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Fundamentals of Astrodynamics Bate Mueller and White 0486600610|Views: 3,715|Likes: 26

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- 1.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS
- 1.2 THE N-BODY PROBLEM
- 1.3 mE TWO-BODY PROBLEM
- 1.4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION
- 1.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION
- 1.7 THE ELLITICAL ORBIT
- 1.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT
- LIST OF REFERENCES
- Sc. 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS 53
- 2.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS
- S. 2.9 THE MEASUREMENT OF TIME 101
- 2.13 SPACE SURVEILLANCE
- 2.14 TYE AD LOCATION OF SENSORS
- 2.15 GROUD TRACK OF A SATELLITE
- 3.1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS
- 3.2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS
- 3.3 IN-PLANE ORBIT CHANGES
- Sc. 3.4 OUT-OF-PLANE ORBIT CHANGES 169
- 3.4 OUT-OF-PLANE ORBIT CHANGES
- 4.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
- Sc 4.4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM
- 4.4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM
- EXERCISES
- 5.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
- 5.6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS METHOD
- PROBLEM-INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS
- EXRCISES
- 6.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUD
- Sec. 6.2 GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PROBLEM 279
- 6.2 THE GENERL BALLISTIC MISSILE PROBLEM
- 6.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE
- 6.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION
- 7.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUD
- 7.2 THE EARTH-MOON SYSTEM
- Sec. 7.3 SIMPLE EARTH-MOON TRAJECTORIES 327
- 7.3 SIMPLE EARTH-MOON TRAJECTORIES
- Sec. 7.4 THE PATCHED-CONIC APPROXIMATION : 333
- 7.4 THE PATCHED-CONIC APPROXIMATION
- 7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES
- 8.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
- 8.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM
- 8.3 THE PATCHED-CONIC APPROXMA nON
- 9.1 ITRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
- 9.2 COWELL'S METHOD
- 9.3 ENCKE'S METHOD
- ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS*
- VECTOR REVIEW
- SUGGESTED PROJECTS

FUNDAMENTALS OF

ASTRODYNAMICS

Roger **R. **Bate

Donald **D. **Mueller Jerry **E. **White

**When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro·
dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace
engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved,
geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current
practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven
in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate
engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of
astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior
training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this
text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover
publication is the result.
**

**The text is structured for teaching. Central emphasis is on use of
the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are
discussed. Several original unpublished derivations are included.
A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic
two-body and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is
then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans
formations, and diferential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers
are developed, followed by time-of-fight with emphasis on the uni
versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated
in detail. Two-body mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile
problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating
earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and
interplanetary fight, followed by an introduction to perturbation,
special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic
formulations of several common perturbations.
**

**Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of
each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative
problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a frst course
in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence.
**

**This new major instructional tool efectively communicates the sub
ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook.
Its efciency has been thoroughly demonstrated. The publishers
feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and
text matter available to other faculties.
**

**A new work, frst published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated
with photogaphs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices:
"Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver
sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' Index. xii +
455pp. 5% x 8y. Paperbound.
**

**ISBN 0-486-60061-0
**

$6.00 **in U.S.A.
**

*Fundamentals of
*

*ASTRODYNAMICS
*

ROGER R. BATE

Professor and Head

DONALD D. MUELLER

Assistant Professor of Astronautics

JERRY E. WHITE

Associate Professor of Astronautics

**OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS
AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY
**

DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC.

NEW YORK

Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved under Pan American and In·

ternational Copyright Conventions.

Published in Canada by General Publishing Com

pany, Ltd., **30 **Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto,

Ontario.

Published in the United Kingdom by Constable

and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London

WC 2.

Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,

first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.

Interational Standard Book Nttmber: **0-486-60061-0
**LibTry of Congress Catalog Card Number:

Manufactured in the United States of America

Dover Publications, Inc.

180 Varick Street

New York, N. Y. **10014
**

This textbook is dedicated to the members of

the United States Air Force who have died in

combat, are missing in action, or are prisoners

of war.

