Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
M. Ronald Chaney ( artist) . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. J . Dorothy Fryar .R.W.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P .B. D. .D.E. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged. Jan Irvine . United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . 1 09 . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . .. . . . . 1 . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . 2 . .2 Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . List of References . 1 . . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The NBody Problem . . . . . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . 61 . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . 2.5 The Trajector y Equation . . 2 .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . 2 . . 1 01 . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . 1 . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . 2. 14 . Exercises . . 93 . . 1 . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . 1 . . 83 . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . _ 1 . . 1 . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . 1 . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . 1 49 . . . . . .3 3 . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 277 6.4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . . . . 258 . . 8. . . . . . . . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . 3 87 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method .1 Historical Background .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . 277 6. . . 7 . . . . . List o f Re ferences . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . 344 352 355 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . 8 . 25 1 . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . 297 6. . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . . 379 . . . Histor ical Background . . . . . . . . . .2 The Solar System . . . . 380 . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . 27 1 . . . . 279 6 . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 9. List of References . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . 357 . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 .4 7. . . . . . 3 84 . . . . . .2 The EarthMoon System . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . xi 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . 3 20 . . . . . 26 5 . . . List of Reference s . . . . . . . . Exerc ises . . . 7. 333 . . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . . 3 27 . .1 8. 321 321 3 22 . . . . . 359 . . . 275 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . 390 . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 449 . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . . 414 9. . . . . .
he might have been put into a quart mug. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. the poor and sickly mathematician.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. Tycho. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. the noble and aristocratic Dane. Kepler.CHAPTER 1 TWO. the year Galileo died.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. Newman! . laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. as his mother told him in later years. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. 1 642 . JarnesR. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day.
Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. It fit. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. Kepler's laws were only a description.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch.1.1 Kepler's Laws.1 Still.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. not an explanation of planetary motion . is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. 2 1. therefore . who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . discoverer of Halley's comet. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. with the sun at a focus . From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. One day in 1 685 . TWO. Since the time of Aris totle . Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . necessarily moved in circles. Finally . 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse.
The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . Give me a few days and I shall find it for you.1. more simply." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. "Why. 1 . of course . undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and.Sec. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. when he recovered from his shock. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. Dissatisfied with this explanation. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. t he Principia. they speculated whether a force . The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. casually posed the question. without mentioning the b et. or . 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . 4 1. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. in ellipses.
. 1. .n ( 1 .4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. G. The universal gravitational constant. Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. " Figure 1 . 1 . . / . .1 ) (1 .1.'�V .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. . . 1 2) Fg = .12) t o equat i.1 . • .11 Newton's Law of Motion .67Ox 1 0.1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system.G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m.1 . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . . Note that equation ( 1 . 1 .1 . has the value 6. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. I I I Figure 1. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. In addition. or a planet). y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. . the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. . propellants) to pro duce thrust. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. an earth satellite ..�I '. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. I " '... . a lunar or interplanetary probe. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . thrust and solar radiation pressure .Sec 1.II I I I " I I I I :.. At any given time in its j ourney. j. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}..e.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ .e. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. . etc. . 1.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. An important force. m2 • m3 m m. X I ...
Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. 2..2' The NBody Problem Figure . regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion.1 . This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . Although small. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. are discussed in Chapter 3 . the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator..���Y � X n 1.. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. Y. 1 equator. These effects. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. Thus. • • • z FOTHER .
II 3 (1. . etc . equation ( 1 .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. thrust. perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation .2. m'J JI 3 (rj j) . the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 .Se c 1..2 ·1 is T composed of drag.I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . Fg. solar radiation pr essure.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself.3) Obviously . . (1. F gn where =  Gm .2. of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r .5 ) The other external force . . The v ector sum.
it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0.F I dt TOTAL dt (1.28 would not be zero ...I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x ..26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.I) and all other external forces . Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL.. In other words. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL. y . . Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time . is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ.27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.. z coordinate system. Thus.2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody..8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch.. (1.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 .1 + F OTHER ' (l ...
F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . nonlinear.. The only remaining forces then are gravitational.Sec 1 . m . m· J (�i) . expelling mass or relativistic effects. ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system .. we get j = j � *i 1 3 .1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. sun and planets . differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X .G And for i = 0 .2.29) reduces to = r· 1 n .1 2) . mn may be the moon.2.G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .29) is a second order . equation ( 1 . It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions. Equation ( 1 .10) ( .11) 2.2. Then writin g equation 1 . Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le.. ( 1.1 0) for i = 1. unpowered flight. vector. Y. mi 0).2. r JI. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present. Equation (1 .2.
10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1. 2.2 1 6) each bracket. .21 1 ) and ( 1 .r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence. Since r 1 2 = . .G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .1 From equation ( 1 . n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1. Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 . 2 1 7 ) .2..1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .1 4) gives.2.1 2) into equation ( 1 .
.9x l O 8 7 .3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 . This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers.3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies. sun and planets on a near earth satellite . mi orbit about the earth. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .Sec.3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3. to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. 1 .89 6x l 0 4 2. There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite .3.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. 1. COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . The bodies are spherically symmetric . Table 1 . To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .1 Simplifying Assump tions. 1 x l 0 10 3. Howe ver .2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .6x l O lO 1 .2x l O 8 2.
GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . 1 . Y. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. Y'. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. 3 2 ) . Let (X'. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. For the time being. Y'. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Y' . There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . Y'. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame .3.. which "in its own nature.1 ) (1 .2 The Equation of Relative Motion. remains always similar and irrnovable.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch .3. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. Let (X. 1 2. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it.1 . without relation to anything external. . r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_.12 TWO. " s However.3.
Y'.32) from equation (1. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. and acceleration in a nonrotating. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem.31) we have = _ r . Z')..Sec. Z) with its origin in the central body. GIM+ml r Equation (1. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. Y. Y. Y. ballistic missiles.y X' Figure 1 . Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites.33). Y'. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . Note that this is the same as equation (1. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'.33) .217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r. Note that since the coordinate set (X. velocity. (1 .31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. 1.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. Z').
3 ·4 ) . m. called the gravitational GM. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) .3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. If m is not much less than M. an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy." for another form called "potential energy . Then equation 1 .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. M. namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. 1. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . the mass of the orbiting body .14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). 1 some planet or the sun.3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . It is convenient to define a parameter. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. If you think ab out the model we have created. "kinetic ." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . will be much less than that of the central body ." That is. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 .
To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. ( 1 . r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . 1.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy.r ) = � r �(r . To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity.4. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 .' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . then 1 . which appears in . 1 . v =r and v= f.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. But what about the arbitrary co nstant . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. dt 1:L = O.4 frame (the large mass) does not change .Sec.!!. Therefore. v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero . Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . 5.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . C. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. N 0 tlcmg that .lL\I r dt JJ. r 2. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O .
in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy.g. the earth. that the specific mechanical energy. at what distance . e . 3 4) by r 2 .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy.42) 1 . In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. Noticing that . r. do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . In other words. as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. Since in general a x a= 0. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. therefore .2 Conservation of angular momentum.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O. The expression for � is �. We conclude . O.fL 3 . rX . dt .  ( 1 . If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass.iL (rxv) = O.4. �.
Therefore . h. Therefore . But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . 1 .41 Flightpath angle . called specific angular momen tum.The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. (1 . we have shown that the specific angular momentum. I Figure 1 .43) v I h = r x v.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1." "Up" simply means away .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v.
the zeni th angle .573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). r = 12. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . however. h. ¢.4. In an inertial coordinate system. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. = 0. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector. (4.8143 r • v > 0 . c o s ¢=Jl. • ( 1 .899 X 107 ft.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. and the specific angular momentum.420 . I h = rv c o s ¢. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y.8143 = 35. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. V =5.2778 J + 1 0 .5936 1 + 5 .54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. 1 85 2 1 + 6.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . v. Determine the specific mechanical energy . respectively.4274I+2. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). J and K are unit vectors. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. ¢.0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. &.7 1 37J+O. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. Ch. Also find the flight·path angle.
h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ...5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body. (1.51) The left side of equation (1. err..& .51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. Also note that J. 1 . r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain.Sec. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity.. �t (B· .1!y r .51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.( r) r. 1 . While this equation (1. (h xr) =.5.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4.I. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.33) is simple. JJ. its complete solution is not.3 3 r r r since r • i = f . . we see that J!:. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1.. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .
. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. v.54) .9 cos V (1. h2 where vector r.. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum.54) . in general.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. + r o Since.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. (1. V." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !. I r 1 + e cos V p (1.53) 1 . +(81J.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. Equation (1. . c and a . is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation. we obtain = 1 h2 /g . 5. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation.
53) and the equation of a conic section (1. the flightpath angle. 1. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit.41 and equation (1 . the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. 5 . 4 . 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. potential and kinetic. There is. (See Figure 1 . Although Figure 1.5. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. must change so as to keep h constant. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1.51 illustrates an ellipse.Sec. Before discussing the factors . remains constant.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. however. not just ellipses.44) 1 . 2. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. parabola. cp. ellipse. 3. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. As r and v change along the orbit. an exchange of energy between the two forms.
If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. the section is an ellipse. or a single point. 1 Figure 1 .52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. the section is a parabola. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines .5 2 illustrates this definition . Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. If. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. Figure 1. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . If the plane cuts both nappes.
marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. F. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. F and F'. Figure 1 .53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. The prime focus.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) .Sec 1 . F'.53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . The secondary or vacant focus.
for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c." etc. ( 1 .5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". a. The dimension. The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . is c�lled the semimaj or axis.5 3 . It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium.54)). the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee.55) p = a (1 . Thus. In the parabola.e2). The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 ." "perihelion" or "aphelion. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning.
we encountered the vector constant of integration. the trajectory equation.Sec .52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis.56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). ( 1 . Quite obviously..58) 1 .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 . 1e ( 1 . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe.= a( 1 +e) . 5.4 The Eccentricity Vector. e = BltL.53) and ( 1 . . B. By comparing equations ( 1 . 5. which points toward periapsis.1 0) . . 1 ( 1 . 53). 1.59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . In the derivation of equation ( 1 . tL r ( 1 .57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = .
h. is equivalent to increasing h.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. ( 1 . v)v.53) and equation ( 1 .61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag).1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2.6 RELATING &. ( 1 .. v ) v . 1. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity.6. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. is zero. x v. equation ( 1 .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. Therefore. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. Figure 1 .. we get • p. e . e = ( v v ) r . r r p. e = V x (r x v) .1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. p. By comparing equation ( 1 .p. v. 1 .44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . 1 so Expanding the vector triple product.5. If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired.(r .p. th . and that as h is . By inspection. /or any orbit. of the satellite. r  r .
p... We can then write. . . as a corollary to equation ( 1 .1 ) predicts .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle.62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . 1 01) .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 .F �.increased the parameter. 57) p rp = a(1 . = �.�= � . . �' " . v.6. of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 . .e ) .44). is zero. (1 . . R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. Figure 1 .  . . I '. r I .62) we obtain &. ..42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 .
e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . &. while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive.a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l .56) and equation (1 . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . a. Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit).1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. Thus. or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).1 ) therefore p. Figure 1 .63) misleading. Many students find equation ( 1 . the energy of a satellite (negative . This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . zero. 1 and from equation ( l .28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . You should study it together with Figure 1 . while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy .6.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.6.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive .
7 n . if & is positive . 64) Notice again that if & is negative. The student should be aware of this pitfall. r p = rES + 200 = 3643. m i . e is exactly 1 (a parabola).Sec 1 . specific mechanical energy. mi.897  e2 ) = 3. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . Determine its altitude at apogee. and semimaj or axis. 2& = 3 . 9 n . 0 . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. semilatus rectum. & = 2 . . ra = 1 � e = 4453. A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. Namely. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit.  a=  '!:. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM.. m i .Jf5P. For a given satellite . 3 n . all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic.0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0.. = 6. 6 .1 and perigee altitude 200 n .. if & is zero . e is greater than I (a hyperbola). and specific angular momentum. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. m i .
JpjJ.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 .m i .855 = 6 . an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .7 . the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. the distance between the foci is ( 1 .7·2) .= 2. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant. ( 1 .7· 1 ) B y inspection. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. 1 n. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread.7· 1 . h =.r Ell = 1 009.mi. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a . 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses. 1 . Since an ellipse is a closed curve. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. 2a = r a + r = 8097. I ( 1 .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . specifically r + 1 . = 5.
74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis. 2 ( 1 .71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. Using equation ( 1 .7.72) and ( 1 . 1 . when rearranged .76) .Sec. r and r' must both be equal to a at this point. e is defined as combine to yield da. equation ( 1 .1 .1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .72. in general.7 . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 .2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit. 2 b.7.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . If you refer to Figure 1 .73) ( 1 . Since r + r' = 2a. becomes r dt = 11 dll.horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .75) which. you will see that the .
we can rewrite equation ( 1 . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle.77) dt 2 = 11 dA.72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area.73 Differential element of area . d v. d A.32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .76) as ( 1 . 1 Figure 1 . Figure 1 . is given by the expression So.
the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. Of course. 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . From equations ( 1 . a.8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 .77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period.1 ) 1 . the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius.8.8 . During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. 1 . incidentally.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit.8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit.79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a.e2 ) = JaP and. ( 1 . 1 . Integrating equation ( 1 . Equation ( 1 .78) b =) a 2 . Thus. 55) and ( 1 .79).c2 =) a 2 ( 1 .75). 1 Circular Satellite Speed.Sec. Naturally. since h = /JlP. so equation ( 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus .
There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 .9. One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . F or a low altitude earth orbit. circular speed is about 26 .1 Geometry of the Parabola.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . the periapsis radius is just r 1 . rCS' from the energy equation. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.34 TWO .1 . The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.1 ) . 1 . 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a.9. The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 .9.000 ft/sec. Another is that. 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch .82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit .
as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero ." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed. first at a general point a distance .Jf2il ' r  ( 1 . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity. r.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 .9." 1 . We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory.57). 1 .91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l.2 Escape Speed.E. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   . its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back.92) . Theoretically. from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � .Sec. Of course. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse.
b .400 nm above the surface it is only 26. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8. 8. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude .1/2a.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 .700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . 5 7). The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . a.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 .000 ft/sec. As you would expect. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.92) =21 . Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J.1 57.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. 53374 106 ft = = 36.Since the specific mechanical energy.. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. = j. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. the semimajor axis.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. 36 TWO . a.
where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 . m i . 06748 106 ft 7087.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21. rb i t P 7087. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. m i . 8n.Sec.8 n.53374 106 ft 2 43. 1 .92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem .amr iO.
then the righthand branch represents the orbit. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). instead.1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). (L l O. 1 0. If we consider the lefthand focus. 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. 1 . If.1 ) . then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. F . 1 0. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . The parameters a. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . 1 1 . Obviously. 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 .
which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet.0.1 . on the other hand. 1 . 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. 1 0.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. 1 02) becomes ( 1 . is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . If. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . The turning angle . 1 0. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed.for the hyperbola. This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed.. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. 1 . we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . V 00' . the smaller will b e the turning angle . is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . The angle between the asymptotes. 0. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 .but since Sec.
however. for all practical purposes it has escaped.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. the concept is convenient and is widely used. In other words. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. Astronomers call thi� ' . we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. It is. 1 . absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. of course .B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . 1 . Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun.3 Sphere of Influence. 1 (1 . It is a fact. a million miles) from earth. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. 1 0.
Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . Using canonical units determine & . 1 . will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . 1 . The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. r a' r p' . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. then the value of the gravitational parameter. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. e.l. or other planet. 5 9362 5 . If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. 1 1 . moon.x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. earth. 1 1 .046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . For other problems where the earth. In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . J. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. p. 1 The Reference Orbit.Sec.1 . h.
5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .42). Alt = . � = . 1 67 D U �/T U � = .1 . 5 D U e �2 _ /J. 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units.
= 4 . = 3.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 . 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t.64) Find ra from equation (1.5 7)  r a = 1 e p.58) Find r p from equation (1. 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. 25D U EB = 4. 5 D U = 9. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .. = 2.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. 5 D U ".Sec.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 1 . 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.61) Find h from equation (1.
is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a.1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . a. 2K DU 2 /TU .44 TW O.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . c. 6 J 1 .1 . Find the specific energy of the trajectory.3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. . in general. b . 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. 1 . (Answer : e = 1 ..000 n mi.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. 1 EXERCISES 1 . is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. 1 . The orbit eccentricity is 0. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. Why.000 ft/sec and 4 . 5 81) 1 .2.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. Find the period of the orbit. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. respectively. 2J AK IJK h = AI . Find the eccentricity of the orbit. &= . + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI .
91 J space.123K = 1 .8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. 0 1K v = l + l . V ft/sec. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ).6 18 = 59° 58') . 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . hyperbolic.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. 1. &. D U /T U DU e. p b. 2K + . (Ans. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. r v c. elliptical. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . 1 .Ch .000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. r x ft ) = 3. p 1. 7 Prove that d. a a.5 rpe r i gee = 1 . 354 10" r 1 . 4K r r v = . ¢ =3 = 1 . mi during descent? (Ans.9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300.5 DU DU DU d.
It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. (Neglect atmo spheric drag. d . p = 6. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . ellipses and a hyperbolas. P 1 . 1 2 Given that e = �. Determine the maximum altitude attained. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. p = 3. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically.2 e = . p = 2. p = 2. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = .2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m .46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . c. e=O e = .000 ft. e. 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. b . derive values for e for circles.) 1 . 1 . p = 6.
What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 .Ch . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans .V O U EB /TU EB ) . 1 .6. rc = at +b = 0. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . 207 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. c. 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. * 1 . Show that : b.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun.4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. Q and W respectively.Xw UK vectors. you may use the same Figure 2. When describing a heliocentric orbit . Yw '+. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW.Sec. the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane .24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . 2 . Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars.2. 2 . The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart .
is substituted for a in the above list. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . a. 6. It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive .the angle from to periapsis measured h. 2 . 2. measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. if you know a and e you can compute p.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size .3. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. p. Obviously . T. 3 . 4 . Instead of argument of periapsis. shape and orientation of an orbit .58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . K I I . the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. w. Another system. i. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time .1 as follows : 1 . The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different.the angle . Similarly.the time when the satellite was at periapsis. 5 . Q longitude of the ascending node. time of periapsis passage . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . Frequently the semilatus rectum. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. in the fundamental plane . e. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit .
2 .Sec.3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.31 Orbital elements .
'  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . earth." Direct means easterly." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle .3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). From Figure 2. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . then b oth W and n are undefined. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . in the plane of the orbit. then both w and Uo are undefined.1 ) . to ' called the "epoch. both of which are always defined . 1 £0 £0 + . n=n+w. Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . (2 .31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. This is the dire ction in which the sun.3. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial.60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . w and va are all defined. 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis.
h. To be perpendicular to h. n must be perpendicular to both K and h.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . We have already encountered the angular momentum vector.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . 2. The node vector. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. vI vJ v K J (2 .4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 .4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . 2. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . To be perpendicular to K. n an d e. t o . 2 . How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. n would have to lie in the orbital plane. n.4. Therefore . n and e.42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. h. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane .Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time .
the cosine of the angle . Study this figure carefully . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known .3. The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. 2 nodes. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . 2." Specifically .2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. We are only interested in its direction. Now that we have h. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . e. The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. p. All three vectors.46) Of course . In general.1 . between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node.4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . An understanding of it is essential to what follows . is obtained from (2 . The vector. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see .4.S .1 ) (2 . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2.4. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . h.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .1 1 )). ex. The parameter. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 .
:.4. (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.) c o S Po = � er (2 .) e.. c o s U o = !!.4 3 .L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .Sec.. Since i is the angle between K and h.1 0) 7 . 2. Since w is the angle between n and (2. Since n is the angle between I and n.) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° .4. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4. Since Vo is the angle between e and f.1 1) . (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .49) 6. Since Uo is the angle between n and f .) . � � h.48) 5 .' (2. 2 . (2 .
look at the geometry of Figure 2 .1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense .1 and study it until they do . With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v.4. If they don't make sense to you. 3 . 2 z x 8 . Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2.64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. .
Figure 2. VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.Sec.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. 5 DU e == . 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 .
2 3 Figure 2 .5 e == .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .4 DU p == .\ .
5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 . 2.44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.Sec.
using equation (2 ..I:!:. A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). From equation (2. i.= 4D U = 13.(r .l h2 . n.47) = .7 4n .1. ml . e.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 ..4.. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. ) r .48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .i:. [ ( f. 7 75 . f.45 ) Since h =. Find inclination. EEl . . and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. Find eccentricity. Find p using equation (2 . Using equation (2.6.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 .1 ) p = .. Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node .
