22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence.2.1 2) into equation ( 1 . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .. 2 1 7 ) .1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .
2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n . To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 . s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies.9x l O 8 7 . Howe ver . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion .2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . . 1 x l 0 10 3. mi orbit about the earth.89 6x l 0 4 2. 1 .3.3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 . There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 .2x l O 8 2. sun and planets on a near earth satellite .Sec. 1. Table 1 .6x l O lO 1 . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 .1 Simplifying Assump tions.3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies.3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. The bodies are spherically symmetric .
The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . Y'. 1 2.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1.1 ) (1 . . N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Let (X. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . " s However. Let (X'. which "in its own nature. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. Y. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. Y' . remains always similar and irrnovable.1 .3. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. without relation to anything external. 1 . 3 2 ) . Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'.12 TWO.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. For the time being..2 The Equation of Relative Motion. Y'.3. Y'. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it.3.
GIM+ml r Equation (1. Y. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. 1. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. Y'. Y.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites.33) . Z'). Y'.Sec.32) from equation (1. Note that this is the same as equation (1.33). velocity. and acceleration in a nonrotating. Z) with its origin in the central body. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. or space probes orbiting about 3 r .31) we have = _ r . (1 ..y X' Figure 1 .217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r. Y.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. ballistic missiles. Note that since the coordinate set (X. Z').31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1.
Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. will be much less than that of the central body . 3 ·4 ) . Then equation 1 . Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs." for another form called "potential energy . 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . "kinetic . called the gravitational GM. the mass of the orbiting body . M. an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. If m is not much less than M.14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . m.4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion." That is. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . 1.3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). It is convenient to define a parameter. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . If you think ab out the model we have created. namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass.3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. 1 some planet or the sun.
v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . then 1 . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite.4 frame (the large mass) does not change .SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . 5. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O .!!. which appears in . Therefore. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. r 2.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . 1. But what about the arbitrary co nstant . N 0 tlcmg that .Sec. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero . v =r and v= f. dt 1:L = O. that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &.r ) = � r �(r . C. 1 . To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that .4.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 .lL\I r dt JJ. ( 1 .
3 4) by r 2 . We conclude . the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. �. therefore . The expression for � is �. The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary.42) 1 . e .  ( 1 . why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity .iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . Since in general a x a= 0.iL (rxv) = O.2 Conservation of angular momentum.4. Noticing that . at what distance . This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . dt . rX . of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth.fL 3 . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . the earth. O.1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. In other words.g.16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . that the specific mechanical energy. If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. r.
43) v I h = r x v.The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h.41 Flightpath angle . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. I Figure 1 . </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . we have shown that the specific angular momentum. 1 . Therefore . Therefore . we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . called specific angular momen tum." "Up" simply means away . We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . (1 . h.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h.4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec.
1 85 2 1 + 6. ¢. = 0.4274I+2. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. V =5. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.8143 r • v > 0 . &.5936 1 + 5 .0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. respectively. I h = rv c o s ¢. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. h. the zeni th angle . however. Ch. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle .4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. v. and the specific angular momentum. r = 12. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth.4. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi).573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. In an inertial coordinate system. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle .8143 = 35.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. J and K are unit vectors.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. (4. Determine the specific mechanical energy . • ( 1 . Also find the flight·path angle.420 .18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma).54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6.7 1 37J+O.899 X 107 ft.2778 J + 1 0 . The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. ¢. c o s ¢=Jl.
A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain.. While this equation (1. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1.5.51) The left side of equation (1.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion.3 3 r r r since r • i = f .5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity.33) is simple. �t (B· . its complete solution is not. JJ. (1. 1 . err.. we see that J!:.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see..51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.I.. . times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v ..· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .( r) r. Also note that J.1!y r . (h xr) =. 1 . You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.& . h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ.Sec.
p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. . (1. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !. h2 where vector r. c and a .54) .. v. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation.54) .9 cos V (1. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. I r 1 + e cos V p (1. in general.53) 1 .2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. +(81J. 5. + r o Since. Equation (1. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r.. V.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. we obtain = 1 h2 /g . is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation.
must change so as to keep h constant.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8.41 and equation (1 . the flightpath angle.Sec. cp.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. (See Figure 1 . 1.5. an exchange of energy between the two forms. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. remains constant. 2. 5 . Although Figure 1. 3. not just ellipses.51 illustrates an ellipse. ellipse. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. There is. As r and v change along the orbit. potential and kinetic.44) 1 . The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. 4 . however. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. Before discussing the factors . We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . parabola.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 .
5 2 illustrates this definition . The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. Figure 1. If the plane cuts both nappes. If. or a single point. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). the section is a parabola.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the section is a hyperbola having two branches. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. 1 Figure 1 . There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines .52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. the section is an ellipse.
53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . F and F'. Figure 1 . F.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . F'. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. The prime focus. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. The secondary or vacant focus.53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci.Sec 1 .
Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2.54)). is c�lled the semimaj or axis. the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. In the parabola. The dimension. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse ").24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses".e2). Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter.55) p = a (1 . For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . Thus. ( 1 .5 3 . a." "perihelion" or "aphelion. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning." etc. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 .
In the derivation of equation ( 1 . e = BltL.Sec . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe. 5.52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !.= a( 1 +e) . . 5.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . tL r ( 1 .58) 1 . we encountered the vector constant of integration.53) and ( 1 .4 The Eccentricity Vector. 1. 1e ( 1 .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. ( 1 .. . B. By comparing equations ( 1 .59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . Quite obviously. 53). the trajectory equation.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 .1 0) . 1 ( 1 . which points toward periapsis.
Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. e = ( v v ) r . and that as h is . 1 so Expanding the vector triple product.(r . we get • p. Figure 1 . AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. is equivalent to increasing h. v.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle.p. equation ( 1 . By comparing equation ( 1 . of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. v ) v .1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased.1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. v)v..6. p.53) and equation ( 1 . h. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . By inspection. 1. 1 . ( 1 . is zero.6 RELATING &. x v. r  r . of the satellite. r r p. e .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p.. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth.61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag).5. Therefore. /or any orbit. e = V x (r x v) . ( 1 . th .54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity.p.
increased the parameter.62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . p.44). .F �.�= � .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle. r I . v.  . is zero.. . of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec..6. . We can then write. 57) p rp = a(1 . I '. .1 ) predicts .e ) . 1 01) . �' " . .. as a corollary to equation ( 1 . Figure 1 .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . (1 . . = �. .62) we obtain &.
or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. zero.a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. a.63) misleading. of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . &.6. while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . the energy of a satellite (negative . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit). Figure 1 . You should study it together with Figure 1 .1 ) therefore p. Many students find equation ( 1 . Thus. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit).6.28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch .56) and equation (1 . 1 and from equation ( l .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive. This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 .e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f .
A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. For a given satellite . all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. 0 . if & is positive .. mi. e is greater than I (a hyperbola).2 Determine its specific angular momentum. and semimaj or axis. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit.  a=  '!:. e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . 64) Notice again that if & is negative. 6 . = 6. m i . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008.5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = .0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0.Jf5P. & = 2 . 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. and specific angular momentum.Sec 1 . .. 9 n . the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . r p = rES + 200 = 3643. e is exactly 1 (a parabola). specific mechanical energy. ra = 1 � e = 4453.. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. semilatus rectum. if & is zero . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 2& = 3 . Determine its altitude at apogee. m i .1 and perigee altitude 200 n . The student should be aware of this pitfall. m i .7 n . Namely. 3 n .897  e2 ) = 3.
I ( 1 .855 = 6 . 2a = r a + r = 8097.JpjJ. When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that.mi. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a .m i .7 . specifically r + 1 . 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. ( 1 .= 2. 1 n. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses. 1 .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.r Ell = 1 009. Since an ellipse is a closed curve. = 5.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .7·2) .7· 1 .7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period. h =.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. the distance between the foci is ( 1 .7· 1 ) B y inspection. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit.
when rearranged .71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. 2 b. Since r + r' = 2a.7.72.7. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 . Using equation ( 1 .75) which. If you refer to Figure 1 . e is defined as combine to yield da.76) . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point. 1 .44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . in general.7 . you will see that the .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.Sec.1 .73) ( 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll. equation ( 1 .2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . 2 ( 1 .72) and ( 1 .7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.
32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Figure 1 .77) dt 2 = 11 dA. 1 Figure 1 .73 Differential element of area . d A. d v.76) as ( 1 . we can rewrite equation ( 1 . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. is given by the expression So.72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area.
Naturally. 55) and ( 1 .Sec. being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 .75). a.8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . 1 . incidentally. During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . From equations ( 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . Of course. Equation ( 1 . 1 . the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. ( 1 . 1 Circular Satellite Speed. so equation ( 1 .8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit.78) b =) a 2 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . since h = /JlP.77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period.e2 ) = JaP and. Integrating equation ( 1 . the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. Thus.1 ) 1 .79).8.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus .79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 .8 .
2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a.1 Geometry of the Parabola. There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . 1 . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . the periapsis radius is just r 1 . 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch .000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 .9.1 . rCS' from the energy equation. circular speed is about 26 . The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola.000 ft/sec. The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.1 ) . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 .9. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 .82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . Another is that.9. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. F or a low altitude earth orbit.34 TWO .
Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory. from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � . there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse.E. Theoretically.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l.2 Escape Speed. first at a general point a distance .9. 1 .Jf2il ' r  ( 1 . its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   ." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . r.92) . We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory." 1 .57). as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero .Sec. Of course.
A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth.1/2a.Since the specific mechanical energy.. 8. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.400 nm above the surface it is only 26. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . the semimajor axis. 5 7).1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. As you would expect. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : .92) =21 .000 ft/sec. Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 .) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. 53374 106 ft = = 36. a. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. a. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. b .1 57. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 36 TWO . The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . = j. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude .407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 .
1 .9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21. rb i t P 7087. m i . 06748 106 ft 7087.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem .amr iO.53374 106 ft 2 43.Sec.8 n. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. m i . 8n. where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .
Obviously. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. If we consider the lefthand focus. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study .1 ) . 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. (L l O.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. instead. The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. then the righthand branch represents the orbit. A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . 1 1 . 1 . The parameters a.1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). F . 1 0. If. 1 0.
the smaller will b e the turning angle . 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 .2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. on the other hand. 1 02) becomes ( 1 .0." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . 1 0. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity.for the hyperbola. V 00' .but since Sec.1 . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed.. 0. The angle between the asymptotes. The turning angle . If. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . 1 0.
we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. 1 . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space.3 Sphere of Influence. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. 1 (1 ." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. the concept is convenient and is widely used. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . for all practical purposes it has escaped.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. of course . Astronomers call thi� ' . a million miles) from earth. 1 . Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. 1 0. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. It is. In other words. It is a fact. however. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit.
or other planet." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . 1 . then the value of the gravitational parameter. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . 5 9362 5 . J. earth. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. r a' r p' . Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . 1 .1 . 1 1 . Using canonical units determine & . moon. 1 The Reference Orbit. In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 .l. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. p.x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. h. e.Sec. 1 1 . For other problems where the earth.
I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units.1 .42). 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . 5 D U e �2 _ /J. � = . 1 67 D U �/T U � = . Alt = . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1.
64) Find ra from equation (1.58) Find r p from equation (1. = 2. 5 D U = 9.5 7)  r a = 1 e p.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .. = 3. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 .Sec. 25D U EB = 4. 1 .= 4 . 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1.61) Find h from equation (1. 5 D U ".4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 . 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .
Find the eccentricity of the orbit. Find the specific energy of the trajectory. 1 . Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. in general.3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. (Answer : e = 1 . 1 EXERCISES 1 . 2K DU 2 /TU .44 TW O.000 ft/sec and 4 .1 . a. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . 2J AK IJK h = AI . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. 5 81) 1 .2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . 6 J 1 . respectively. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. Find the period of the orbit.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. Why. . &= . 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. The orbit eccentricity is 0.000 n mi. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. b . 1 .. c.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively.2.1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system.
1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. a a. Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0.123K = 1 . 0 1K v = l + l . p 1.9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300.Ch . 4K r r v = . &.5 DU DU DU d.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. 354 10" r 1 . 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . r v c.5 rpe r i gee = 1 . elliptical. 7 Prove that d. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n.6 18 = 59° 58') . V ft/sec. 91 J space. D U /T U DU e.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. ¢ =3 = 1 . 1. r x ft ) = 3. 1 . (Ans. 2K + .000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. mi during descent? (Ans. hyperbolic. p b. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ).
P 1 .000 ft. ellipses and a hyperbolas. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. p = 2.2 e = . 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = .6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points. p = 3.) 1 . c. d .2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . e=O e = . 1 . 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. Determine the maximum altitude attained.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. p = 6. p = 2. e. 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. p = 6. 1 2 Given that e = �. b . (Neglect atmo spheric drag.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . derive values for e for circles. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a.
Show that : b. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. * 1 .1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v.V O U EB /TU EB ) .6. What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . 1 .Ch . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. c. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. rc = at +b = 0. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. 207 1 . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans .
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system.2. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P.Sec. 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . When describing a heliocentric orbit . a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation.Xw UK vectors. 2 . their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . 2 . The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . you may use the same Figure 2. the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . Yw '+.4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. Q and W respectively.
3 . inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. K I I . 2. It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. is substituted for a in the above list. T.the time when the satellite was at periapsis. Obviously . w. 6.1 as follows : 1 . Similarly. eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . Instead of argument of periapsis. Frequently the semilatus rectum. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section.3. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. 5 . argumen t of periapsisthe angle .3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . 2 . time of periapsis passage . a. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. if you know a and e you can compute p. 4 .the angle . Q longitude of the ascending node. measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . p. the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . i. e.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . in the fundamental plane .the angle from to periapsis measured h. the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. Another system. shape and orientation of an orbit .
3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.Sec.31 Orbital elements . 2 .
32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). w and va are all defined. between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time .1 ) . 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis.60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun.31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle .3. then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . then b oth W and n are undefined. in the plane of the orbit. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 ." Direct means easterly. (2 .3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. Retrograde is the oppo site of direct." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . n=n+w. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. This is the dire ction in which the sun. earth. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . From Figure 2. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . then both w and Uo are undefined. to ' called the "epoch. 1 £0 £0 + . both of which are always defined . '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) .
Therefore . We have already encountered the angular momentum vector.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . The node vector. 2 . vI vJ v K J (2 .42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. h.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . n would have to lie in the orbital plane. n. 2.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. To be perpendicular to h. n and e. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . n must be perpendicular to both K and h.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . To be perpendicular to K. n an d e. 2. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time .4. t o . h.
and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . We are only interested in its direction. Study this figure carefully . is obtained from (2 . 2. The vector. All three vectors.3. The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit.1 . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle ." Specifically . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. 2 nodes. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . The parameter.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. Now that we have h.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .S .4.1 1 )).4. n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us.1 ) (2 . ex.46) Of course . the cosine of the angle .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. h. p. In general. e. n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. An understanding of it is essential to what follows .
' (2. Since n is the angle between I and n.49) 6.) c o S Po = � er (2 . c o s U o = !!.) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° .1 0) 7 .Sec.4 3 .4. 2 .. Since i is the angle between K and h.) e. (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° . Since w is the angle between n and (2.4. (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° . Since Uo is the angle between n and f . e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4. 2. Since Vo is the angle between e and f.1 1) .:.. (2 .) .L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° . � � h.48) 5 .
64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .1 and study it until they do . 2 z x 8 . If they don't make sense to you. The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now.1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense .4. . look at the geometry of Figure 2 . Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2. 3 . With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v. The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative).
5 DU e == .42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 . VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations. Figure 2.Sec.
5 e == .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .4 DU p == .\ .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 . 2 3 Figure 2 .
4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 . 2.Sec.44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .
2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.= 4D U = 13. ml .1. i. n.(r . Find p using equation (2 . f. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node .l h2 .45 ) Since h =.. Find inclination.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 . Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.1 ) p = .4. From equation (2. EEl .. [ ( f.47) = .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .. ) r ..6. using equation (2 . Find eccentricity. . e.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. 7 75 . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system).48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . Using equation (2.I:!:.7 4n .i:.
2 . Find argument of periapsis.  Find longitude of periapsis. From equation (2 . Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .49) W n · e W. can be determined in this case..1 (. II.n = COS .. II. va. From equation (2.n.!!. for this case . = cos . .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. Find true anomaily . since there is no ascending node w is also undefined .41 0) v a c os. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 . 4 . is undefined.:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis.Sec.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis.
. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .m i .25 EB EB D U EB 7748.45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .  then from equation ( 1 .E)r(r .5 .. From equation (2. = From equation (2.70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .6. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=.\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.85 n . 2 Find true longitude o f epoch. v)v] =.1 ) Find e.33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM ..
5 Find the inclination.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n . From equation (2 .48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 . 2.4.I Find the true anomaly . .1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 . From equation (2.Sec.43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.49) w: 0 W = cos. va : From equation (2. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .
5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. v. Of the se six elements.5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. n. Let ' s assume that we know p. The method. 2 elements are given.5. . 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. consists of two steps. that occurs in a given time . 8. changes with time . w and v. i . lV.ffe si n V (2. 2. w and va . first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .5 2) . i.24): ro to. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time .to.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . n. In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. shown below. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. 8.
Before equation (2. 5P DU E9 (2. 2.5 i= p 2.5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 . v �[.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .54) from equation r (2. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .54) r = J � [.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .Sec.25 45{) (2.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).
or what it represents. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane .74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . east. In other words. and it still represents the same thing. A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. For example. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . direction . Certain vectors. namely. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. suppose you know the south. vector represents. 2 2. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. east a!1d up. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else ." 2. such as position vectors. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . have a definite starting point . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . suppose you know the south. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. For example . its fundamental (xy) plane . Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. east . the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors.6. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin ." The phrase in quotes describes what the . Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient .6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general.
61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. Figure 2. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 . Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods.Sec." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . 2.61 illustrates the two frames. Figure 2. y ����.61) . 2. y' and z ' axes. and extending along the x." In other words. ���________� • .2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. : r Y I ex a . y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. V and W along the x ' .6. Let us imagine three unit vectors I.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S .y Y 75 . the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.
thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch . V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2. 65) . 2 From Figure 2.62) above and equating it with (2.61 we can see that the unit vectors U.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2.1 ) yields I.6. (2.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis.
66) (2. 68) B '" (2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis. The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2. Rotation about the xaxis. .69) '" axis.6. (2 . 2 .67) yields the set of equations (2 .64) above .64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.Sec.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . These are summarized belox:: .67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2. 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex . derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes.
7 .78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . a.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames. Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch .6. 1 ).si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes.61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame . Figure 2. 2 (2. We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .
is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order).e. (i.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e . The transpose of the matrix D . In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. denoted by D .6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . The inverse of any orth. We can write equation (2.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . Now. AB =1= SA ). 2.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates.Sec.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. Hence . all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. . Equation (2. Fortunately.1 . For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 .61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix.
basis no ma t . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce .. th.1 2) Figure 2 .sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . 5 Tmn .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . to p' ter ho w co no. axes in to CO ham . 6.n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . d th yo u will b . n t rizing th .6 . mu " in cid 'n ce b . 2 (2.Eq to th e IJ K in at . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . 6.2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . d w . sh ow n in F ig u " Th . m1 " fo. a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [.. 'o ta t.". anglo ..". By me mo C. d wi th .".. P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. gl " n i lly . Perifo ca l to th e G Th . a bl . 62." a ny mp licat e d . O c M ma t. th' O ugh w hi ch on .ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . tluee b .
63.. . aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. For example .. then Sec ..63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. from Figure 2. 2 . Figure 2. To . 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit .. aQ. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame .The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I .. a K and ap ... R.. Thus if a i ' aJ .
sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . P K · P In Figure 2. I • p I · Q J .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . since I and P are unit vectors. R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .63 . Now a. Similarly. Q I ' W J · W K . a �.1 3) i. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .6.sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .1 4) R23 = . ! • P. B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. J and K Thus R = J . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w.6. P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I.cos n sin w . The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A.sin n sin w cos i . 2 from their dot product .
it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. V. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site .Sec . 2. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need .5 . relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired.1 ) and (2. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. . 2 . Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4.5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . In this case either n or w or both are undefined.