PREFACE

The study of astrodynamics is becoming a comon prerequisite for

any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aerospace

sciences and their many applications. Whle manned travel in

Earth-Moon space is becoming more common, we are also

concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary

satellites in the felds of communications, navigation, and basic

research.

Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforis for

experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamcs.

We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile,

whose mechanics of fgt has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be

a front-line weapon in the arsenals of many countries.

Beginning with the frst graduating class of 1959 the United States

A Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics

education. Much has been learned from this experience concerning both

the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best

for teaching the subject. Consequently, this text is particularly

structured for teaching, rather than as **a **exhaustive treatment of

astrodynamics.

The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical

digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central

emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The

theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable. Several

unpublised orignal derivations are included in the text. Example

problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can

be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and

quantitative and qualitative problems. Their diffculty ranges from

straigtforward to difficult. Difficult problems are marked with **a
**

v

vi

asterisk (*). In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter,

Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a

second course.

Chapter 1 develops the foundation for the rest of the book in the

development of the basic two-body and n-body equations of motion.

Chapter 2 treats orbit determination from various types of

observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements,

coordinate transformations, the non-spherical earth, and differential

correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as

the Hohmann transfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time-of-fight with

emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the

classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the

application of two-body mechanics to the ballistic missile problem,

including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth.

Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and

interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturbation

analysis emphasizing special perturbations. It also includes a discussion

of integration schemes and errors and analytic formulations of several

common perturbations.

If the text is used for a frst course in astrodynamics, the folowing

sequence is suggested: Chapter 1, Chapter 2 (sections 2.1 through 2.7,

2.13 through 2.15), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throug 4.5),

Chapter 6, and Chapter 7 or 8. A frst course could include Project

SITE/TRACK or Project PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course

could be structured as follows: Chapter 2 (sections 2.8 through 2.12),

review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER,

Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9.

Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made

by many present and former members of the Department of

Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made

of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney

and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs. The authors wsh to

acknowledge sigifcant contributions by fellow faculty members:

Majors Roger C. Brandt, Gilbert F. Keley, and John C. Swonson, Jr.

and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik, Harvey T. Brock, Tomas J. Eller,

Kenneth D. Kopke, and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and

checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading

portions of the manuscript; and Majors Edward J. Bauman and Walter

J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special

vi

acknowledgent is due Lieutenant Colonel John P. Wittry for his

encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for

Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.

Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division

of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent

work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations:

Aline Rankin, Jan Irvine, Dorothy Fryar, Ronald Chaney (artist), and

Edward Colosimo (Graphics Chief. Te typing of the draft manuscript

by Virginia Lambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully

acknowledged.

United States Air Force Academy

Colorado

January 1971

R.R.B.

D.D.M.

J.E.W.

CONTENTS

Preface

Chapter 1 TWO-BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS. . . . . . . . . .. 1

1.1 Historical Background and Basic Laws .... 1

1.2 The N-BodyProblem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5

1.3 The Two-Body Problem ** . **. . . . . . . . . . . .. 11

1.4 Constants of the Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14

1.5 The Trajecto_ry Equation ............. 19

1.6 Relating [ and

Geometry of an Orbit .............. 26

1.7 The Elliptical Orbit .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 30

1.8 The Circular Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 33

1.9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34

1.1 0 Te Hyperbolic Orbit ............... 38

1.11 Canonical Units ....

...*.
*

.......... 40

Exercises ............................ **4
**List of References .........

....*.
*

...*.
*

... 49

Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM

OBSERVATIONS ...*.
*

....*.
*

............... 51

2.1 Historical Background ........ . . . . . .. 5 **L
**2.2 Coordinate Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 53

2.3 Classical Orbital Elements. . . . . . . . . . . .. 58

2.4 Determining the Orbital Elements

from

2.5 Determining

Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 71

2.6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . .. 74

2.7 Orbit Determination from a Single

Radar Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 83

2.8 SEZ to IJK Transformation Using an

Ellipsoid Earth Model

.....*.
*

..*.
*

.... 93

2.9 The Measurement of Time .*.
*

........*.
*

. 101

2.10 Orbit Determination from Three

Position Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

2.11 Orbit Determination from Optical

Sightings ........*.
*

.............. 117

ix

x

2.12 Improving a Preliminary Orbit by

Differential Correction *.
*

*.
*

*.
*

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.*.
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2.13 Space Surveillance *.
*