41 0) v a c os. 4 .  Find longitude of periapsis. Find true anomaily . 2 . since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However .Sec. for this case . va. II.!!.. .1 (. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector . II.n. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. can be determined in this case.. = cos . Find argument of periapsis.n = COS . In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . From equation (2 .= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis.49) W n · e W.1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 . is undefined. From equation (2.
2 Find true longitude o f epoch. First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .1 ) Find e.25 EB EB D U EB 7748.33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .  then from equation ( 1 .. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� . From equation (2..E)r(r . = From equation (2.6. v)v] =.\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.m i .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=.5 .85 n .
From equation (2.49) w: 0 W = cos.I Find the true anomaly . I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 .11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 . .4.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r . va : From equation (2.43) n Find the longitude of ascending node . From equation (2 .5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.Sec.5 Find the inclination. 2.
w and v. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. that occurs in a given time . changes with time .5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . consists of two steps. shown below. 8. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . n. . In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .ffe si n V (2.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 .to.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. v. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2.24): ro to.5. Of the se six elements. i. lV. i .5 2) . 8. Let ' s assume that we know p. 2. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . 2 elements are given. w and va . n. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. The method.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2.
Before equation (2.Sec.54) r = J � [.5 i= p 2. 2.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 . 5P DU E9 (2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = . v �[.54) from equation r (2.25 45{) (2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 . A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.
direction . A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . have a definite starting point . Certain vectors. vector represents. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. or what it represents. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . suppose you know the south. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. east .6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . suppose you know the south.6. For example . For example. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. and it still represents the same thing.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . its fundamental (xy) plane . The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. east." The phrase in quotes describes what the . namely. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. east a!1d up." 2. such as position vectors. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . 2 2. A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. In other words. but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors.
and extending along the x. 2. V and W along the x ' . ���________� • .61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . 2. Figure 2. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 . : r Y I ex a . Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S . Let us imagine three unit vectors I." In other words. y ����. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite.61) . y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. Figure 2.Sec.y Y 75 . Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis.61 illustrates the two frames. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame .2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. y' and z ' axes.6.
63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2.61 we can see that the unit vectors U. 65) .1 ) yields I. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ). (2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch .6.62) above and equating it with (2. 2 From Figure 2.
Rotation about the xaxis. These are summarized belox:: .67) yields the set of equations (2 . The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2. (2 .3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame .64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes.64) above . 68) B '" (2.6.Sec.69) '" axis. .66) (2.67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis. 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex . 2 .
78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2. Figure 2. Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation. We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L .61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame . Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames.4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . 1 ). in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . 2 (2. So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. a.7 .6.
Fortunately. all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 .6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . AB =1= SA ).Sec. Hence . if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. . A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. We can write equation (2.61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. (i.e. denoted by D . Now.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e .!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant.1 . The transpose of the matrix D . is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). 2.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. Equation (2. The inverse of any orth.
". O c M ma t.1 2) Figure 2 . n t rizing th . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce . 5 Tmn . anglo . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc.. d w . gl " n i lly .. d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . m1 " fo. th' O ugh w hi ch on .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK .".n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . th. "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [.Eq to th e IJ K in at .". d th yo u will b . Perifo ca l to th e G Th . sh ow n in F ig u " Th . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 .ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . tluee b .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame.. basis no ma t .sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . 6. oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . a bl .. 'o ta t." a ny mp licat e d . axes in to CO ham . 2 (2. 6. mu " in cid 'n ce b . 62. to p' ter ho w co no. d wi th .6 . By me mo C.
The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. To . R.. a K and ap . then Sec . from Figure 2.. 2 ... it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . Thus if a i ' aJ . Figure 2. For example . 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit ..63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry.. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. aQ. .63.. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I ..
sin n sin w cos i . 2 from their dot product .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . P K · P In Figure 2. J and K Thus R = J . ! • P.sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. Similarly. P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. Q I ' W J · W K .1 3) i. since I and P are unit vectors. the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w.6. The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A.63 .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .1 4) R23 = . Now a. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . a �. I • p I · Q J . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .6.cos n sin w .
In this case either n or w or both are undefined.5 . But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both .1 ) and (2. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix.5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s .7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . V. 2. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4.Sec . . 2 . Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2.
1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite.7.1 . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . 7 . The azimuth angle .( N o rt h ) 2. the rate at which range is changing.71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.7 . the elevation angle . If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . p. EI. 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. can also be measured. The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. The unit vectors S. 2. AZ .7 . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . E and Z shown in Figure 2 . The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located.84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . is measured clockwise from north . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. Az. 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame .
and EO/.73) E l (B I ).7. 2. Thus. Sec. /l!L.75) .1 ) where . E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r.72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. from the geometry of Figure 2.7 .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. We will express the po sition vector as (2 .7 .7 4) = + P (2 .1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky.1 .72 we see that r (2 . we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2. Az. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. From Figure 2. E I . sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. p. = Ps PE = P cos Pz.
72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth.76) . Unfortunately. For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 2 J topo centric frame .
73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in . EB x f. It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed.73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f.Sec.74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame .77) . Therefore . 2 . Figure 2. If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . (2 .
6 1 2 . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.707 o .707 .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 .612) r = R + P = 2S . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 .5 J . 300 N Lat .1 = [.866 . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.E + 1 . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long. Figure 2. Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth .3535 .612 . 3535 . 5Z (Given) [). 5 Z (units are DU).88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . is 2 S E + .
The unit vectors D. It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2.Sec.. z) system (Figure 2 . Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero .78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2.4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . however. y.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. I =J =K=O. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems. y. 2.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial.75 ) . (2. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W .982K .79) J. Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. 332J  . .7. We will denote this quantity by w. (2. v. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system ..9 1 81 + 2. z). rotating with respect to the (x. w) .
dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . Similarly. equation (2 . Hence .1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA.79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 .1 0) reduces further to . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . . The remaining terms of equation (2. equation (2 .7. .7. 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. V = w x V and W = w x W .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Hence . .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) .
....1 2) .... 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u ... . y..... .75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA. .. ..y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ . . z) '... dt R I (2 . . " F i xed " System ( x.. Equation (2. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u.Sec.. W) Figure 2. 2 ...... v v. . �:......71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector.LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 .7.1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q.7... ..
We will now apply the operator equation (2 .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest. 2 iLl F = .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .7 .7.1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.1 2) to the po sition vector r.7. (2 .7.1 3) into equation (2 .9!." Ioox.7 . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .) .7.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .7. The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get . (2 . Equation (2 .7 .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .7.1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +. Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.
We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . however .8. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. It is known . Sections parallel to the equator are .8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations.) 2. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. circles. 2. ae . The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. If the earth were perfectly spherical. In the model which has been adopted. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. Therefore . of course . 2 .Sec. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis.
2.8. The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter . This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use .2 The Measurement of Latitude. it does complicate the concept of latitude." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. When you are given the latitude of a place . 2." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . 1 45 6356. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field . Consider Figure 2.8. the difference between L and is usually negligible .08182 == km km L La L .8. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point.94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .785 0.1 . It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude.3 Station Coordinates. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated . What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) .
It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. 4 km Figure 2. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude .8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 .1 ) . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 .82. Thus. the "reduced latitude . 2 ..82 . O . 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e ." which is illustrated in Figure 2.!! o . L . / (2. It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.Sec..8 . c...
and e = da. c:  0) x Figure 2. for any ellipse .. I C. b e =a e V� = b2 + d. a2 ..96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But . Ch . z .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 .82) . / .1:  (2 . 0 O D. Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L.
8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . 2 .Sec:. Thus. dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . (2 . 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .85) . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2. (2.
8 7) 2. {1 ' is known . From Figure 2. elevation above mean sea level. (2 . If the Greenwich sidereal time . 2 ( 2 .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K.8. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .8 8) .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components. and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 .98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) .86) L. The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below. {1.
The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time .89) .8. is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) .Sec .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . Although Figure 2.84 shows a spherical earth. 2 . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . L. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2. Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time ." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame .
The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth . From (2 .1 0) . 2 j i Figure 2 . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .8 .
The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day . a Z If a l .9 equation (2 .6.9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. (2 . 2 .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval.1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science .1 .1 2) and a s ' a E . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . so .9.Sec. It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time . This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () .9 .1 2) . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . 2. 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars.8. This should be made clear by F igure 2.
Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . In early January. no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . So far. a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion.9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 .09054 mean solar seconds .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . when the earth is near perihelion.
3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known .) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . . For example .2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . Universal Time (UT).9. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. or Zulu (Z) time. 2. Thus. The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. This relationship is illustrated on page 99. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O.Sec. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours.9. 2 .is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . if it .0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 .
74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 .sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession.9. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . we express time in decimal fractions of a day. .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1.4 Precession of the Equinoxes. 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. in addition. Ephemeris and 2. 8 9=8 9 0 1 . m i n . 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . ° 229421 1.
Sec .92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars. .. The period of the precession is about 2 6.9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 .000 year s . the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. However ... Due to the asphericity of the earth. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . As the earth' s axis precesses. 6 yrs I Figure 2." with a perio d of 1 8 .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 ..6 year s . The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. 0 0 0 y rs " .6 years.. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . 2 .. the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period. the equatorial plane is not .
0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 . 00 1 From section 2 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. at 0600 GMT.8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . 5 7 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .296° H = 6 .74933340 = 1 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 .00 1 + L= 0 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator. 6 24 5 .6245 rad ians o 9 .1 .296 degrees west longitude .378km = 0 . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. x= [ z= � ae + � .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown . Day  = Long o 57 . 25 8=8 g + A = .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .
6245 )1 + 1 . 00 1 c o s(S.72) PE p Pz Ps = .88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 . 0.346E + O.4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 . Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.7 1 SJ + OK Sec. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .6971 + .From equation (2.74) .4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.6245) = . 2 . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.2D UES = (0.2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .(0. 00 1 (S.
866 0.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.1 .346E + l .061 .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2. 0.0.46S .346J + 1 .8 .1 .84J .(0.8 .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .1 . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) . 1 08 Ch .0 1 .(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .�� lO.25 0.77) v = [� ] [ J 0.46 D U /T U (0.5 1 .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .0588K) From equation (2 .73 p + (O.Ps = .3.46 P =D1 .2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .433 .0E + 1 .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.610. 46 = 0.7·5 ) From equation (2 .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.73Z D U (T U r = 0. 3.
but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this .081 . 2 . p . Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. k. well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. of course .8J . EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . may be lacking. EI .3. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . Ai. and the orb it is uniquely determined. 2. 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . W. Ei. It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). Figure 2.0. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . As Baker S points out .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . Gibbs is. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p .Sec. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics.
1 0. (2 . (2 . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 .5 4). we can show that : e ' f = p .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. and the definition of a dot product . Notice that C2 may now be divided out.r 3 ) = 0 . 1 04) .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. 1 08) . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I .1 ) successively by fl . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P.r. 2 fine scholar . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 0. 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . 1 03) Cross (2. 1 05) (2 . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. equation ( 1 . then u sing (2 . Q and W. who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. 1 05 ) and (2 . 1 06) Multiply (2 .1 ) by (2 . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . (2 . 1 03) by f3 X r l . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . 1 02) gives (2 . 1 04) (2 . 1 0. Dotting (2 .
then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . . provided N . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. 2 . Therefore . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. 1 0.1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. (2.1 4) (2 . Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. (2 . N and D have the same dire ction.Let the right side of (2 . 1 09) D. 1 0. equation (2 . Since P. D = N P = O' N (2 . 1 0 pD = N .1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b .1 5) . 1 0.1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) .e . i. 1 0. (2 .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 .1 3) : (2 . 1 0. 1 0.
1 020) to find P.1 9) to find W. Before solving the problem. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 . However . P = Q X W. From equation ( 1 .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. (2 . (2 . The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. 1 020) Thus. 1 0. 1 0. check N * O and D . Q and W are orthogonal. (2 .1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .r t ) f2 + ( rt . Then use (2 . ( f  r + e) . (2 . and (2 .1 6) .52) we can write i X h = p. 1 0.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . Therefore. 1 0.1 9) Since P.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. 1 0. 1 02 1 ) .1 8) to find Q. N and S vectors. N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . 2 Again using the relationship (2 . D and S ve ctors.1 8) N (2 . to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 1 0. N > o.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 .1 7) to find e. (2. 1 0.1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . 1 01 0) to find p. since NeQ = pS. 1 0.
the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) .(h . b) c O . 2 .Sec . 1 025) . Using the identity .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . h X (h h ) v . D X r + JJ{./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . = p. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . so c) b . e) We can write h v v = . 1 0.( a . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . (h xr r = + (a . v) h and h .. 1 024) (2 . v = eP.E. 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb.h = P. ON (2 . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np.
This method . Form L = = 6. using the stated tests.1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . possible two body orbit . find v2 : 2. proceed as follows : For example . 4 . 2 L + LS (2 . N=FO. By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . 1 . shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . Finally . 1 02 6) Thus. Test: 0 10 . N and S vectors. The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . = 0 for coplanar vectors. O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. This is not exactly true. to find any of the three velocities directly . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . v2 � + L S r2 • . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM . P = 0= N  2. and S vectors: D= N S 1 . 9701 = 2.0471 O U = 0 . Since 010. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) .97 . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units).000K = 0_700J ." Thus. The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations.047 1 = .Sec.0. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth. Form the D . 2 . NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. the semilatus rectum. period and the velocity vector at position two . N .0774J 0.9000J + 0. and the timeofflight between these po sitions. eccentricity.8000K = 0. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution .039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 .5000K Find : P. 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. r1 r2 r3 = 1 . r 1 and r2 .
960 DU/T U (4. 0408 1 1 .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = . . = .0. Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 .576J . 700J .1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1r/{: 6.270J + 0.963K N 1 .270K W= N.0. 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type. 2 S .963J .4 to solve for the elements.497 9. then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .0.97 o lP = a = 1 .67 TU (89.1 .0804 e = = = 0 .041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.657K D U /T U 2 0.
Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . If we let L . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . = OJ + R j . [:i:n :: :. 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. 1 1 2) r . ° 2 .z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. (X1 ' < \ � . (2 . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . 1 1 . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . j = 1. As a result .7 2). optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e .1 ) (2 . Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . then ' . 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera.6 2 : 1 1 . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780.:S :J: JS L K . L. 2. r = pL [�. and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . 3. These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch.Sec. we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background .g . In either case . 2 .
' ' " ': .. ':. I .1  R ) r3 . however .. say the middle ob servatio n . The vectors L. . . : '< ' . . p and r.. • ' I . �� I 1 " _ . .[. 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . L. L. � . 1 1 3) (2 .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . \ •.J V I .1 . 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . (2 . f f. \' P2 i �� G ".. the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . R and R are known at time t2 ./  L . r u. �J 1  . \ [L.. ' ' :. . \ . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. p. p. 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . • 00 . 0 (2 . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . \ Figure 2. are not known .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 .
t 1 ) ( t2 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t } ) (t 3 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t 1 ) (t 3 .Sec. 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t 3 ) ( t } . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t2 ) ( t 1 .t 1 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 .t2 ) ( t 1 . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t2 ) .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .t 3 ) L2 (2. t2 and t3 .t3 ) (2 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 1 ) ( t2 . t } . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date . t2 .t2 ) ( t} .t 1 .t 3 ( t 1 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t 3 ) (t.t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t 1 ) ( t3 .three t�es. 1 1 6) + 2t .t 1 ) ( t.t 2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t2 ) (t.t3 ( t 2 . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 . Since we have the value of L at.t2 L3 ( t 3 . 2 . 1 1 .
u L /r 3 . p. This.u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . + ..u R Ir3 I + .. I L . . L J I (2 . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. in fact . D reduces to L D =2 L I L . however. The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . better yet .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch .u R Ir3 J + .u L 1 / r 3 L J + .ons (2 . 2 . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. . 4 Equation (2 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns.u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . p' and r. 1 1 5 ) . For the time being. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati.u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or .L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. LI . that if more than three observations are available . L K + . 1 1 6) and (2 . L L L K K K J . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . L J . It should be noted. it is evident that L Dp = .. p.
1 1 .1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration.1 0) into (2. If we do this we find that . 1 1 . 1 1 5). is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. 2 .1 2) .. J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . R R I . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. L K L J L I K (2. 0. L J L I K J!.1 0) and (2 . Then _ __ K I L J L L K I .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. 1 1 . From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 .. 1 1 2). 1 1 . O O. 2 . .Sec . Substituting equation (2 . R . p and r. we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section.4 Solving for Velocity . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 .L L L J K I p . 1 1 .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . 1 1 .1 1) Op = . Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. R J . R R . . L K . 1 1 . . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2.
a . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. 1 1 .2). Laplace ' s method fails . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. 1 1 . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations.1 3) for p.For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D .1 4) p 2. 1 1 . ° . such as P.5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . To obtain the velocity vector . 1 1 . El. D. E l . k. If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . 2 . a3 .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . ° 3 . This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. P. Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . 2 (2 . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . As a matter of fact . (2 .
of course. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit.::"P .g. 1 21) .::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. The question then arises. ts and t6 ' These predictions are . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. For example . t4 . Assuming that the residuals are small. 2. r K ' v " vJ . The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. . Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. It may happen . \ ' t2 . 1 Computing Residuals. p) will differ from the computed data. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates.::"P 3 . 1 2. however . 2 The Differential Correction equations. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements.::"P 2 ' ." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . 2. The six residuals are �1 ' . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . v Kl at t = to are correct. 1 2. t3 . . Doppler rangerate.Sec. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ .
(A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times.VI .. equations (2 .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. NK.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .Vj' D. The inversion of equations (2 . 1 2. usually 6 for orbit problems) n .1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. . such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. rj .VK . to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. D. r K " ' arl D. With the aid of a digital computer. 2.r l " v K )p1 ( r l . 1 2. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. by trial and error. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . however. reduce the residuals to zero . . ap1 . D.) Then. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. . .e. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. for example . Nj. V K ) .:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . 1 2 . NI . The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method. i.
In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense .g . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . use 0. Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. 2 . 3 . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. called the root me an square (RMS) . If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). a and (3 are the elements (two here . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it .8 1 ) . since p 2 below) . This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. minimum as described above . Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. Solve equation (2 . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. for the exactly determined case (p or b. .. zero .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . for 90% confidence . 4. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. = = n) .. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement .tb each of the elements measured. A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. 2 .
2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). the partial derivatives are : . 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 .:. Choo se ex and for the first estimates.Assume equal confidence in all data. ex VI. 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch .2. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM .
2. Thus. Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 .Sec. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 .
2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. we will use a simple .474 and f3 = 3. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. In practice. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. 6 orbit elements) would be used. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4.474 Xi 3 . To illustrate the method involved. large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . yet still overspecified number of measurements.360 = . This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations.
2 .500 8.000 50.865 49.828 0 0. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .007 0.._1.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.1 05 9.474 4 0 07 19.Vi 2.1 26 0.000 n = Vi 0.1.000 1 9. ( V i Yi ) 2 4.934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 . aa .y.0 01 1 3. 934 = 1 . . 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l . 969 ____  Vi . 0 35 3. E ( V 1.Sec. 474 x 3 . 3 . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence .866 4 x .) 2 n ..
{3 = {3 new .001 07 33 b = 0. The second iteration yields: £::.380708 A = 40. 1 96 = 3.2.039 £::.(X 26 3.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .�T�� {3 new {3 new = = . which is larger than what we started with. 0 18 0. so we iterate. 1 75 ] 5.670 3.z 10.031 8.0. 1 961 0.1. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .3..021 070 20.l Now using (2 .. 81 30 8..474 + .304 0.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2.36 .027 12.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. 27 A WA = [12.056 ""' T . 2 (AT\j\j'A ) . Thus (X new = . = 3.062 . 105. 0."""'" �T�� . 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.360.733.4 1 69. 1 22) we have £::.304 = .
2. 7 35 x 3 . Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. 2 .00 1 . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3.500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. In practice .5 8 1 . 038 . 038 [3 = 3 . W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0.4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. 2 . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 .5 8 2 .735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. in theory. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again .000 . however. The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . during orbital decay. 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . However. 1 2.Sec . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. and finally. The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 .
The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. the precomputed 2. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. These detection radars with a range of 2. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . forming "clouds" of space debris. 2 2. In addition. 1 Radar Sensors. 1 3. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. the White Sands Missile Range . At present.500 miles make about 1 2 . antisatellite targeting. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. 1 4 . spacecraft failure diagnosis. 1 The Spacetrack System.5 003. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere .000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. and midcourse ICBM inter ception. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2 .
Sec. is now on active Spacetrack alert. the FPS43. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. One FPS49 .141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. Turkey. Greenland. One of the earlier detection radars. and is on active spacetrack alert. while three are located at Clear.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. Figure 2. New Jersey. 2. Alaska. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island.