7. p. the elevation angle . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . can also be measured. The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . AZ .7 .84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . 2. (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite.1 . The unit vectors S. Az. EI.( N o rt h ) 2.7 . If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. The azimuth angle . 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. is measured clockwise from north . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. 7 . The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles. the rate at which range is changing. E and Z shown in Figure 2 .
E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . /l!L. = Ps PE = P cos Pz.7 . from the geometry of Figure 2. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El.73) E l (B I ).72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. Az. Thus. 2.1 ) where .72 we see that r (2 .and EO/. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .7. p. we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p.1 .1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2.7 .72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2. We will express the po sition vector as (2 . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. Sec.75) .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. From Figure 2. E I .7 4) = + P (2 . as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky.
86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 .76) .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2. 2 J topo centric frame . For the moment we will assume that equation (2 . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth. Unfortunately.
(2 . Figure 2. 2 .Sec. 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 .77) . EB x f. movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame . Therefore . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f.73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) .
300 N Lat . 5Z (Given) [). Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . 3535 .5 J . is 2 S E + . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 = [.3535 . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 .612) r = R + P = 2S .707 . 5 Z (units are DU).6 1 2 .E + 1 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.612 .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . Figure 2.866 .707 o .
Also let there be another coordinate system ( u.982K .7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . w) . Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . 2. I =J =K=O. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems. y.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. The unit vectors D. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial.9 1 81 + 2.75 ) . (2. however. (2.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. rotating with respect to the (x. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W .. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . v.. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system .Sec. V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero .4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . z).79) J. 332J  .7. z) system (Figure 2 . y. We will denote this quantity by w.
.7. You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. equation (2 . equation (2 .1 0) reduces further to . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . The remaining terms of equation (2. V = w x V and W = w x W .1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . . Hence .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . Similarly. R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame .7. Hence . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame .
7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u ..LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 . ..y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ .... �:. .... dt R I (2 .1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q. W) Figure 2. . .7. . ...75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA.. .. 2 .. " F i xed " System ( x...... v v.7......71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector...1 2) .... .. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u.Sec.. y.. Equation (2. z) '..
9!. Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem. We will now apply the operator equation (2 ." Ioox.1 3) into equation (2 .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 . The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .7.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .7 .1 2) to the po sition vector r.1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.7.1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 . Equation (2 .7 .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 . 2 iLl F = .7.7 . (2 .7.) .7.7. (2 .
1 The Reference Ellipsoid. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. Sections parallel to the equator are . Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . In the model which has been adopted. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . It is known . "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. 2. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere.Sec. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. of course . Therefore . 2 . (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. ae . The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . If the earth were perfectly spherical.8. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. however .8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration .) 2. circles. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level.
it does complicate the concept of latitude. The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . Consider Figure 2." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point.94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .2 The Measurement of Latitude.08182 == km km L La L ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter . 2. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid .8. 2. When you are given the latitude of a place . 1 45 6356.8. the difference between L and is usually negligible . Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level.1 . While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field .3 Station Coordinates.8. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude .785 0. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .
the "reduced latitude . 2 .Sec. / (2. 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 ... Thus.1 ) . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal. O . The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e . 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3.. c. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude .8 .8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 ..82. 4 km Figure 2.!! o ." which is illustrated in Figure 2.82 . L .
82) .. for any ellipse . Ch .. c:  0) x Figure 2. Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. z .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz.1:  (2 . a2 . / . 0 O D. b e =a e V� = b2 + d. 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . I C.and e = da.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But .
(2. (2 .Sec:. Thus. d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . 2 .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2.85) .
83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2.86) L.8 7) 2. The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below. elevation above mean sea level. If the Greenwich sidereal time . (2 . {1. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .8 8) . {1 ' is known .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame .8. The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time . From Figure 2. 2 ( 2 .98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components.
is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . L. 2 . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 .89) . Although Figure 2. 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2.3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site .8. the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame .84 shows a spherical earth.Sec .
2 j i Figure 2 . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.1 0) .8 .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction . From (2 . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .
The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .6. it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n .1 2) and a s ' a E .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . (2 . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. a Z If a l .9 .1 . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () .Sec.9 equation (2 .9.9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. 2 . so . 2. This should be made clear by F igure 2. 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2.8. A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 .1 2) . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun .
91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . In early January. when the earth is near perihelion. So far. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 .09054 mean solar seconds .
9. . if it .9. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . 2. 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation .2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. Thus.Sec. The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time .3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . 2 . or Zulu (Z) time. Universal Time (UT). The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. This relationship is illustrated on page 99. A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) .is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . For example . Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart .
4 Precession of the Equinoxes. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. Ephemeris and 2. we express time in decimal fractions of a day. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . . 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . m i n . in addition. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1. 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent .9. 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. ° 229421 1. 8 9=8 9 0 1 .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch .
" with a perio d of 1 8 . 0 0 0 y rs " . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . . 6 yrs I Figure 2. the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top .6 year s . Due to the asphericity of the earth.. The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge.6 years.Sec .. so the lunarcaused precession has this same period.000 year s . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . the equatorial plane is not . so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . The period of the precession is about 2 6. However .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 .92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars... As the earth' s axis precesses.. 2 . Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic..
74933340 = 1 . x= [ z= � ae + � .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. Day  = Long o 57 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown . at 0600 GMT.296 degrees west longitude .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .00 1 + L= 0 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included.1 . 5 7 . 25 8=8 g + A = .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator. 6 24 5 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl .378km = 0 . 00 1 From section 2 .6245 rad ians o 9 .296° H = 6 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs.
6245) = .6245 )1 + 1 .7 1 SJ + OK Sec. 2 . 0.6971 + . Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 . 00 1 (S. At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.72) PE p Pz Ps = .88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.From equation (2.4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.74) .2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.346E + O. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .(0. 00 1 c o s(S.2D UES = (0.4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 .
3.46 P =D1 .7·5 ) From equation (2 .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.0E + 1 .46 D U /T U (0.4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .1 .8 . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .73Z D U (T U r = 0.(0.4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .0.3.25 0.866 0.433 .346J + 1 .5 1 .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .46S .�� lO.0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.1 .8 .610.232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .0588K) From equation (2 . 0.0 1 .1 .346E + l .73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.77) v = [� ] [ J 0.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.73 p + (O. 1 08 Ch .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2. 46 = 0.1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .Ps = .84J .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.061 .2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .
As Baker S points out . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J.8J .0. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this .081 . 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p .3. Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . p . EI . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. W. and the orb it is uniquely determined. Ai. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . of course . 2. 2 . These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. Ei.Sec. may be lacking. f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). Figure 2. Gibbs is.232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . k. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 .
f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . 1 0.r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. we can show that : e ' f = p .r 3 ) = 0 . 1 04) (2 . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . 1 0. 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. (2 . Q and W. find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. 1 04) . equation ( 1 . (2 . 1 05) (2 . 1 06) Multiply (2 . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . then u sing (2 .5 4). and the definition of a dot product . Dotting (2 .r. f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . 1 02) gives (2 . 2 fine scholar . who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. 1 03) by f3 X r l . 1 0. 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . 1 03) Cross (2.11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 08) .1 ) successively by fl . Notice that C2 may now be divided out.1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section.1 ) by (2 . (2 . 1 05 ) and (2 .
1 5) . N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. 1 0. 1 0. 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. 1 0. Therefore .1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . D = N P = O' N (2 . provided N . i. 1 0 pD = N .1 3) : (2 . 1 0. 1 0. (2 .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . (2. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P.1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. 1 0.Let the right side of (2 . 2 . 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . 1 09) D. This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. N and D have the same dire ction. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above .e . (2 . equation (2 .1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. .1 4) (2 . Since P.
(2 . 1 0. 1 0. 1 0.1 8) N (2 .52) we can write i X h = p. 1 0.1 9) Since P. D and S ve ctors.r t ) f2 + ( rt . 1 02 1 ) . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . Therefore.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. Then use (2 .1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . check N * O and D .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2.1 6) . However . N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N.1 9) to find W. 1 0. (2 . P = Q X W. Before solving the problem. ( f  r + e) . 1 0. (2 .1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . and (2 . N and S vectors. since NeQ = pS. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 . (2.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . N > o.1 7) to find e. Q and W are orthogonal. From equation ( 1 . 1 01 0) to find p. 1 0. (2 . 1 020) Thus. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. 1 020) to find P. 1 0.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 .1 8) to find Q.
h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . v) h and h . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . ON (2 . v = eP. Using the identity . h X (h h ) v .( a ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . 2 .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . 1 025) . D X r + JJ{. 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP.(h . 1 024) (2 . (h xr r = + (a .h = P. so c) b . e) We can write h v v = . = p. 1 0. b) c O .E..Sec .
The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . This is not exactly true. possible two body orbit . v2 � + L S r2 • . Finally . 1 02 6) Thus. This method . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . using the stated tests. 2 L + LS (2 . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . 1 . to find any of the three velocities directly . N=FO. O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . N and S vectors. Form L = = 6. = 0 for coplanar vectors. proceed as follows : For example . find v2 : 2. 4 . Test: 0 10 .
" Thus. P = 0= N  2. r 1 and r2 .8000K = 0. 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar.000K = 0_700J . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors.0774J 0.Sec. the semilatus rectum.047 1 = . This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution .0. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem.9000J + 0. r1 r2 r3 = 1 . and S vectors: D= N S 1 . and the timeofflight between these po sitions. period and the velocity vector at position two .0471 O U = 0 . If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors.039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . N . Form the D . Since 010.5000K Find : P. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.97 . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). 2 . 9701 = 2. eccentricity.
= .963K N 1 .1 . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.0.041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 . 0408 1 1 .379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .270K W= N.960 DU/T U (4. 2 S .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = . 700J .497 9.270J + 0.0804 e = = = 0 .4 to solve for the elements.963J .67 TU (89.97 o lP = a = 1 . 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.0. 1r/{: 6.657K D U /T U 2 0. .576J . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 .0.
so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . 1 1 2) r . If we let L . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . then ' . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . L.Sec. optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . (X1 ' < \ � . 3. = OJ + R j .6 2 : 1 1 . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. 1 1 . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. j = 1.7 2). (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . r = pL [�. ° 2 . As a result . 2.z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite .:S :J: JS L K . topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . In either case . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch.g . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. [:i:n :: :. and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 .1 ) (2 . 2 . (2 .
':. 0 (2 .1  R ) r3 .. p and r. \ •. \' P2 i �� G ". r u. • 00 .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 .1 . \ . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . � .. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . . (2 . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . are not known . however . . \ Figure 2. \ [L.1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . ' ' :.. • ' I . : '< ' .. �� I 1 " _ . f f.[. 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. 1 1 3) (2 . . . The vectors L. R and R are known at time t2 ./  L ..J V I . 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . I . L. L. �J 1  . p. 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. . p.' ' " ': . say the middle ob servatio n .
t 3 ) L2 (2.t 1 ) (t 3 .t3 ) (2 . t } . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .Sec.t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t2 ) ( t 1 . Since we have the value of L at.three t�es. 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t3 ( t 2 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t2 ) .t 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 6) + 2t . t2 .t 3 ( t 1 .t2 ) (t. We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .t } ) (t 3 .t 2 . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t 3 ) ( t } .t 3 ) (t.t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t2 L3 ( t 3 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 1 ) ( t. 2 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t 2 ) + ( t 3 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t 1 ) ( t2 . t2 and t3 .t 1 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 1 ) ( t3 .t2 ) ( t} .t 1 ) ( t2 .
it is evident that L Dp = . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. in fact . 1 1 5 ) . It should be noted. p.u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract .L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . p. 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f.. .u L 1 / r 3 L J + . . L J . 4 Equation (2 . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule.u R Ir3 J + . LI .. L L L K K K J . + . L K + . however. 2 . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . better yet . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati.u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . This.. D reduces to L D =2 L I L . 1 1 6) and (2 . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . L J I (2 .ons (2 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. For the time being. that if more than three observations are available . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . p' and r. I L . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column.u R Ir3 I + .u L /r 3 .
0.Sec . From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . R R I .1 0) into (2. we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section.1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. R J . R . 1 1 2). The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section.L L L J K I p . 1 1 . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. L J L I K J!. 1 1 5).1 2) . 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. 1 1 . L K .4 Solving for Velocity . Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. . L K L J L I K (2. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2.1 0) and (2 .. 1 1 . 1 1 .1 1) Op = . 1 1 . .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . 2 . p and r.1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . O O. r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . Substituting equation (2 . 2 . 1 1 . . R R .. If we do this we find that .
° 3 . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . such as P. a . 1 1 . 1 1 . This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. El.1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . 1 1 . k. As a matter of fact . 1 1 . P. D. To obtain the velocity vector . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. Laplace ' s method fails . a3 . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 .2). then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . (2 . 2 (2 . 1 1 .1 3) for p. I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. 2 . ° . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . E l .1 4) p 2.5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 .
. we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. v Kl at t = to are correct. The question then arises. Doppler rangerate. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. ts and t6 ' These predictions are .::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . 2. p) will differ from the computed data." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. .::"P 2 ' . The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. 2 The Differential Correction equations. For example . the observational data collected by a downrange station (e .Sec.::"P 3 .::"P . 1 21) . 1 2. The six residuals are �1 ' . of course. 2. \ ' t2 . Assuming that the residuals are small. t4 . 1 2. t3 . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. 1 Computing Residuals. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. however . Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . r K ' v " vJ . Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates.g. It may happen .
New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations.VK . r K " ' arl D. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. for example . by trial and error. equations (2 . i. however. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. . 1 2. Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . D. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. NK. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. 2. 1 2. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. usually 6 for orbit problems) n . . (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc.) Then. 1 2 . . All that is required is to introduce a small variation. NI . rj . . Nj. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . With the aid of a digital computer..e. V K ) . The inversion of equations (2 . reduce the residuals to zero . D.Vj' D. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. ap1 .r l " v K )p1 ( r l .:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives.VI . the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated.
This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. since p 2 below) . 2 .. Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. called the root me an square (RMS) . 3 . a and (3 are the elements (two here . minimum as described above . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. for the exactly determined case (p or b. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. . zero .. = = n) . 2 . is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement .tb each of the elements measured. for 90% confidence .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e .g .8 1 ) . Solve equation (2 . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . use 0. 4. Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect.
Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Choo se ex and for the first estimates.2. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . ex VI. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements.Assume equal confidence in all data. 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and .:. the partial derivatives are : . 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2).
1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J .Sec. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 . Thus. 2.
360 = . This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. yet still overspecified number of measurements. To illustrate the method involved.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4.474 and f3 = 3. 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. we will use a simple . 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. In practice. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. 6 orbit elements) would be used.474 Xi 3 . Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence .
0 01 1 3.Vi 2.000 1 9.474 4 0 07 19. ( V i Yi ) 2 4. 3 .000 n = Vi 0. E ( V 1.1 26 0. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .866 4 x .934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 . 2 .Sec. 0 35 3. 969 ____  Vi .) 2 n .500 8..007 0._1.000 50. 934 = 1 .1. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.1 05 9. 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l . .828 0 0.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .865 49. aa .y. 474 x 3 .
1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 27 A WA = [12.360..�T�� {3 new {3 new = = . Thus (X new = .304 0.380708 A = 40.1..027 12. 1 75 ] 5. so we iterate. 81 30 8.l Now using (2 . 1 961 0. 105. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) . = 3.0.670 3.3. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .2.4 1 69. 1 22) we have £::.474 + .021 070 20.056 ""' T .304 = .733.039 £::. The second iteration yields: £::.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. {3 = {3 new .(X 26 3.062 ..36 .031 8. 0 18 0. 0.001 07 33 b = 0. 1 96 = 3."""'" �T�� .z 10. which is larger than what we started with.
00 1 . 1 2.Sec . This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3.000 . 2 .5 8 1 . The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . 038 [3 = 3 . Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . 038 . the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s.5 8 2 . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. In practice .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . during orbital decay. However. 2.500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. however. W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. and finally. 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. in theory.735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . 7 35 x 3 . This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . . 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 . 2 .
Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. and midcourse ICBM inter ception. In addition. forming "clouds" of space debris. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. the precomputed 2. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. spacecraft failure diagnosis.500 miles make about 1 2 .000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. 2 2. At present. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . 2 . and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . These detection radars with a range of 2. 1 3. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. the White Sands Missile Range . 1 The Spacetrack System. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. antisatellite targeting. The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. 1 Radar Sensors. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR).1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere .5 003. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). 1 4 . The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT).
and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. while three are located at Clear. is now on active Spacetrack alert. Figure 2.Sec. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. Turkey. Alaska. the FPS43. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. 2. New Jersey. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. and is on active spacetrack alert.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. One FPS49 . One of the earlier detection radars. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. Greenland.
In addition. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. under the 140ft radome at the left. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna.142. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. 2 Figure 2. United Kingdom. This BMEWS station at Clear. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. Alaska. Alaska. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. Florida. The prototype located at Eglin AFB.
14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2.14.2 Radio Interferometers.143. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. 2. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver.Sec. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. 2. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. When two or . Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe.
SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . Canada . two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. Considering the type of observational data received. 2 .3 Optical Sensors. the semimajor axis. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. 1 4 . The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . In addition to these . 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . and therefore . 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . is well established. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. Alberta.
Alberta. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. A separate optical system superimposes. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. on the same strip of Cinemascope film.Sec.145. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake.400 miles. 2.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. As a result. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. and the lighting correct. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. seeing conditions must be good. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. it is . Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track.
1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . Doppler rangerat e info rmation. Massachusett s . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . New Mexico site. I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . 2 . Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . In any case . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . . on the other hand . takes time. in any case . 4 Typical Sensor Errors. Further . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. 1 4 . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data.000 meters. it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. is relatively accurat e . For detection radars. These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds.
persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2.5 Future Developments. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag.146. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. nonuniform gravitational fields. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) . Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated.Sec 2. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein.14. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. 2. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. lunar attraction. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects.7 seconds in time would remain.
One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . but it also record s target tracks for later playback . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. a continuousw ave . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. Operating in the SHF b and . of the target . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. p. it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. howeve r . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . Theoretically . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . Now. 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . In t he system under development . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . Many improvements . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t .
Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . F igure 2 . 1 5 . respectively with a launch a zimuth . 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle .. 1 5 2 . 1 5 . 1 5 .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . 2 .1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . o f the orbit . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. 1 5 . The arc CB which forms the • . i. 18cP  2 . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination .Sec. As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime .. We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 .
. 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e .e . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . A direct orbit require s . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . f3 ' be easterly .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . 0 i. Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . L o?" If i is to be minimized . 2. The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . 1 5 . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . that the launch azimuth. Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . i : c os i = . 1 5 ·3 . For a due east launch equat ion (2 . betwe en 00 and 1 80° .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . therefore . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator .
su r face . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . 2 . 1 5 . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . Figure 2 . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 .Sec.2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation .
= (partial answers : 2. 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. e = . Englan d .7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. Colorado ( 1 04. 9 7 0 . Which takes longer .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . a solar day or sidereal day? b .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . = u nd ef i ned ) = . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d.7071 + .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 .89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . i = 90° . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. 2 EXERCISES 2 . J . 885. Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU.
W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2.2K DU . c . Determine the orbital e lements.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . 2. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. i .8 2075 . 2 + b . e.8 I J P = . 1.) Determine p. Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction.Ch. 82 u a . . (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. (Answer [partial] e = . 3<.
equatorial . W. Q. By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem.4 1 4202 0.4 1 4225 1 1 1 . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e .7 6) . 2. Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . r2 1 . 1 0 2. C alifornia . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . b . the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans.8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . Units are earth canonical units. Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . U se of a computer is sugge sted .5 0 West . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . b ut not nece ssary.system along the unit ve ctor s P.3 1 065 1 5 0.4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. 2. (Answer : r = 1 . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . 1 7 1 . LST = 63 . PST . 2 . r3 r l I J K 1 . b . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . p = 1 .3 5 35 3995 0 1 . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . 6464495 a.060668 8 3 1 .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. 1 0 January 1 9 70. 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . a. 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch .
fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.89497724 0 0 0 1 .707 1 1 25 5 0.9 1 420062 4 .2K with a velo city o f AI .97 0 1 .0 0 2 .6 0.0 0 2 . fl f2 f3 d.0 0 .0 7 .7 0 0 e.09497879 1 .0 2 .0 2 .094964 1 8 0.707 1 0 1 0 1 0.565 6808 1 0 0 .5 65 6808 1 0. fl f2 f3 3 . fl f2 f3 0 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .62 1 34384 c. DU * 2.8 0 .0 1 .207 1 25 5 1 .89497 879 0. 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .0 7 .20709623 0 .0 0 . . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.Ch.n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A . B .8 0 0 . C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.0 1 .2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.97 2 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 . 1 4  DU/TU.6 0.62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .94974 1 7 6 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .9 1 42 3467 2 .1 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.
Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . * 2 . 2 a . east and zenith (up) component s? c. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . Obj ect vernal equinox direction.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. Express the coordinates.0078 J 0. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . b. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system.1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . Obj ect c. v = 0. 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. . ( A ns. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . 9 7 . has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 .17 p 0. d . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. ___ e. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. Obj ect b .75 K D U /T U )  . A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N .620 1 I 0.
Telescope . 1 95 7 . New York . 1 96 3 . C . 1 965 . Pierre Simo n . John Wiley & Sons. Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. C ambridge . Thomas Nelson and 3. Sons Ltd . Thoma s. Navy Space Surveillance System. 1 962. "Space Traffic Surveillance . Angus. 9 . Newman . S . L. A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . Second Revised Edition ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. NY . . 4. pp 1 08 . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . NY . New York . E . U. November 1 9 67 . C leeto n . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . NY. Gauss. Robert M . 8 . 5 . 2 . Mass. Jame s R . Institute of the Aero space S cience s ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . Edmond Halley . The M acmillan Company. Dover Publications . 1 9 66. D avis . K." Vol 48 . Forest Ray . Baker . E scobal. "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. G . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . 1 9 1 4. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Inc. Memo ires de 1 78 0 .1 1 1 . Sky Publishing Corp . No 6 . New York ." in The World of Math ematics . NY . Henize . Simo n and S chuster . 7 . Jr . 1 95 6 . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . 1 9 67 . 6. Space/A ero na utics . New York and London . London . Carl Friedrich. Moulton . Laplace . Pedro Ramon . 1 0 .Ch. Inc. Paul G . Vol 3 . New York . Academic Pre ss. "The A erospace Vehicle s . Armitage .
1 9 66. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. 1 966." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. R. NY. Briskman. the A stronautical Sciences. New York. New York. Thomas J. S. Vo1 40. Bate. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Sunnyvale. 1 3 . Roger R. Electronic . 1 966. 1 5 . "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation." Satellite Control Facility." The Vol 1 4. NY . NY. Cheetham. 1 970. 2 1 1 . California. . Inc. Davies. Carson. New York . American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1 962. Journal of Oct 2. 17. 1 2 . "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. "Future Radar Developments. Gerald C. P. and Eller. No 5 . Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . NY. New York. R." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. 1 962. No 20 . SepOct 1 967." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Air Force Systems Command. 1 4. USAF Academy. Colorado. McGrawHill. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. 1 6. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. 1 967 . Robert D . p 39 . "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method.
1 0.000 or more miles. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. or variously eccentric. for the next 250 years. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. the idea seems to have been forgotten. as of 5 . or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. 1 . and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. and the different force of gravity in different heights. those bodies. according to their different velocity. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . After that . Goddard. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. ) 00 . energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible.
the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. 1 . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. Project Orbiter. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. However. After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . since it contemplated the use of military hardware . On 4 October 1 95 7 ." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . 3 . 3 . particularly if it is manned . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . still in its infancy . 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954.research. The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. Rather . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. Manned spaceflight . 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another.
25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" .J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl .. YEAR a YEARS .J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E ..(/} � � (I) E � � ...///11// . c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .n w . c...::: 0(I) "" 20 10 . .: fiD It: 0 It: <t . (I) CD � . .. I MONTH I .J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .. 20K (. � '" . mJ77/1/.rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION .rrrj.V'h WillI e: � .. 11 L .. VI/II � V � .. AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 .+ :=..... .. I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N ..50K �. .EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr.... 71. ..H O URS WEEK . . � ee.' � S' (1) 0 . � ...
3 . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . m . a p ogee 1 00 n . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . Figure 3 .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . m .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. 1 ·2 . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . m . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. 1 . 1 . Figure 3 . stated.
there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . 1 2 .Sec. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . as you can see from Figure 3 . The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad.or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. The vehicle is not allowed to coast . It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. 1 3 . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude.. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. 3 . The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 .
The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . 3 . Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . therefore.3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . 1 . You . 1 5 . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. Figure 3 . Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. As a result. 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .
.9 r�=r�rr."� ill Q rn o I � fS .2 .. 1 > . 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .. "::> Figure 3 .D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t. 3 .Sec.J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N ..J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�.
1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 . "' "' .J 5 "' C iii 0. I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0..J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 ..
the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .Q 360 ° per 90 days :. 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . With this perturbation . A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. and oppo. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. What is the inclination of the orbit? b.40 and 1 1 6. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi .40 or greater than 1 1 6. 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle.6.6 0 .67 0 /day From Figure 3 . The ascending node moves to the west . a. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits.60 . completing one revolution every 90 days. 3 .N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . which also is due to oblateness. Figure 3 .Sec. 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . Therefore = .
If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. This is. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. Figure 3. 3 . Of course.000 nm altitude .2. ground trace of a synchronous satellite. for example . This. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the .2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. On the scale of Figure 3 . unfortunately. 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . 1 . 2 .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 .1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . 3 Figure 3 . 3 . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. The first stage booster climbs 3 .6 earth radii above the surface .300 nm or about 5 .21 shows why. not the case . Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. however. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures.inches from the surface. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. of course. 1 2 this would be 2*." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. 1 The Synchronous Satellite. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian.
This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit.22 Ascent ellipse .2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm .. At apogee of the ascent ellipse.... \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 . intervals . Dot ted grou nd trace .21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more.. . 3. curve is \ " " .. the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit.. . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr.� � Figure 3 . burn """ " " .Sec.
This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. we get a change in . for some other reason. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed.34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. /:. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 .32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. at appropriate points in the orbit. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. we get (3 . a? v. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. 3 . fJ.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . but . the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. a very precise orbit is required.31) If we solve for '.v (3. 2vdv .. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit .3 . as they are called . and flightpath angle. Usually this is not serious. dv.da a2 = fJ. = _ r 2a .33) or = da 2a2 vdv . and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. (3 . 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. speed. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. (3.  fJ.
3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height.v) . a 6. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . Since we know r l .v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3.3. 4 Jl. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . For example .h a �  da.34).34) for small but finite 6. 3 . to the large orbit.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. of the orbit given by equation (3 . we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. Since the major axis is 2a. 2 The Hohmann Transfer. 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3.V v P P (3. Similarly. whose radius is r2 . Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits." 3 . The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are .1 . whose radius is rl . called Hohmann transfer orbits. 3 . a2 6. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. along the transfer ellipse.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. therefore . In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters.semimajor axis.
31 (3. &.37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.36) = r i + r2 =  and. since p. 3 the transfer orbit. its speed is .t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3./2 a . 2at Figure 3 .1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch . (3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.31 &.
I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3.3. i n our example . The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion .V required to double the altitude of the satellite . Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 3 . The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. 3 I N.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . ra = 3 DU.3. For the transfer traj ectory.39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction.1 0) (3 . Minimum rp = 2 DU. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . . Although.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . to VI ' So . & t = � = . The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit .Sec. Find the minimum /::.V implies a Hohmann transfer .
V1 = .V2 = .1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 . 3 V cs 1 = (il = .32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .3. Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.068 D U/TU V cs =.313) . I t is obvious from Figure 3 . We can express this condition mathematically as r = . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.3. I::.JfF"= .32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .� r 1 1 +e p p (3.707 DU /TU vi r.346 ft/sec 3 .577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.061 DU/TU I::. Figure 3.VTOT == .
in the transfer orbit.1 4) (3. / 2a . p p (p. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. p p p  = . 3 .3. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. (3. Knowing and e. �. and the angular momentum. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. I &.3. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above.Sec. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . To satisfy both conditions. ht. respectively .32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. we can compute the energy.1 5) .33) and interpret them graphically.
we get (3. __ Figure 3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.39) The angle between v1 and va. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit . its speed is (3 .v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer. ..33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r . 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 .34 /::. p r2.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .1 is just the flightpath angle . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.
V. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. 3. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . assuming that we know v and e. as shown at the right of Figure 3 . If.1 .4. 3 . it is not surprising that equation (3 . (3 . The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.1 7) reduces to equation (3. b.V. or it can rotate the line of apsides. 4 . b. b. and obtain directly for circular orbits. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3.310) when the flightpath angle .V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles.V required.31 6) Now. 1 Simple Plane Change . more simply. after applying a finite b. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . together with the b.41) 3. e. Or.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. form an isosceles vector triangle.41 .Sec.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ". This is called a simple plane change.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.34. A velocity change .V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the .3. the b.1 'I' . We can solve for the magnitude of b.3.V using the law of cosines. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above .V. ¢l ' is zero. (3. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3.
If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . a. makes b. A plane change of 60 0 .V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer.vrequired to accomplish the mission. Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0.V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. . for example . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. DU circular orbit. b . Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . Determine the total b. 3 Figure 3 . Therefore .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . calculate the additional b.170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .
270. DU 2 1 Hence .1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 .1 = \1'1 . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.V l 1 .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.618 = 1 .Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0. 3.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L. & t = = �= .0..1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) .953 DU/TU L. I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis. The given information is: h I = 0. Therefore at = r2 .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .Sec.Vl = V l .__ = . 1 +� 1 .
v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.V22 v.253 ft/sec .= 0 .V2 = y'l'5= 0.V2 . 3 87 . 2 + 0.626) = 0.387 DU/TU = 1 0.2 . 6. 3 and we must use equation (3. 1 5 DU/TU 6. 447)(.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.704 DU/TU 18. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .4) (.626 vcs2 = V't.042 ft/sec Therefore v = .447 DU/TU 2 1 .447) 0. + v�s2.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .(0.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.447) (. 31 7 + .626) = 0 . 4 .2(.317) to determine 6.
4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .447 ) ( . 3.0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .4.1 ) t:::.Sec. F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .
lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b.2 DU and 4 DU respectively.e. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of . 3 .5 DU/TU. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.4 Refer to Figure 3 .5 DU . = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. 0. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . i changedall other parameters remained the same.V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. 1 1 DU and e = 0. r p = 1 DU e = 0.76. i. What is the minimum 6. a.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans. a plane change or an orbit transfer. Ch . 0 .2 Calculate the total 6.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.21 . a = 2..5 b. 3. (Ans.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . 3 EXERCISES 3 .3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination.449 DU/TU) 3. c.
* 3 .Ch . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . 34DU2 (fU d.V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth.7 3 . At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. 8 Compute the minimum I::. C ompare this with the I::. 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . (Ans. 0 .1 DU 8 1 = 0. = 0. beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . P = 1. using Hohmann transfers.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day .412 5 3 . The . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . 95 DU 8 = 0. Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . 9 Calculate the total l::. .9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . 3 .56 c. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer.v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. 5 & Design a satellite .
. Willy. 1 9 60. Vol 2. Ley. New York .1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The Viking Press. Principia. V2 . 1 962. Air Force Systems Command . 3 . DC . Baker. L. Walter . Berkeley and Los Angeles. A cademic Pre'ss. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. University of California Press. and Maud W. Newton . 4 . 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . Space Planners Guide. Dornberger. 2nd revised ed. 5 . Sir Isaac. NY. 1 July 1 965 . Headquarters. 1 96 1 . Washington . Missiles. . 1 95 5 . New York . NY . Rockets. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. 1 . and Space Travel. Robert M . Makemson. The Viking Press. New York and London .
CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. . was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. . For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. or lack of circumspection. who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. This was Kepler 's first great problem. . The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. . the determination of the true movement of the planets.2 1 77 . of the heirs.. . Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. . or perhaps usurping them . the solution of the second problem. by taking the observations under my care . . presupposed the solution of the first. Albert Einstein ! 4 . including the earth . I quickly took advantage of the absence. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations.
Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . we not only forgive them. . When Christopher Columbus. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. Thus. detour. but above all to convey to him the reasons. subterfuges. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries." Kepler points out in his Preface.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. . whole grand entertainment would be lost.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. 1 . Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . I + . (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. "What matters to me. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter.
in the next two chapters Kepler explains. for now we are going to invade your territory. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . perihelion and aphelion. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. . What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. as it were. His results. without benefit of any preconceived notions. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. Moreover. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. that. never noticing his error. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. prick your ears. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. with the warning: "Ye physicists. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. again incorrectly . however." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. . It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. But then without a word of transition. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . almost with masochistic delight.Sec 4.
the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. 4 Figure 4 .2 Finally. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. he settled on the oval.. " Finally. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. . 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. as I shall prove further down . . He had ..180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner.
In this chapter we will. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. . We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . are one and the same .: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. The climax to this comedy of errors. Ah. 4. believing that this was a quite different . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. .. disguising itself to be accepted. whereas the two . in a moment of despair. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. . I thought and searched.e . made a mistake in geometry. . came when. which I had rejected . mine] .' " .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. You: are .. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits .2 T I M EO F . until I went nearly mad. hypothesis. That is to say.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. . . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did.. . In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. de rive the . and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature.F L I G HT . return e d by stealth through the backdoor.y it should move in an orbit at all. have persisted to this day.and chased away. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end. but he did not know how. .Sec 4. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. . Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . : . and velocity and the timeofflight.
It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period.. 7T a b .2. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. (4.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 .2 . We will pursue a lengthier. i. 4 existed . The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use ..A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch .1 ) i s the area � .21 Area swept out by r . where the true anomaly is v .1 ) .. In going part way around an orbit. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see.2. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit .182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY .l . ''"'''"'. 4. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus. but more motivated.2. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use .. say from periapsis to some general point.e .'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. A ' in Figure 4. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. P.
Z x2 + .F L I G HT . 2 T i M EO F .l.Sec 4 .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse. The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . A dotted line . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. \/2 a2 _ . 22 Eccentric anomaly. From analytical geometry. perpendicular to the major axis. E E Circle : .
22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse .�rea PSV minus the dotted area. A2 . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . oos E and whose (4. Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . It Tollows directly from equation (4. 4 Hence .a E) . Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis.
Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .e sin E (4.e si n E ) I (4. Kepler introduced the definition M = It .28) . which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV ." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.T = 4 ( E .1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' . and whose altitude is (a si n E ).2 ." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E . Obviously . substituting into equation (4. cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .Sec 4. we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly. to its corresponding true anomaly. From Figure 4.2 T I M EO F .e si n Ai yields E) .22.25) where M is called the "mean anomaly. in order to use equation (4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .F L I G H T .24) E .27) (4. Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally. whose base is (a CDS E). v.e si n E (4. minus the triangle .we get � ( E .27) reduces to (4.24). E.
In general we can say that t  to = 4.T) . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then . 4 E E. At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.to = lP (t .( t o .(to .T) . The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .24 right.T o ) .[ 2kn + (E . + t . so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . from Figure 4.24 left).24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis. In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . E Figure 4 .( Eo  E) (4.e Sin . when v is between o and n.to = ( t . we can say that t .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4.29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v. Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.T ) .28).
we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 . .2.1 2) (4.2.1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.2. From equations in section 1 .T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .8 E ) dE (4.21 2).2.2 T I M EO F.7 .1 3) (4.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.+ COS (4.F L I G H T .8 si n E ) V r .21 6) V 1 .82 ( E .2. Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.2.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .J1=82 d E (4.2.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.1 1 ) easily integrable .28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .82 f: ( 1 .2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4. From equation (4.Sec 4.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa.Sec 4.1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn .2 Solving for x When Time is Known .4. Therefore .4 4.4.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. 4. Equation (4 . Figure 4. a trialanderror solution is indicated.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e . But now we have a problem. From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis.47) has been used to eliminate z. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. va' a and the trial value of x.4. ( 1 . (4 . since equation (4. In one sense . Fortunately .1 3) ro va v t" .1 2) is transcendental in x. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . a.
4. the four vectors fO ' (4. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. 4 . Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. Substituting for r in equation (4. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .4. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.41 9) .1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y .4. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q. B and C are coplanar vectors. (4. With x known.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . 1 dt r (4.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible. we must then calculate the corresponding and v.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) .41 6) dx x . and A and B are not colinear. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 . In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Thus A. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. the iteration may be terminated.3 The f and 9 Expressions.1 = x 2 C + x . xn .32).42.
g. the left side of the O .. = fg.4.. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates. Crossing equation (4. f and 9 are not independent. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q.. f.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 . g .tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w .1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h .. f and g. however.1 8) into equation (4. g .. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity.420) This equation shows that f . We can isolate the scalar .. in equation (4. x. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. First..4..where f..1 9) gives Sec 4 . t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities.4. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .
42 1 ) We can isolate (4. From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ .E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .34) and (4.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.w o Yw h (4. ) .e2 )  r . (4.4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x.1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4. . . yw x .425) Combining equations (4.1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw .426) . o . Xw . (4. x wYw . 4 h (4.a l e + Sln Y.4.425).423) (4.4. x + Co cos v = .
... ro ro .43 0) 0 1 f C a = . \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .. x = 0 at t = o ..429) into equation (4.a  mitions of z. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4. e quation (4.sin r  � (4...32).. e quation (4.Sec 4 .a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum. r..(e sin � + cos � ).43 0) f (4..427) and using the definition of the universal variable .426) through (4 . ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C . x + co h = .426) and (4..Va • W . (4. 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4..42 1 ) c /Ii.428) yw .a Va 2 = 1 9.42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4. x =� cos x + c r .429) Substituting equations (4..43 1 ) ..1 ) . ro .4.
] � a . 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a . r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 ..j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.436) .32) (4.202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY . r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.4.435) (4.4·3) � r o ..1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.1 ) and (4 .4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 ..433) (4.4.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .
3 . then compute v from equation (4. 1 The Physical Significance of and z. its definition. note that equation (4. x + Co cos [ � .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem.43 1 ) and (4. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4.34) (4. Si n va = Va =  c o s . can be used.4 .434) . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . la . 5 .1 ) Va = _ E . Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4.4. to 4. Obviously .e E). 1 . 4 .Sec 4. then compute r and r from equation (4 . Note also that if were not zero .4. 2 . Also.5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. if we are going to use equation (4. but we have not said what and z represent. in any of the equations where z appears.43 5) and (4.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation.[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . Va x (4. the expression (t would replace 4 . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme .1 9) . From and determine r and a.1 8).1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit . Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. 5 .4. 4 .x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter.43 6) .
To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.5 4) (4.1 3) . (4 . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .53) from (4 .3 4) and (4. a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . (4 .57) .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E .56) la.7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.52) whenever is negative .F 0 1  Va I E . we get x= D .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �). (4 . we can conclude that = V'ii I F . therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12. since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ .Do . 1 (4. 5 ·1) at time x = 0. so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .53) Subtracting equation (4.4.E o l .
5 9) . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4. In computing the semimaj or axis.F a ) '· z is zero. so Sec 4.5. 5 . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem.5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . Therefore .8) Figure 4 . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem.to 4 .1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . I z = I F . 5 . from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. a. If imaginary. either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.when z is positive .
so S � V0r eFz 2 . Use this for a first guess .fZi3 = q .:z.v y� ( . The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. and . / ( .All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. is large.. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. we get for elliptical orbits. ( t a to) . if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. . since X = foE..a � eFz ± 2x 3 .a vG ) ..e . with £X.5.cosh . z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 . convergence will be extremely rapid. C = 1 . In the case of elliptical orbits.. then Z will be a large negative number .1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . a = ± x 3 .P)/ 2. When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. Furthermore . Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp.6F. wherever it occu rs. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number.ji11....z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z . so s i n h fi . X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period.5 .
r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.t o ) x ::::: sign (t .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.t o ) � ( 1 . we get � S .t o ) Fa .t o ) sign (t . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the .to is positive. Anytime t . 5 . recognizing that X will be positive when (t .t o ) #a ( 1 ] . X will be positive and .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before. Thu s .t o ) 2x 3 � + t .Q) eV La 2J. vice versa .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .a . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term. .r:z .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.tohATci ( l .. n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .sign (t . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4. 5 . so Sec 4 . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t .5. where appropriate .tJ is positive . Therefore.£.L ( t .1 1 ) .sign in the above expression .a eFz sign ( t . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z. 4 . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .
The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4. If z is near zero .4.5. use equations (4.4.5.1 0) as C where = i C = .1 0) (4.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .4. 4 (4 .5. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S. if z is negative . = Similarly. so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .0 6 + . . we can write equation (4.1 3) COS .1 1 ) We can write equation (4. use equations (4. (4.7! + .cosh . Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .1 1 ) as But i v:z . 1 .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .s i n i V} = i si n i B . s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 .4.5. .4.4.1 0) and (4. Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .".s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .1 2) and (4 .Ji .1 3). z cos i � .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive..1 1 ) ..(1  .B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.
52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .Ji! + Ji!. 0 'j (4...5.� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4. 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .5. (611)2 etc.Sec 4. .+ .1 4) ·· 1 .1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity ... . The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .. The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 . Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 .5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z . .. 0 . (4Ir) 2 .
va > � a= :l = 1 .[i) z ] (4 . 39 5 . 2& . Given ra = I D U va = 1 .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves. r a .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . it is not surprising that the derivatives.5 .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch .s i n z dz 2z [ 0. 4 functions . dC /d z and dS /d z . I dS = _ ( C .( 1 . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x. Find r. t=2 T U9 ra = I.2C ) .3S ) .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM.5. 1 . and v at = t=2 T U . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin .266  .zS . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . Differentiating the definition of C.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s . 1 K .)] P (4. we get I � = fz. va = Therefore & = 1.
1 .000 1 .12.4.007 2.1 4) and (4. X l Zl y"""a6E or x ... tn toward t = ZTU. y'ii"(t .58) 2 1 .t o x_ 21Tya lP :.5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .. using a slide rule .973 a Using equation (4. solving for t ..Since x = and .705 2 .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 . 24 1 = 1 .8 1 6 1 . 58+.1 .8 1 6 x n+1 .222 1 . xn tn fit After three iterations.821 1 .266 ( 1 .279 1 .58 1 .4.t. we can make a 2 __ = 1 . 2 2 x 3 ' etc...222 = 1 .1 .t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit. 58+ .277 dXn 1 .58 1 .8 1 6 1 .8 2 1 1 .82 1 1 . 705 . we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.222 Repeating the process. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.
1 7).6. yw and r in terms of D.1 we can see that X w = r cos v .32 1 1 + 1 . ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY .2.8801 Ch .6 .. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit. f. 4 4. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. we will derive expressions for xw . 880 1 1 .1 ) From Figure 4. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . 1 24.6. and 9 = 0.._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly.JPt::. D.2) . as D = v'P tan � 2 . E and F. g = 1 .. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. r = _.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies.6. E or F. for the parabola. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4.321 . But . But first some useful identities will be presented. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola.0. 4.. g.Then from the definitions of f. Finally. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. since e = 1 . we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. f = 0.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. 236K g. E and F. f = 0. (4. v.
6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4. (4.65) . yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.6.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .Sec 4 .1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.1 ) .
J7!.1 ) . 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4. in Figure 4 . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown. For the eccentric anomaly .66) v .s i n p v = ffp ta n v . 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .62 Perifocal components of r .6. Using r • r = and equation (2. r • v. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known. (4. 4 rr.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product.
6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .67) (a si n E ) a But .6. (4. M  (4. yw Just as we did for the parabola.67) and (4 .   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E .69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. we can say that I yw = Q.24) . we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. e illS E we get another useful  �.Sec 4 . I Substituting from equations (4. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r . t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . (4.8) and simplifying.1 0) e sin E also. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle . since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae.62.6.
1 3) . we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E .6.:.... v.1 0) . when E is a real number. when F is a real number . F is imaginary. we obtain E = . is given by e si n rr = r = $a .1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4.!. E is imaginary . The .e Si n r E Finally . e cos E from equation (4.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4. solving this equation for • v ..28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4.. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.6. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly.6.22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.6.
In Figure 4 .6. But l cos i F = cosh F . The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning. 4.Il a •v (4.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F . so (4. so Yw = a � sinh F.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. Similarly.1). 6.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. 6.61 6) r e cosh F = 1. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .6.67) we can write Sec 4 .e ) .1 8) . From equation (4.e) .6 .  But i si n iF = si n h F.a r  (4.el = a (cos i F .range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. The rectangular components of a general position vector. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic. may be written as (4.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':. 6. r.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system.
vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf . 62 1) (4.624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . where tv = v . the rectangular components of the velocity vector . so 1 � L (I ..V _ 2 1 . and note that h = .x"._ c��V P IW (4. 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.. 626) . r0 · = 1 . we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = . V. 623) ..63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .. (4. are yw = r sin v (4. .V.p .A F U N CT I O N O F T.JiLP.c os I 9 ' = v'f.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y ......c o s tv ) (4. Figure 4.6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4..: o s /:..42 1 ) .625) (4. tan p /:.P ( 1 .ji! sin v p (4.1 .:. 4 +.. .I M E Ch . ( ..
627) But.6. (4.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 . (4.e2 ).3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .e 2 ) cos E .E) 9 r _ 0 j..63 2) . yw 9 and (t . o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4. = .63 1 ) (4.e2 ) v.cos L'!.to ) .a ( 1 .68) .( L'!.e) v! fJa( l .e cos E o ) .� ( 1 .42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .e2 ) = 1. Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .Ji!.6.sin L'!. Thus Xw Sec 4.cos L'!.I Jlla sin E. r (4.63 0) (4. 629) f = 1 .1 (4.E ) f = .1 0). the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.!Ji8 sin L'!.E .6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.E ) . E rr . we get f = a( cos E . using equation (4.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E . Similarly.6. From equations (4.a E sin E .67) and (4.4.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .
t o ) . and Sma1l4 tells us: " But." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself. A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some . cosh 6F ) .to) . The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia . with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true. M can be obtained from = (4.26) Even though equation (4. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign .8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .(1 E . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly . Kepler himself realized this.[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable . 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .634) (4.2k7T + M o .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm.629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.6F ) ..6.2 6) is one equation in one unknown . (4. ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . .63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t . � V a3 ( t . In classical terms.220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch .  E. (4. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it.63 6) 4. of course .
compute the mean anomaly. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. but this is not very accurate.638) n dM/d E I E=E n . select a new trial value. M n . � Figure 4. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. ' (4. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. of course .64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y .Sec 4 . that results from this trial value .Mn En+ 1 ' from (4.63 7) Now. 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. E n+ l E + M . 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . E It would.
Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4.when e is nearly 1 . p and va· 2 .5 + .2. Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M .1 8) and (4. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . 4 . even when e is nearly 1 . d M = 1 e cos E . Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. 1 . t . va and the timeofflight. Once E i s determined by any method.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.1 9). dE Therefore. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. From fa and va determine r 0' a. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola.4 0) EXERCISES 4.4. equation (4.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating.6. 3 .222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F).t ' are given. however. Determine f and V from equations (4. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. where d M / d E l E = En En.4. 5.5 cos V DU .e cos En (4. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation.1 2) . e. e. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. Solve for V if needed. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. It can be used for LW or�E . 2.  .
find the universal variable. (partial Ans. Explain why this must be so . (Ans. find r and v for .3 Given l:J) = ffP. corresponding to l:J) of 600• ..5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee.5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. x.6 For the data given in problem 4.85 TU) 4. how should the area of search for x be limited. i. TOF = 5. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. glven fO' vO' and t. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse.4 If. V = 3481 . it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. 625) . in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. f = 4 . 4.3. Find the values of f. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 .348J +  1 . one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P.e.Ch .
e = . ra == 2.5 . Va and t . an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. 5 DU. e = . 7 The text. if X == x (t ) . f and g.73 TV) 4. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 .. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory.1 1). == 1 . 1 0.to and solve for f and v. Le.99). and give your analytic reasoning behind. 1 1 For problem 4.5 DU. 4 . 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. 4 . 9 At burnout. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. (Ans. TOF = 2. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. 5. 2. Develop.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. 4 . Do the same for problem 4.10 rp 4 . Va and w and will solve for f. with a perigee above the north pole. then . in equations (4. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 .9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods.51 0) and (4.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. 4 4 . g. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa.
Philosophical Library..to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 .630) through (4. f and 9 in terms of (t . Richard H. Kepler. The Macmillan 3 . 1 95 9 .E.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . The Sleepwalkers. 2. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. A New York. equation (4.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . See equations (4. . LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. 1 963 . 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. 4. Guidance .2 .16 * 4. Small. 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.0 + . Madison. 1 964.. 1 95 1 .I:!:. 4 . 1 7 Derive the expression for g . r. NY. g.( t . Company. Wise. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. Battin. Einstein. Koestler. New York. NY. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. Arthur.1 8).r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4.6 TU) . = .. NY. 4. The University of Wisconsin Press. L'.43 5) and (4. r3 fJ.43 6). New York.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. o 4 . Albert.. 63 2). Robert. 2. Stahlman..
Brooks. Vol 70.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Unpublished notes. Moulton. pp 1 89. 1 1 . Vol 70. K. 1 965.1 28 . Vol 275 .ach.1 79. N. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. pp 66066 1 . Herrick. Lemmon. K. and 1. Stumpff. California. S. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. . Sperling. 1 9 1 4." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. 9. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. Forest Ray. E. pp 1 08. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem." A stron." ARS 1. J. Goodyear. 1 9 1 2 . pp 1 05 . A n Introduction York. Vol 3 1 . to Celestial Mechanics. W. Bate." A cta Vol 36." A str. The MacMillan Company. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. 1 947. Mathmatica. 1 96 1 . 7. 4 5 . "Universal Variables. Sundrnan. H.1 92. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. United States Air Force Academy . F . New 6. pp 3093 1 5. Redondo Beach. 1 0. 8. 1 965 . Roger R. W. W . J. 1 965. H . H. ." A stron. 1 2.
Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. Uranus. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . in the first year of the 1 9th century. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray.. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. But. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 227 5. in 1 7 8 1 . a 24yearold German mathematician.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars.
"the Gauss problem. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. The object turned out to be Ceres." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. Hegel asserted. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. exactly 1 year later. If they paid some attention to philosophy . and the direction of .2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . Because of its importance. no less. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. but for a different reason. no more . the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. and for convenience in referring to it later. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. 5. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun.
" through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians.". . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. appears in the denominator of any expression.. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. therefore. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way... If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). the orbit is a degenerate conic.1 . / I I I I I Figure 5 . that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . p. The relationship between the four vectors f l . 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . 5 . / . If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r).. Obviously .motion. or the "long way.SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ . 2. f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4.. Sec . particularly if the parameter. ..21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used.. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion.." through an angular change greater than 7r. It is not surprising. .
Use equations (5. t.y'ii8 .( 1 . a or �E.. p.cos �V . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . (5 . 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. (5 .25 ) (5 .23) Actually. p. g.25). (5 .cos �E ) .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f. 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . Consider equations (5 . the solut �on to . a and �E. 2.( 1 .1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f. 27) . r . f and g. Test the result by solving equation (5 . There are seven variablesf1 .cos �E ) f = 1 . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . what we have is three equations in three unknowns. 3. f.22) r2 a ( 1 .23). this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent.r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 .24) Si n �E (5 . but the first four are known. (5 .24) arid (5 .. 23) and (5 . From equation (5 .27) and (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary . g. The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature.cos �v) = 1 . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. bv .26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 .( 1 . We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 .1 ) (5 . 2. r2 P p rI .. so 2 .230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p.cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 .sin �E ) � JJ.= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. a 9 = 1 .2. 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 ..
let's write the expressions for f.Sec. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work.3 2) . { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. r1 (5 . In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. In each case . g . Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter.. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. x and z.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. however.:t x3 S. introduced in Chapter 4. = 1 . This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem.1 ) (5 . we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. 5 . This last step is perhaps the most important of all. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4.c x2 y.( 1 . p. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. and would enable us to use the universal variables. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . 3 . a and L'£ or 6F.
232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .A .33)  (5.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch .31 ). 5 X2 (5 .v y.. 1 . p r1 j . ( 1 c o s b.i n b.v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 ... P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b.v) (5 .38) y..36) may be written (5 .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.1I 1 � .v ) 1 c o s b.jE: . as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant. A y= .33) and cancelling vwp from both sides...39) .( 1 c o s b.c o s b. ( 1 . rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b. such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.v (5 .viI x ( 1 zS) \ . we get r 1 r 2 (1 .( c o s b.37) I y = r 1 + r2 . yields X C.j A equation (5 . we obtain A..v) • 9 = = IE.35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 ..
37 ) and (5 . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: . 3.on simplllw. A. y. From equations (5 .1 6) (5 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant . (5 . by using equations (5 .3. we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 .=1' Ig =r2 =.32) and (5 . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 .3.Sec.31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I .: r I . the last term of this expression may be simplified.". 32).420).1 0) (5 .r I (5 . I" � \ ·1 fr .34).31 5) (5 .31 7) .1 4) 1 The velocity.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .qr::oo . +. thi 't "p.1 ). 5 .31 3) (5 . can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.ff.38). we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.3. 3 We can also express X in equation (5 . 3. so that (5 .LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. . and the auxiliary variable ..35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 .
P . which converges more rapidly.E2 and z = . 3.0.dz dz dz 2yy dz .1 1). A. necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . If it is not nearly the same .31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. from equation (5 .3.S + X 3 _ + . Determine x from equation (5 ." evaluate the I 2 constant. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. 5 1 . a Newton iteration. 6.31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. Although any iterative scheme . Since z = . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.3.= 3 x 2 .37). 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4. 4. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 .1 0) and (4. 5.3 .31 6) and (5 . From f ' f and the "direction of motion. using equation (5 .39). The derivative. 9 and 9 from equations (5 . dt / dz. Determine the auxiliary variable.31 8) ( ) (5 .0. Pick a trial value for z.4.4. 2 . evaluate t.1 0) . 3.31 9) .1 4) and (5 . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly . 5. (5 . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .31 5).234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .31 7). then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. When the method has converged to a solution.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 .31 3). 7 . may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z.1 2) (5 . y.
2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .39) for dy = dz  But.320) (5 . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . i n section 4 . we showed that y.3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS . 3 .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 . 5 .32 1 )  .Sec. 5 .=  dS (C .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 . we get ( 1 . .z S) dS _ .
we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0. Using universal variables. There is only one path for a given direction of motion. ill rl .318).+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .7K DU.236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .OK DU. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .6J + 0. D M � si g n (1T L'>. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period.  (5 .320) and (5 .322) into equation (5 .v) .01 + + O.323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 .324) _  (5 . determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero. "direction of motion": rl =0.325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .326) . To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM.41 1 ).4.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 . At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0.1 0) and (4.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit)." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements. 51 r2 = 1. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z.319) and (5 . we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 . Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way. 5 so. equations (4.
CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 . 327) r1 = 1 .. I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . 28406 ( __ = 3 .28406 ( __ ) = 0 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 .6V > 1T).1 5) .6V short way = 5. 0000 + 1 . 86474323 = 1 .5.0488008482 OU r2 = 1 .1 . from equations (4. OM = +1 we have "short way " (. 5 .321 radians Using (5 . 0488088482 + 1 .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).962 radians LW long way = 21T .327). 0488088482 + 1 . 0000 1 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .1 4) and (4. 5 .0.28406 = 1 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . a convenient form of equation (5 . A A l ong way =1 .3 : Step 1 : LW (5 .37) does when .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = .6V is small.Sec. 23287446 yT12 vm . For ease of numerical solutions.39).
Y l o ng = 3. 1 .238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .0 we do not normalize.489482706 (6") .23287446 t l o ng = 0...) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration.23287446 0.3..3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .444689 m 0.9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off..86474323 2. 1 3 min = 0445 z . 0432z = 1 3... the desired time o f flight is : .1 0)..28406 y'3. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 . Step 5: Using equation (5 . X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : .780 1 9540 1 /2 0.28406 y'0.3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 ... Since �t for this problem is less than 1 . 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.672625 1 6 TU + through 6. (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative. from the given data.86474323 = 1 .
79852734 v2 = 1 .5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .28406 Y = 0.1 6) and (5 . (5 .554824 D U /T U f = 3.83236253 Using equations (5 .9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3. (5.989794 D U/TU 0. 7499473 9 t = 0.50634848K v2 = 0. 5 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.0.6009 1 852 .63049 1 80961 1 .3 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.8826885334K v2 = 0.1 5).314).0.31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .5544 1 39777J 0.96670788 z = x 0. 1 1 39209665J  0.36 1 677491 + 0.58 1 43981 VI = 0.5288 97 1 4 = 2.t solved .94746230 A = 1 .0.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0. 74994739 VI = 0.t . 1 7866539741 + 1 .60 1 874421 .3. W e have : � 104 (within 0.3.Sec.28406 Y = 4. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0. (5 .02234 1 8 1 1 .1 3).76973587J .6 1 856634 = 0.83073807 v 2 = 1 .
2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. yet equation (5 . the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. For "short way" trajectories. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of.39).636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0.38) and (5 .1 O} VC . there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative. In other words. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. From equation (5 .zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .52). where f::1) is less than 7T.31 . The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 . the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 . 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive.= 0. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 . Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position).076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.
j1 . It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity. 5.Sec. From equation (5 .v.42) into equation (5.23). we get  .va si . hence.)2 cos .6V V 1 .4.c o s x =. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique. The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve . F or "long way" trajectories y is positive . we obtain 5. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 .1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 .1 ) and si n  COS . if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .4.6V COS . a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p . This check is only necessary when is positive.cos !:::. 5. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.c o s ""E si n ""E . a and ""E.4 TH E p. The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight. for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.cos ""V ( 1 . and 2 solving for p.?S.4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. we can solve for a and get 1 .4.25)...cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.6V p � .V ) a (5 . (sin xl i ..
We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .43) 5.43) as Ll.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .Qp y'2ni p .v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .E CO � = ± p= k = .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.. 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll. we obtain m p a= (5 .Q p ) 2 (5 .E Q ± y'2ni C O S .48) k . (5 .2 Expressing a as a Function of p. (5 . The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.E) •  k = k Ll.E ( k . and noting that � c os '2 . E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .46) Ll. 2 Ll.J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll. we get Ll.45) and simplify.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .E .44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.45) ± Using these same definitions.c o s bJ)) (5 .4.E Solving for cos2.
we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight .41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . First .6. Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 .4.4 T H E p. 5 . Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). 5. Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 .!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter .F in case a is negative). 5. am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 .where k.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . a may not be smaller than some minimum value .4 . Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. Sec..3 Checking the Trial Value of p. 2. however. The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . we need to determine � (or .. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). .1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr.
vi.s i n .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.F is positive.49) Since we always assume . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like . we see that the limiting case of .4 The t vs P Curve .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .41 2) (5 . although t approaches infInity for this orbit.6. If a is positive.25). let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .6.24) or the corresponding equation involving .( 1 . As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that. This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero. F ) . we can compute f. p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .6. In Figure 5. To get a feeling for the problem.41 1) c o sh .6.24) and (5 .23). F 1 .E .6.a r1 (1  f) (5 .E from equations (5 . F .4. we can determine . there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.4. 9 and f from equations (5 .E a If yield is negative.6..F: (5 .E ) (5 . If (." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .1 3) .6.4.6.1 0) = = 1 .23) and (5 . Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. 5 c o s .. If we look at "long way" trajectories. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .6.F (5 .Tar (si n h . the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving . The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.6. let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way. (5 .From the trial value of P and the known information.