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2.14 Type and Location of Sensors *.
*

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2.15 Ground Track of a Satellite *.
*

.*.
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140

Exercises *.
*

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144

List of References *.
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.** . **.. 149

Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS *.
*

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3.1 Low Altitude Earth Orbits *.
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*

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3.3 In-Plane Orbit Changes *.
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Exercises *.
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List of References *.
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Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A

FUNCTION OF TIME *.
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4.1 Historical Background *.
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4.2 Time-of-Flight as a Function of

Eccentric Anomaly *.
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4.3 A Universal Formulation for

Time-of-Flight *.
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4.5 Implementing the Universal

Variable Formulation *.
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4.6 Classical Formulations of the

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List of References *.
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Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM

TWO POSITIONS AND TIME *.
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via Universal Variables *.
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5.5 The Gauss Problem Using the

xi

*f *and 9 Series .*.
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5.6 Te Original Gauss Method *.
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..** . **258

5.7 Practical Applications of the Gauss

Problem -Intercept and Rendezvous ...** . **265

5.8 Determination of Orbit from Sighting

Directions at Station

...*.
*

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. 271

Exercises .*.
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List of References ..*.
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.. 275

Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES .*.
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. 277

6.1 Historical Background *.
*

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. 277

6.2 The General Ballistic Missile Problem .*.
*

*.
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.. 279

6.3 Effect of Launching Errors on Range *.
*

*.
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.*.
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297

6.4 The Effect of Earth Rotation *.
*

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... 306

Exercises ...*.
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. 314

List of References .*.
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Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES *.
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7.1 Historical Background *.
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7.2 The Earth-Moon System *.
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.** . **322

7.3 Simple Earth-Moon Trajectories *.
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... 327

7.4 The Patched-Conic Approximation *.
*

.*.
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.. 333

7.5 Non-Coplanar Lunar Trajectories .*.
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. 344

Exercises *.
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Chapter 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES *.
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8.1 Historical Background *.
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8.2 The Solar System *.
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8.4 Non-Coplanar Interplanetary Trajectories .

Exercises .

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Chapter 9 PERTURBATIONS .*.
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.** . **385

9.1 Introduction and Historical Background ..

9.2 Cowell's Method

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9.3 Encke's Method *.
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xii

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

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9.6 Numerical Integration Methods ..*.
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9.7 Analytic Formulation of Perturb ative

Accelerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 419

Exercises *.
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List of References *.
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426

Astrodynamic Constants *.
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. 429

Miscellaneous Constants and

Conversions *.
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. 430

Vector Review ** . **. . . . . . . . . . ............ 431

Suggested Projects *.
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440

Index *.
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449

CHAPTER 1

TWO-BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS

On �hristmas Day, 1642, the year Galileo died, there was

born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth a

male infant so tiny that, as his mother told him i later

years, he might have been put into a quart mug, and so frai

that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his

head. This unfortunate creature was entered i the paris

register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton.' Tere is

no record that the wise men honored the occasion, yet this

child was to alter the thougt and habit of the world.

-JaesR. Newman!

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Methods of Astrodynamics Computer Codes Vallado

Ringmakers of Saturn - Norman R. Bergrun

User Friendly Multivariate Calibration GP

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Columbia Accident Investigation Board Volume Four

Post Launch Report for Mission as-201 (Apollo Spacecraft 009)

Post Launch Report for Apollo Mission A-004 (Spacecraft 002)

Upgrade Your Physics

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Skylab 3 Voice Dump Transcription 8 of 9

NASA-1358

NASA-SMD-Science_Plan_07

Maclaurin - An Account of Newton's Discoveries

101 Science Experiments

Budd Hopkins - Missing Time

Edition) M..Plischke.&.B..Bergesen

Anderson M. - The Mathematical Theory of Cosmic Strings

8429551 Operational Methods in Mathematical Physics

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