It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. 2 Figure 2. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. Florida. under the 140ft radome at the left. In addition. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. This BMEWS station at Clear. Alaska. United Kingdom. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness.142. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . Alaska.
14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2.14.2 Radio Interferometers.Sec. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. 2. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. 2. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. When two or . The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe.143. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite.
the semimajor axis. each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. is well established. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. 2 . two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . and therefore . 1 4 . These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. In addition to these . but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. Considering the type of observational data received. Canada . 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. Alberta. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period.3 Optical Sensors. 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 .
Sec. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. As a result. and the lighting correct. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake.145.400 miles. A separate optical system superimposes. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. Alberta. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. 2. 1 0 Under favorable conditions.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. it is . The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. seeing conditions must be good.
it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. 4 Typical Sensor Errors. 2 . 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. on the other hand . For detection radars. satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. Doppler rangerat e info rmation. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . in any case . New Mexico site. precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. In any case . Massachusett s . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce .000 meters.) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals.1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . Further . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . is relatively accurat e . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. takes time. I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . 1 4 .
5 Future Developments. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) . lunar attraction.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. 2.14. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein.Sec 2.7 seconds in time would remain. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. nonuniform gravitational fields.146. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag.
is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . howeve r . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. Now. the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . Many improvements . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . of the target . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . Theoretically . a continuousw ave . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. Operating in the SHF b and . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. In t he system under development . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . but it also record s target tracks for later playback . p. One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology.
2 . i. We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. F igure 2 . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . respectively with a launch a zimuth ..1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . 1 5 .. 1 5 . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . o f the orbit . The arc CB which forms the • . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r .Sec. For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . 1 5 2 . 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . 18cP  2 . 1 5 .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. 1 5 .
The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . L o?" If i is to be minimized . 0 i.e . For a due east launch equat ion (2 . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . 1 5 .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track.c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . that the launch azimuth. 1 5 ·3 . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . f3 ' be easterly . . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . A direct orbit require s . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . betwe en 00 and 1 80° . therefore . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . i : c os i = . 2. La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth.
A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day .Sec. 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . 1 5 . 2 . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . Figure 2 . su r face .
a solar day or sidereal day? b . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. = (partial answers : 2. i = 90° . 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2.5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans.7071 + . e = . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich.89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . Englan d . = u nd ef i ned ) = . 2 EXERCISES 2 . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c.3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. J .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . Which takes longer . 9 7 0 .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . Colorado ( 1 04.7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. 885. 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2.
Ch. Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU.2K DU . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . (Answer [partial] e = . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . e.) Determine p. i . OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 .8 I J P = .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . c . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. 3<. Determine the orbital e lements.8 2075 . (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. 1. 2 + b . 2.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . 82 u a .
1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d .3 1 065 1 5 0.7 6) . W.3 5 35 3995 0 1 .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = .4 1 4202 0. 2.8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . a. 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . b . 1 0 January 1 9 70. the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis .060668 8 3 1 . 6464495 a. Units are earth canonical units. b ut not nece ssary. b . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . 1 7 1 . U se of a computer is sugge sted . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. C alifornia . PST . Q. 2 . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so .system along the unit ve ctor s P. F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. equatorial . 2. p = 1 . 1 0 2. 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e .4 1 4225 1 1 1 . r2 1 . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. LST = 63 . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 .5 0 West . r3 r l I J K 1 . (Answer : r = 1 . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU .
8 0 .6 0.7 0 0 e.707 1 0 1 0 1 0.9 1 42 3467 2 . C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A . fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.207 1 25 5 1 .2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.0 1 . fl f2 f3 d.0 7 .94974 1 7 6 .97 0 1 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .1 .20709623 0 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .094964 1 8 0.0 1 .0 0 2 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 . B . .Ch.9 1 420062 4 .5 65 6808 1 0.0 0 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .0 0 .0 0 2 .0 2 .6 0.0 2 . 1 4  DU/TU. fl f2 f3 3 .8 0 0 . fl f2 f3 0 .565 6808 1 0 0 .2K with a velo city o f AI . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.89497724 0 0 0 1 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.09497879 1 . DU * 2.0 7 .97 2 .89497 879 0.707 1 1 25 5 0.62 1 34384 c.62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .
Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. Obj ect b . A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . d . has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane .1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. Express the coordinates. * 2 . . b. ___ e. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. v = 0. 9 7 . 2 a . Obj ect c. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates.620 1 I 0. ( A ns. Obj ect vernal equinox direction.0078 J 0. 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type .17 p 0. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system.75 K D U /T U )  . __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . east and zenith (up) component s? c.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0.
1 9 67 . Space/A ero na utics . S . 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Jr . Thoma s. New York and London . 1 95 6 . NY . 1 96 3 ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . Carl Friedrich. 1 95 7 . 1 9 1 4. Armitage . Henize . Paul G ." in The World of Math ematics . Jame s R . C leeto n . The M acmillan Company. K. NY. Sky Publishing Corp . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . 6.Ch. C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . Angus. Second Revised Edition . 8 ." Vol 48 . 1 962. London . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. NY . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . No 6 . "Space Traffic Surveillance . Baker . 1 9 66.1 1 1 . 4. New York . Mass. NY . Inc. "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. Pierre Simo n . G . E . U. L. Robert M . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . D avis . E scobal. Edmond Halley . 1 965 . Telescope . John Wiley & Sons. A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . C . Gauss. November 1 9 67 . Laplace . . Sons Ltd . New York . C ambridge . New York . Vol 3 . Thomas Nelson and 3. Simo n and S chuster ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . 2 . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. pp 1 08 . Navy Space Surveillance System. Inc. and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . 1 0 . Academic Pre ss. 5 . Pedro Ramon . New York . "The A erospace Vehicle s . Forest Ray . 9 . Dover Publications . 7 . Newman . Moulton .
"Future Radar Developments. New York. Colorado. 1 9 66. NY. 17. Davies. Electronic . New York. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. and Eller. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Thomas J. R. S. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. NY . McGrawHill." Satellite Control Facility. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. 1 4. 1 962. No 5 . Vo1 40. 1 3 . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. 2 1 1 . New York ." The Vol 1 4. 1 6. Briskman. New York. 1 970." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. 1 967 . NY. Air Force Systems Command. ." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. P. Roger R. p 39 . 1 5 . Carson. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . 1 966. 1 2 . Cheetham. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. No 20 . SepOct 1 967. Gerald C. NY. 1 966. 1 962. Sunnyvale." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. Robert D . Inc. California. R. Journal of Oct 2. the A stronautical Sciences. Bate. USAF Academy.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .
according to their different velocity. After that . and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. for the next 250 years. or variously eccentric. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. 1 0. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. those bodies. 1 . and the different force of gravity in different heights.000 or more miles. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. as of 5 . the idea seems to have been forgotten. ) 00 . It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. Goddard. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth.
His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . 1 . 3 . 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. since it contemplated the use of military hardware ." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. Project Orbiter.research. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . particularly if it is manned . o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. Manned spaceflight . On 4 October 1 95 7 . Rather . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. However. 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. 3 . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. still in its infancy . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth.
� ee..rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION .rrrj.EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr. 71. � '" . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 . (I) CD � .(/} � � (I) E � � .H O URS WEEK ..J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E . � . YEAR a YEARS .. ..::: 0(I) "" 20 10 .25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" ... ....... 20K (. VI/II � V � . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N . .J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION . 11 L ..' � S' (1) 0 . I MONTH I .50K �.......n w .J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl . .. c.V'h WillI e: � .. mJ77/1/.. .///11// .: fiD It: 0 It: <t .. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ . .+ :=.
The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch.03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . 1 . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. 1 . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . 1 ·2 . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . stated. m . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . m .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . a p ogee 1 00 n . Figure 3 . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . m .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit.1 shows the limits imposed by drag . Figure 3 . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . 3 .
The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. 3 . between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. 1 3 . The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. as you can see from Figure 3 . 1 2 . It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit.or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of .Sec. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. The vehicle is not allowed to coast . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point.. 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 .
This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . As a result. 1 5 . but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. 3 .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . therefore. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). You . The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. Figure 3 . 1 . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant.
. 1 > ."� ill Q rn o I � fS .5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .2 .���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.Sec.J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*. "::> Figure 3 .9 r�=r�rr... 3 . 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�..
J 5 "' C iii 0. I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: ..1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 .. 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0. "' "' .
Sec. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . What is the inclination of the orbit? b. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2.6 0 . completing one revolution every 90 days. It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. and oppo. a. 3 . Figure 3 . which also is due to oblateness. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. With this perturbation . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle.60 . The ascending node moves to the west . 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days.Q 360 ° per 90 days :. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 .40 or greater than 1 1 6. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . Therefore = . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes.40 and 1 1 6.6.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63.67 0 /day From Figure 3 .
3 .2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. however. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. unfortunately. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . not the case ." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude.300 nm or about 5 . of course. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator.6 earth radii above the surface . Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. 1 .inches from the surface. 1 The Synchronous Satellite. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). On the scale of Figure 3 . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase .21 shows why. If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases.2. 2 .1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 1 2 this would be 2*. There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . Figure 3. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 .000 nm altitude . ground trace of a synchronous satellite. Of course. 3 . The first stage booster climbs 3 . 3 Figure 3 . This. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. for example . This is.
intervals . . This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit... Dot ted grou nd trace ..2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s..22 Ascent ellipse ..Sec. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 . ...21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. At apogee of the ascent ellipse. burn """ " " . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr. This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more.� � Figure 3 . curve is \ " " . 3.
= _ r 2a . the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. for some other reason. Usually this is not serious. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged.v (3. and flightpath angle.. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. 2vdv .34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. 3 .33) or = da 2a2 vdv . a? v. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size.3 . In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . (3. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. fJ.da a2 = fJ. speed. we get a change in . a very precise orbit is required. /:. at appropriate points in the orbit.  fJ. as they are called .1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch .31) If we solve for '. we get (3 . In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . dv. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. but . (3 . What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis.32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit.
1 . therefore . Since we know r l . 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height.34). 3 . 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. Similarly.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. 2 The Hohmann Transfer. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl .semimajor axis. a 6. along the transfer ellipse. called Hohmann transfer orbits.v) . The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. to the large orbit. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. of the orbit given by equation (3 . the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. whose radius is rl .34) for small but finite 6.V v P P (3. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . For example . whose radius is r2 . Since the major axis is 2a.3. 4 Jl. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have." 3 . In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. a2 6.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. 3 . It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit.h a �  da.
31 (3.31 &. 2at Figure 3 .36) = r i + r2 =  and. since p.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch . its speed is .37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3. 3 the transfer orbit./2 a . (3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3. &.
39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. For the transfer traj ectory. .1 0) (3 . The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . 3 I N. 3 . Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. i n our example . to VI ' So . I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3.3. ra = 3 DU. & t = � = .3. Find the minimum /::. The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion .V required to double the altitude of the satellite . Although. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 .Sec.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits.V implies a Hohmann transfer . The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Minimum rp = 2 DU.
346 ft/sec 3 . Figure 3.JfF"= .V1 = . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch . We can express this condition mathematically as r = .32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.VTOT == .707 DU /TU vi r.068 D U/TU V cs =.061 DU/TU I::. I::.3.3.313) .1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.V2 = .� r 1 1 +e p p (3. 3 V cs 1 = (il = .577 DU/TU r2 2 I::. I t is obvious from Figure 3 .32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.
�. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. in the transfer orbit. 3 . I &.33) and interpret them graphically.1 4) (3. and the angular momentum. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. / 2a . we can compute the energy.3. (3. To satisfy both conditions. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits.3. Knowing and e.Sec. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. p p p  = . respectively .1 5) .32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. p p (p. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . ht. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3.
39) The angle between v1 and va.. </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit . its speed is (3 .1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 . we get (3.1 is just the flightpath angle . p r2. __ Figure 3. .33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r .v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.34 /::.
41 .41) 3. 4 .V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.1 .3. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side .310) when the flightpath angle . the b. ¢l ' is zero. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above .34.V. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle .V using the law of cosines.4. Or.3.Sec.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . as shown at the right of Figure 3 .1 'I' . b. after applying a finite b. (3. b. A velocity change .4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.V. more simply.V.V required. (3 .1 7) reduces to equation (3.31 6) Now. If.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. 1 Simple Plane Change . We can solve for the magnitude of b. b. 3 . then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . together with the b.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. assuming that we know v and e. and obtain directly for circular orbits. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. form an isosceles vector triangle. This is called a simple plane change. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . e.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ". 3. or it can rotate the line of apsides. it is not surprising that equation (3 .
170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 3 Figure 3 .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane).1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . DU circular orbit. If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. for example .vrequired to accomplish the mission. A plane change of 60 0 . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. Therefore . . b . Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . a. calculate the additional b. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. makes b.V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . Determine the total b. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .
1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU . 3. v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .__ = . Therefore at = r2 . DU 2 1 Hence .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L. & t = = �= .618 = 1 .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.1 = \1'1 .953 DU/TU L. . I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.270.Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) . The given information is: h I = 0.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit..0.Vl = V l .Sec. 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L. 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0. 1 +� 1 .1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 .V l 1 .
626 vcs2 = V't. + v�s2.V2 = y'l'5= 0. 1 5 DU/TU 6. 31 7 + . 4 .317) to determine 6.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .V2 .(0. v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.042 ft/sec Therefore v = . 2 + 0.253 ft/sec .4) (. 3 and we must use equation (3.387 DU/TU = 1 0.447) 0.2(.626) = 0 .4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0. 6.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 . 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .V22 v.= 0 .3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :. 447)(.2 .447) (.626) = 0.447 DU/TU 2 1 .704 DU/TU 18. 3 87 .
447 ) ( .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .Sec. F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 . 3.1 ) t:::.4.0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .
3 . i changedall other parameters remained the same.21 .6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . What is the minimum 6. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of . Ch . = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. 0.5 b. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S .449 DU/TU) 3.2 Calculate the total 6. a. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . 0 .2 DU and 4 DU respectively. a = 2.5 DU/TU.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. (Ans.e. a plane change or an orbit transfer.5 DU . 3. 3 EXERCISES 3 .76.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.4 Refer to Figure 3 . c..V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. i. 1 1 DU and e = 0. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . r p = 1 DU e = 0. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination.
8 Compute the minimum I::.1 DU 8 1 = 0. 9 Calculate the total l::. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. using Hohmann transfers.v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. 95 DU 8 = 0.412 5 3 . 0 . (Ans. P = 1. orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. 34DU2 (fU d. 5 & Design a satellite .V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. C ompare this with the I::.56 c. 3 .Ch . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . . 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . * 3 . The . = 0. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) .9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = .7 3 .
1 962. NY . Newton . Robert M . New York . The Viking Press. Ley. Air Force Systems Command . Missiles. Makemson. Sir Isaac. New York and London . L. 1 . Walter . New York .. Rockets. Willy. 3 . The Viking Press. and Maud W.1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Vol 2. Berkeley and Los Angeles. NY. 1 July 1 965 . 1 95 5 . and Space Travel. Dornberger. 4 . Principia. Baker. DC . . 1 96 1 . Washington . Space Planners Guide. 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. A cademic Pre'ss. University of California Press. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. 5 . 2nd revised ed. Headquarters. V2 . 1 9 60.
This was Kepler 's first great problem. of the heirs. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event.CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . the determination of the true movement of the planets. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. . . . or lack of circumspection. Albert Einstein ! 4 . or perhaps usurping them . by taking the observations under my care .. the solution of the second problem. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . .2 1 77 . . Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. . I quickly took advantage of the absence. was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. . who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. presupposed the solution of the first. including the earth .
subterfuges. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. but above all to convey to him the reasons. "What matters to me. . I + . 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. .1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. whole grand entertainment would be lost. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. 1 . and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy ." Kepler points out in his Preface. When Christopher Columbus. detour. we not only forgive them. Thus. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries.
prick your ears. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. perihelion and aphelion. for now we are going to invade your territory. with the warning: "Ye physicists. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. . . Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. Moreover. But then without a word of transition. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. almost with masochistic delight. as it were. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. that. His results. never noticing his error. however. without benefit of any preconceived notions. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. again incorrectly . At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result.Sec 4. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed .
2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . but analytical geometry came after Kepler. " Finally. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. he settled on the oval.2 Finally. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. .. He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. 4 Figure 4 . after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch .. as I shall prove further down . He had . .
e . . Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. came when.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. whereas the two . 4. in a moment of despair. . but he did not know how. The climax to this comedy of errors.2 T I M EO F . .' " . . Ah. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit..: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. : . In this chapter we will. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. disguising itself to be accepted. until I went nearly mad. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. . what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end.. and velocity and the timeofflight. You: are . I thought and searched. de rive the . for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to .and chased away. are one and the same . return e d by stealth through the backdoor.y it should move in an orbit at all.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal..Sec 4.F L I G HT . We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. hypothesis. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. which I had rejected . mine] . have persisted to this day. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. . That is to say. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. . . made a mistake in geometry. believing that this was a quite different . In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits.
i. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see.A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . P. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . where the true anomaly is v . The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4.2. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. We will pursue a lengthier. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit . (4. 7T a b . the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area.. say from periapsis to some general point.2. 4 existed . derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments.21 Area swept out by r . A ' in Figure 4.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use .1 ) i s the area � .e .1 ) . but more motivated.2 .182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY .l . ''"'''"'. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4. In going part way around an orbit. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. 4.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 .2. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus....
F L I G HT . 2 T i M EO F .l. A dotted line . 22 Eccentric anomaly. E E Circle : .Sec 4 . Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . From analytical geometry.Z x2 + . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. perpendicular to the major axis.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse. the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . \/2 a2 _ .
22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . It Tollows directly from equation (4. oos E and whose (4.23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V .�rea PSV minus the dotted area. 4 Hence .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) .a E) . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . A2 . Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 .
cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .2 . Obviously .27) (4.F L I G H T .27) reduces to (4.e si n E ) I (4. and whose altitude is (a si n E ). v. Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally.T = 4 ( E .2 T I M EO F ." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E .28) . From Figure 4.24) E .1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' . in order to use equation (4.E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV . whose base is (a CDS E).e sin E (4.24). Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .e si n E (4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly. E.22.e si n Ai yields E) . minus the triangle .we get � ( E . cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.25) where M is called the "mean anomaly. substituting into equation (4." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). to its corresponding true anomaly. Kepler introduced the definition M = It .Sec 4.
to = ( t . E Figure 4 . The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane . from Figure 4. + t . In general we can say that t  to = 4.T) .24 left). If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .e Sin .T o ) . when v is between o and n. 4 E E.T ) .( Eo  E) (4.( t o .to = lP (t . In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.(to .T) .24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis. Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.28).[ 2kn + (E . we can say that t .24 right.
2 T I M EO F.Sec 4.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .2.1 2) (4.2.2.2.82 f: ( 1 .7 . .+ COS (4.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.2.8 E ) dE (4.1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4. From equations in section 1 .  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .1 3) (4.2.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.J1=82 d E (4.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.F L I G H T .2.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.21 6) V 1 .8 si n E ) V r . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .1 1 ) easily integrable .82 ( E .21 2). From equation (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn .4.1 2) is transcendental in x. va' a and the trial value of x.1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa.4.Sec 4. (4 . In one sense .4 4. Fortunately . the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. a trialanderror solution is indicated. Therefore .4. Equation (4 . ( 1 . Figure 4. But now we have a problem.1 3) ro va v t" . From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .47) has been used to eliminate z. 4.2 Solving for x When Time is Known . An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . a. since equation (4.
3 The f and 9 Expressions. 4 .41 6) dx x . 1 dt r (4. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . (4. xn . we must then calculate the corresponding and v. Substituting for r in equation (4.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Thus A.32).41 9) . it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r. B and C are coplanar vectors. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible.4. With x known. the four vectors fO ' (4.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.4.42.1 = x 2 C + x . and A and B are not colinear. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B.4. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. the iteration may be terminated.
1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h . O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 .. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities. Crossing equation (4.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w .4.. f. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates. f and g.1 9) gives Sec 4 . g...4.where f. g . f and 9 are not independent.. = fg. in equation (4..1 8) into equation (4. g .4... First. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q. the left side of the O .. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .420) This equation shows that f . however.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. x. We can isolate the scalar .
x + Co cos v = .424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x. (4.1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw . yw x .1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.4.e2 )  r .426) . From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 . .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ . o .4. Xw .a l e + Sln Y.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . (4.425). x wYw .1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4. 4 h (4.423) (4.34) and (4.w o Yw h (4. we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x.4. ) .42 1 ) We can isolate (4. .E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .425) Combining equations (4.