. for t:sv greater than IT... lie within the prescribed limits.. P must lie between o and P j j . t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j . 5 ..42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 .zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. In Figure 5 . we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 .....I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse ...43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. Sec. as well as all subsequent guesses for p. P must lie between P j and infinity.4 T H E p. P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case . Since it is important thar the first trial value. we should first compute P j or P j j . parabola hyperbola Figure 5 . For l'J) less than IT. From the discussion above.. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight..
p )0 p" . by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . � " .1 4) Q .4. .yLri1 (5 . • . such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). .. The solution is then bracketed and.5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p.4. The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution. one that gives too small a value for t.. . and one that gives too large a value. ell .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p. 0 Q + y2in k  (5 . I . 5 1 :co .4.46).1 5) 5 .43 k p a rameter . Several simple methods may be used successfully. b . . from equation (5 . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value..246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5. '" E 0> '" .
.1 6) This scheme can be repeated.. ..P n . .4.1 ) (5..Sec.. 4 T H E p.. .1 ) (t n ... .t n ) ( P n ....t n ... .. . .. ... . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5.. .. . . . . . . . . .... ..I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t ....44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration . . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p.4. . tn t .. If tn.. O��_4o P n. 5 .1 and Pn . then a better estimate of p may be obtained from .1 6). ... ... .I Figure 5 .. . . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer.. ..1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p.
r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S . we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g .1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. fl3  fJ.1 7) I t =9 viIZ. From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .4. (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . 41 9) . ( � .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .41 8) (S . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point. � ( S .41 7).iri equati �n (S.si n L'> E l . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative .4.
Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .Sec.2mk2 Qp 2kQp .( k .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .4 T H E p.Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb. we obtain .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .420) From equation (5 . bE d�E .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .47).Qp ) Q.4 8) . from equation (5 .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE . 5 .2 dp k ( k .E / dp and noting. that ( k .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .
= . (5 . p(k h JJ.Qp) si n 6E JJ.6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.. (5 . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .1 9). 5 (5 . and (5 . _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.1 8) from (5 ..420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .. which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.4.4.42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .� (6E .6E JJ.250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .423) .
II using 2 . Sec.4.422) or (5 .423). as appropriate .1 0) or equation (5 . 4 .4. a.1 4) and (5 . Solve for Ll. 5 .27) and (5 . 7 . This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. of p.To evaluate the slope at Pn .1 1 ) . (5 . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo .2·3). the values of g.6E or Ll. Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 . As stated earlier . 8 . Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . 5 251 . Solve for t from equation (5 . G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits.8). t and .4.E or Ll.22).4. using equations (5 . 6. 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . should be used in equation (5 . Solve for f. Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions. Using the trial value.44). The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a.F. Pn . solve for a from equation (5 4 . equations (5 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .4.1 2) or (5 .1 5). 25).4. The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear.1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. 2. 5 . Evaluate the constants k.24) and (5 . Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola. Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . we will develop and use the f and 9 series. Q and m from r] . 2 . 5 .49) and (5 .F obtained from the trial value. 9 and f from equations (5 . 3 . 9 . r and Ll. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector.
54) we have the following recursion (5 . we write equation (5 . 5 .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . 5 5) r r (5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn .57) (5 . 5 9) .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . (5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion. r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 4) for n = O. Therefore. 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . 5 2) (5 . (5 .
515) =  ur.and the equation of motion f  (5 . q. These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .51 6) (5 . u L. p and q which will be useful later .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. p. We define them as follows : O. Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .51 3) rr and the definition of p.1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr .1 7) .5W)  (r . 5 . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .5 11 ) (5 . as we shall u . 5 .5. 5 . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .5. (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 . this can be (5 . v are known .51 2) u . From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec.
58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . (5 .3u p (5 . ) _ 24 (r .23 r· (V) r   u.U = 22 r2 r  Similarly.254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 522) q = . Summarizing: (5 . . v) _ 1 u. 5 20) (5 . 1 1 1 1 . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r .1 8) Using the definition of P.57) and (5 . . ) . . r r (5 . 5.1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 . _ [1 1  2 (v .r .U . 5.(v) 2 . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r . d q = d t . 5 .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 .p (u + 2q ) . r) (v) 2 . = .
r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .54) for n = 1 .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .u r = . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = .t!:.30p p + 3 q ) . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .6 u 2 p = .1 5u p ( u .3 u p ( u . = F 1 r + G 1 .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .. Writing equation (5 . p and q.3p ( u + 2q ) .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. = .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u . F3 = F . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.u G 4 = u ( u .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u . = r 0. 5.6 u 2 p = .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing. ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .u G = . Fs = F4 . = .Sec.
tao Comparing with equation (5 .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .52) and (5 .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.524) (5 .5.525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t.256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .523) .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 . Vo (5 .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u . Referring to equations (5 . .526) . therefore.4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious. the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .Gn n.1 . ) . . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 . 5 = U (u .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .
F 1 = 0.l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .6q .3q . F 2 = 'U.u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .30q .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) . G 1 = 1 .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .28q .Sec.51 .94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 . G = O.20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) . F = 3up 3 F = u(. G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .2 1 q .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) . G = 30up(1 4p2 . G = u. 5 .90q . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.
f I . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v.f (r I . r I .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u . p. Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 .6. This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. 5 .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . (5 . 5. 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy.24) and (5 . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . 2·5). the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. 7) r I g (r I .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 .51) + 9= 7  1 .5·27) + ' (5 . 5. to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . 7) (5 .2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 .5·29) .0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. The f and 9 series may be used .2·3). From equation (5 . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large.
so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. thus Figure 5 .6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .61 Sector and triangle area (5 .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA. . L£ . 5.Sec.61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6. As. A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . becomes dt (1 . This . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector.
260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .62) (5 . let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. .43) and using the identity.' l'2 2 2 (5 .63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss. 5.6.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3." + l( 1 .2 The First Equation of Gauss. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 .2E ) 2 .V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 . If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.c o s b. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b.6. 4 � c o s b. E ) . The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 .
s i n l:>E ) .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.(5 .L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 . .61 ) becomes si n l:v . equation .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .2 ( 1 r1 r .. L ( l:>E .. Using the identity.2 2 L (5 ...s i n l:>E ) .24) and (5 .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .= .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . 5 .L .6 .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .. t/y. (5 .61). so . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 . Si. si n l:v cos � .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  . 3 The Second Equation of G auss.£Q. From the first of these equations..67) 1 cos l:>v =.65). ( .Sec. we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 . Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 . n l:> E ) .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .
69) are transcendental.s) .64) and (5 . the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 .1 ) . 6. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = .6. (5 . This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . equations (5 ." 5 . p. and so on. y and LE . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. 22) completes the solution. (5 . pick a trial value for y. from r I ' r2 . 24) and (5 . in three unknowns. When convergence has occurred. so a trialanderror solution is necessary. 23). n = 2 si n 3 LE . Unfortunately. which is known as "the second equation of Gauss.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . a and LE. using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 .from (5 .1 ) = W (LE . !:JJ and t. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE .25). since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 .6. To review what we have done so far.4 Solution of the Equations . We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation.si n LE ) we may write. a good first guess is y � 1 . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. 27) and (5 .6. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns.262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .69) cos f = 1 . Next. and one more unknown. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 .1 0) .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. The first step is to evaluate the constants.64) and solving for y. (5 . more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. s and w. We then added another independent equation. y.2(� . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. (5 .43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. y 2 ( y . S + 1 . recall that we started with three equations. until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical.Si.
69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .c:. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.6.c:. .c:. F.c:.S ) y (5 .E and . as y2 = W S + x .c:. the righthand side of equation (5 .cE. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section.c:.1 2) = X = .F .c:.c:.E s i n 3 .c:.F = rush .1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.E is imaginary.F is real.0.c:.c:.c:.c:. then .6.F . F s i n h 3 "2 .6. For this reason. 5 . )� s + 1 .c:.F are close to zero. F = si nh .c:.69) and to determine y. equation (5 . difficulties may be anticipated any time .F and COS i . Since we already know that when . Noting that .c:. 6.F whenever the right side is greater than one .1 0) may also b e written as Sec. If the given timeofflight is short.69) and · (5 .1 0) may become greater than one.E is imaginary. Using the identity.c:.F .F 2 ) · (5 . S. i sin i. indicating that�. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .E .c:. they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.c:.c:. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.cosh 2 . E or .s i n . E = i . 6. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . equation (5 .E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.Since the equations above involve .F will be zero and both equations (5 ..6.1 2) become indeterminate.1 1 ) s i n h .
25) and (5 .F from equation (5 . Compute the constants. problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . parabola.E or 6. determine 6.62) and (5 . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. ) . .1 0) or (5 . E as a power series in x. the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point.6 . The result. and then expressing 6. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 .]) and t using equations (5 . Depending on the type of conic. r2 . g . /:. . it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x..43).23).1 (5 .26). or negative. 3 . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. or hyperbola according to whether x is positive.27) and (5 .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 .6. f. 1� = 2 3 1. 2.24).6. (5 .63).Y:i. (5 . 2 . from rl . zero. . which is developed by Moulton. 4.1 3).264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . Determine p from equation (5 .6. ( 1 + §. s and w.6. 2 6. 6 . Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 .6.. replacing CDs 6. E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. (s + x ) · 1 (5 . 7 . is .1 1).2 Ch . 5 .1 4). Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. and 9 from equations (5 .61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 .22). X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . .1 4) Now. Determine X from equation (5 . Evaluate f.. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &.1 5) 1 . the orbit being an ellipse.6.
If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. Usually. 72. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . ballistic missile targeting. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . To make the problem even more specific. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT.Sec. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time ." In all but the simplest cases. and ballistic missile interception. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. To avoid generalities. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . �atellite intercept and rendezvous. The £:. 5 . then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers.
. I n ..7. "..� .. ". .266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ..1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem .�: :. I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 ."... ." \ t a rg e t / \ . 5 i nterceptor .' ':. at t.f..... r... �/ �/ ". ��y V \" _ .� ' ... fI }/ \ \ . e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.\.1 . 7 . ) / ot t.. \ •• • • • • • .
We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 .Sec. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. 5 .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. which is when the intercept will occur. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor.
74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . . . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . �v? �v . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. 5 them.238 km/sec.268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . . . \ \ \ Figure 5 . . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. . launch vel. . . " .
In summary . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. In Figure 5 . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site .5 . we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission.2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions .7 . 5 . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. the launch site will have moved eastward .7 . Because of earth rotation. From Figure 5 .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. 5 . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . the better . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor.
4 /':. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .V plot for example intercept problem .O F ..270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .7..F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .) z :J « .
e. 82) t2 so (5 . Although we have examined a very specific example . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series.8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 . t2 . i. the three components of r2 .Sec. Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. 5 .86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis .85) (5 .1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.84) (5 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. (5 . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. P3 · . P3 . another method will be develope d . v2 • P I ' P2 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 .8 . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 .
f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch . Rz . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x. y. 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . Estimate the magnitude of f2 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. ' r2 . f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 .8.8. L3 . 526) and (5 .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns.8) (5 . the components of f2 and V2 . b . in fact only six of the equations are independent. � into equations (5 . 8. these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . R1 . the components of Vz be X. y and Z . L2 . y and z .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. and eliminating the K components. i.272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . 5 to (5 .e.8·7) (5 .
31 3) through (5 . I I I I  x. Ease of computation. EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. f. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 .39). Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location.3 Verify equations (5 .1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. . using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. c. 5 . and (5. Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 .31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. f2 I + J DU). Limitations. Y.527). 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04.32). 5 Z. Z. b.423) for hyperbolic orbits. which are the components of f2 and v2 . =: =: 5 .2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. e . Usirlg specific numbers. 5.Ch . Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 .1 5.522). The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.V required for intercept? 5. Accuracy.41 .6 Derive equation (5 .31 ). 5.4 Verify the development of equation (5 048).526) and (5 . What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. (5.t2 and t2 t } are not too large.
t2 . h = 1 .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . d. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. 5 .00256 (J + K» . The piteration technique.t l determine v2 using a. (Ans. The universal variable method . rl r2 p. which will contain both position vectors.0922 TU. 5 Given two position vectors rI . b. + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . as a function of rI r2 .7 . r2 'and the distance between them.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 .8 using the universal variable. (Ans.tl = 1 . Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. c.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5. 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . 5. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. 5 .J + K). d. vI = 0.009 (. Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. r2 . The original Gauss method. although a few iterations can be made by hand.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 .9 Repeat problem 5 .
(Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. 1 9 1 4. ." in The World of 1 .66986 9921+0 .000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. 1 963. A n Introduction York. New York. New 6. 2I D U t2 . McGrawHill Book Company. to Celestial Mechanics. Bell. 1 . Inc. Richard H. Liu. 1 9 59.t 1 = 0. 4.0. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. "The Prince of Mathematicians. 3.6J + 0. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . Pedro Ramon. Carl Friedrich. r 1 = 41 t 2 .t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . NY. Herrick. the MacMillan Company.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence .2J Use "long way" traj ectory. 1 956. Moulton. a. NY.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. Simon and Schuster. d . NY. New York. New York.7K D U t 2 . f 1 = 1 . Inc.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. Gauss. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. Davis. 2 . (Answer : v = 0. f l = 0 . S. Dover Publications. New York. and A. Escobal. Battin. 1 964. c . Methods of Orbit Determination. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections.Ch . NY. Mathematics. Vol 5 .4804847 1 1 2 +0. A stronautical Guidance.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . 1 965. Forest Ray. John Wiley & Sons. r 1 = 2I t2 . Eric Temple . Appendix A. r 1 = I t 2 . 51 + 0.
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It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery .000 V2's had been fired in anger . By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. which concern us in this chapter. Efforts. . Napoleon I 6. World War II as "too late . The result is well known. begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . ironically . During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. have a very short history . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. longrange ballistic missiles.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon.
In July 1 95 4. Brigadier General 3 . After all. in June 1 9 53 . The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. Trevor Gardner . At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. 4 Accordingly. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. California.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany .000 pounds thrust. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. According to Dr.
While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. by mid· 1 95 9 . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 .2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout.Sec. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. Atlas was a reality. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . the program had. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . Otherwise. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. 6 . it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. 6. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy.000 people participating directly. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. After three unsuccessful attempts. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. Blasingame . Progress was rapid. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts.
a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations." "height of apogee.2." etc. Since Va:. (6 . Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories.22) .2.2. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 ..2 The Nondimensional Parameter. Figure 6. 6 . =. need not be redefined. Q . There are. such terms as "height at burnout. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . 6 from launch to burnout. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory .. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics. however.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch ." "flightpath angle at burnout. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude.ji1Tr.2. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. 1 defines these new quantities.. 6 . This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions. It will not be discussed in this text. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here .
21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory . 6.2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .Sec .
O/r from equation (6. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. (6.the expression p.2.25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.26) .2.1 ) . When Q is equal to 1 . We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. If Q is greater than 2 . and substitute for V. Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. 24) 6 .23) or IQ=2�·1 p .3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch .
lies on each side of the major axis.f6. 2 Equation.26) above can. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .Sec. 6 .co s v b o . and co s � = . be written as (6. half the freeflight range angle .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) . 'l'. therefore.27) .
it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target. . A. ¢ro. e.2.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6.e2 ). If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. since p = a( 1 . the total range angle. h = rv cos cp. = r Q C O S2 cp . what should the flightpath angle.T.1 1) into equation (6. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. . a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions.284 . If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.2./. . the required freeflight range angle. also becomes known. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. (6.29) Now.28) p.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6.2.29) and (6. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6.
¢bo.2. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 .In other words. In Figure 6 . Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. Sec 6 . F'. is called r bo . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent .4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. We could .23 Ellipse geometry 6 . with a little algebra. Now. choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . Instead .
1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.I n 2 and also as rb (6. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . we can express d as 'i' d = o S .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. that. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal. F' and the burnout point.000 ) from equation (6." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F.24. shown in Figure 6. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery. This is. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror .2. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800.2. d. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid. � + 'lr) = .Qb o sin � .1 6) .2.2. in fact. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 . for example.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. It means.x) = sin (6. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . Qb o 2 2 (6.1 3) (6.
24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 .866. . sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .2.9. so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = . 6.Sec.1 6) gives us .
A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth.25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. Because a = .288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. Figure 6 . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable .P/2&. Table 6. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target.21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. If Q bo is greater than 1 . so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . 2. The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . . A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . 2. the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length.1 6) does not exceed 1 . An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . Nevertheless. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. If Q bo is exactly 1 . This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. equation (6 . the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . Provided that 'l' is attainable.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable.
6 . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories .Sec.
ha p og ee 0. hits earth 000 > 1 high only .290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU.low traj . 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :.11 5 18 1 . we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. hits earth Table 6 . what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. vbo = 2/3 DU/TU. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . cos ¢ b o == 0. During the test firing of a ballistic missile. skims earth high only .625 .low traj .5 DU. Assuming a symmetrical trajectory.21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'.
2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . 6 . 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . 60 0W .Sec. 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . :. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . 'IT.1 .025) = 1 .5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = .2.2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 ..2. 2<P b o + 64°20. versus the flightpath angle . 08 1 7 ( 1 . 6. 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. 26. 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 2) . Notice or <P b o = :.025 DU respectively. 36° . 'IT is less than 1 80 ° .08 1 7 DU/TU and . 600 E. We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . ) (60 n m i ) =2. c os � = + N .4Deg. 6 2 1 . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.
.pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 . then. be the maximum range condition. en EO I .s. If the right side of equation (6. There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition ..� 90 Figure 6. . A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .1 8) L__________________� .. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target. 0> <1> <1> � IJ. s 0> Q) 0 � c .26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory.:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight . One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero..1 6) equals exactly 1 . (2<P bO � ) 2 .. 2. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.1 7) I (6. :.2. � 80 ...292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell ..'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6.Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 .2.
but .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. 'JI . VI 1 800 . If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .e cos 2 (6.2.1 7 ). 2.Qbo Qb o (6 . From the symmetry of Figure 6.7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2).8) .6 Time of FreeFlight. 2 . This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle .222) . 220) for maximum range conditions. 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.2. 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. 6 .1 9) for maximum range conditions. We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6. The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. noting that l .Sec:.cos 2 . sin �= 2 2 .'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 .. 6 . By inspection. 2./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .
300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . 2. e. 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . can be obtained from equ ations (6. The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. and the eccentricity. 28.27 Time of freeflight (6. Figure 6 . 23) and (6. In fact . What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . 6 The semimajor axis. a. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile .1 1). since five variables have been plotted on the figure.
It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM.750 n m .Sec. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.000 nm. 6 .95 From Figure 6.25 D U == 7 .8 period vs.075) == 0. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.884) ( 1 .
.N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. hi. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C.CI�rie� v X I . .aje. . : ' . :: :"/ N . : :/ .. :: : J: : : .� '" �� :. : : .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . .9h Ir. ' .. . : : . . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: ..I ' : ' : : : : : : .
2. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit.  Vbo 6. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount.3 ° From equation (6. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant.6X. position.6X and . . For a fixed burnout altitude .OOO nm max = 3. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first. 'l' From equation (6. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . . 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. 6 .933 D Urr U � 24. 2 00 ft/sec . 8. impacting at B. 3 . payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . For brevity .3 .6C may be / 9 57 1. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . 6 .Sec. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. 957 Hsi 66. F or purposes of this example.77 0 = 0 . In Figure 6 . and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors.444 n m = 2.32 r ads = 1 33.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories.6C. The arc length .3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed.1 � 0. .6C represents the cro ssrange error. the crossrange error.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors.220) . and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.
X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . if the intended target had been the north pole . 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 .3. for example.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . we get (6.3 .1 .thought of as angles. Equation (6. In Figure 6 . 3. cos .1 ) to (6. . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr."2 to simplify equation (6 . if they are in degrees.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. I 1 .32) 2 X Figure 6. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center. 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation.
2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. Figure 6 . P. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error.32 Azimuth error 6 . we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 .'l1. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown .33) .32 is the crossrange error . 299 Figure 6. a crossrange error. 6 . 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . before .Sec. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth.3 . are as planned. 'l1. 6(3. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. will result. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. �C. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 .