42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4...32).426) through (4 .a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum.. (4. e quation (4..Va • W . ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C . \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .43 0) f (4.. x =� cos x + c r . x + co h = . Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4....42 1 ) c /Ii.(e sin � + cos � ). ro ro .sin r  � (4...43 1 ) .429) into equation (4. ro . Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4.a Va 2 = 1 9.4.a  mitions of z.1 ) ..43 0) 0 1 f C a = . r.. e quation (4... 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.Sec 4 .426) and (4. x = 0 at t = o .429) Substituting equations (4.428) yw .427) and using the definition of the universal variable .
] � a .435) (4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.436) . r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.4·3) � r o .. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .1 ) and (4 .A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch ..4.433) (4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.4.1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .32) (4.202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .4. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.
5 . can be used. la .1 9) . 2 . Obviously .5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4. note that equation (4.43 5) and (4. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. 4 .[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . to 4.434) .34) (4. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4. solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . 3 . Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. the expression (t would replace 4 . Note also that if were not zero . then compute r and r from equation (4 . x + Co cos [ � . then compute v from equation (4. Also. 1 . 1 The Physical Significance of and z. 5 .5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation.4.43 6) . if we are going to use equation (4. From and determine r and a. but we have not said what and z represent.1 8).4.420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. 4 . The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter.4 . its definition.1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit .43 1 ) and (4. Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem.4. in any of the equations where z appears. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . Si n va = Va =  c o s . Va x (4.e E).1 ) Va = _ E .Sec 4.
Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x . therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.56) la.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE. 5 ·1) at time x = 0.204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ . Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f.3 4) and (4.4. so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s . (4 . (4 .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).52) whenever is negative . we can conclude that = V'ii I F . a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 . (4 . 1 (4.E o l .1 3) .F 0 1  Va I E . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.57) . we get x= D .Do .53) Subtracting equation (4.53) from (4 .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.5 4) (4.
F a ) '· z is zero.1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem.5 9) . from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. In computing the semimaj or axis.5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero .8) Figure 4 .to 4 . so Sec 4. I z = I F . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4. If imaginary. a.when z is positive . 5 . 5 . the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.5. A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. Therefore .
I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number.:z. .P)/ 2. convergence will be extremely rapid. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value.e ...All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. then Z will be a large negative number .5 .cosh . a = ± x 3 .. with £X. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. we get for elliptical orbits.6F.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. / ( .5. wherever it occu rs. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. C = 1 . In the case of elliptical orbits. and . 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 . so S � V0r eFz 2 .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .a vG ) .. Furthermore . since X = foE.fZi3 = q .ji11. so s i n h fi .. When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4.. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. ( t a to) ..a � eFz ± 2x 3 .v y� ( . Use this for a first guess . is large.
Thu s . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.5.L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before. 5 .t o ) x ::::: sign (t . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.tJ is positive .t o ) 2x 3 � + t .a .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J. . 4 . where appropriate .t o ) #a ( 1 ] . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .£.sign in the above expression . Anytime t . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t . so Sec 4 .1 1 ) .r:z .tohATci ( l . 5 .Q) eV La 2J.t o ) sign (t . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the . Therefore.to is positive.t o ) Fa ..The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4. for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence . vice versa . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t . recognizing that X will be positive when (t .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations. X will be positive and .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r . we get � S .sign (t .t o ) � ( 1 .L ( t .a eFz sign ( t .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.
4. (4.B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. z cos i � .0 6 + . = Similarly. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .1 3).4. If z is near zero .".1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive..1 0) and (4.1 3) COS .4. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! . 4 (4 .Ji .1 1 ) as But i v:z .(1  . s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 . if z is negative .5. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S. The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.1 1 ) ..7! + .5.s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch . . 1 .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .5.1 0) as C where = i C = . use equations (4. . we can write equation (4.1 2) and (4 . so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .4.cosh . use equations (4.1 1 ) We can write equation (4.1 0) (4.4.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .s i n i V} = i si n i B .5. Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .4.
(4Ir) 2 .Ji! + Ji!.5..Sec 4. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity . 0 'j (4. 0 .1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity .5..� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4....+ . . Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 ..52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .1 4) ·· 1 . .5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z . The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 . . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ . (611)2 etc.
1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . 2& .)] P (4.2C ) .[i) z ] (4 . r a . it is not surprising that the derivatives.zS . 4 functions . Differentiating the definition of C. 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x.5.12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. va = Therefore & = 1. dC /d z and dS /d z .21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . 39 5 . and v at = t=2 T U .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ.( 1 . Given ra = I D U va = 1 .266  .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s . I dS = _ ( C . 1 K . Find r.3S ) . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . we get I � = fz. t=2 T U9 ra = I.5 .s i n z dz 2z [ 0. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves. va > � a= :l = 1 . 1 .
1 . 2 2 x 3 ' etc.222 1 .279 1 .821 1 .1 .266 ( 1 . solving for t .82 1 1 .973 a Using equation (4. 24 1 = 1 .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.t.222 = 1 .1 ..222 Repeating the process.12.5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .4.t o x_ 21Tya lP :. Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.58 1 .. we can make a 2 __ = 1 . xn tn fit After three iterations..277 dXn 1 .8 1 6 1 .8 2 1 1 .8 1 6 x n+1 .58) 2 1 .. 58+ . tn toward t = ZTU. 705 . using a slide rule . X l Zl y"""a6E or x .1 4) and (4.1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 .Since x = and .8 1 6 1 .007 2.222 2= 95 X 1 + 2. y'ii"(t .000 1 ..705 2 . 58+..4.t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.58 1 . we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .
Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. But . E and F.1 we can see that X w = r cos v . we will derive expressions for xw . E and F.JPt::.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. as D = v'P tan � 2 . g.. and 9 = 0. since e = 1 .... 880 1 1 . Finally.6. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. E or F.8801 Ch .2. D.Then from the definitions of f.0. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly .32 1 1 + 1 . ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D. 4 4. yw and r in terms of D.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . (4.1 7). f. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. 236K g. for the parabola.321 . r = _. v. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly.1 ) From Figure 4. But first some useful identities will be presented. f = 0. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. f = 0._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. 1 24.6 . Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit.2) .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola.6.6.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. 4. g = 1 .
65) . yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system. 2 If we substitute from equation (4.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.Sec 4 .1 ) .6.62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos . (4.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .
(4.J7!. 4 rr. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known. r • v. in Figure 4 .Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product.s i n p v = ffp ta n v . For the eccentric anomaly .62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 ) . Using r • r = and equation (2. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 . r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.62 Perifocal components of r .6.66) v . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown.
M  (4.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E .Sec 4 . we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. (4.6. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E . I Substituting from equations (4. e illS E we get another useful  �. we can say that I yw = Q.62. yw Just as we did for the parabola.67) (a si n E ) a But . 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4. (4.8) and simplifying.67) and (4 .1 0) e sin E also. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle . since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae.6. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) .24) .
.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .:.22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.1 0) .28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E..6.6.1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation. solving this equation for • v .Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.!. e cos E from equation (4... 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4. E is imaginary .1 3) . we obtain E = .6. when F is a real number . is given by e si n rr = r = $a . when E is a real number.6.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4..e Si n r E Finally . v. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E . The . F is imaginary. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.
1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4. The rectangular components of a general position vector.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. may be written as (4. 6. 6. From equation (4.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.e ) . The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.1). Similarly. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.e) .67) we can write Sec 4 . In Figure 4 . r.6.range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. But l cos i F = cosh F . so (4.6 .Il a •v (4.el = a (cos i F .1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. 6.  But i si n iF = si n h F. 4.a r  (4.1 8) .63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system.61 6) r e cosh F = 1.6.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F . 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E . so Yw = a � sinh F.
(4.c o s tv ) (4.6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4. 626) . we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = . V. so 1 � L (I ...42 1 ) .624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . ( . Figure 4. tan p /:. are yw = r sin v (4.V _ 2 1 .vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf .1 ...JiLP.A F U N CT I O N O F T.: o s /:.P ( 1 ... where tv = v . .V.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .x".c os I 9 ' = v'f. the rectangular components of the velocity vector . r0 · = 1 .625) (4.. 4 +...p ...:.ji! sin v p (4. 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:._ c��V P IW (4.I M E Ch .. 623) .. and note that h = . .218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y . 62 1) (4.
From equations (4.e cos E o ) . Similarly.E ) f = . r (4.6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .a E sin E .4. 629) f = 1 .!Ji8 sin L'!.sin L'!. yw 9 and (t .1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .E ) .e2 ).e2 ) = 1.e2 ) v.1 (4. Thus Xw Sec 4. = .63 1 ) (4. we get f = a( cos E .� ( 1 . E rr .cos L'!.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 . o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.I Jlla sin E.a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l . 627) But.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .e) v! fJa( l .to ) .63 2) .67) and (4.E) 9 r _ 0 j. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .6.1 0).( L'!.E .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4. using equation (4. (4..cos L'!.6.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .63 0) (4.6.Ji!. (4.68) .a ( 1 .e 2 ) cos E .
 E.4 Kepler Problem Algorithm. Kepler himself realized this. (4. from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly . A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some . 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4.(1 E .6F ) . with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true. the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .63 6) 4.2k7T + M o .26) Even though equation (4.to) .2 6) is one equation in one unknown . it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia . M can be obtained from = (4.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself.220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch . In classical terms.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) .634) (4. .t o ) .629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4. (4.6. of course . and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it.. cosh 6F ) . � V a3 ( t .63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .
be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. E It would. � Figure 4.638) n dM/d E I E=E n .64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M.63 7) Now. ' (4. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve.Sec 4 . we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . E n+ l E + M . compute the mean anomaly. that results from this trial value . 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. but this is not very accurate. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . of course . select a new trial value.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. M n . 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem.
dE Therefore.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating.5 + .  .2. 1 . Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a.1 9).6.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M .t ' are given. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. Solve for V if needed. Once E i s determined by any method.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . even when e is nearly 1 . we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. It can be used for LW or�E .when e is nearly 1 . 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value. e.4. where d M / d E l E = En En. 5. Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence.4 0) EXERCISES 4. t .5 cos V DU .1 2) . r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). 2.e cos En (4. 3 . va and the timeofflight.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . d M = 1 e cos E . The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation. equation (4. e. Determine f and V from equations (4. From fa and va determine r 0' a. p and va· 2 .4. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. however. 4 . The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4.1 8) and (4. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(.
9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. (partial Ans.3.4 If. (Ans.3 Given l:J) = ffP. x.. Explain why this must be so . find the universal variable. 4.Ch . how should the area of search for x be limited. corresponding to l:J) of 600• . f = 4 . 625) . Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 .348J +  1 . V = 3481 . glven fO' vO' and t.5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. i. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P.e. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. Find the values of f. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa.85 TU) 4.6 For the data given in problem 4.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. find r and v for . to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. TOF = 5.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4.
1 0. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. TOF = 2. e = .9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. Va and t .1 1). 1 1 For problem 4.99). Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . f and g. in equations (4. Le. == 1 .to and solve for f and v. 5. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 .51 0) and (4. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. with a perigee above the north pole. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. 9 At burnout. (Ans. 4 . if X == x (t ) . and give your analytic reasoning behind. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa.5 . an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value.73 TV) 4.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . g. 4 . 4 . Develop. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans..22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. e = . ra == 2. 4 4 . then .10 rp 4 . Do the same for problem 4. 2. 5 DU.5 DU. 7 The text. Va and w and will solve for f.
equation (4.16 * 4.I:!:. 4.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D.E. L'.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . 1 7 Derive the expression for g . 1 963 .( t . Stahlman. Kepler. r.1 8). A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. 4 .43 6). The Sleepwalkers. Company. f and 9 in terms of (t . Richard H. LIST OF REFERENCES 1 .0 + .. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. 2. Arthur. The Macmillan 3 . Philosophical Library. Battin.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . A New York. Guidance . = . 1 95 9 . r3 fJ. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly.43 5) and (4..6 TU) . . Koestler.2 . 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . 1 95 1 . 4. 1 964.630) through (4. 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f. Small. The University of Wisconsin Press.. New York.. Wise. 63 2). o 4 . NY. 2. g. New York..tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. Einstein. Albert. NY. Madison. Robert. See equations (4.r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. NY.
. 1 965. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. W. Mathmatica. 1 965. Unpublished notes.1 79. pp 3093 1 5. Brooks. New 6. pp 1 89.1 92. 1 947. Vol 70.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . ." A str. W. pp 1 05 . Vol 70. K. 1 2. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. S.ach. 1 965 .1 28 . 9. J. K. "Universal Variables." A stron. 1 0. 8." A stron. Roger R. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. J. Herrick. pp 66066 1 . Sperling. 1 96 1 ." A cta Vol 36. Goodyear. N. The MacMillan Company." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. Lemmon. H . Sundrnan. W . Forest Ray." ARS 1. 1 9 1 2 . California. 1 9 1 4. United States Air Force Academy . Vol 3 1 . and 1. A n Introduction York. H. E. pp 1 08. F . H. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. Stumpff. 4 5 . to Celestial Mechanics. Vol 275 . Moulton. 1 1 . "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. Bate. Redondo Beach. 7.
so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. in the first year of the 1 9th century. 227 5. in 1 7 8 1 . CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants.. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Uranus. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. But. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. a 24yearold German mathematician.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND .
the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. and the direction of . 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 ." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. and for convenience in referring to it later. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. 5."the Gauss problem. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. Hegel asserted. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. but for a different reason. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. exactly 1 year later. If they paid some attention to philosophy .228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. no more . no less. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. Because of its importance. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. The object turned out to be Ceres.
the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. appears in the denominator of any expression.SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ . the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used..1 . 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M .. the orbit is a degenerate conic. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . . therefore.motion." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. It is not surprising..". . p. If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. The relationship between the four vectors f l . . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. 5 . / ." through an angular change greater than 7r. If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r).. f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. particularly if the parameter. Obviously .. / I I I I I Figure 5 ...21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . or the "long way.. 2. that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. Sec .
( 1 . bv . (5 . From equation (5 . 2.25 ) (5 . (5 . a and �E.1 ) (5 .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 .( 1 . (5 . f and g.. p.26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 .cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . so 2 . 23) and (5 . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. f.22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f.sin �E ) � JJ. so a trialanderror solution is necessary . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . t.. the solut �on to . r2 P p rI . We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 .23).= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. but the first four are known. 2.230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. r .cos �E ) f = 1 ..27) and (5 . Test the result by solving equation (5 .cos �v) = 1 . g.25). 3. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. Consider equations (5 .23) Actually.. 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . a 9 = 1 .y'ii8 .cos �V . Use equations (5. There are seven variablesf1 .cos �E ) .22) r2 a ( 1 . 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . 27) . (5 . a or �E.24) arid (5 .2. what we have is three equations in three unknowns. g. p.24) Si n �E (5 . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 .1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f.( 1 .
n 6V r2 = t  = 1 .cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I.3 2) . a and L'£ or 6F. and would enable us to use the universal variables. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work.c x2 y. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. This last step is perhaps the most important of all. let's write the expressions for f. 5 .:t x3 S. however. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. r1 (5 . { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. p. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . x and z.1 ) (5 . g . In each case . since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution.Sec. = 1 . 3 ..( 1 . suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. introduced in Chapter 4. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value.
A . 5 X2 (5 . yields X C.viI x ( 1 zS) \ .v) • 9 = = IE...c o s b.i n b.v ) 1 c o s b. ( 1 .. we get r 1 r 2 (1 ..33) and cancelling vwp from both sides. 1 .35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .36) may be written (5 ..( 1 c o s b.v y. we obtain A.39) ..v (5 .38) y.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch .v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 ..33)  (5.232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .37) I y = r 1 + r2 .31 ). P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b. ( 1 c o s b.. A y= . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable. p r1 j .( c o s b.v) (5 .jE: . rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b. as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.j A equation (5 .1I 1 � .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.
3.1 0) (5 . I" � \ ·1 fr . A. can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.32) and (5 .3. 32).38).Sec. 5 .LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ.31 5) (5 . 3 We can also express X in equation (5 . rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 .420). 3.r I (5 .=1' Ig =r2 =. From equations (5 . we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 .35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 ..31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant . we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But. thi 't "p.3.1 6) (5 . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . so that (5 . . y.31 3) (5 . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .on simplllw.".1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 . and the auxiliary variable . +.34).1 4) 1 The velocity.1 ).ff.31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . by using equations (5 .: r I .31 7) . the last term of this expression may be simplified.qr::oo .3. to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .37 ) and (5 . (5 .
" evaluate the I 2 constant. y. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 .1 0) .= 3 x 2 . (5 .3 .31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . Since z = . 3. Pick a trial value for z.31 8) ( ) (5 . dt / dz. 5. using equation (5 . If it is not nearly the same . 5. The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .4. then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 .E2 and z = . 7 . When the method has converged to a solution. which converges more rapidly.1 1). From f ' f and the "direction of motion.1 4) and (5 . The derivative.3.0. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.31 9) . Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.P . a Newton iteration.1 2) (5 .1 0) and (4. 2 .4.0. 4.S + X 3 _ + . from equation (5 . adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained.31 3). Determine x from equation (5 . A.31 7).31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.dz dz dz 2yy dz . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section.31 5). 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 . 5 1 . such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. Determine the auxiliary variable.31 6) and (5 . Although any iterative scheme . 9 and 9 from equations (5 . 6. evaluate t. 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. 3.39).234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z.37).3.
3 .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .z S) dS _ . .320) (5 .32 1 )  . we showed that y. 5 . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 . we get ( 1 . i n section 4 . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . 5 .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .39) for dy = dz  But.__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C .Sec.=  dS (C .
From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.01 + + O.322) into equation (5 . D M � si g n (1T L'>.319) and (5 .322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero. equations (4. "direction of motion": rl =0.41 1 ).236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .  (5 . we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 .7K DU. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 . 5 so.v) .320) and (5 ." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM. Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period.4.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two . At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0. Using universal variables.318).323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 .32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit).+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .324) _  (5 .6J + 0. 51 r2 = 1.1 0) and (4. These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .326) . the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z. There is only one path for a given direction of motion. ill rl . I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.OK DU.
0000 + 1 .5..28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = .1 4) and (4. A A l ong way =1 .37) does when .6V short way = 5.CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = . For ease of numerical solutions.6V is small.321 radians Using (5 .Sec.0.39). a convenient form of equation (5 .6V > 1T). 0488088482 + 1 . 5 .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = . 86474323 = 1 . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (. Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 .327).28406 = 1 .1 . from equations (4.1 5) . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . 327) r1 = 1 . 5 .3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . 23287446 yT12 vm .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).28406 ( __ ) = 0 . 0488088482 + 1 .962 radians LW long way = 21T . Now following the algorithm of section 5 . 28406 ( __ = 3 . 0000 1 .
Y l o ng = 3.9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off.672625 1 6 TU + through 6.238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch . (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way. from the given data.23287446 0.780 1 9540 1 /2 0.3. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now. Step 5: Using equation (5 .. 1 ... Since �t for this problem is less than 1 . Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative..) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration.1 0).. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way. 0432z = 1 3.05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .86474323 = 1 . 1 3 min = 0445 z .444689 m 0.28406 y'3..0 we do not normalize..23287446 t l o ng = 0.28406 y'0.3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 . X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : .... the desired time o f flight is : .489482706 (6") .86474323 2.
1 5).0.94746230 A = 1 . (5 .Sec. 7499473 9 t = 0.0.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .36 1 677491 + 0.83073807 v 2 = 1 .3. (5 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>. W e have : � 104 (within 0.02234 1 8 1 1 .250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0. 5 . 74994739 VI = 0.6009 1 852 .5288 97 1 4 = 2.76973587J .28406 Y = 0.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .58 1 43981 VI = 0.3 .0.63049 1 80961 1 .60 1 874421 .554824 D U /T U f = 3.5544 1 39777J 0.3.50634848K v2 = 0.83236253 Using equations (5 .1 3).842624 1 9K 9= f = 0. 1 1 39209665J  0.79852734 v2 = 1 . (5. 1 7866539741 + 1 .4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.t . 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.6 1 856634 = 0.96670788 z = x 0.989794 D U/TU 0.28406 Y = 4.8826885334K v2 = 0.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.t solved .1 6) and (5 .314).31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .
1 O} VC .52). the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .= 0. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative.38) and (5 . In other words. The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 . where f::1) is less than 7T.076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.39). From equation (5 . Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive.zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 . yet equation (5 . This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position). the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 .31 .39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. For "short way" trajectories. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.
The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .1 ) and si n  COS .4. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.23).4. hence. we obtain 5. we get  .j1 .cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p . It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity. and 2 solving for p. we can solve for a and get 1 .6V COS . a and ""E.4 TH E p../ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.6V p � . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.v.cos ""V ( 1 .)2 cos .6V V 1 . (sin xl i .c o s x =.4.?S.Sec. This check is only necessary when is positive. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive .cos !:::. From equation (5 . The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.25).42) into equation (5. 5.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 .c o s ""E si n ""E . for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.va si . r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 .4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5.V ) a (5 .. 5..