<Pbo' In Figure 6. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount .0. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 . 6. it will hit the target anyway .\]I will represent a downrange . cos X � 1 .33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.D.� I a q..3 ..0.path angle .C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation.34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r. if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.21 about the center of the Earth.3.. If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.0.\]I.x ' to simplify equation (6.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. 6 If we assume that both 43 and . \]I.. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . are shown by a solid line in the figure .y I  : : i. This . In other words. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn . (6.33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it .33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.oo a "'00 Fl ight .
2.3 .35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .cot <P b o (6.1 2) of this chapter . then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .1 0) Qbo I i . But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.36) (6. 6 . The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.3.8) (6.Sec.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .6. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3. We could get an approximate value for . 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target. The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory.
1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants. acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6. 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate . a'l1 .1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .3. Let us first express equation (6. _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .3.1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 . Vb Substituting from equation (6.3.3.1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo . 3.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .
the actual range error on a 3 .3. 3 . 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. angle errors. the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . A plot of range versus burnout radius. Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. when used in the manner described above. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . particular burnout error . While we need equation (6. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot).600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory .3 . equation . If this seems strange. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0.000 nm range. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot.1 3) This partial derivative . Figure 6. 6 .33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors.1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. In fact. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 .33.Sec. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories.
. the missile overshoots .1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 .3.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The magnitude of the error is (6.1 1) implicitly.000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .3..3.2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .3. differentiating the range equation (6 .1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6. b o 'fJ ' (6 . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended. 6.1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.3. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots .6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .1 4) for small values of . Again.3. 6 however. the missile falls short of the target in every case . if burnout occurs too low. too slow and the missile falls short.
There is no crossrange error.1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range .1 0.6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .735 = 6 .5 x 1 05 D U/TU . Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . 1 ) 2 . 3. 1 D U .3.905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . 649 r ad U D U/T . 6 .9 0 5 D U !TU .905) 2 ( 1 . An analysis of equation (6 .6¢ b o = . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. like the other two influence coefficients. ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error .6V b o + a 'lr . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.4 rad ians. LW b o = .1 8) would reveal that. ub o = 5 x 1 0 . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = . r bo = 1 . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . We will need Q bo (. Total downrange error : . 735 rad DU r b o ( . .Sec.4 D U .
1 .1 .4. That is. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed.56x 1 0. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 .1 0. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . for example).4 )+6. The rotation is from west to east. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. and its azimuth angle.649 (5x 1 O . 56x 1 0 . In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. both the launch point and the target are in motion.5 24 ft/sec. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation. ove rshoot 6.2sin 1 60 o 2 = . If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar.S ) . 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 .2 1 (. v. {3. 6 =2. The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. then all three . we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives. m i .4 ) (3444) � 4 n .306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .735 ( 5x 1. <p. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. That is.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating.4 ) TOT =1 1 . 6. 0. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . its flightpath angle.
we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. �.I ·=<� • . the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . An observer at rest would not agree . Like the observer on the moving train. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 .000 ft/sec. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it.5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction.. A simple example should clarify this point. of train l \\�. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . . of 900 (east).Sec.000 ft/sec.1 ) . and a speed of. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 .41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. say 1 . an azimuth. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. Hereafter.4.4. of 45 0 . an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. we will refer to measurements of burnout . direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. 6 . Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . (6.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . 1>.
It is. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve .308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . (6 . of course. lies. v. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. �. v at burnout which determines the missile ' s .45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. break up V into its components. Thus. We can obtain the south. and up components of the true velocity. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . first.42) The true speed. Vs (6 .43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . flightpath angle . One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. Once you have the components of ve. east . this will not be difficult.44) �. finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy.
43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation.43 is just 90 0 L o. If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. Hopefully. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . In Figure 6 . when the missile arrives at point B. The term. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . the target will be there also. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 .4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. so the arc length OA in Figure 6. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively.4. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . 6. Rather . The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch.Sec.
If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. Once we know the total range angle.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . (6 . The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.0. . by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . . {3.N + wffitA' where .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.0. The longitude difference. {3. and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . tA .N + w ffitA ) . and if.0.47) Solving for cos {3. (6 .0. A. It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . (6 .43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 .48) Again. we get c o s {3 = sin L t . then a value of . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .0.0.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth.N. we can solve for the required launch azimuth. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 .
By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . and launch azimuth. the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range .Sec. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . Needless to say. In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . A. 6 . tA But . A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. (3.
0 58 8cos290 = . 1 ) 1 . 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . 339 ) =. 9 s i n 300= . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.. 5 1 1 95 v . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . 85 From Figure 6 . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = .. Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed.. flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 1 DU.4 5) : v= . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . using Q bo = .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 79 . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of . 339 ) 2 + ( ... 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 29 . .( .42) through (6 .3 ° W burns out at 30o N.5022 ta . 87 9 30. v = . 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ .. 6 . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 33° ¢bo = v E = .675 s (J=333 . 9cos3 00cos 3300= .j( . 45 ) 2 = .. 8° v n /3 = v = . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 .9 DU/TU.
203.7 8 0 . E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1.3.13 = 7.4 . w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . 334 TU boN = 135° . 334TU ) =123. 6 70) =.85 and ¢bo = 3 0.80° . 334)=135° . 2 5 TU :. 770 N re = 156.we(3. 6.Sec. 77° = . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . 29 . . 3709 �GG (3. 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = . tff=3. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 .7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � .123 .
05 D U = 1 0° . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. and a spherical Earth. r b o = 1 . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. .1 9)? Why? 6 .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .840.040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0.5 D U!TU 1 . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 .6 ft/sec) 6 . m i . R = 6 0 n .926 D U /TU . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . v = 1 6 .2. = .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . m i . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude. 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N. 6 EXERCISES 6 .
1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N .02. 6 .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. 7 I n general. . . how large can .0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .98 to 1 .2 1 2 run) 6. 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . A lateral displacement . 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 .Ch. What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . Rtf = 5 . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. Do not use charts. 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. Rtf = 4 . In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 .06 DU.02.)(.400 n mi.000 run) 6 . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .'lr ). an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + .6. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of . 1 0 During a test flight. (Ans. Using the equations si n iL.x and L¥3 be? . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o .6.
How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. 6 . 7 .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 .6888 n mi L:. or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 .31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. Is this a high. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 .800 nautical miles? (Ans. c . vbo = 0.V = 25 . b . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . (Ans. 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .642 DU/TU) . ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar .. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:.r = 0. 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. 6 6 . low. ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range .0 DU for a ballistic missile.346 n mi long) b.. ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. a.
at the same altitude ... R t of 4. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . 5 DU.700 n mi using a high trajectory.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. tff 40.ri. determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity. What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum.6 . Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . Ch .4 min) = 6. 5 DU and whose perigee is . 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . 6 . 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 .22 The range error equation could be written as: b. at an altitude of 2. 6. Do not use charts. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.where e is the 6 .e . using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ).20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. �bo and analyze the result .QL. 3 0 0 E. i. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 .23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of .. 1 5 00 E.'I' = � b. Q bo + .530 ft/sec. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. 1 2 00 W.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. b.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N.. If the velocity at burnout was 28. 6 .
c. 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 1 200W .1 045 .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of . It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 .3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.66E+20784. How far will the missile miss the target? 4.4 rad ian s a. (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .0057 ° = .48966 = 3 1 5 . (Ans.318 V bo =23. 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 . 92S1 0608.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high.5 0 . Do not assume a nonrotating Earth.500 ft/sec=O.25 An ICBM is to be flight tested. elevation . low.6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . or maximum range trajectory? 6 .1 0 . b.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . v bo = .
1. Assuming a symmetric orbit.73 n mi. tff 3 2 . downrange displacement of burnout point . == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . L t 54 0 3 1 '. What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d .6 1 8 . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. . and r bo � r(fl. 0 (Ans. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 .Ch . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 .400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. atmosphereless Earth. 5 7 min) == * 6 . (Ans. 43e .649 n mi . N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' .1 2 ' . 1 20 OW .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . rotating. ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. What was the freeflight range. site located 319 During the actual firing. == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical.
Wheelon . Eric. 3 . Dornberger . The Viking Press. The MacMillan Company.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . 1 95 5 .2. Space Technology Laboratories. A History of the U.2. 1 965 . .02 DU. V2 . Los Angeles. 1958. 6 * 6. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. Vol 2. Albert D. Inc. * 6. Inc. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion.800 n mi. Garden City. Frederick A.1 2) .3 1 The approximation : * 6.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 .30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . 2. R ff ::: 1 0. New York. NY. Lt Col Kenneth. Gantz . Burgess. altitude at bo ::: . New York .S. Ernest G . New York. 1 962. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). (Hin t : See section 6. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . Schwiebert. 1 960. NY. ed . "Free Flight . Publishers." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. Doubleday & Company.4) .29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . 5 . A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. NY. Calif. Praeger.3 . The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. 4. Walter.6Vb o . NY.
does. when it is dark. move round the Sun once a year. . The Moon is the more useful. though principally attracted by the Earth. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. together with the Earth.the Moon. Proctor. since it gives us light during the night. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . of all which.. about which she moves. and moving round it. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. the Sun or the Moon? . have been discovered. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . and is. .CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. the 32 1 . It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. when it is light anyway. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For.
Brown . A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. Lagrange and Laplace . but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. W. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time .322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . but because it comes close to being a double planet. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. W. has given a full account. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. 7. A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction.in this case the Sun. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. D'Alembert. . it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 ." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. Clairaut . Even interplanetary trajectories.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. 7 Author in this book. with no less subtility than industry.
. .3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . According to one theory advanced by G. the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . ��===c==Q. . . :. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . . . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . in fact.: =j Figure 7. These periodic fluctuations in longitude were.3 days. Darwin.400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .:.Sec.. The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. This puts the center of the system 4. .. . Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. son of the great biologist Charles Darwin.3 04 of the mass of the Earth. H. . the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. . As a result . 7 . . 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface .
due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. In the case of the Moon's orbit .22 Lunar orbital elements 7. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .2. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. the orbital elements are constantly . 7 Figure 7.
The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. called "evection. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 7 .Sec. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . The line of nodes. This effect .3 1 66 1 days.8 days. c.000 years ago by Hipparchus.054900489 . The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384." was discovered more than 2 . b. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' .400 km.
23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S.2 Lunar Librations. the other . d . where the Moon crosses from north to south. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. e . in l S72. but more than a century later .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . rotates westward.000 years. When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction.9 years. the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7.2. making one complete revolution in l S ." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse .6 years. From Figure 7.6 years. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. is the descending node . If the Moon's orbit were = . being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . 23 ° 27' . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. for only then can Sun.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . its mean value is 5 0 S ' . Thus. and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary.
75 0 around each limb of the moon. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 .M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. solar perturbations." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca.3 .Sec. and 7. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. Actually we see . The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. at one time or another. daybyday. SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. we would see exactly half of its surface . about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. As a result. 7 . The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. solar pressure . At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. the computer time required could become prohibitive . which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. monthbymonth basis. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . among other things. This permits us to see about 7 . lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour .
400 km. semimaj or axis. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about .3.0549 .Q. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. It is not important that the analytical method be precise. 2& e = y'1  pia .2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. 7 . We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . 7. a = :l:!:.3 . but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem..328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter.6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. this will not introduce significant errors. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ.. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit. With this thought in mind. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories.
we get c o s V = 2.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed ..3 . II.c C/) ...i. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit. .r1 1. we can solve for va . we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.. 60 \ \ I njection . F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . 7 . We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.Sec. In Figure 7. j 80 . 1 r1 1 .c " 0 .9 I njection 1 1..0 S pe e d ..M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.g' .31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly. e r Figure 7. E i= ...:.  I..2 10..
. : . . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 .3 . then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. .330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds... . If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP. 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory .. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed .32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape .. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \.05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 .')'... 7 . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours. Actually. the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection.... 7 an injection altitude of . to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.: / :1 ...J! .. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero. to parabolic. As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . \ 0 �� ' earth " . In Figure 7.
both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . if we try to take longer by going slower. In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. this minimum injection speed is 1 0.32 we see that. Assuming an inj ection altitude of . Moon from our assumed inj ection point .32. the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . 82 km/sec. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . From Figure 7 . which we can call 1/1. The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . Eventually . if we keep reducing the injection speed . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 .we will never reach the Moon at all. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . If we are trying to minimize injection speed. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon.Sec. In general the sweep angle . 7 . as the injection speed is decreased.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. is a function of . 1 8 8 km/sec. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. Assuming no lunar gravity . In such a case . 3 . This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . the injection conditions are not exactly as specified.966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity .32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. 7 . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. due to errors in guidance or other factors. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. .
This may be seen from Figure 7 . and wrrft.33 . Neglecting lunar gravity. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj.. that is. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . for example . the initial velocity is too high. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. If. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. . But.
This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. however.1 ) . There is. .4.3 00 km. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 .4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . for all practical purposes. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . 5 However. 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 .0 km/sec. 7 . It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. 7. only are interested in determining ap.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. R s' given by the expression Sec. the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle.arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . In effect." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon.
1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit. the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.1 ) can be found in Battin . 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.4. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h .) Then.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . 7 .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .4 .1 ) yields the value Rs = 66. 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame. A full derivation of equation (7 .4.4. Figure 7 .
at lunar arrival is (7 .42) (7 . 1 .44) . Finally. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. the radius. 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration.46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . from geometry . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables. r 1 . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit.Sec. The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 .45) COS <P I .43) From the law of cosines. The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 . r 1 . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions.r h V 1 I (7 .
49) (7 .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 0) . a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. 7 Figure 7. t l . JJ.4.47) 2& e = ".to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined. 1 p ia  a = :l!. p=� (7 .48) (7 .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.
6 rad/sec 1 0 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 . 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .1 1 ) (7 . timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .4.4. where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .4. 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.649 2.1 3) (7 .4.1 6) The phase angle at departure. .4. Eo and E1 from Finally. Wm = = t 1 .1 2) Next.3 rad/TUEIl (7 .to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence . 7 .1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 . we can determine the eccentric anomalies.Sec.1 5) 2.e 1 r1 __ (7 .4. 1 37 X X 1 0.
the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO . The geocentric radius. It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . 7 . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . (7 .42 : V m = 1 .1 9) .4.45).4.1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition.4. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. r2 .4.which we chose arbitrarily . a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . In Figure 7 . r 1 .4. then the selena centric radius. We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft . 7 . (7 .1 8) (7 .2 Conditions at the Patch Point . at arrival is completely determined by \ .1 6) above .48) through (7 . The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed.0 1 8 k m/sec. Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail. is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . We will do this in the sections that follow. it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon .
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
40 . «>  0. Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .50 � � c 0 i e 1.30 .20 .54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .
then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.5 0 and 28 . Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. 5 4 worth noticing.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent .52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . As a result . b oth of which are undesirable. if we add a coasting arc. It should be obvious from equation (7 .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 .3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . If lighting conditions are important. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely.5 0 .5.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. From Figure 7 . If lunar declination at intercept is specified. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 .5 3) . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. 54. 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. Figure 7 . sir! 0 1 . However.5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions.52) and Figure 7 .Sec. 7 .si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 .
5 9 28 34 33 .3 1 8 5 .3 3 3 1 67 .449 1 67 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .85 4 1 . 624 1 7 3 5 00. 1 0 1 6. 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39. 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .424 1 67 . 1 7 2 1 67 .78 1 3 1 . 7 .766 1 7 43 23 .88 28 33 3 5 .308 1 8 22 22. 2 1 28 34 42 . 1 9 173.47 28 25 3 8 .56 .020 1 8 1 6 49.90 28 33 5 3 .949 1 8 05 42.89 28 24 29 .58 73. 24 .44 28 2 1 1 8 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .97 29. 1 90 1 67 .97 28 34 3 9 . 1 3 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 .203 28 1 8 49 .87 28 34 22.350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8. F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch .970 1 66 .460 1 67 .45 8 0.963 1 8 27 5 5 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .4 1 3 1 66 .3 . 973 FIgure 1 65 .07 47.737 18 1 9 36 .76 28 3 1 09 .00 28 28 1 5 . 1 5 28 34 1 0.998 17 5 7 20. .63 1 1 1 .695 1 8 02 54 .05 8 1 65 .08 28 29 08 .34 28 32 1 7 . 078 1 66 .254 1 67 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .41 7 1 67 . 7 1 7 1 66 . 1 0 28 27 29 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .9 8 9 8 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0. 1 1 28 22 1 7 .44 22.72 1 1 8 25 08.862 1 65 . 8 1 28 32 47 .39 28 3 0 34.445 1 67 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .23 1 23 .46 1 1 67 .97 28 3 1 47 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26. 5 7 1 1 66 .3 1 9 3 .95 7 1 7 37 48. 86 28 26 29 .7 1 54. 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 . 24 28 23 34 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 . 5 8 67.242 1 66 .435 1 65 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 .27 3 5 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.35 28 1 6 08 .32 1 1 67 . .3 1 28 29 48 .3 1 + 1 48 . 8 0 1 36.38 + 9 . 267 1 67 .85 1 1 66 .385 1 67 . 1 4 1 06.84 60.374 1 8 00 07 .97 1 1 9.1 44.05 28 33 1 1 . 1 969 .376 1 67 .
plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. The launch time.9 . is the same as the "local sidereal time . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. which may be computed from the injection conditions. between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . it is possible to adjustt l .54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . !::lX . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. The difference i n right ascension . �. 5 3 . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. and may be obtained from equation (2. 1/1 c ' Thus.5 . 5 4). c o s 1/1 t .89) : (7 56) .Sec." 8.3 . ao' at this launch time . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. we get cos 6a. \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. 84). slightly (7 .53 .si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . at the launch point (see Figure 2. Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . the total time . 7 . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . tt ' is (7 .
. What additional 6.2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. and the exact We now know the injection conditions. 7 . r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier. 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth.426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 7. 000 k m 33 .and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer.300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. � .(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 .3 224 . 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I.t I ES Ch .4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = . 7.54) agree.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon.
Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. 7 . a . The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. Determine the /:.v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn.Ch . What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° ..9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. b. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec . . Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby.400 k m : a . What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 .6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars.
<1>0 = = = * 7 . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. select ro ' vo ' to meet this . requirement. 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) .354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. . Specifically.) * 7 . Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. 7 7 . vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . Use h bo l OO n mi .
Makemson. 1 943 . NY. Baker. The Story of the Moon . Academic Press. The Moon . 4. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 1 964. November 1 95 9 . University of California Press. Doubleday." ARMA Document DR 220. NY. New York. 1 9 5 9 . McGrawHill Book Company. Doran and Company. 3 . Inc. Principia . 5.1 6. 1 967.Ch. 2. George . A stronautical Guidance. . London and New York. Clyde . NY. Robert M. New York. Richard H . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Second Edition. Battin. an d Maud W. Garden City. 6. 1 962. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Fisher. Isaac . Newton. L. Abelard Schuman. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Gamow.
.
. indeed. and a mouth . two nostrils. By 1 507 he was 357 . Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. two luminaries. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. two ears. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. At first it was not understood .CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. But the tide of opinion ebbed. which it were tedious to enumerate . we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. two unpropitious. two eyes. C opernicus. etc. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . such as the seven metals.
Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . the members of the solar system. 3. The "law. 1 Bode's Law. 1 2 . . Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . indeed. nevertheless.2. . are spread much more widely throughout the system. diameter. some of which pass near the Sun." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. at the age of 70. . observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. Saturn. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. In addition. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. Neptune.2. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system." as may be seen in Table 8 . add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) .1 . 6. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. and Pluto . . Uranus. If we write down the series 0. Mars. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. 8.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. Jupiter . After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Earth. Venus. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . 8. comets. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church.
1 7 39.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.22. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune .52 1 9.Sec. The sixth orbital element.21 Actual Distance 0. 8.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.2 1 0.65 5. Only for brief periods.52 2. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . 0 is presented in Table 8 .0 1 9 . Except for Mercury and Pluto .8 5 . Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .00 1 .8 77. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic.2 Table 8.72 1 .2. compared with the total mission duration. 8.4 0. is its path . 8.20 9. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .28 3 0.7 1 .6 2. Table 8 .0 1. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.6 3 8 .39 0. The size.