We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .46) Ll. The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information. and noting that � c os '2 ..Q p ) 2 (5 .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .45) and simplify.E ( k .2 Expressing a as a Function of p. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll. we get Ll. 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll. (5 .c o s bJ)) (5 .J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.45) ± Using these same definitions.Qp y'2ni p . (5 .43) as Ll.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .E .v ) we can rewrite equation (5 . 2 Ll.E) •  k = k Ll.4. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .E CO � = ± p= k = .E Q ± y'2ni C O S .E Solving for cos2.43) 5.48) k . we obtain m p a= (5 .
Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined.6.4. however. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 .1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 .. Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses).. . Sec.where k.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. a may not be smaller than some minimum value . 5 . am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later .F in case a is negative). 5. 2.3 Checking the Trial Value of p. 5. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). First . The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero.!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter .4 . we need to determine � (or . we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight .4 T H E p.
F . F ) .25).1 0) = = 1 . 9 and f from equations (5 .6..4 The t vs P Curve .E a If yield is negative. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First. 5 c o s .4.23) and (5 .E ) (5 .6. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.6.6.6. although t approaches infInity for this orbit.6.6.49) Since we always assume .E . To get a feeling for the problem.a r1 (1  f) (5 .F: (5 . (5 .24) and (5 . we can compute f." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 . If a is positive.25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving . let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .6.F (5 .23). If (. Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p.( 1 . we can determine .4.f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .41 2) (5 .4. This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 . we see that the limiting case of .E from equations (5 .24) or the corresponding equation involving . F 1 . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .vi.6. let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way.Tar (si n h .s i n . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like .41 1) c o sh .1 3) . there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.6.From the trial value of P and the known information. If we look at "long way" trajectories. In Figure 5.F is positive..
we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 . lie within the prescribed limits.. for t:sv greater than IT.. Sec.... As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight..zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero. 5 . P must lie between o and P j j ... as well as all subsequent guesses for p... P must lie between P j and infinity. Since it is important thar the first trial value. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 ..4 T H E p.I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse . t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j .. we should first compute P j or P j j . In Figure 5 . For l'J) less than IT.42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 .43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. From the discussion above. P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case ..
246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . • .43 k p a rameter . p )0 p" . . from equation (5 . .5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p.� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain.. � " .4. .. The solution is then bracketed and. In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p.yLri1 (5 . such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). one that gives too small a value for t. b .4. Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5.1 5) 5 . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. . by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . and one that gives too large a value. 5 1 :co . I .4. 0 Q + y2in k  (5 .1 4) Q .. Several simple methods may be used successfully.46). ell . The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution. '" E 0> '" .
1 6).1 ) (5.1 6) This scheme can be repeated... . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. . It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer..I Figure 5 . . .. then a better estimate of p may be obtained from .. 5 .. . .4. . . 4 T H E p.4.44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration . ... . ... . ...1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p... If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it....t n ) ( P n .. . .1 ) (t n . then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t . .Sec.. . .. O��_4o P n.1 and Pn . . .... .. tn t ... . . .. If tn.t n . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5. ....P n ... . . .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn... .
� ( S . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative . (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .iri equati �n (S. 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point. ( � .si n L'> E l .24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  .4. we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . fl3  fJ.41 8) (S .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.4.1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p.r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .41 7). 41 9) .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .
= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .2 dp k ( k .( k . 5 .420) From equation (5 .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 . from equation (5 .Sec. that ( k .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE .47).2mk2 Qp 2kQp .4 T H E p.Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .E / dp and noting.Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 . we obtain .4 8) .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m . bE d�E .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .Qp ) Q.Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .
4.6E JJ.423) . (5 . p(k h JJ.4.COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .1 8) from (5 .Qp) si n 6E JJ.. (5 . 5 (5 . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F . and (5 ..420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .1 9).250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch . which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .= . _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2..6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.� (6E .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .
a. Solve for t from equation (5 . Q and m from r] . Using the trial value. Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions. If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo .1 2) or (5 . 2 . 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . Sec. 2.2·3). 4 .44). 8 .4.4. solve for a from equation (5 4 . should be used in equation (5 . Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola. Evaluate the constants k.E or Ll. Solve for f.49) and (5 . Solve for Ll. as appropriate . r and Ll. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem.4.1 1 ) . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. 9 . t and . 5 251 .8).F. 3 . 5 .1 4) and (5 .423).1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. (5 . We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .4.II using 2 .4.422) or (5 .6E or Ll.6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .22). the values of g. equations (5 . of p.1 5). 6.F obtained from the trial value. Evaluate 9 from equation (5 .To evaluate the slope at Pn . we will develop and use the f and 9 series. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. 9 and f from equations (5 . As stated earlier . 5 .1 0) or equation (5 .27) and (5 . 5 . 25). Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a. using equations (5 . Pn . Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits.24) and (5 .4. 7 .
5 . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion. 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . 5 9) .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 2) (5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . we write equation (5 . (5 . (5 .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . Therefore.u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 .54) we have the following recursion (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 4) for n = O. 5 5) r r (5 .57) (5 .
5.and the equation of motion f  (5 . p and q which will be useful later . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .51 2) u .1 7) . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 . We define them as follows : O. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec.51 3) rr and the definition of p. 1 Development of the Series Coefficients . as we shall u . 5 .51 6) (5 . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 . 5 . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 . v are known .5.1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . u L.515) =  ur.5 11 ) (5 .5W)  (r . q. this can be (5 . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. 5 .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. p.
.58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . d q = d t . 5. _ [1 1  2 (v . 1 1 1 1 . 5 .57) and (5 .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. (5 . ) _ 24 (r .(v) 2 . . v) _ 1 u. r) (v) 2 .p (u + 2q ) . = .1 8) Using the definition of P. 5 20) (5 .3u p (5 .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . 522) q = . ) .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . r r (5 . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .23 r· (V) r   u. 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r .r .U . 5. Summarizing: (5 .
u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. = F 1 r + G 1 .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .6 u 2 p = . = . = r 0.5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense . Fs = F4 .54) for n = 1 .6 u 2 p = .30p p + 3 q ) .. p and q.u G = .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u .1 5u p ( u .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue. Writing equation (5 . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .3 u p ( u . 5.3p ( u + 2q ) .Sec.30p ( q _ 2p2 ) . = .u r = . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = .t!:.u G 4 = u ( u .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u . F3 = F .
256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .tao Comparing with equation (5 .1 .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t .523) . therefore.5.524) (5 . ) .526) .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t.4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 . 5 = U (u .Gn n.2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .52) and (5 . . Referring to equations (5 . .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t . Vo (5 .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T. the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .
94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 . F 1 = 0. 5 .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .30q .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .6q .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (. 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .90q . G = u.l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 . F 2 = 'U.3q . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u). G = 30up(1 4p2 .51 .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) . G = O.1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) . G 1 = 1 . F = 3up 3 F = u(.u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .Sec.28q .2 1 q .
(5 . 7) (5 .5·27) + ' (5 . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . 2·5).f (r I . In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . From equation (5 .6. The f and 9 series may be used .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 .51) + 9= 7  1 .2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. f I . Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions.5·29) .0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. r I . the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u . 7) r I g (r I .24) and (5 . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse.5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy.2·3). This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. 5. 5. 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. 5 . p. 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle .
As. 5. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. thus Figure 5 .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r .Sec.61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly.6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .61 Sector and triangle area (5 . becomes dt (1 . L£ . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6. This .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA. so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y.
6.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss.c o s b. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.43) and using the identity.2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b. .62) (5 . but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 . 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y." + l( 1 .1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3. 4 � c o s b.' l'2 2 2 (5 . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 . If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.2E ) 2 .2 The First Equation of Gauss. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 .260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. E ) . 5.6. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.
cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 ..= .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .67) 1 cos l:>v =. so .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression..2 ( 1 r1 r .65).61)... (5 .Sec.68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J. t/y. Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 . n l:> E ) . . 3 The Second Equation of G auss.L .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.(5 . L ( l:>E . Si.L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 . Using the identity.s i n l:>E ) . equation .1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .24) and (5 . From the first of these equations.6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 ..61 ) becomes si n l:v .s i n l:>E ) ..6 . ( .2 2 L (5 . 5 . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 . si n l:v cos � .£Q.
5 Recognizing the first factor as w. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . To review what we have done so far. When convergence has occurred. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation.1 ) . we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. S + 1 . (5 . a good first guess is y � 1 .69) cos f = 1 . We then added another independent equation.s) . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. from r I ' r2 .6.4 Solution of the Equations .43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. Next. s and w.2(� . which is known as "the second equation of Gauss.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . and so on.64) and solving for y.from (5 . more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. (5 . there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . (5 . The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . n = 2 si n 3 LE . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . (5 . 22) completes the solution. equations (5 . 24) and (5 .6. 23).si n LE ) we may write. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 .1 ) = W (LE . 27) and (5 . and one more unknown. the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 .25). We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E.Si. pick a trial value for y. !:JJ and t.262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . The first step is to evaluate the constants. 6.69) are transcendental.64) and (5 . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. recall that we started with three equations. y 2 ( y ." 5 . in three unknowns. p. y.6.1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. Unfortunately. using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . y and LE . a and LE.1 0) . so a trialanderror solution is necessary.
c:.6.1 0) may become greater than one.c:. F = si nh .5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.E is imaginary. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.6.c:.F = rush .6. If the given timeofflight is short.1 0) may also b e written as Sec. indicating that�. . The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section. S. Since we already know that when .F 2 ) · (5 . equation (5 . 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y .69) and to determine y. equation (5 .c:.cosh 2 .c:. )� s + 1 . x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .c:. 6.F and COS i .c:.E s i n 3 . Using the identity.1 2) become indeterminate.F . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.c:.c:.F .F is real.Since the equations above involve .c:.cE.69) and · (5 . Noting that .6.c:. the righthand side of equation (5 .S ) y (5 .c:.c:. 6.1 1 ) s i n h . E = i .F .c:.c:. as y2 = W S + x ..F will be zero and both equations (5 .E is imaginary.s i n .E .c:. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.F whenever the right side is greater than one .c:.F are close to zero.69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 . i sin i.c:. F. For this reason.E and .c:.1 2) = X = .c:. then .E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written. E or . 5 . F s i n h 3 "2 . difficulties may be anticipated any time .0. they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.
(5 . . the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point.1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 .1 5) 1 . f. or negative. (5 . . replacing CDs 6. X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. r2 .1 0) or (5 . Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 .25) and (5 .6. it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. determine 6. (s + x ) · 1 (5 .6.1 4). Compute the constants.Y:i. /:. . the orbit being an ellipse. s and w.1 (5 . or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. The result.E or 6. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. and then expressing 6. 4. is .23). E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit..6.6.6 . ( 1 + §. 1� = 2 3 1. 7 . Evaluate f.62) and (5 .1 4) Now.43).22). 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s.2 Ch .61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . Determine X from equation (5 . parabola. Depending on the type of conic. E as a power series in x. 6 . . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . ) . and 9 from equations (5 .1 3). 5 .63). 3 .F from equation (5 . 2 6.. from rl . The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . Determine p from equation (5 . zero.1 1).26). which is developed by Moulton.27) and (5 . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . 2. 2 .]) and t using equations (5 .6.264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . g ..6.24).
The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. Usually. and ballistic missile interception. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . ballistic missile targeting. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. To avoid generalities. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. 5 . The £:. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. To make the problem even more specific. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time ." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time ." In all but the simplest cases. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . �atellite intercept and rendezvous. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination.Sec. 72. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed.
....266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . .\. fI }/ \ \ ... "..f. e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary. ��y V \" _ .. ) / ot t. at t. ".' ':.. \ •• • • • • • ..�: :.. . I n .1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem . r..1 .7... I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 .� ' .. 7 . 5 i nterceptor .� . �/ �/ ".."." \ t a rg e t / \ .
We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between .7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. which is when the intercept will occur. 5 . The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site .Sec. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor.
have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. 5 them. Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. �v? �v . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . " . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . . the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. . . . we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . .238 km/sec. But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . . . . launch vel. The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. \ \ \ Figure 5 .
we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and .5 .7 . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . From Figure 5 . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . In Figure 5 . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site .7 . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . 5 . 5 . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . the launch site will have moved eastward . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . In summary . Because of earth rotation. although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. the better . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) .
5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .) z :J « ..O F .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .4 /':.V plot for example intercept problem .270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ..7.
P3 · . t2 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis .8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .Sec. L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 .85) (5 . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. 82) t2 so (5 . v2 • P I ' P2 . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5. another method will be develope d . 5 .8 .e. P3 . Although we have examined a very specific example . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry.1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L.86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . the three components of r2 . i.84) (5 . (5 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6.
R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 .8. L2 . y and Z . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. y. � into equations (5 . 8. i. Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . 526) and (5 .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. and eliminating the K components. 5 to (5 . Rz . the components of Vz be X.8) (5 . in fact only six of the equations are independent. R1 . L3 .8·7) (5 . ' r2 . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c.8.272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . Estimate the magnitude of f2 . f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 .e. y and z .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . b . the components of f2 and V2 .
4 Verify the development of equation (5 048).41 . EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. (5. Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 . Z.Ch .522). f2 I + J DU). Limitations. 5 Z.V required for intercept? 5. Usirlg specific numbers. 5. Ease of computation. The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer. I I I I  x. Accuracy. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04.423) for hyperbolic orbits.39). but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times.1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l.526) and (5 .31 3) through (5 .2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. which are the components of f2 and v2 . and (5.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location.31 ). b.527).6 Derive equation (5 .32). Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. f.31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 .3 Verify equations (5 .1 5. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . =: =: 5 . c. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. 5. . 5 . Y. using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. e .t2 and t2 t } are not too large.
d. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse.00256 (J + K» . 5 Given two position vectors rI . The original Gauss method. Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. rl r2 p. h = 1 .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. (Ans.tl = 1 . 5. b. 5 . r2 'and the distance between them. + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . (Ans. t2 . as a function of rI r2 .009 (.7 . which will contain both position vectors. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series.t l determine v2 using a.J + K). 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5.9 Repeat problem 5 . The universal variable method . 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . although a few iterations can be made by hand.8 using the universal variable.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 .0922 TU. d. The piteration technique. p 1 + J + K DU DU 5. vI = 0. r2 .t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . 5 . c.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 .
"The Prince of Mathematicians. Eric Temple . 4.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. Bell. Pedro Ramon. d . New York.0. Methods of Orbit Determination. c . New 6. r 1 = 2I t2 . Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. NY.Ch . Battin. Inc. 1 963.6J + 0. Dover Publications. . 2 . a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. Gauss. Escobal. Appendix A. 1 965. 2I D U t2 . Moulton. Inc. Simon and Schuster. 1 9 59.66986 9921+0 . McGrawHill Book Company. A stronautical Guidance. Davis. a. and A.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. New York.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory.t 1 = 0.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. f l = 0 . New York. S. 3. Liu. r 1 = I t 2 .t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . NY. Forest Ray. (Answer : v = 0. Richard H. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . Carl Friedrich. 1 956.7K D U t 2 . 51 + 0. John Wiley & Sons. Mathematics. r 1 = 41 t 2 . NY. Vol 5 . 1 . NY. A n Introduction York.4804847 1 1 2 +0. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. to Celestial Mechanics.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . New York. f 1 = 1 ." in The World of 1 . 1 964.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . the MacMillan Company. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . Herrick.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. 1 9 1 4.
.
1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. Napoleon I 6.000 V2's had been fired in anger . ironically . During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde .CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. have a very short history . which concern us in this chapter. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. World War II as "too late . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. The result is well known. It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . Efforts. culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. . It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . longrange ballistic missiles.
But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. According to Dr.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. Brigadier General 3 . The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . in June 1 9 53 . California. In July 1 95 4. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. 4 Accordingly. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. After all. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. Trevor Gardner .000 pounds thrust.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood.
by mid· 1 95 9 . it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants.000 people participating directly. Atlas was a reality. Blasingame . the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 .2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. Otherwise. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile .Sec. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. the program had. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. Progress was rapid. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. 6. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. 6 . When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. After three unsuccessful attempts.
6 .. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions." etc. however.2.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .. need not be redefined. Since Va:.2. 1 defines these new quantities. Q . Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . It will not be discussed in this text. =.2 The Nondimensional Parameter.2. Figure 6. There are.2. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. 6 . This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . 6 from launch to burnout. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system.22) . what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. (6 . 1 Geometry of the Trajectory .ji1Tr. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere ." "flightpath angle at burnout." "height of apogee.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 .. such terms as "height at burnout. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations.
21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .Sec .2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 . 6.
3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . If Q is greater than 2 . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. When Q is equal to 1 .25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 . We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2.O/r from equation (6. (6.23) or IQ=2�·1 p . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit.1 ) .the expression p. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point.2.26) . 24) 6 . the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. and substitute for V.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.2. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.
and co s � = .Sec. 2 Equation. be written as (6.27) . 'l'. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) . 6 . lies on each side of the major axis.26) above can. half the freeflight range angle . therefore.f6.co s v b o .
A. h = rv cos cp.284 . ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 .1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. .1 1) into equation (6.29) and (6. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. also becomes known. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry.T. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6. the total range angle.e2 ).28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6.29) Now. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. = r Q C O S2 cp . . e. ¢ro. (6. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. since p = a( 1 . the required freeflight range angle.2. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q.2. what should the flightpath angle.28) p. .1 1) If we now substitute equations (6.2./. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.
choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . Sec 6 . Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r.In other words.4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. with a little algebra. the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. We could .23 Ellipse geometry 6 . ¢bo. we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . Now.2. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . Instead . In Figure 6 . is called r bo . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . F'.
d.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .24.1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x.2. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . F' and the burnout point. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 . that.2. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . � + 'lr) = . If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid. in fact.1 3) (6. for example. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800.2. This is.x) = sin (6.000 ) from equation (6. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror .I n 2 and also as rb (6. Qb o 2 2 (6. light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 .Qb o sin � .2. shown in Figure 6.1 6) . It means.
the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory . sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .866.2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . .Sec. 6. so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .9.2.1 6) gives us .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .
1 6) does not exceed 1 . the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. If Q bo is exactly 1 . If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. 2. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. Because a = . A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose .P/2&. Figure 6 . An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole .1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. 2.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . Table 6. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. equation (6 ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. If Q bo is greater than 1 . The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. Provided that 'l' is attainable. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . Nevertheless.
2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6. 6 .25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories .Sec.
1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _.low traj .625 .11 5 18 1 . During the test firing of a ballistic missile. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1.low traj . ha p og ee 0. hits earth 000 > 1 high only . hits earth Table 6 . skims earth high only . range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM.21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'. cos ¢ b o == 0. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. vbo = 2/3 DU/TU.5 DU.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :.
:.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 .4Deg. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . 6.5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . 26.2. 600 E. 60 0W . Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . 6 . 6 2 1 . ) (60 n m i ) =2. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.2. 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. Notice or <P b o = :. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . 2<P b o + 64°20.2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation.1 2) .1 . A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N.025 DU respectively. We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 .08 1 7 DU/TU and .Sec. versus the flightpath angle .025) = 1 . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . 36° . 'IT. <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . 08 1 7 ( 1 . c os � = + N ..
.. There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .. then.1 8) L__________________� . ..'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight .:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' . s 0> Q) 0 � c .1 6) equals exactly 1 . be the maximum range condition. 2. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero. :. 0> <1> <1> � IJ.s..2.1 7) I (6. � 80 .pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 . (2<P bO � ) 2 .� 90 Figure 6.Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 .26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory...2.292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell . en EO I .. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution . If the right side of equation (6.
'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. 2 .2. From the symmetry of Figure 6./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. VI 1 800 . 'JI . 6 . By inspection.7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only.1 9) for maximum range conditions. the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6. The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory . 2. but .222) ..cos 2 . 220) for maximum range conditions. sin �= 2 2 . noting that l .e cos 2 (6. We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6.22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .Sec:. 2.1 7 ).Qbo Qb o (6 .2.8) .6 Time of FreeFlight. 6 .
Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . and the eccentricity. 23) and (6.27 Time of freeflight (6. e.1 1). A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. 28. The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. In fact .300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . 2. since five variables have been plotted on the figure. can be obtained from equ ations (6. Figure 6 . 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . 6 The semimajor axis. a.
2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.884) ( 1 . altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM.8 period vs. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8. 6 .750 n m .25 D U == 7 .000 nm.95 From Figure 6. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.075) == 0.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.Sec.
.N � 'iifs tt f EJ:.9h Ir.. :: :"/ N .CI�rie� v X I ..!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . . .aje. : ' . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. hi.I ' : ' : : : : : : . : : . . :: : J: : : . : : .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 .. . � ren I ("') !XI r » Free . .� '" �� :. : :/ . ' .
suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. The arc length .6X and . 2 00 ft/sec . 957 Hsi 66. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point.3 . and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north.2. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point. impacting at B.6C may be / 9 57 1. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target. .6C. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . . we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. the crossrange error.77 0 = 0 . .220) .1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories.Sec. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.32 r ads = 1 33. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian.3 ° From equation (6. 'l' From equation (6.  Vbo 6.444 n m = 2. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth .1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 .3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed. In Figure 6 .6C represents the cro ssrange error.1 � 0. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. 6 . position. F or purposes of this example.OOO nm max = 3. For a fixed burnout altitude . 3 . For brevity . 8.933 D Urr U � 24. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.6X. 6 .
3 .3.1 . if the intended target had been the north pole . cos . 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . In Figure 6 . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr.32) 2 X Figure 6. for example.thought of as angles. we can use the small angle approxunatlOn."2 to simplify equation (6 . I 1 . 3. . we get (6.1 ) to (6.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center. Equation (6.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . if they are in degrees.
3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range .Sec.32 is the crossrange error .3 . 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error.2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. Figure 6 . The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. 6(3. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . �C.'l1. 6 . this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. 299 Figure 6. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6.33) . will result.32 Azimuth error 6 . 'l1. are as planned. a crossrange error. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. before . P.
If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount .300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . This . <Pb o IM� Figure 6 .4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. 6 If we assume that both 43 and .0.path angle . In other words.34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.D. <Pbo' In Figure 6.0.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 .C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation... it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it . The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.y I  : : i. If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended. \]I. (6.21 about the center of the Earth. cos X � 1 .x ' to simplify equation (6. are shown by a solid line in the figure .oo a "'00 Fl ight ..0.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 ..3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.3. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn . it will hit the target anyway . 6.\]I.\]I will represent a downrange .� I a q. if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.3 .
3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.3 .35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo.3.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.2.36) (6.Sec. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .6.1 0) Qbo I i .1 2) of this chapter . then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .cot <P b o (6. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation. We could get an approximate value for . The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.8) (6. 6 . The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .
Vb Substituting from equation (6.1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3.3.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 . _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .3. 3.1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo . a'l1 . Let us first express equation (6.1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.3.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .
Sec.3 . Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . 3 .33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. While we need equation (6.1 3) This partial derivative . For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . the actual range error on a 3 . Figure 6.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6.1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient.3. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. 6 .33. angle errors.000 nm range. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). A plot of range versus burnout radius. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . If this seems strange. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. In fact. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . equation . Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. particular burnout error . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . when used in the manner described above. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 .
the missile falls short of the target in every case . if burnout occurs too low. .. b o 'fJ ' (6 . differentiating the range equation (6 .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .3. Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots .1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . the missile overshoots . The magnitude of the error is (6.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout . Again.31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 1) implicitly.3.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.1 4) for small values of . too slow and the missile falls short. 6.3.3.3. 6 however.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 .3.6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .
LW b o = . 1 ) 2 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. r bo = 1 .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 .735 = 6 .4 D U . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .6¢ b o = . There is no crossrange error.9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . Total downrange error : . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 .9 0 5 D U !TU .1 8) would reveal that. 735 rad DU r b o ( .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � .Sec. An analysis of equation (6 .3.1 0.4 rad ians. ub o = 5 x 1 0 .905) 2 ( 1 . We will need Q bo (. like the other two influence coefficients.6V b o + a 'lr . 3. . 1 D U . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = .5 x 1 05 D U/TU . 6 .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. 649 r ad U D U/T . Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.
649 (5x 1 O . both the launch point and the target are in motion. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame .735 ( 5x 1. its flightpath angle. ove rshoot 6. 6 =2.4 ) (3444) � 4 n . We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. 56x 1 0 . If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar.1 0. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it.2sin 1 60 o 2 = . That is. then all three . The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 . We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. <p. for example).4 ) TOT =1 1 . we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. m i .5 24 ft/sec. The rotation is from west to east.S ) . In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. and its azimuth angle.2 1 (.56x 1 0. {3.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr .306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 .4.4 )+6. That is. 0.1 . The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character.1 . v. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation. 6. If we know the timeofflight of the missile .
and a speed of. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . of 900 (east). . we make our measurements in a moving reference frame .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 .000 ft/sec.. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. A simple example should clarify this point.Sec. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. An observer at rest would not agree ." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6.4. we will refer to measurements of burnout . of train l \\�. say 1 . Hereafter.5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it.4. 6 .1 ) . we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . Like the observer on the moving train. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame .41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. �. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . of 45 0 .000 ft/sec. (6. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. 1>.I ·=<� • . an azimuth.
by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . �.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v.44) �. flightpath angle . then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . Once you have the components of ve. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . first. and up components of the true velocity. We can obtain the south. Vs (6 . It is. this will not be difficult. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . (6 . east . Thus. of course. lies.42) The true speed. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. break up V into its components. finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. v. v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth.
42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . The term. If the coordinates of the target are ( 4.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. the target will be there also. Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . In Figure 6 . so the arc length OA in Figure 6.43 is just 90 0 L o. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively .4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . 6. Hopefully.4. Rather . when the missile arrives at point B. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B.Sec. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively.
by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . and if. {3.N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. (6 . Once we know the total range angle.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . tA .N. The longitude difference.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3.47) Solving for cos {3. . we can solve for the required launch azimuth.0. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target.0.0. (6 .N + wffitA' where . A.48) Again. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions. . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target. we get c o s {3 = sin L t . If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. then a value of . (6 . this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 .N + w ffitA ) . The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 .0. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . {3. If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.0.0. It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for .
In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. Needless to say. (3. and launch azimuth. A. By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate .Sec. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . 6 . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. tA But .
. 33° ¢bo = v E = . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of . 79 .42) through (6 . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed..3 ° W burns out at 30o N. 9 s i n 300= . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .675 s (J=333 .9 DU/TU. 45 ) 2 = . 339 ) 2 + ( . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . 8° v n /3 = v = . 5 1 1 95 v .. 1 ) 1 . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N. 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . using Q bo = . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . 6 . 339 ) =. 29 . 85 From Figure 6 . 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . 1 DU.5022 ta ...0 58 8cos290 = . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . 87 9 30. 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . v = .j( . 9cos3 00cos 3300= .4 5) : v= .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .. . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory .( ..
770 N re = 156. 2 5 TU :. .3. 334 TU boN = 135° . 6 70) =. 334)=135° . 6.13 = 7. 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 29 . 77° = . w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . 3709 �GG (3. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1.we(3.80° .85 and ¢bo = 3 0.123 .7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � .7 8 0 . tff=3. 334TU ) =123.Sec. 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = .203. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again.4 .
= .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .2. What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. and a spherical Earth. Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude. 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 .5 D U!TU 1 . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N. 6 EXERCISES 6 . R = 6 0 n . m i . v = 1 6 . m i .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0.6 ft/sec) 6 .05 D U = 1 0° . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. 4> b o p Vb o = 6 .926 D U /TU . .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .840.4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6.040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n . r b o = 1 .1 9)? Why? 6 . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 .
how large can . . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point.6. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . Do not use charts. an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0.06 DU.98 to 1 .02. . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of . A lateral displacement . 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8.'lr ).j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans.400 n mi. 7 I n general. Rtf = 5 .2 1 2 run) 6.02. Rtf = 4 . 6 .000 run) 6 .6. 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 .x and L¥3 be? . Using the equations si n iL. = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 .Ch. (Ans.83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 . 1 0 During a test flight.0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .)(.
0 DU for a ballistic missile. c . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar .. low. or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 .6888 n mi L:. ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range .800 nautical miles? (Ans..642 DU/TU) . 6 . 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. Is this a high. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a.346 n mi long) b.31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 . 6 6 . (Ans.V = 25 . a. ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. b . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . vbo = 0. 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal.r = 0.
1 2 00 W. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory .QL. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 .600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N.23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 .6 . 5 DU. If the velocity at burnout was 28.ri.'I' = � b..092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N.. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. 6 .. at an altitude of 2. using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). 1 5 00 E. 3 0 0 E. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 . Q bo + . What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum.22 The range error equation could be written as: b. Ch . 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 .530 ft/sec.4 min) = 6. 6 . i. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. tff 40.e . determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. �bo and analyze the result .. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth .700 n mi using a high trajectory. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. 6. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of .¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. R t of 4. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. b. 5 DU and whose perigee is . Do not use charts. at the same altitude . 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.where e is the 6 .
1 045 .48966 = 3 1 5 .905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 .3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 . It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 .25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.500 ft/sec=O.1 0 . Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of .66E+20784. 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .5 0 . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. 92S1 0608.6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.318 V bo =23. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.0057 ° = . (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 . (Ans.4 rad ian s a. b. How far will the missile miss the target? 4. or maximum range trajectory? 6 . c. and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. low.2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. v bo = . 1 200W . elevation .
rotating.73 n mi. What was the freeflight range. . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . tff 3 2 . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . 0 (Ans. What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . downrange displacement of burnout point .1 2 ' . What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . L t 54 0 3 1 '.8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a.28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 .6 1 8 . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. site located 319 During the actual firing. ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . Assuming a symmetric orbit. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. 5 7 min) == * 6 . the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' .Ch . atmosphereless Earth. == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. and r bo � r(fl. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain .400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . 43e . 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 .649 n mi . 1 20 OW . 1. (Ans.
6Vb o . New York .30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . The Viking Press. Lt Col Kenneth.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . . "Free Flight . R ff ::: 1 0. (Hin t : See section 6.3 . 1 95 5 . A History of the U. Frederick A.02 DU. * 6.1 2) . 1 962. 1 960.2. New York.2. Space Technology Laboratories. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. Garden City. Ernest G . Wheelon . LongRange Ballistic Missiles . LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. Schwiebert. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. 4. Calif.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . Publishers. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile.4) . Burgess. Walter. 2. 1958. NY. altitude at bo ::: . Inc. Gantz .1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 .800 n mi. 5 .S. Inc." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. Dornberger . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . Los Angeles.3 1 The approximation : * 6. ed . and truncate all terms third degree and higher). V2 . Albert D. New York. NY. Praeger. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. Doubleday & Company. Eric. 6 * 6. Vol 2. 3 . 1 965 . NY. NY. The MacMillan Company.
though principally attracted by the Earth. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . since it gives us light during the night. and is. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. move round the Sun once a year. . whence arise several irregularities in her motion. have been discovered. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . about which she moves. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. does. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. when it is light anyway. the Sun or the Moon? . Proctor. of all which. . It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . together with the Earth.the Moon. when it is dark.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. the 32 1 .. and moving round it. The Moon is the more useful.
322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon ." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. Brown . but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. 7. Clairaut . this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. Even interplanetary trajectories. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. D'Alembert. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. which are the subj ect of the next chapter.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. with no less subtility than industry. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. but because it comes close to being a double planet. not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . has given a full account. W. Lagrange and Laplace . 7 Author in this book.in this case the Sun. W.
The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing.: =j Figure 7. ��===c==Q.. . H. These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. .Sec. the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 .3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. Darwin. . . :. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. . This puts the center of the system 4. . 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition).67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . According to one theory advanced by G..3 days.400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . . As a result . The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . . . .:. 7 . the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. in fact.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge .3 04 of the mass of the Earth.
When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements. the orbital elements are constantly .2.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 Figure 7. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. In the case of the Moon's orbit . due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you.22 Lunar orbital elements 7.
2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.Sec. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . 7 . The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. The line of nodes.8 days. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384.054900489 ." was discovered more than 2 . We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. b. called "evection. This effect . c.000 years ago by Hipparchus. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes .400 km.3 1 66 1 days.
If the Moon's orbit were = . 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . Thus. d . From Figure 7. Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. 23 ° 27' . in l S72.000 years. When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction.9 years.2. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . rotates westward. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory .6 years. is the descending node . but more than a century later . e . the other . The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . where the Moon crosses from north to south. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. making one complete revolution in l S . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. When the descending node is at the vernal equinox.2 Lunar Librations. its mean value is 5 0 S ' .6 years. for only then can Sun. and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node .
ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration.75 0 around each limb of the moon. the computer time required could become prohibitive . SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. solar perturbations. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . daybyday. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. and 7. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time.3 . 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. and the terminal attraction of the Moon." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs.Sec. 7 . taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. Actually we see . Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . solar pressure . Because of the complex motions of the Moon. among other things. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. monthbymonth basis. at one time or another.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. As a result. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. This permits us to see about 7 . we would see exactly half of its surface . actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour .
. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories.Q.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . this will not introduce significant errors. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = .400 km. 7 .6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity.. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions.3 .. a = :l:!:. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. semimaj or axis. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. 2& e = y'1  pia . In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . 7. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.3. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. It is not important that the analytical method be precise.0549 . With this thought in mind. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit .
7 . we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.i. 1 r1 1 . F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10.. we can solve for va ..r1 1.0 S pe e d .:. e r Figure 7.  I..9 I njection 1 1...31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly.c C/) .. 60 \ \ I njection . . In Figure 7.. II. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit.g' .31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed . we get c o s V = 2.. j 80 .2 10.Sec. E i= .3 . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.c " 0 ..M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.
330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3 .: / :1 ..32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours. 7 .. For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point. .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero. 7 an injection altitude of . : .. Actually..32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds.. ... 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . . \ 0 �� ' earth " .. : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 .')'. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. In Figure 7.. the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection.. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' .J! .. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP. then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed .. to parabolic. .
we will never reach the Moon at all. this minimum injection speed is 1 0.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. due to errors in guidance or other factors. we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . Assuming an inj ection altitude of . Moon from our assumed inj ection point .32.Sec. We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. if we try to take longer by going slower. 3 .32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . as the injection speed is decreased. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. 1 8 8 km/sec.966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. In general the sweep angle . 82 km/sec. which we can call 1/1. Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 .32 we see that. Eventually . 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. Assuming no lunar gravity . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. 7 . 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . If we are trying to minimize injection speed. . is a function of . If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . 7 . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . if we keep reducing the injection speed . In such a case . From Figure 7 . the injection conditions are not exactly as specified.
This may be seen from Figure 7 .. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. Neglecting lunar gravity. and wrrft. If.33 . that is. the initial velocity is too high. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. But. for example . . the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7.
it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence.3 00 km. for all practical purposes. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius.4. There is.1 ) . however. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the .arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 . It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. R s' given by the expression Sec. 7 .0 km/sec. . In effect. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. only are interested in determining ap. 7. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. 5 However. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite .
1 ) can be found in Battin . 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent . a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h .4.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .4 .4. the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7. Figure 7 .4. 7 .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth.1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.) Then.1 ) yields the value Rs = 66. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame. A full derivation of equation (7 . 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n .
42) (7 . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables. The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 .r h V 1 I (7 . r 1 .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . r 1 .43) From the law of cosines. 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. at lunar arrival is (7 . Finally. from geometry . the radius. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . 1 .45) COS <P I .44) .Sec. VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit.
p=� (7 . t l .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p.to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined. JJ. 7 Figure 7. 1 p ia  a = :l!.1 0) .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .47) 2& e = ".4.48) (7 .49) (7 .
Sec.1 1 ) (7 . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.3 rad/TUEIl (7 . .1 6) The phase angle at departure.4.e 1 r1 __ (7 . Eo and E1 from Finally. 1 37 X X 1 0.1 5) 2.1 3) (7 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.4.4.1 2) Next. 7 . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually. we can determine the eccentric anomalies.4. Wm = = t 1 .649 2.6 rad/sec 1 0 . timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .4. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = . the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .4.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .
1 9) . The geocentric radius. Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 .48) through (7 . In Figure 7 .1 8) (7 . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft .4. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed.2 Conditions at the Patch Point . We will do this in the sections that follow. If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . 7 . (7 .4. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO .1 6) above . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. r 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.4. at arrival is completely determined by \ .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.4. It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. r2 . If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. then the selena centric radius.45). the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. 7 .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth.which we chose arbitrarily . (7 .42 : V m = 1 .4.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
20 .30 .40 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch . «>  0.54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .50 � � c 0 i e 1. 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .
From Figure 7 . 7 . Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. sir! 0 1 . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7. if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit.Sec. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . If lighting conditions are important. 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. if we add a coasting arc.si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 .5 0 and 28 .3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. However.52) and Figure 7 .52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 .5 3) . 5 4 worth noticing. we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. b oth of which are undesirable. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. 54. t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . If lunar declination at intercept is specified. As a result . 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 .5. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. Figure 7 . For this condition any launch azimuth is correct.5 0 .54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . It should be obvious from equation (7 .
5 7 1 1 66 .4 1 3 1 66 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39. 02 1 1 8 3 0 40. 1 0 1 6.00 28 28 1 5 . 1 3 .07 47. 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .97 1 1 9.39 28 3 0 34. 973 FIgure 1 65 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .376 1 67 . 5 8 67. . 1 5 28 34 1 0.2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0. 5 9 28 34 33 .308 1 8 22 22. 1 969 .3 .78 1 3 1 . 1 7 2 1 67 .374 1 8 00 07 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 . 624 1 7 3 5 00. 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . 267 1 67 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .737 18 1 9 36 .85 1 1 66 .85 4 1 .05 8 1 65 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.445 1 67 .862 1 65 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .44 28 2 1 1 8 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .63 1 1 1 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch .88 28 33 3 5 . 1 90 1 67 . 8 0 1 36.970 1 66 .87 28 34 22.3 1 + 1 48 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .97 29.203 28 1 8 49 .3 1 28 29 48 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 . 24 .449 1 67 . 7 1 7 1 66 .460 1 67 .84 60. 86 28 26 29 .46 1 1 67 . 24 28 23 34 .44 22.350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .72 1 1 8 25 08. 1 1 28 22 1 7 .97 28 34 3 9 . 1 4 1 06.76 28 3 1 09 .56 .7 1 54.23 1 23 .254 1 67 .3 1 8 5 .47 28 25 3 8 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .45 8 0.97 28 3 1 47 .90 28 33 5 3 .963 1 8 27 5 5 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .41 7 1 67 .766 1 7 43 23 .020 1 8 1 6 49. 1 9 173.949 1 8 05 42.34 28 32 1 7 .435 1 65 .3 1 9 3 .58 73.35 28 1 6 08 . .695 1 8 02 54 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.05 28 33 1 1 .32 1 1 67 .1 44.08 28 29 08 .38 + 9 . 8 1 28 32 47 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .95 7 1 7 37 48. 078 1 66 . 2 1 28 34 42 . 7 .9 8 9 8 . 1 0 28 27 29 .89 28 24 29 .385 1 67 .998 17 5 7 20.3 3 3 1 67 .242 1 66 .424 1 67 .27 3 5 .
c o s 1/1 t . to' and the right ascension of the launch site .si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . 7 .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . 84). between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . The launch time. is the same as the "local sidereal time . which may be computed from the injection conditions. The difference i n right ascension . 5 3 . ao' at this launch time . 5 4).55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time.Sec. and may be obtained from equation (2. plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. it is possible to adjustt l . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. the total time .89) : (7 56) . �.9 . slightly (7 .3 . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. at the launch point (see Figure 2. The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. tt ' is (7 . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . !::lX .54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 .5 ." 8. 1/1 c ' Thus. we get cos 6a. Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day .53 . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch.ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 .
54) agree. and the exact We now know the injection conditions. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. . What additional 6. 7 .and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . � . These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 .3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer.426 k m 2 /sec2 6. 000 k m 33 . determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 .3 224 . r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. 7. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I.2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth.t I ES Ch . 7.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.
a .9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth.Ch .. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. b. . S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .400 k m : a . 7 . The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. Determine the /:. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit.6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby.
1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . <1>0 = = = * 7 . Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. Specifically. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). requirement. 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem.) * 7 . 7 7 .Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. select ro ' vo ' to meet this . Use h bo l OO n mi . . (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. 1 2 cannot really be used in practice.
NY. Inc. NY. L. 4. Abelard Schuman. A stronautical Guidance. 2. November 1 95 9 . 1 943 . Gamow. Baker.Ch. NY. New York. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. McGrawHill Book Company. Garden City. George . Berkeley and Los Angeles. Clyde . Fisher. Second Edition. 1 962. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Academic Press. Battin. Richard H . Newton. 3 . ." ARMA Document DR 220. Doran and Company. 1 967. Robert M. London and New York. New York. Isaac . an d Maud W. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. Makemson. The Story of the Moon .1 6. 5. Doubleday. 6. 1 964. 1 9 5 9 . 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Principia . The Moon . University of California Press.