) 00 . 5 68 3 1 ° . 7 73 1 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° .850 1 ° .203 9.400 276 ° . 1 1 1 326 ° . 2056 .870 L.489 0° .0539 . 000 1 °.423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c. 0068 .394 0° . 5 73 1 75 ° . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .441 73 ° . 0 1 67 .322 1 00 ° .5 24 5 . 074 1 83 ° .828 1 7 1 °.. 0482 ..005 0 . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.684 93 ° .. 05 1 4 .096 1 88 ° .2583 7 ° . 76 ° .7233 1 . 1 42 1 02 ° .5 1 9 1 9 .004 3 ° .000 1 . 5 1 3 5 2 ° .405 undefined 49 ° .225 237 ° ..4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .28 3 0. 3 97 1 09 ° .970 7 6 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a .306 2 ° .773 1 7° . 0934 . 1 3 6 47 ° . 38 7 1 ..497 1 3 ° . 1 7 3 9 .275 222 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 8 94 341 ° .76 .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28.
80 5 .8 8 1 1 1 .268x 1 0 B 3 .0 95.05 6 .795x 1 0 7 5 .46 84. 1 1 49 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.000 1 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .3 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .65 6.3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .87 3 5 .79 24.06 9 .6 1 7 .8 6 29.8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .8 1 7 1 .24 1 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .8 247 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .3 05x 1 04 1 ..l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury . 1 4 1 3 .896x 1 0 6 3 .7 5 7 .232x l 0 4 3 . 1 08 3 1 8 .49 4.2 1 4.6 1 5 1 .820x 1 0 6 6 . 5 227.. 0 1 1 64.04 29." .74 2 .257x l O s 3 .986x l O s 4.9 1 08 .000 .9? 1 .
The Hohmann transfer. Just as in lunar trajectories. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method.v required. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet.3 . we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). For transfers to mo st of the planets. this consideration is important. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. 8.3l . The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. from the standpoint of /:. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. if continued past the destination planet . the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. was the Hohmann transfer. however. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar.
.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit. 8.u o_____+." . Therefore .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / .v required for an interplanetary mission. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::. . The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .' .d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit.. \ _. Nevertheless. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.Sec. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip.V.
3. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . then. for the Hohmann transfer. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.78 kIn/sec.33) In Table 8 .l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun.3 and should be reviewed . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f.where f. From Table 8. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . • . The heliocentric speed.1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. the difference between the heliocentric speed. B (8 . 3 .l 0 (8 .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. In any case . If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.3 . transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .
r d = 1 . Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits. t2 .9 1 6 1 .397 22.78 46. Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .42 4 1 .345 1 . 8.60 Table 8.379 1 . rE9> are respectively : .57 . In other words . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.5 1 46 . 40.28 32.03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence.28 27. 1 6 30. VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . From Table 8 .099 1 .74 6.31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.73 38.9  2 .07 4 1 .Sec.524 A U From equation (8 .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .3 9 1 1 .04 1 6.748 .295 1 .05 4 1 . 1 2 5 8 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun. rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.31 1 05 .
VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected. where is the angular velocity of the target planet. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.2 Phase Angle at Departure. The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . 8 From equation (8 . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4. Thus. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.35) wt (t2 . vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .32 for a Mars trajectory.099A U/TU 0 = 32.4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .3. and is illustrated in Figure 8 .9 d ays 8. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . v . From equation (8 .t1 ) wt .32) the heliocentric speed .3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 .73Km/sec .t 1 = 1T = 4. If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.3.7088 years = 258. the phase angle at departure .34) __ (8 .
Figure 8.. 367 . .. 'Yl (8 . . .36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . . The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun.3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . If we miss a particular launch opportunity. pp 1 60. Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. 8..Sec. . .32 Phase angle at departure.. . how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet.. .. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct...1 76 . The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.
rad/yr 26 . 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. 340 . Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.04 1 . 8.32 1 .W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . yrs 0. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.2 1 7 3 . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .03 8 . so W EfJ7 s . Thus.0 1 1 .v 1 determined. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. 3 ·2. Mars and Venus.3.07 1 1 0.38) .07 5 . then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.09 1 .3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence.00 Table 8.60 2.025 Synodic Period.37) (8.w t I (8 .32 In a time .368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .530 . the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.213 . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again. It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth.01 1 . 1 3 1 .
. .. . '\ . . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo.. . .:V. . '?. (8 . � _ i t_ r b_ . 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola..Sec. 8 .39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . � Figure 8.r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. .310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in .. . . . .33 / . . �... . "..
Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola.1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars.3.98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . the angle . km/sec. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 .2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. so equation (8 . For transfer to one of the outer planets. the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.the injection speed .33 . between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola. fI.1 1 ) becomes = 2 . C but since e = da for any conic. is given by cos fI =  §. fI.39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . This may be seen by solving equation (8 . From Figure 8.34 we see that the angie . we may write . 3.
3.Sec. conditions : = (8 . is obtained directly from the injection (8 . 3 T H E PATC H E D.3.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = . 8 .1 e where the eccentricity .1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. 3.34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .1 2) e.
the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.3.36.3. then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 .1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector .35 Interplanetary launch (8 .3.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . however.4 Arrival at the Target Planet. 8. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. At arrival. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 . When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. Generally. cfJ as shown in Figure 8.
3 . 8 . 3.Sec. 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :. sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 .1 6) (8. (8 .3. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 .1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines.1 8) .2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet.
'Yl should be selected from equation (8.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . e. 3. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there.s i n if> 2 v (8 . 8 . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. 3 7 . will be directed toward the center of the planet.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. From Figure 8 . If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. . 3 7 we see that  (8 . then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . It also means that the relative velocity vector. In Figure 8. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. in Figure 8. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence .36). then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet.3 .320) y = x si n e (8.The angle .
Sec. 8 .lt/ 2 X _ . (8 .322) . 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8. X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f.
327) for y Yields (8 . 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 .(8. W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = . the speed at periapsis is simply .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance.376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . we obtain . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . 324) (8. y.326) Because angular momentum is conserved. Solving equation (8 .
39. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . b. then a much smaller target must be considered.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. V2 + 2fJ. 8. only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section.328) we 'get (8 . The given information is .05 DU. rt This particular offset distance is called b .329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun .Sec.t 3  rt (8 . The. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. the "inwact parameter. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 .329). We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 .
378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .099 A U/TU 0.1 VI = 1 .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 . 6V 1 = 1 . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.1 :: 0.099 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 . 3 .05 D U 1 .099 A U/TU = :.373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.
41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.1 .Sec. 1 39 + 1 .4. 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic. From Table 8 . {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept.4. 8 .044 8 . the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.43 DU/TU .1 ) . This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 . t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.v (8 . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .905 = = 379 37 .v = 2v si n L 2 /::.07 6 ft/sec 2 . departure Figure 8 .
8 as derived in equation (3 . _  /' . 8. 7. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) . 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8..6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units. 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel. 5 for the planet Jupiter..3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 ..380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.1 )) . 8. 8 . 8.7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years.62 DUJTU� 8.1 ) . (Ans.2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun .3. " . 8.32.4. EXERCISES 8 . 8..5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 ..3 .
1 00 ft/sec) c.35) ITbo no .l:. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit.348 DUe/TUE9> .000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. v = 39 . . What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the . It can be shown that .V = 0. Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence .l:.. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit .l:. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the .9 In preliminary planning for any space mission.l:.v ? (Ans. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. 1 DUE[) radius.Ch.l:. where 8. a. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission. M = 5.900 ft/sec. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . If c = 9 .V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.394 DUe/TU� b . & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.000 ft/sec. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .V required? (Ans.v = 1 5 . vesc = 1 . The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 .
8 8 . What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans.. = 0. 0.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d.28 AU2 /TU2 . 8. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c... 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . What is the 6.5 DUEI1 circular orbit.. 1 DUe/TUEl1. Find the 6.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars..5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. Find the hyperbolic excess speed..458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units. (Ans. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans. (Ans. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long.0.V at apogee or perigee? 8.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e. 3 . v= 0.V of . 0. 0. The mission will begin in a 1 . What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans.254 AU/TU� . � = 0. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b .9 00 ft/sec) 8 . The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 . so work carefully and follow any suggestions. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6.0.046 DU� /TU � b . What is the 6. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. v=' (Ans. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 . a. 6. a.V is applied at perigee. What is the 6. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. 09 DUe/TU$) = . 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 .73 1 DU8TU� b ..which results if the same 6. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units.0..? (Ans.
For a given planet. 0. then find h. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth.) (Ans. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines.867 AU/TU� e . Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . P.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. 1 4 a. 0.3 9 DU oITU& 2 . 8 . 1 . Vrrw = 0. O o) 8.2 AU/TU� d.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. 'Y1 . c.5 AU.050 ft/sec) 8 . 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity.Ch. Compute the phase angle at departure.5 AU? (Ans.87 TU� b . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0.373 AU/TU � f. for the above transfer. (Ans. (Ans. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . 3 . What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . 1 . Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. called the turning angle . <P2 and vll1II in that order. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination.
LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . Vol 2. transfer time.V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . and the angular rates of the planets. Newman. 1 967. 8 8.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. Simon and Schuster. New York. pp 430434.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars." AIAA Journal. Vol 1 . James R. 1 . 3 . coplanar planet orbits. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. U S Government Printing Office . Assume circular. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. 4 . 1 969. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. No 2 . R. D C . The World of Mathematics. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . London. What would be an estimate of the return b. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. 1 96 1 . 1 963. W . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. . NY. * Ch . Fimple . Washington. 1 95 6 . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8.
After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . and at times unexplainable . it is found that there seem to be distinct. irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. Seldom does anything go exactly as planned .CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. " Webster 9 . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. There is always some variation 385 . Macroscopically . The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth).
Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. and relativistic effects. meteoroid collisions. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. solar radiation effects. 6 . In fact.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . about a century later.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. which had not been treated by Newton . The wind gust was a perturbation. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit.from the norm. Brown 's papers of 1 897. except the motion of the perigee. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. magnetic. Fortunately. atmo spheric drag and lift. M. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . Then. etc. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. 9 . It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. E. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. The power and all directional controls are kept constant.
This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . a section discussing methods and errors is included . Encke. the Cowell. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. In particular. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. H. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. See section 1 . Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . 9 . The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control.Sec. 9. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . and variation of elements techniques are discussed. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. With the capability for orbital flight . The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . It was developed by P. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite.
For the twobody problem with perturb ations. including all the perturbations. the equation would be (9 . Sun and planets.22) would be further broken down into the vector components.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. F or numerical integration equation (9 . r=Y �r (9 . 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body .2. the equations would be . y = vy (9.
the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. 9 . The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation.'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 .23). This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . In spherical coordinates (r. Classically. satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. There are some disadvantages of the method . Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method.3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. and he would be correct . When motion is near a large attracting body . ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2.24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 .Sec.25) .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small.Il m ( 3 . It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories.22). Intuitively. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . Even in double precision computer arithmetic. 8 .
the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. and .3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. 9. In the Encke method .25) As a reminder. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field .'l. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. in our case .31 The osculatil. The term connotes the sense of contact. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . 9 (9 . "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. Presumably . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. reference or b i t Figure 9.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 .
= p ( tb ) p p to = 0. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors.1 ) .3.1 ) and (9 . 3 . be defined as (see Figure and .Sec.3 .1 ) and for the osculating orbit..1 ) . Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration. Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. or epoch. respectively . This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path.33) Sub stituting equations (9 . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . Now w e will consider th. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 .. At that time . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits.3 2) into (9 . Note that at the epoch. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch).  (9 . Let r and p be the radius vectors to .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit. 9.to ) ' p (9 . 9 . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 . the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . r + � r3 r = a t .32)  Sr.33) we obtain .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit .3.
t) can be calculated numerically.lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r ..392 6r == a ) p + IlL p ..6. one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout . For a given set of initial conditions. so r can be obtained from 6r and p.6r ) .34) then becomes (9..3 / 2 (9 .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .37) . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object . theoretically. p is a known function of time .6r] r3 r (9 .was to obtain more accuracy. However. So . 6r (to + . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:. 6r.3 6) Equation (9 .35) 3 3 r _ (9 .
9 . however. OZ are the cartesian components o f or. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. Expanding. In terms of its components Figure 9.Sec. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . Now some ways of calculating q must be found./  Our problem is not yet solved . o y .32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox.
1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates. (9 .31 2) . 3.38) and (9 .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .2q So q =  Now.( 1 .(1 . 9 From equation (9 . There are two methods of solution at this point .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9. It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 .37). so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .38)  1 .3. . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. /) y2 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .37) becomes (9 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ .1 0) (9 .
1 2) is used. Integrate another t:. In (jr p v as described earlier. but of the order of magnitude of 0. Go to step c with t:. rectify and go to step a . and 5r 0 at this point. r (to ) . t:. although the use of equation (9 . Rectification should be initiated when . q (to ) O. v = p + (jr.Sec.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .t) .t) 2 .1 2) may be slightly faster. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. c. Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. f.3.t .nowing p (to ) .t) calculate 1 . If. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits.3. (jr 0.t replaced by kt:.does not remain quite small. p 229). d . f(to + t:. For an integration step.t ) from equation (9 .t). Vol 2. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . q( to + t:. p(to + t:.01 ). The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary.1 0). k. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . so larger step sizes can be taken. = = = = = p continue. Then the tables could be u sed to find f .t) from equation (9 . e . The method using equation (9 . b. a. calculate (jr (to + t:. Knowing 5r(to + t:.t where k is the step number.39) is recommended for use with the computer. If equation (9 . g. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker .3 8) 3. Otherwise (jr p .t to get (jr{ to + kt:.3. 9 . Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . Calculate r = p + (jr.> a specified constant.
at the outset.6. The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. e eccentricity.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. Then e � . so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . a . this method may seem more difficult to implement.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. Thus.t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of .cSr ) (9 . they would remain constant. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration .r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . In the absence of perturbations. For instance.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . etc . it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. Though. A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs./l m {m s . Similarly.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch.6. from the Encke method 9. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . See equation (9 . In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously.3. = . A similar check could be made on i . From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) .
i. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. r. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. n. 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations.variations (e. The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . along the instantaneous radius vector. � . Therefore . w and. 9 . Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations.I OOS . R (unit vector R).Sec. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. e. p 246. 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. . it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated.. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . The standard orbital elements a.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for .g. The axis S is . 9 ..T (or M) will be used.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired.n (t .and dM ?. for a table of parameter sets). The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. . Vol 2 .4 . The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. Eventually . 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations .
43) .42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt . is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G. W. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. The third axis.41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.4. = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .
44) (9. Differentiating the conic equation Qr. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.1:!:. (9 .4.!I=8!" nr from (9 .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations. so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a . expressions for found. This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.44).43).48) we find da dt = (9. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .1 0) . 9.4 and . (9 .46) and F S (9 . dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .� 2& ' = 399 (9 ..45) To express this in known terms.48) Substituting in equation (9.Sec.46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.
2 )% a = (1 .. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.) Since h = hW.la _ (9 04. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.lae dt h $) a dt . r hW + h da S dt (9 .1 1 ) and (904· 1 0). 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.4. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.�) % J.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .
Sec. but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i ..1 8) .h cos i rF s h2 .4.4. 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h. 4 .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.4.sin QL = dt .4.n di dt (9 .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 .4.4./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 . K) � (9 .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r). 1 e2 (9 .1 6) we obtain .1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h . K . 9 .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
The constant of integration. Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9. {at + c) + 3p.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. C.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.2p. which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .2p.v which can be easily solved for c.2p. .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . ..v {at + c ) c (9 . • .450) and solving for e we find (9 . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence .vc .e .2 (at + C)2  .4.v = .454) + 2p. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. but more practically we would consider � = v . and V are small. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P. From equation (9 .4.Sec. .. . c = ve 2 p. 4 where c will be the parameter.45 1 ) .vt . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 .vt 2p.J. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.vat a+v a .v 2p.4.2 p. Since p.45 1 ). 9 .5 1 ) correct to first order in J. allowing c to vary with time .45 0) should be small. ] (9 .
Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. at best. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. accuracy.. his integration method. should be the criteria. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. storage and complexity. 5 . Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. economical in computing time. highly questionable. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. such as the disturbing function. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. Unfortunately. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. c.e.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . or has not carefully selected. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. allow as large a stepsize as possible. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. not expediency. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. b . 9 . will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. . efficiency. d. 9 in detail. 9 . In theory. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i.
i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ .864.28 + 3. Baker (v 2.57 = 7 .476. The larger the .276 + 3 .accumulated roundoff error . They are roundoff and truncation errors. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (.567 = 7. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method. 2 Integration Errors. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the .476. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. Obviously . Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation.5 (9. In fact.388. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. 9 . In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors.388. For instance . Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e .5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. 9 . 5 .843. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. and f. 4. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation.Sec. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s .
Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors.= f(t. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes . we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. 6 . 9 stepsize.6. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. We will treat the first order equation . GaussJ ackson (sumsquared).63) dx dt (9. in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. 9 . In general. the larger the truncation error. Thus.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors.1 ) . Gill. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . EulerCauchy and Bowie . Of course . The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . 9. AdamsMoulton. 1 RungeKutta Method. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations.62) (9. h.
Sec. and stepsize is easily changed .65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% .( 1 . x n .63) and n is the increment number. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + . x n + k 3 ) (9. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize . One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .yV:. 9 . have a relatively small truncation error. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h . They are relatively simple . This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .yry. easy to implement . In general.h ) k3 +. 9 . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. they are faster than the singlestep methods.. It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.k +.( 1 + y. x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure.64) 1 1 + .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method.% ] + k 2 [ 1 . though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + .6. X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9.k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .) k2 6 3 l2 (9.
1 /2 . 3 9. . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0.6.beginning and after each stepsize change.67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 3 /8 .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + .\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k.3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. .\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 5 / 1 2 .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 . 25 1 /720. In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). .1 f .
This method. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 . the error terms are not generally known.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas.6.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +. for instance.1 + 37 f n2 .x n+1I I (P 270 (9. The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here. In equation (9. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l .69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9.59 f n . The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. .Sec. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis). so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.x n + (5 5 f ri . 9 .69).h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9.
1 . numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter.1 ' etc. 9. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n .6.6 .1 f(t n h) 2 2   . more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. It is.° n + .2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n. 9 like other multistep methods. .4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. and most used.2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k. The GaussJackson method is one of the best. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. n + 1 2 n i \. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ".8 k .1 f(t n + h). "x.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . x. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ".418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . though it also includes a corrector. though.h ) .° n 60480 (9. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations. n + � 84 "x.
The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. the accelerations can be found from (9.72) .1 ) One such potential function. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion .e presented in this section. 2 . according to Vinti.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. is known.6. Table 9. However. p/r. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. V.Bashforth) methods are preferred. 9 . For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. is ¢ = � [1 .7. ¢. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. 9 . 2 and NASA C R. 9.1 The Nonspherical Earth . Some of them become quite complex. 9. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. If the potential function.7. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator.6. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works.5 Numerical Integration Summary .l 005). Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. but only the simpler forms will be treated.I n=2 r (9.
COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. it could be very fast. 9 CI) . Vol t . **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. very difficult to determine proper size.' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .
r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L . = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .where J.2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S ...74) . if> = I!:.] (9 .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 . 9.2.J s � ( � ) (35� .L = gravitational parameter Sec.  I..J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> ..
5 ± O. 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .6 ± O. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.44 ± O.422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .2205 2" 6 16 r r (9. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 . . The first term in x.6 J4 = (1 . I )x 1 0. .5)x 1 0..l ( �) 3 ( 3 .6 J = (0.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J . Vol 1 . Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . l )x 1 0.03)x 1 0. These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. which are slightly in variance .(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .57 ± O. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.6 .64 ± O. y. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � .76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 . l )x 1 0.6 6 (0.3003 ""6 ) + . 1 5 ± O. l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .
term) to the RSW sy stem. Therefore .. 9 . by definition. Thus. There are a few ctmtiol). then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth .s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation .7. Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. To do this. However. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . p 147). The equations are formulated in the geocentric . s 9. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant).Sec. 7 Drag.2 Atmospheric Drag.. 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. Vol 1 . equatorial coordinate system. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only).Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . the drag coefficient. and other parameters. simply use r3 r= where . A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w.. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . but will not be presented here.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion .
lli.7 . z refer to the geocentric. 9 . though small. 9 m p C O A .7 . in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . etc. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. but the reader can find this in other documents. Radiation pressure.424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch.ie. altitude above an oblate Earth.78) z . In the geocentric.ilc coffc. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. y . atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density.3 Radiation Pressure. Equation (9 . equatorial coordinate system.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. . can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).t b ae ==ic. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here.
the variation of eccentricity. 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . z directions. but a major force . Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . 9 . iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . 9 . . . Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. See equation (9.79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. EXERCISES 9. m = mass of vehicle (grams) . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. 9. Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. 9 .4. Prove this assertion . y.2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . 7 .Ch. m (9.25).5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).4349 0 x .3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method.4 Thrust.1 5) .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates. 9 where A = cross section f = 4.
000 n mi. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. . 3 . 1 967. and Wilf. A. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . S . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Academic Press. 1 9 1 4. M. 1 96 1 . New York. Washington. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. and Wl). * 9 . * 9. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Academic Press. Inc. C . Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. Moulton . . London . M. Mendez. J . Allione . R. L. and Clemence. Baker. 6. . 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. * 9 . M. 4. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. F . Vol VI. 9 9 . Ralston . Blackford. Robert M . New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. L. Years 1 9601 980. 9 . M.445). John Wiley and Sons. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office.ittouck. The Macmillan Co . 1 960. DC. Feb 1 968.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . Guidance. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. Jr . LIST OF REFERENCES 2. A.l 005 . Brouwer. D. A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics.. 1 . New York. New York. 5 .9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 ." NASA CR. Planetary Coordinates for the. G.
M . H. 1 2. 1 96 5 . 1 96 1 . A . 1 6. New York. 1 968 . 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . DC . Methods of A strodynamics. Longmans. Washington. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. Escobal. Jr. Robert M. L. R. New Yark. The Computation of Orbits. Cambridge University Press. G. New York. D. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). P. Methods of Orbit Determination. Inc. Inc. . P . New York. 1 95 3 . Smart. Hildebrand. 1 95 6 .Ch . Vol 1 . Jr and Makemson. W . Dubyago . Escobal. Maud W. Ann Arbor. Paul. B . E . McGrawHill. F . Part 1 . R . Th e Determination of Orbits. Academic Press. New York. 1 5 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Herget. 1 967. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons. Michigan. John Wiley and Sons. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. C. Townsend. Orbital Flight Handbook. 1 964. M. NASA SP33 . 9 . New York. R. 1 963. 1 948 . Dynamical A stronomy . 1 0. McGrawHill. 1 1 . New York. The Macmillan Co. Battin. . 8 . Celestial Mechanics. Plumber.. New York. Baker. 1 4 . A stronautical Guidance . Published privately by the Author. 1 3 .
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2506844773 deg min 7..4959965 x 1 0' km 5 .APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius..092567257 x 107 ft 3963 .0226757 x 1 06 sec 29.9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .24764 11sec 806 . we 0. 'Derived from those values of Il . 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7...784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 . and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 .. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4.68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 .922786 NM 1 3 .05883 36565 � TV.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 . 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. Canonical Units I DU. 1 97 5 . 44686457 min 6378. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . 1 .292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance. I DU� TUi. 1 328 2 1 days 9. 2593 6.. 1 Center. 3.9053682 8 km' . . English Units Metric Units 2. r. Speed Unit I� TU. r. Ile Angular Rotation.
08 1 52366 0 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .8 9.903665 5 64 x 1 0 .e .2342709 5 . 1f = 3 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .07 1 0 1 50424 4 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 . .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.4 3 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .3 14 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .239446309 x 1 0. i. 1 2 64963205 0 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 . foot = 0. there is no roundoff or truncation.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown.
speed. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . Unit Vector.relationships involving vector quantities. length of a vector . C. I DEFINITIONS Vector. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. temperature . An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. Thus. If A i s a vector . 43 1 . A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . force and acceleration. Q. J. (Example : 3 or A). Examples are mass. velocity . then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . Scalar. Examples are displacement. time or any real signed number. K) and (p. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. not a null or zero vector. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. W).
Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. B and C are coplanar vectors. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors).. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. . The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. If A. regardless of the position of their origins. Coplanar Vectors. and A and B are not collinear. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. 1 Similarly.
Scalar or Dot Product. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .2. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : ..2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.l ) C. is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. denoted by A • B.C. e I I l (C . C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. l .1 ) I AI cos B . V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB .B which is the same as A + (B). B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.
then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . B and C form a right handed system.(B + C) = A .K= 1 I . .(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I .. < 180° ) AxB =C .24) (C. sma l lest ang le ( L e .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A . The cross product of two vectors A and B. The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A.J =K . if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible . K are unit orthogonal vectors.B + A . J . 23 ) (C.22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product. denoted by A x B . That is. is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them.8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . A o A = Aft.J = J o K=K o I = O where I .1=J .
the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where .(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. J. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. e < In fact A x B = .C. then A X B = O. K are unit orthogonal vectors. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C .27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical.
436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .29) Scalar Triple Product.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C. BI C1 .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .
2.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .1 2) (C.2.B3 C) + A ( B3 C .l 3) (C. Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C . The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B . 2.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.2. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C. The vector triple produce. The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .21 4) C.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C . denoted b y A x (B x C) .C.3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.
. ...... " .with itself... v C P K y .YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of . ..... then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + .. . x J Then the velocity relative to the (I.438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o . K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P. thus .....9....... dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 .... ....
the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .3 b.C.. In this special case then. v = wT .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. dr v = . the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path.= . from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P.= . Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . VE LOCITY 439 which.
It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . The input to SITE should be latitude. and of the satellite (R and V). The radar determines p. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. positive to the east) of the launch site. azimuth rate. The input to TRACK should be range. azimuth. EI. latitude of the launch site. AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. p. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . range rate . elevation rate . Use standard unit conversions given in the text.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . and altitude above mean sea level are specified . An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. D . Az. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). longitude. From the 440 . Its geodetic latitude. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. elevation. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . EI.
REAL LONG. GST _ 1 . LST and LONG are in radians.07 1 05 . . .74933340. Input UT as a decimal (i. LST) .57 76. e . D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . UT.05 1 37.ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 .75 components are : (. DAY. .75 1 003 9 1 .27907 599. LST. 007 N 1 04 .5 90 . . LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). observation time and radar tracking data. 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 .8 N 7 8 . 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 .044 1 8440.63745829) z = . An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. . BEGIN REAL D.74933340.8 S 1 7 5. 1 4923608. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . 5. 5 7 5 for data set 3).01 2035 7 5 . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. .08 30..2045 72 1 6 . Following are five sample sets of data for site location.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . . 3 315 . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. GST. .3 . = (.7 5.0027379093®2®PI®D . 6 .5 3 0 .7 . a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST.5 3 4 ON 4 5. 0) = (.MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .5 .62624920) = (.26347 1 9 8 .7 .05 1 9 5238) . GST. UT. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . 8 0. Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 . 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 .5 1 35 . END OF LSTIME . If the above program is used. PI . y. 2 2 29. 040075. 9 W 0 1 9 05.775 1 80 1 9. PI. 6 8 2.48 201. . E 7 2 . . 22 1 0.D. INTEGER DAY.
5 0 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. hyperbolic).2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. From this information you are required to fmd : a. 48 4 0 2. Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK).4 1 4 0 0 65 . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 . 6 2 . . . 00001 . 1 0 0 2 .001 5 30 0 .2 VI .01 . The type of trajectory (circular. 49 0 0 2.9 1 046 1 80.1 .1 0 22. 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 .1 . b .4 1 4 2. parabolic. 0) (. 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. 05 .707 .9 0 2 0 .001 1 0 . elliptical.4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . 0 1 7 45 .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29. 7 0 3 VK .8 . rectilinear.4 1 722472 . 5 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.. Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach.293 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. 1 29579 1 9 . 01 .85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse .703 .9 1 . c.6 0 .49 0 . d. Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. .
0. When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. and dt/dx for each iteration. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. RJ 61 .3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. b.3 1 0 . If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. c.4 of the text for guidance . x should never be greater than 2m. To determine when convergence has occurred. Also for an ellipse. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 .5 . Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61.5 . 1 5 0689 1 .jiL d. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). a . you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. If your iteration process is efficient.025 9 1 7 . Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. 61. 1 38878 .5 0 0 . you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x.8 .7 .3 D. 61 (calculated) .
Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text.. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.1 .w).. 0003 6 1 . 0 .002 1 7 7 1 . t :::.. 1 8 1 . 1 0.5 1 . and sign (7T . I t . 1 06 1 0. Given r l ' r2 .6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight.70655823. For instance note that y can never be negative . R2 V2 = (0. bt... It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). 00 1 074 ... Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 ... 3.. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine.4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. One of the data sets tests this situation. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives.999 o 1 03 D. I�I :::. For ellipses limit z to (211')2 ..01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 .00006057 .. 1 65 08 . In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z. 1 362596) = (0.t c l :::. . For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points.9 20 .444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations.6 for 1 :::. 0.1 .
The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .S = (0. 1 2298 1 44. 1 .6 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.6 .8 5 +1 .7 . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.9378 1 789) = 4.4 .7 0 1 0 1 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . See section 5 . location of the tracking site . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM . Check for this case .201 .2 1 .2 . .2 . 7 for further discussion o f this project . . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. so a check should be made for that condi tion.7 0 1 0 20 1 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.6 . .4 .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 . x.1 . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .1 specifies the long way.6 .1 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite.5 .4 .4 1 . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target.0001 +1 .4804847 1 .66993 1 97 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 . y.3 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT. This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. and the location of an interceptor launch site ..3 . print out a message and go to the next data set .6 .66986992. 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.2 .3 . Also print t:J) and a for each data set . time of radar observation.0 . The following data i s i n canonical units.5 .
read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . and the number of timeofflight increments desired . b . c. Make some provision to print out all of your input data. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . Times should be read in as minutes.446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. This will aid you in verifying your solution . KEPLER and GAUSS. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . To make your program flexible . d. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . When you point out your arrays. TRACK. the number of reaction times desired . Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . g. the desired increment size for reaction time .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. f. e .3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time .
6 1 3 km EI = 56.44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4. 844 **** **** **** 35 7 .92 deg/sec 1 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs. The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9. When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .74.09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No . of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.038 . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .0.5 p = 1 86. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .338 **** **** **** 10 8 .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .1 .
448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site . LATL.
INDEX .
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6. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 84. 8 4 Copernicus.9 8 gravitational constant. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 429 Astronomical Unit. 54 fundamental plane. 5358. 3 2 3 masses. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 1 8 8 . 1 8 5 true. 20. 5 8 Aristotle. 102 Apoapsis. 3 9 0 station. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 3 4 Collision cross section. 2 1 . 5 7 principal direction. 1 09. 5 3 . 60 Argument of periapsis.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 423 Azimuth. 1 8 3 mean. 2 1 2 B asis. 297299 451 . 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 5 5 heliocentric. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 84 ecliptic. B urnout. 2 3 4. 374 Computer projects. 4043 Celestial equator. 84. 5 3 . 1 09 Angular momentum. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 429 lunar distance. 1 4. 4 1 . 2427 Apogee. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 349 Angle of elevation. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 9498 transformations. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 277320 computation chart. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 279 C anonical units. 203 Aphelion. 74 geocentricequatorial. 296 geometry. 9 3 . 4 gravitational h armonics. 3 2 5 . 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 94. 54 orbit plane. 1 5 . 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 3 5 8 . 7483 Coordinate systems. 422 gravitational parameter. 1 620. 57 perifocal. 4 3 0 Conversions. 1 62 Argument of latitude.1 3 1 G auss problem. 28 1 B arker's equation. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. Tycho. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 1 22. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 429 flattening. 60 and universal v ariables. 3 3 period of. 3 8 9 . 24 height adjustment. 56 Celestial sphere. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 109 B akerNunn camera. 246 Brahe. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 1 00. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 24 Apparent solar time. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 74 BMEWS. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum.
4 G ravitational parameter. 26 ff. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants.1 1 6 Gravitation. 1 8 8. 84. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 9 4 Geoid. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 2 1 2. 2 8 5 Freeflight range.1 90. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 1 60 low altitude.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 221 hyperbolic. 1 1 7. 1 8 8 . 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 3 90 . 3 22 trajectories. 1 42. 1 0 twobody. 60 Dot product. 7 G ravitational constant. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 25.1 3 1 Direct ascent. 3 5 . Carl Fredrich. 3 89 nbody. 1 0 3 G round track. G auss problem. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 2 1 ff. 8 0 f and g expressions. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 94 .93 . 62 vector. 26. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 2 8 2 time. 3 5 .1 5 5 Direct motion. 1 0 6 mean. 1 8 1 . 2 4 . 1 0 9 . 3 5 0 Epoch. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 2 9 . 40. 4 Newton's law of. 3 6 8 local.3 0 6 numerical integration. 5 8 . 4 1 2 Euler angles. apparent.riod o f . 60 Equations of motion nbody. 306 EarthMoon system. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 54 Elements of orbit. 4 3 3 Drag. 25 1 258. 1 54. 227 418 ( y ) . 8 7 . 60 true longitude at. 62 Ecliptic. 1 04 Escape speed. 1 7 equations. 56. 4 1 9. 264 eccentric anomalies. 1 8 2. 22827 1 . 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 6 1 Elevation angle. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 2 1 . 3 00 launching. 58 from position a n d velocity. 2 3 3 . 3 5 Escape trajectory. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 4 G alileo. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 2 9 7 . 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 3 0 . 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 2 0 . 5 5 true anomaly a t . 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 2 1 2.3 9 6 Energy. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 1 4 G ravitational potential. Elliptical orbits. 423 424 Earth oblate. function o f true anomaIles.3 3 pe.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 2 3 0 .452 Declination. 25 1 . 444 algorithm.1 4 3 . 1 22. 1 4 0 . 20 1 202 f and g series. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 1 0 6 precession. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 9.2 1 2 parabolic. zenith angle. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 3 1 .
8 9 . 3 9.8 9 derivatives i n . 1 57 Line of nodes. 1 4 1 . 2. 3 9 6 constraints. 3 59374. 3 7 9 . 220 Mean motion. 3 0 3 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 60 Latus rectum. Edmund. 62 longitude of ascending. 9 9 . 3 623 65 Hyperbola.I N D EX H alley. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 3 64. 2. true at epoch. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 1 7 7. 234. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 5 Newton. 2 H alley's comet. 6 . 3 24326. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 1 0 2 Meridian. 2 8 8 . 1 Kepler's equation.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 3 24 .3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 22. 6. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 2 6 5 27 1 . numerical rotation of. 2 1 . 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 3 4 5 ephemeris.1 6 6. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 3 4 5 noncoplanar.3 05. 2 Heliocentric constants. gravitational parameter. 1 1 7 Latitude. limitations. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 5 8 Longitude. 1 8 8 . 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 3 9 6 M otion. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 7. 2 7 7 . 3 5 8 Newton iteration. Greenwich. 1 8 5 . 1 9 8 . 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 3 69. 4. 3 26 orbital elements of. 3 57 . 247 Newton's laws. J ohann. 1 5 6. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 20 Least squares solution. 2. 238. 2. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 3 1 6 Injection. 1 0 1 . 3 69 . 3 65 noncoplanar. 3 27. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 1 56 vector. 58 regression. 3 80 Kepler. 3 8 . 2 second. 1 02 Mean solar time. 94 geodetic. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 1 . 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 1 4 1 . 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 22 1 . 1 5 1 .1 8 1 first. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 1 1 7 derivatives. Isaac. 8 6 . 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 3 62 . 5 1 . 3 89 trajectories. 94 reduced. 62 . 3. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on.9 3 Mu ( � ) .3 8 4 general coplanar. 1 52 Mass of planets. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 6 rotation of. argument of at epoch. 8 Node ascending. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 1 25 Librations of Moon.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 1 03 Minor axis. 60 Lunar trajectories. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 3 1 Moon. 1 6 3 . 1 80 third. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 207 I nclination. 1 5 6. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 3 7 0 Integration. equations o f nbody. 3 1 Manned flight. 3 44 . 3 5 0 free return. 1 0 twobody.
220 classical formul ations. 1 1 7 . 3 8 9 Earth potential.9 8 Optical sensors. 425 Phi ( � ) . 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model.1 59 examples. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 3 4 1 Period. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method.1 50. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 1 0 9 Rectification.3 7 9 lunar. 20 Polar radius.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 3 8 7 . 83 from optical sightings. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 2 4 . 443 algorithm. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 5 1 . 94 Potential energy reference. 1 09 . 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 3 8 6 general. 2 4 Periselenium. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 3 60 physical characteristics. 20. 1 62 O rbit. 1 9 3 . 22727 1 Orbit plane. 3 24 . 1 1 7 . 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 3 90 . 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 3 3 3 . 2427 argument of. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 6 1 o f moon.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 203. true anomaly. 3 9 0 Parabola. 34. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 9 3 . 3 6 1 shape of. 3 1 . 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 2 1 Osculating orbit. 58 determination from position and velocity.1 22 from position and velocity. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem.1 76 inplane changes. 57 Perigee. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 423 due to the moon. 1 1 7.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 2 1 . 1 90 Numerical integration. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on.454 Nu (v ) . 1 3 Rendezvous. 1 5 6 . 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 1 62 . 6 1 from sighting directions.1 22. 420 c riteria for choosing. flightpath angle. 440448 Q parameter. 2 1 2 computer solution. 60 Right ascension.3 9 0 Encke's method.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 56. 2 1 . 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 1 69 Orbit determination. 3 44 . 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 3 59 . 1 6 Potential function. 5 symbols. 4 1 9 . 3 3 Perturbations.3 44 Periapsis. 3 9 0 Relative motion. 1 0 3 P rojects. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 4 1 4 sum squared. 1 5 1 . 26527 1 Residuals. 2 0 . 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 424 thrust. 3 24 . 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. two body. 4 1 2425 errors. 24 height adjustment. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation.
23 1 Universal variable formulation.4 3 9 Velocity components. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 4 3 4 derivative o f .1 6 6 True anomaly.1 0 9 apparent solar. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 20. 4 3 7 unit. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. canonical. 1 0 1 Solar pressure.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 2 8 8 . 1 52 Station coordinates. 1 60 Synodic period.3 59 orbital elements. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 1 3 8 optical. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 1 1 Units.1 40 errors. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 1 9 1 225. 23. 23.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 287 low. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 9 Sidereal time.1 9 0 if. 425 Thrust perturbation. Universal gravitation. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 3 1 Sensors. 99. 1 02.1 40 Selenocentric. 1 1 . 1 3 1 . 1 3 5 ellipse. 1 8 1 . 3 60 physical characteristics. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 2 1 7 parabola. 1 3 1 . 1 03 local sidereal. 5 radio interferometers. 1 5. 1 8 (see Nbody . 40 Unit vectors. 2 1 at epoch. 6. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. definition of. 1 6.8 9 derivatives in. 4 3 7 . 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 4. 1 6 6. 1 8 8 universal variables.9 8 of planets. 1 8 1 . 9. 1 6 Sputnik. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 1 0 1 . 1 0 3 Universal variables. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 85 Traj ectory equation. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 3 6 1 Solar time.1 0 4 Solar system. 40. 3 27.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 7 Universal time. 4 3 1 Velocity. 9 3 . 1 3 6 radar. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 8 4 . 4 3 3 triple product. 1 8 8 . 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 1 3 2. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 2062 1 0 use of. 1 6 3 . 5 8 Time zones. 8 6 .1 4 assumptions. 1 9 1 . 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories.4 3 9 d o t product.1 8 8 . 1 9 3 physical significance of. 1 0 3 universal. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 44 1 mean solar. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 9 9 . 1 0 1 . 9 9 . 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 2 8 7 maximum range. 1 9 high. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 3 5 8 . 4 1 8 Surveillance. 30. 1 9 1 development of. 99. 20 Semimajor axis. 4 3 7 . 58 Semi minor axis. 425 Time.1 69 Hohmann. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 4 1 9 Zenith angle.