.
two nostrils. two luminaries. C opernicus. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven.. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . etc.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. But the tide of opinion ebbed. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. two unpropitious." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. At first it was not understood . From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. such as the seven metals. indeed. and a mouth . which it were tedious to enumerate . The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. two eyes. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . two ears. By 1 507 he was 357 .
and Pluto . or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. . . In addition." as may be seen in Table 8 . Venus. indeed. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. at the age of 70. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. are spread much more widely throughout the system. 1 2 . Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . 8. the members of the solar system. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. 8. 1 Bode's Law.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies.2. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. Neptune. comets. Jupiter ." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. diameter. Mars.1 . Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . . . 6. Saturn. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. Uranus. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. nevertheless.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . If we write down the series 0. some of which pass near the Sun. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) .2. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. Earth. 3. The "law. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto.
0 is presented in Table 8 .39 0.20 9.6 2. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune .2 1 0. 8. compared with the total mission duration. Except for Mercury and Pluto . The sixth orbital element. 8. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.Sec. 8. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 . Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune . Table 8 .2.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.65 5.21 Actual Distance 0. is its path .0 1. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic.72 1 .4 0.0 1 9 . Only for brief periods.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. 1 7 39. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.7 1 .8 77. The size.28 3 0.8 5 .2 Table 8.52 1 9.00 1 .22.6 3 8 .52 2.
38 7 1 .0539 .7233 1 .5 1 9 1 9 ... 3 97 1 09 ° .096 1 88 ° . 76 ° .773 1 7° . 0482 .76 .203 9.850 1 ° ..497 1 3 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .970 7 6 ° .. 074 1 83 ° . 000 1 °.423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.225 237 ° . 1 42 1 02 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° .2583 7 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° . 0 1 67 .) 00 .828 1 7 1 °. 2056 .000 1 ..005 0 . 1 3 6 47 ° . 7 73 1 ° .441 73 ° .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .28 3 0.275 222 ° . 0068 .870 L.405 undefined 49 ° . 5 73 1 75 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 1 1 1 326 ° . 0934 . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° .322 1 00 ° .684 93 ° .489 0° .004 3 ° . 05 1 4 .394 0° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .306 2 ° .400 276 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (. 1 7 3 9 . 8 94 341 ° .5 24 5 . 5 68 3 1 ° .
5 227.05 6 .8 1 7 1 .46 84.2 1 4.49 4.000 ." .7 5 7 .87 3 5 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .795x 1 0 7 5 .74 2 .80 5 .8 247 . 0 1 1 64.5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .257x l O s 3 . 1 1 49 .3 05x 1 04 1 .24 1 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .6 1 7 .3 . 1 4 1 3 .04 29.8 6 29.986x l O s 4." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .06 9 ...9? 1 .896x 1 0 6 3 .6 1 5 1 .65 6.9 1 08 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.268x 1 0 B 3 .820x 1 0 6 6 . 1 08 3 1 8 .232x l 0 4 3 .8 8 1 1 1 .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .000 1 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .0 95.79 24.
362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. however. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. The Hohmann transfer. from the standpoint of /:. was the Hohmann transfer. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible .v required. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission.3 . In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. Just as in lunar trajectories. S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. this consideration is important. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. For transfers to mo st of the planets. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure.3l . If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . if continued past the destination planet . especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). 8.
8.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip.V. .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / .. \ _. Therefore .Sec. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by . the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::. Nevertheless.v required for an interplanetary mission.u o_____+." ..d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.' .
33) In Table 8 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. 3 . r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .3. then. In any case . and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time. From Table 8.3 and should be reviewed . The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.l 0 (8 .31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.where f. B (8 .l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun.32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. the difference between the heliocentric speed. for the Hohmann transfer. • .1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system.3 .78 kIn/sec. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. The heliocentric speed. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 .
Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.5 1 46 .3 9 1 1 . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.78 46. VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight .28 27. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.57 . r d = 1 .379 1 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun. In other words .31 1 05 .345 1 .04 1 6.05 4 1 . t2 . rE9> are respectively : .60 Table 8.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .07 4 1 . 40. rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.295 1 .74 6.9 1 6 1 .9  2 .Sec.524 A U From equation (8 . 8. 1 6 30.73 38.099 1 .748 .28 32. 1 2 5 8 .42 4 1 . From Table 8 .397 22.
From equation (8 . The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 .t1 ) wt . the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.73Km/sec . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.3.099A U/TU 0 = 32. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 8 From equation (8 .32 for a Mars trajectory. where is the angular velocity of the target planet. v .35) wt (t2 .t 1 = 1T = 4. and is illustrated in Figure 8 .9 d ays 8.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.7088 years = 258. Thus. vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .2 Phase Angle at Departure.VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.32) the heliocentric speed .3. the phase angle at departure . The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.34) __ (8 .
.. 'Yl (8 . . pp 1 60. . 8. .32 Phase angle at departure.3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " .Sec. If we miss a particular launch opportunity. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet. Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. . .36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place .1 76 .. .... Figure 8.. . and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct.. . The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun. 367 . The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.
07 5 . we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .w t I (8 .32 1 .04 1 .60 2. 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period.03 8 .368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.00 Table 8. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated.37) (8.213 .v 1 determined. It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth. rad/yr 26 . Mars and Venus. Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.530 . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again. 340 . if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed. the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.38) .01 1 . 3 ·2. so W EfJ7 s .3.09 1 . 1 3 1 .025 Synodic Period.2 1 7 3 .0 1 1 .W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 .32 In a time . yrs 0.07 1 1 0. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. 8. Thus.
 '?. . . �. .Sec. . . ".. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� .r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. � Figure 8.310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . .. .. .33 / . � _ i t_ r b_ . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. . . 8 .:V.. .. (8 .39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . . .. '\ . . . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 ..
2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. km/sec. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola. From Figure 8. fI.33 .1 1 ) becomes = 2 .3. the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . This may be seen by solving equation (8 . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. is given by cos fI =  §. fI. so equation (8 .the injection speed . For transfer to one of the outer planets.39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . 3. C but since e = da for any conic. we may write .34 we see that the angie . the angle .
3. 8 .Sec.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = . is obtained directly from the injection (8 .34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .1 2) e. conditions : = (8 .1 e where the eccentricity .1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. 3 T H E PATC H E D.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .3.3.
The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.3. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. Generally. 8. At arrival. cfJ as shown in Figure 8.4 Arrival at the Target Planet. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 .3.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 .35 Interplanetary launch (8 .36. however.3.
1 8) .1 6) (8. (8 . 3 . 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 .3.1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. 8 .Sec.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 . sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 . 3.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet.
1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. in Figure 8.3 . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. It also means that the relative velocity vector.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . 3. 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. 3 7 .The angle .s i n if> 2 v (8 .36). where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . will be directed toward the center of the planet. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. In Figure 8. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. .38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. e. 3 7 we see that  (8 .320) y = x si n e (8. From Figure 8 . 8 . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known.
322) .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f. (8 . 8 . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.Sec.lt/ 2 X _ . 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.
326) Because angular momentum is conserved. 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet . y. Solving equation (8 . the speed at periapsis is simply . we obtain .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance.(8.327) for y Yields (8 . 324) (8.)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .
39. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission.Sec.t 3  rt (8 .05 DU.329). " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. V2 + 2fJ.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . the "inwact parameter. only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . rt This particular offset distance is called b . If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 .329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. The given information is . The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . The. then a much smaller target must be considered. b. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 8. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision . In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size.328) we 'get (8 . We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 .
373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.099 A U/TU = :. 3 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 . 6V 1 = 1 .1 VI = 1 .099 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .099 A U/TU 0.378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .1 :: 0.373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.05 D U 1 .
the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::. 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.Sec. 1 39 + 1 . {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept.v (8 . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .07 6 ft/sec 2 . This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.4. From Table 8 . departure Figure 8 .1 .044 8 . 8 .905 = = 379 37 . Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .1 ) .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.v = 2v si n L 2 /::.43 DU/TU .4.
2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun . _  /' .62 DUJTU� 8.1 )) .7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years.3 . 8 as derived in equation (3 . Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) . 8.8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.. 8.. (Ans.3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 . 7.. 8..1 ) . 5 for the planet Jupiter.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units.32. 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. EXERCISES 8 . 8..4. 8 .3. 8. " .
a.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. M = 5. v = 39 . If c = 9 .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. 1 00 ft/sec) c.394 DUe/TU� b .9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. . h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. where 8.000 ft/sec. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.V = 0.l:. What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the .v ? (Ans.Ch.348 DUe/TUE9> . P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj .l:. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. vesc = 1 . it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.l:.V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.l:. r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .. Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . It can be shown that .900 ft/sec. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 . The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .v = 1 5 .V required? (Ans.l:. 1 DUE[) radius. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit .35) ITbo no .
Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6. a.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0.. � = 0. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b . v=' (Ans. (Ans. = 0.? (Ans. (Ans. 3 .. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans.0.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. The mission will begin in a 1 . 1 DUe/TUEl1. 0.73 1 DU8TU� b . 09 DUe/TU$) = .which results if the same 6. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. What is the 6. Find the 6. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 .0.046 DU� /TU � b .382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . What is the 6. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. 0. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. 8.0.28 AU2 /TU2 . 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans.. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. What is the 6..V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e. 8 8 . Find the hyperbolic excess speed. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .254 AU/TU� .5 DUEI1 circular orbit. a.9 00 ft/sec) 8 .V of ... Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. so work carefully and follow any suggestions.V at apogee or perigee? 8.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. 6. v= 0.V is applied at perigee.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit..Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units. 0..
The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. <P2 and vll1II in that order. 1 4 a. O o) 8.5 AU. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. 1 . 'Y1 .2 AU/TU� d. c. for the above transfer. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans.373 AU/TU � f.5 AU? (Ans. 1 .Ch.) (Ans. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. 0. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . Compute the phase angle at departure. (Ans.050 ft/sec) 8 . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. (Ans. then find h. P. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars.87 TU� b .2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. 0.867 AU/TU� e . 3 .3 9 DU oITU& 2 . 8 .What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. Vrrw = 0. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . For a given planet. called the turning angle . What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines.
coplanar planet orbits. Fimple . NY. No 2 . Washington.V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b." AIAA Journal. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . Simon and Schuster. Newman. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. 1 963. R.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. 3 . U S Government Printing Office . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. The World of Mathematics. pp 430434. Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. 1 95 6 . 8 8. transfer time. 1 . New York. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . What would be an estimate of the return b. D C . 1 96 1 . Vol 2. * Ch . 1 967. . Vol 1 . and the angular rates of the planets. 1 969. London. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. W .V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Assume circular. James R. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . 4 . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office.
irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. " Webster 9 . it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. it is found that there seem to be distinct.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. Macroscopically . There is always some variation 385 . Seldom does anything go exactly as planned ." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. and at times unexplainable . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth).
In fact. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. which had not been treated by Newton . E. except the motion of the perigee.from the norm. etc.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . solar radiation effects. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. 6 . 9 . the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. atmo spheric drag and lift. M. Then. magnetic. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. Brown 's papers of 1 897. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. meteoroid collisions. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. The wind gust was a perturbation. about a century later. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . and relativistic effects. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. Fortunately. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical.
This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. 9 . A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . Encke. In particular.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . the Cowell. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. a section discussing methods and errors is included . but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. 9. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations .Sec. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. H. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. It was developed by P. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. See section 1 . Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. With the capability for orbital flight . It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem.
388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . y = vy (9. including all the perturbations. F or numerical integration equation (9 . the equations would be . Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. Sun and planets.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. r=Y �r (9 . ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. For the twobody problem with perturb ations.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. the equation would be (9 .2.22) would be further broken down into the vector components.
There are some disadvantages of the method . Intuitively. This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error .Sec. It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. Even in double precision computer arithmetic.22). Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates.23).24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings.'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 . the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. When motion is near a large attracting body . roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small.  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . Classically. and he would be correct .Il m ( 3 . In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . 8 .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. 9 . Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. In spherical coordinates (r.25) . 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method.
The term connotes the sense of contact.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 .25) As a reminder.31 The osculatil. in our case . one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. reference or b i t Figure 9. Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . 9 (9 . the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. In the Encke method . Presumably . 9.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together.'l. and . Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed .
the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). or epoch. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration. 9 .  (9 . 3 .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit .33) we obtain .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method. the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.1 ) .3.to ) ' p (9 .. Note that at the epoch. r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors.3. = p ( tb ) p p to = 0.32)  Sr.3 . r + � r3 r = a t .1 ) and (9 .3 2) into (9 . be defined as (see Figure and . 9.1 ) . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it.Sec. respectively . Now w e will consider th. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. At that time . Let r and p be the radius vectors to . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .1 ) and for the osculating orbit. The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 .33) Sub stituting equations (9 ..
was to obtain more accuracy.lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . 6r.lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch .392 6r == a ) p + IlL p . theoretically. we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:. However. p is a known function of time .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation .35) 3 3 r _ (9 .6r ) ..6r] r3 r (9 . 6r (to + .3 / 2 (9 .3 6) Equation (9 . but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .. For a given set of initial conditions.34) then becomes (9..37) . one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method.t) can be calculated numerically.6. So . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) . so r can be obtained from 6r and p. 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .
Sec. In terms of its components Figure 9. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . 9 .32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. Expanding. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved./  Our problem is not yet solved . OZ are the cartesian components o f or. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. however. o y . we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] .
38) and (9 . 9 From equation (9 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9. It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 .37).37) becomes (9 .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.3. at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .38)  1 . /) y2 .1 0) (9 .31 2) . (9 . . 3. <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9.35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .2q So q =  Now.39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task . There are two methods of solution at this point .( 1 .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .(1 . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .
1 2) may be slightly faster.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. Integrate another t:. calculate (jr (to + t:. but of the order of magnitude of 0.3. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. The method using equation (9 .t replaced by kt:. q (to ) O. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits.nowing p (to ) . f(to + t:. Go to step c with t:. k.t to get (jr{ to + kt:.t where k is the step number.> a specified constant. If. g. although the use of equation (9 . t:.t) 2 . d .t). r (to ) .1 2) is used. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. = = = = = p continue. If equation (9 . 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated . rectify and go to step a . Knowing 5r(to + t:. q( to + t:. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows .01 ). p 229). Vol 2. and 5r 0 at this point.t ) from equation (9 . v = p + (jr.1 0). 9 . Then the tables could be u sed to find f . (jr 0.t) . In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . For an integration step. c.3. a. so larger step sizes can be taken.t) from equation (9 . f. p(to + t:.3 8) 3. In (jr p v as described earlier. e . b.Sec. Rectification should be initiated when . Calculate r = p + (jr.does not remain quite small.t . Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . Otherwise (jr p .3. Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body.39) is recommended for use with the computer.t) calculate 1 .
The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. See equation (9 . a . e eccentricity. one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . this method may seem more difficult to implement.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration .1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . at the outset. A similar check could be made on i . Though. = .cSr ) (9 . the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form.6. from the Encke method 9.t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . Thus. A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . In the absence of perturbations. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . they would remain constant. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. Similarly.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . For instance./l m {m s . Then e � .3.6. etc . The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small.
Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. i. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . . R (unit vector R). The axis S is . 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . for a table of parameter sets). Eventually .variations (e.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . r. along the instantaneous radius vector. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. 9 .To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. .. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. w and. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated.and dM ?.I OOS .. It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . The standard orbital elements a. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. n. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. Vol 2 .n (t .Sec.T (or M) will be used.g. The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. � .4 . 9 . This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. p 246. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. Therefore . e.
is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt . The third axis.rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.43) . = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .4. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9. W.1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9.
(9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:. 9.43). Differentiating the conic equation Qr. dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .44).1:!:.48) we find da dt = (9. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed. expressions for found.4 and .44) (9..� 2& ' = 399 (9 .48) Substituting in equation (9.!I=8!" nr from (9 . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .1 0) .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.Sec.46) and F S (9 . (9 .4.45) To express this in known terms.45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .
la _ (9 04.400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .) Since h = hW. 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt . r hW + h da S dt (9 .�) % J.2 )% a = (1 .1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .lae dt h $) a dt . the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.4.1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904..
1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .n di dt (9 . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .1 8) .h cos i rF s h2 .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r). 4 . 9 .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .4.4.. K . K) � (9 . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.4.4./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .4.Sec.1 6) we obtain .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 .4. 1 e2 (9 .sin QL = dt . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.2p.45 1 ) .45 0) should be small.45 1 ).5 1 ) correct to first order in J.vc . . is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.4. Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion .v {at + c ) c (9 .2p.2 (at + C)2  .vat a+v a .4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. From equation (9 .4.v 2p.J. which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. The constant of integration. the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 . .4.. 4 where c will be the parameter. c = ve 2 p.450) and solving for e we find (9 . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.vt 2p.at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .2 p. .v = .5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.2p. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 ..454) + 2p. but more practically we would consider � = v .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. .Sec. Since p.vt .v which can be easily solved for c. {at + c) + 3p. • . 9 . allowing c to vary with time .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence . ] (9 . . C. and V are small.e .
not expediency. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. his integration method. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. highly questionable. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. accuracy. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. d. b . efficiency. 9 . storage and complexity. 5 . such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. Unfortunately. or has not carefully selected. 9 . should be the criteria. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. allow as large a stepsize as possible. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. 9 in detail.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. . such as the disturbing function. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. at best.e. c. economical in computing time. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary.. In theory.
388. They are roundoff and truncation errors. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors.843. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e .476. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . 2 Integration Errors. 5 . Obviously . Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places.28 + 3.476. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error.Sec. Baker (v 2. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (.5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. In fact. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation.57 = 7 . and f. The larger the . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit.864. 9 . Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. 4. 9 . For instance .accumulated roundoff error .51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number.276 + 3 .388.567 = 7.5 (9.
In general. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes .414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. AdamsMoulton. 9. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method.62) (9. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). in the equivalent Taylor series expansion.= f(t. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. 6 .6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. Thus. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. 9 stepsize. 1 RungeKutta Method. 9 .1 ) .63) dx dt (9. EulerCauchy and Bowie . we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. We will treat the first order equation . the larger the truncation error. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. Of course . h. Gill.6. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change .
It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors. x n + k 3 ) (9.h ) k3 +.63) and n is the increment number. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .6. 9 . so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize . Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula. They are relatively simple .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 . One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error.k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .) k2 6 3 l2 (9.. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . In general. they are faster than the singlestep methods.65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . have a relatively small truncation error.yV:.k +. 9 . X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9.( 1 . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .64) 1 1 + . and stepsize is easily changed .( 1 + y. The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated.Sec.2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. easy to implement . This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .% ] + k 2 [ 1 .yry. x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . x n .
\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . 1 /2 .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . . In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 . 25 1 /720. 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0. 3 9. The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . .\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods.1 f . . 3 /8 .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme .beginning and after each stepsize change. 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k.67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 5 / 1 2 .6.
6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method. .x n+1I I (P 270 (9.59 f n .68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.Sec. This method.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l .69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term.1 + 37 f n2 . 9 .h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9. In equation (9. The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see.69). The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 . It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.6. for instance.x n + (5 5 f ri . Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis). The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. the error terms are not generally known.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first.
numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. The GaussJackson method is one of the best. and most used.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods.1 . It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn.° n 60480 (9.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n.6 . more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods.8 k .LJ _ 289 8 6 "x.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ".f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n . x. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. though it also includes a corrector. "x. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods.1 f(t n + h). n + 1 2 n i \. 9 like other multistep methods. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.h ) .1 ' etc.1 f(t n h) 2 2   .° n + . n + � 84 "x. It is. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ".2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. though. . 9.6.
flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. However. 9 .l 005). but only the simpler forms will be treated. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. is known. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods.Bashforth) methods are preferred.I n=2 r (9.5 Numerical Integration Summary . Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic.7.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. ¢.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker.1 ) One such potential function. 9.e presented in this section.6.6. 9.1 The Nonspherical Earth . the accelerations can be found from (9. 9 . 2 . is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. Some of them become quite complex. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. according to Vinti.72) . Table 9. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. If the potential function. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. V. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. is ¢ = � [1 . p/r. 2 and NASA C R.7. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b.
very difficult to determine proper size.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. 9 CI) . Vol t . Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � . it could be very fast. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t.' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***.
7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r ...where J..74) .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r . 9. if> = I!:.J s � ( � ) (35� .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.L = gravitational parameter Sec..e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .] (9 .2.  I. = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 . r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .
44 ± O. l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .64 ± O. 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 1 5 ± O. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients. Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . y..6 .57 ± O. l )x 1 0. . .(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .5)x 1 0. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.6 ± O. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker. Vol 1 . l )x 1 0.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .6 J4 = (1 .l ( �) 3 ( 3 .75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 . 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr.3003 ""6 ) + .6 J = (0.5 ± O.03)x 1 0.1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J .5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2. I )x 1 0. These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. which are slightly in variance .6 6 (0.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75). The first term in x.
if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only).s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation .. There are a few ctmtiol).2 Atmospheric Drag. but will not be presented here. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. simply use r3 r= where . The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. 9 . Vol 1 . term) to the RSW sy stem. The equations are formulated in the geocentric . p 147). 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) .Sec.. 7 Drag. However. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). and other parameters. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent .77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . s 9. by definition. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . Therefore . care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation .7.. equatorial coordinate system. the drag coefficient. Thus. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). To do this. Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker.Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 .
x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. altitude above an oblate Earth. . z refer to the geocentric. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. though small.3 Radiation Pressure.424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch.t b ae ==ic.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . 9 m p C O A . Equation (9 . atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . 9 .lli. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. In the geocentric.ie. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).78) z . equatorial coordinate system. y .7 .7 . but the reader can find this in other documents.ilc coffc. etc. Radiation pressure.
3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. but a major force .4 Thrust.Ch. m = mass of vehicle (grams) . Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x .1 5) . Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. See equation (9.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm). the variation of eccentricity. 9 where A = cross section f = 4. 9 . 9 . Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. m (9. 7 . 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . Prove this assertion . y.4.25). .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates.79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters.4349 0 x . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. .2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . z directions. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 . 9. 9 . EXERCISES 9.
The Macmillan Co . 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. * 9. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. J . London . F . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. Ralston . Planetary Coordinates for the. . DC. John Wiley and Sons. 3 . 9 . 6. 1 . New York. * 9 . Blackford. 9 9 . L. . 1 96 1 . Academic Press. Years 1 9601 980. Moulton . S . 1 960. M. 1 9 1 4. and Wilf. M." NASA CR. and Wl). A. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. New York. G.000 n mi. 4. Methods of Celestial Mechanics. A. and Clemence.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . Allione .. Baker. Mendez. Academic Press. Jr . Feb 1 968. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. New York. D. * 9 .ittouck. 1 967. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. L. Vol VI. LIST OF REFERENCES 2.l 005 . 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. 5 . M. Washington. New York. . Inc. M. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. R. Robert M . Guidance. Brouwer.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 .445). C .
8 . DC . Jr. 2nd ed. 1 4 . Published privately by the Author. Hildebrand. 1 1 . Plumber. Methods of A strodynamics. B . . A . 1 948 . 1 2. 1 96 1 . 1 967. P . 9 . New York. Smart. 1 5 . M. P. Jr and Makemson. Paul. 1 0. . Escobal. 1 6. McGrawHill. 1 964. 1 968 . 1 95 3 . Herget. Longmans. New York. Baker. Cambridge University Press. A stronautical Guidance . 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . Battin. R. Townsend. The Macmillan Co. Inc. F . The Computation of Orbits. Vol 1 . Dubyago . Part 1 . 1 96 5 . Inc. E . C. New York. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Th e Determination of Orbits. John Wiley and Sons.Ch . D. New York. Washington. New York. 1 963. Methods of Orbit Determination. Ann Arbor. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). R. New Yark. Academic Press. Celestial Mechanics. New York. H. W . G. Robert M. New York. McGrawHill. Orbital Flight Handbook. Michigan.. NASA SP33 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. R . Dynamical A stronomy . Escobal. Maud W. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. 1 3 . L. 1 95 6 . John Wiley and Sons. M .
.
77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 . 1 328 2 1 days 9.24764 11sec 806 . I DU� TUi.05883 36565 � TV. 1 97 5 . English Units Metric Units 2. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. 1 Center... Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter.922786 NM 1 3 .. we 0.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. 'Derived from those values of Il . and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 .68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . r.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 . 3. 2593 6.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. 1 .327 1 5 44 x 1 0 . Canonical Units I DU. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 .0226757 x 1 06 sec 29. 44686457 min 6378. . Ile Angular Rotation.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance. 2506844773 deg min 7.092567257 x 107 ft 3963 .. 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU..908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 . r.9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec . Speed Unit I� TU.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius.9053682 8 km' .
239446309 x 1 0.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 . i.903665 5 64 x 1 0 .08 1 52366 0 . . there is no roundoff or truncation.344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .07 1 0 1 50424 4 .e .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 . 1 2 64963205 0 . 1f = 3 . foot = 0.3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .3 14 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .2342709 5 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.4 3 .8 9. _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.
If A i s a vector . Scalar. C. Unit Vector. force and acceleration. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. temperature . (Example : 3 or A). velocity . time or any real signed number. W). I DEFINITIONS Vector. Examples are mass. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. Examples are displacement. speed. J. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. Thus. length of a vector . An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . K) and (p. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. Q.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations.relationships involving vector quantities. not a null or zero vector. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . 43 1 .
432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . regardless of the position of their origins. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. B and C are coplanar vectors. 1 Similarly.. and A and B are not collinear. . Coplanar Vectors. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). If A. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB.
C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB .1 ) I AI cos B . From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . denoted by A • B. Scalar or Dot Product. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B.B which is the same as A + (B)..C.2. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle.2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors. is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B. e I I l (C . Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .l ) C. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C . l .
That is. A o A = Aft.J =K . < 180° ) AxB =C . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. The cross product of two vectors A and B. denoted by A x B . then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them..(B + C) = A . sma l lest ang le ( L e .K= 1 I .J = J o K=K o I = O where I .B + A . B and C form a right handed system.C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A . if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible . K are unit orthogonal vectors.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I .24) (C.8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C .1=J . . J . 23 ) (C.
J. K are unit orthogonal vectors.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. then A X B = O.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . e < In fact A x B = . (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C.C.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical.
436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .29) Scalar Triple Product. Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then. BI C1 .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C.
1 2) (C. 2. The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .2.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .2.B3 C) + A ( B3 C .C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity. denoted b y A x (B x C) .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.l 3) (C.(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B . The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B . The vector triple produce.21 4) C.2.C.
" ......438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o . .. then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + .... . thus .with itself..... v C P K y . x J Then the velocity relative to the (I. ... K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P.YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of ........... . dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 .....9.
VE LOCITY 439 which.. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P.3 b. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. In this special case then. dr v = .C. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T .= .= . v = wT . This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle.
altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . longitude. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. EI. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . The input to SITE should be latitude. p. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. elevation rate . azimuth. and of the satellite (R and V). I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). EI. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . latitude of the launch site. D . Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . Az.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . range rate . From the 440 . AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. Its geodetic latitude. The radar determines p. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . positive to the east) of the launch site. The input to TRACK should be range. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. elevation. azimuth rate.
UT. BEGIN REAL D. END OF LSTIME .. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . 040075. LST) . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4.74933340. y.75 components are : (. e .57 76.5 . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897.5 3 4 ON 4 5. DAY. PI . LST.5 1 35 . .05 1 37. 6 .48 201.01 2035 7 5 . Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 . Input UT as a decimal (i. . 6 8 2. .07 1 05 .63745829) z = .1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 .7 5.74933340. GST _ 1 . 2 2 29. . .D. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . E 7 2 . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . 1 4923608. If the above program is used.8 N 7 8 . observation time and radar tracking data. . . 007 N 1 04 .27907 599.3 . GST.2045 72 1 6 . Following are five sample sets of data for site location. GST.26347 1 9 8 . = (. An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 .7 .75 1 003 9 1 . 22 1 0.8 S 1 7 5.0027379093®2®PI®D . PI.7 . 9 W 0 1 9 05.5 90 .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT . . 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 .08 30. . 5 7 5 for data set 3). 3 315 . : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . 5.05 1 9 5238) .044 1 8440.775 1 80 1 9. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). 0) = (. LST and LONG are in radians. W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. 8 0. UT. REAL LONG. INTEGER DAY.5 3 0 .62624920) = (. .
. The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach. 6 2 .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 .1 0 22. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). elliptical.707 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. 00001 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 49 0 0 2.293 . .703 .01 . 5 .2 VI . 01 . 0) (.9 0 2 0 .9 1 046 1 80.49 0 .9 1 . hyperbolic).4 1 722472 .4 1 4 0 0 65 . .001 5 30 0 .1 . rectilinear. Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 .1 . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 . parabolic.8 . b . The type of trajectory (circular.4 1 4 2.85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . 1 29579 1 9 . 05 . d.5 0 . 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . 7 0 3 VK .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29.6 0 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach.001 1 0 . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth.442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. 1 0 0 2 . From this information you are required to fmd : a. 48 4 0 2.. 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. c. 0 1 7 45 .
7 . You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z).0.5 0 0 . Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 . Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. a .5 . To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered.jiL d. b.4 of the text for guidance .5 .025 9 1 7 . and dt/dx for each iteration. If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. x should never be greater than 2m. 61 (calculated) . use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. 1 5 0689 1 . Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x.3 D. 1 38878 .8 . Also for an ellipse.3 1 0 . Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. RJ 61 . To determine when convergence has occurred. c. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. 61.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . If your iteration process is efficient. you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations.
1 0.6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine.70655823. 1 65 08 .. R2 V2 = (0. 0003 6 1 .999 o 1 03 D..444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory. 0. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.w). 00 1 074 . I t .. 1 8 1 . One of the data sets tests this situation...1 . 0 .t c l :::. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 ..1 .. In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z.. bt. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points. and sign (7T .00006057 . 3. It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11').5 1 . For instance note that y can never be negative .6 for 1 :::. ..002 1 7 7 1 . Given r l ' r2 . Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 .. 1 06 1 0. t :::. 1 362596) = (0.01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . I�I :::.9 20 . You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives. For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . If there is no convergence in 50 iterations..4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text..
See section 5 .4 1 .1 . The following data i s i n canonical units. y.2 .1 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z .66986992. 7 for further discussion o f this project . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = . time of radar observation.66993 1 97 . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .4 . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.3 .7 0 1 0 1 .2 .2 .0001 +1 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D. 1 .0 .6 .6 .6 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight. x.7 0 1 0 20 1 . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. location of the tracking site .6 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT.5 . .6 .9378 1 789) = 4.1 specifies the long way.. 1 2298 1 44. and the location of an interceptor launch site .7 . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem.6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM . Check for this case .4 .201 . .4804847 1 .S = (0. 1 92 1 62 1 2 . .3 . print out a message and go to the next data set .8 5 +1 .2 1 . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration. The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .5 . so a check should be made for that condi tion. Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target.6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .3 . Also print t:J) and a for each data set .4 .
d. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . and the number of timeofflight increments desired . all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . This will aid you in verifying your solution . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. b . KEPLER and GAUSS. Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . the starting value of timeofflight increment size. c. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . To make your program flexible . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . TRACK. f.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor.3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . Times should be read in as minutes. Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. g. e . the number of reaction times desired . Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. the desired increment size for reaction time . When you point out your arrays.446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. Make some provision to print out all of your input data.
92 deg/sec 1 .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .038 .5 p = 1 86. 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9. 844 **** **** **** 35 7 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .0.1 .6 1 3 km EI = 56. of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs. of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei . 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.338 **** **** **** 10 8 .74.
LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site . LATL.448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL.
INDEX .
.
4 1 . 5 7 principal direction. 102 Apoapsis. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 1 09 Angular momentum. 6. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 84 ecliptic. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 423 Azimuth. 3 8 9 . 1 4. 3 2 3 masses. 7483 Coordinate systems. Tycho. 1 5 . 3 3 period of. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 296 geometry. 2 3 4. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 5 3 . 349 Angle of elevation. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 422 gravitational parameter. 74 BMEWS. 94. 3 2 5 . 3 9 0 station. 1 00. 54 fundamental plane. 54 orbit plane. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 2 1 2 B asis.INDEX Acceleration comparison. B urnout. 3 4 Collision cross section. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 84. 9498 transformations. 1 8 3 mean. 24 height adjustment. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 374 Computer projects. 24 Apparent solar time. 246 Brahe. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 1 8 5 true. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 2427 Apogee. 20.1 3 1 G auss problem. 203 Aphelion. 4 gravitational h armonics. 429 lunar distance. 4043 Celestial equator. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 8 4 Copernicus. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 9 3 . 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 2 1 . 277320 computation chart. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 84. 5358. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 297299 451 . 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 56 Celestial sphere. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 4 3 0 Conversions. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 429 flattening. 57 perifocal.9 8 gravitational constant. 1 620. 5 5 heliocentric. 5 8 Aristotle.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 1 22. 28 1 B arker's equation. 1 8 8 . 109 B akerNunn camera. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 74 geocentricequatorial. 3 5 8 . 279 C anonical units. 5 3 . 60 and universal v ariables. 1 09. 429 Astronomical Unit. 60 Argument of periapsis. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac.
2 1 4 Eccentricity. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 2 4 . 60 Equations of motion nbody. 1 8 8 . 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle.3 0 6 numerical integration. 1 04 Escape speed. 4 3 3 Drag. 62 Ecliptic. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 26. G auss problem. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 2 1 . 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 8 7 . 3 22 trajectories. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 4 Newton's law of. 306 EarthMoon system.3 3 pe. 3 6 8 local. 62 vector. 5 8 . 2 9 . 60 Dot product.riod o f .93 . 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates.1 90. 4 G ravitational parameter. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 2 1 2. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 264 eccentric anomalies.1 1 6 Gravitation. 26 ff. 3 5 . 20 1 202 f and g series. 2 3 3 .3 9 6 Energy. 25 1 258. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 423 424 Earth oblate. 1 1 7.452 Declination. 3 89 nbody. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 1 0 twobody. 3 00 launching. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. apparent. 84. 2 1 2. 3 0 . 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 4 1 2 Euler angles. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 1 22. 1 4 0 . 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. Carl Fredrich. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 2 0 . 227 418 ( y ) . 9 4 Geoid. 1 7 equations. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 2 9 7 .1 3 1 Direct ascent. 4 1 9. 1 54. 9. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 8 0 f and g expressions. 1 42. 3 5 Escape trajectory.2 1 2 parabolic. 1 8 8. 3 5 . 40. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 2 5 8 264 piteration method.1 4 3 . 3 1 . function o f true anomaIles. 3 90 . 1 8 2. 444 algorithm. 3 5 0 Epoch. 4 G alileo. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. Elliptical orbits. 60 true longitude at. 1 0 3 G round track. 1 0 6 mean. 22827 1 . 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 56. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. zenith angle. 1 0 6 precession. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 54 Elements of orbit. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 1 60 low altitude. 2 1 ff. 94 . 2 8 2 time. 2 3 0 . 6 1 Elevation angle. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 7 G ravitational constant. 1 0 9 . 25 1 . 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 25. 1 8 1 . 58 from position a n d velocity. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 221 hyperbolic.1 5 5 Direct motion.
3 623 65 Hyperbola. gravitational parameter. 1 . 20 Least squares solution. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 1 8 5 . 2. 3. 6 . 1 4 1 . true at epoch. 1 1 7 Latitude. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 1 5 6. 1 3 Moving reference frame. Greenwich. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of.1 8 1 first. 3 1 Moon. 234. 1 5 1 . 1 25 Librations of Moon. 3 80 Kepler. 3 24 . 3 4 5 ephemeris. 2. 1 4 1 .I N D EX H alley.3 8 4 general coplanar. 3 1 Manned flight. 2 Heliocentric constants. 1 56 vector. 6. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. argument of at epoch. 1 80 third. 3 64. 3 9. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 5 8 Longitude. 2 8 8 . 4. 6 rotation of. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 1 0 2 Meridian. 3 5 0 free return. 3 57 . 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 94 geodetic. 3 89 trajectories. limitations. 2 1 . 2 H alley's comet. 3 24326. equations o f nbody. 3 26 orbital elements of. Edmund. 8 Node ascending. 3 9 6 constraints. 3 7 9 . 1 0 twobody.3 05. 1 7 7. 3 0 3 . 3 27.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates.9 3 Mu ( � ) . 3 1 6 Injection. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 3 59374.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 62 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 3 65 noncoplanar. 1 52 Mass of planets. numerical rotation of. Isaac. 1 03 Minor axis. 94 reduced. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 3 8 . 58 regression. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 247 Newton's laws. 1 02 Mean solar time. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 3 62 . 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 1 57 Line of nodes. 2 6 5 27 1 . 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 238. 3 7 0 Integration. 5 1 . 8 9 . 2 second. 2. 207 I nclination. 9 9 . 3 9 6 M otion.8 9 derivatives i n . 2. 220 Mean motion.1 6 6. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 1 5 6. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. J ohann. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 1 0 1 . 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 1 8 8 . 3 8 1 Hohmann. 22 1 . 1 Kepler's equation. 8 6 . 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 1 9 8 . 3 44 . 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 3 69. 1 6 3 . 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 62 longitude of ascending. 2 7 7 . 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 5 Newton.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 1 1 7 derivatives. 22. 60 Lunar trajectories. 7. 60 Latus rectum. 3 69 .
2 4 Periselenium. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 58 determination from position and velocity. 3 9 0 Relative motion. 2 1 . 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 1 1 7 . 57 Perigee. 1 1 7. 3 6 1 shape of.3 44 Periapsis. 4 1 2425 errors. 423 due to the moon.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 1 5 1 . 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 5 symbols.1 22.1 22 from position and velocity. 424 thrust. 3 90 . 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 1 0 9 Rectification. 3 44 . 2 1 Osculating orbit. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 2427 argument of.3 7 9 lunar. true anomaly. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 5 1 .1 50. 4 1 4 sum squared. 1 1 7 . 1 0 3 P rojects.9 8 Optical sensors. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits.1 76 inplane changes. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on.3 9 6 variation of parameters method.454 Nu (v ) .3 9 0 Encke's method. 26527 1 Residuals. 9 3 . 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 1 5 6 . 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 3 8 7 . 1 62 O rbit. 22727 1 Orbit plane. 2 0 . 3 3 Perturbations. 440448 Q parameter. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 56. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 3 9 0 Parabola. 1 09 . 60 Right ascension. 2 4 . 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 1 9 3 . 203. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 1 6 Potential function. 220 classical formul ations. 1 62 . 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 1 69 Orbit determination. 2 1 2 computer solution. 20 Polar radius. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 34.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 3 4 1 Period. 1 90 Numerical integration. 3 8 6 general. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 2 1 . 3 3 3 . 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 6 1 o f moon. 94 Potential energy reference. 24 height adjustment. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson.1 59 examples. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. flightpath angle. 425 Phi ( � ) . 83 from optical sightings. 4 1 9 . 3 24 . 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. two body. 1 3 Rendezvous.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 443 algorithm. 3 60 physical characteristics. 3 24 . 3 1 . 420 c riteria for choosing. 3 59 . 6 1 from sighting directions. 20.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits.
1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 1 8 (see Nbody . 99. 1 8 8 universal variables. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day.1 9 0 if. 1 0 1 . 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 1 5. 8 4 . 23. 425 Thrust perturbation.1 69 Hohmann. 1 6 Sputnik. 3 27. 1 6. Universal gravitation. 2 1 at epoch. 1 3 5 ellipse. 1 3 1 . 1 9 high.4 3 9 Velocity components. 1 3 6 radar. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 1 60 Synodic period. 9 9 .8 9 derivatives in. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 99. 1 9 1 225. 1 8 1 .3 59 orbital elements. 1 3 1 . 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 3 6 1 Solar time. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 1 52 Station coordinates. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 2062 1 0 use of. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 3 60 physical characteristics. 1 6 3 . 9 Sidereal time. 23. 3 5 8 . 5 radio interferometers.1 40 errors. 3 1 Sensors. 425 Time. 1 3 2. 20. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 1 0 3 universal. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 1 6 6. 4 3 7 . 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly.4 3 9 d o t product. 1 0 1 . 1 9 1 development of. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 4 3 7 unit. 4 3 3 triple product. 1 8 8 . 2 8 8 . 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 2 1 7 parabola. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 1 02.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 40 Unit vectors. 4 1 9 Zenith angle.1 8 8 . 287 low.1 4 assumptions. 30. 1 1 . 4. definition of. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 8 1 . 40. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 9 3 . 4 1 8 Surveillance.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory.1 0 4 Solar system. 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 6. 1 03 local sidereal. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 20 Semimajor axis. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust.9 8 of planets. 9 9 . 85 Traj ectory equation. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 1 1 Units. 2 8 7 maximum range. 4 3 1 Velocity.1 6 6 True anomaly. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 4 3 7 .1 9 8 Time o f free flight. canonical. 7 Universal time. 1 9 1 . 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 44 1 mean solar. 5 8 Time zones. 9. 60 Twobody orbit problem.1 0 9 apparent solar. 8 6 .1 40 Selenocentric. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 1 3 8 optical. 58 Semi minor axis.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.