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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
Ronald Chaney ( artist) .vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P . D. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged. . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.D.B.R.E.W. Jan Irvine . and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. J .M. Dorothy Fryar .
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. . . . . 1 . . . . . . . 1 . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS .4 Constants of the Motion .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . . . . 14 .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . .2 Coordinate Systems .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . 1 09 . . . . . 1. . . . 1 . . . 93 . . . . 74 . . . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The NBody Problem . . List of References . . . . . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . 1 . . . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . 83 . . . . . . 1 . . 2 . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 1 . . 2 . . 2. . . . . . . . . 1 01 . . . . 1 . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . 5 . . . . 2 . . . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . . 1 . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . _ 1 .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . 2 . . . . . . 71 . . 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . 11 . . . . 2 . . . .
. .3 3 . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 .2 of Solution 5 . . . 2 . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References .1 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . 4 . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. Exercises . . . . . .5 .1 9. . List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . . . . 390 . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . 3 20 .2 The Solar System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 6.2 The EarthMoon System . 258 . . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . . . . . 380 . . . 357 . 357 358 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . 5 . . 3 27 . 27 1 . . . List o f Re ferences . . . 3 84 . . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . 379 . . . 277 6. . . . . . List of Reference s . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . 3 87 9. . . . . . 26 5 . . . . . . . . . 5 . 273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . 3 06 Exercises . Exerc ises . . . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Histor ical Background . . . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . 8 . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . . . .1 8. 279 6 . . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1 . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . 275 . . . . . . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . . . xi 5 . . . . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . 344 352 355 . .4 7. . . . .1 Historical Background . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . 440 449 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . .
He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. the noble and aristocratic Dane. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. Tycho. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world.CHAPTER 1 TWO. JarnesR. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. Newman! . the year Galileo died. Kepler. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. he might have been put into a quart mug. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. 1 642 . the poor and sickly mathematician. as his mother told him in later years. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day.
1 Kepler's Laws. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars.1. Since the time of Aris totle . is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. It fit.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . 2 1. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. not an explanation of planetary motion . with the sun at a focus . discoverer of Halley's comet. The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. Kepler's laws were only a description. Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. necessarily moved in circles. But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. TWO. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. One day in 1 685 . It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . Finally . therefore .1 Still.
4 1. Dissatisfied with this explanation." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. 1 . I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. without mentioning the b et. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries .2 Newton's Laws of Motion. more simply. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. in ellipses. they speculated whether a force . In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. when he recovered from his shock. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. of course . were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. t he Principia. or . casually posed the question. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. "Why. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force .1.Sec.
Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them. .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. . / .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch.G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m.1 . Note that equation ( 1 . has the value 6. 1 . 1 . . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. 1. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll. The universal gravitational constant. " Figure 1 . • . G.. . 1 2) Fg = .1 . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 .1 .12) t o equat i.n ( 1 .11 Newton's Law of Motion .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system.'�V .1.67Ox 1 0. . .1 ) (1 .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .
solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. ..e. At any given time in its j ourney. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present. 1. j. . The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}.. m2 • m3 m m. or a planet)..II I I I " I I I I :. an earth satellite .. a lunar or interplanetary probe. I I I Figure 1. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies .2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(.Sec 1.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . . .. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. etc. An important force. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion.�I '. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag... In addition. I " '.e. X I .2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. propellants) to pro duce thrust. . To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. thrust and solar radiation pressure . f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i.
variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides.2' The NBody Problem Figure . Thus.. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X.1 .���Y � X n 1. 1 equator.. Y. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . 2. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. These effects. • • • z FOTHER . Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. Although small. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. are discussed in Chapter 3 ..
equation ( 1 . the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r.Se c 1.2. The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where .2.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation .3) Obviously . of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. solar radiation pr essure. thrust. II 3 (1. . m'J JI 3 (rj j) . . Fg.2 ·1 is T composed of drag. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . etc . .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . F gn where =  Gm . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . The v ector sum. (1..5 ) The other external force . perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes.
28 would not be zero . z coordinate system.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 .. (1.8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL..27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma. is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ... Thus. y .. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL... . r·I = F TOTAL mj 0.. In other words..F I dt TOTAL dt (1.26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion.1 + F OTHER ' (l . Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time .I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x .2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.I) and all other external forces .
1 0) for i = 1. m· J (�i) . Equation ( 1 . expelling mass or relativistic effects. F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . r JI. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. unpowered flight. vector. Y.29) reduces to = r· 1 n .2.1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form. ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . equation ( 1 ..1 2) . Equation (1 . The only remaining forces then are gravitational. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 . m . Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.2. mn may be the moon.2.2. we get j = j � *i 1 3 . Then writin g equation 1 . sun and planets . nonlinear.29) is a second order . mi 0).Sec 1 .G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth.10) ( . It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions.2. ( 1.11) 2.G And for i = 0 ...2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X .
2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch. 2 1 7 ) .G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .1 2) into equation ( 1 . n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.1 4) gives. 2. .r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence.1 From equation ( 1 ..2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.2. Since r 1 2 = . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 . .22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.21 1 ) and ( 1 .2 1 6) each bracket.1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .2.
There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . Table 1 . .1 Simplifying Assump tions.Sec.3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon .2x l O 8 2. Howe ver .9x l O 8 7 .3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . mi orbit about the earth. The bodies are spherically symmetric . This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion .3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. 1 x l 0 10 3. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies.3. To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n . 1. 1 .89 6x l 0 4 2. COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . sun and planets on a near earth satellite .6x l O lO 1 .
The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1.1 . Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. . " s However. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame .1 ) (1 . we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. which "in its own nature. Y. Y' .BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . For the time being. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. 1 .2 The Equation of Relative Motion.. Let (X'. N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Let (X.3.3. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M.12 TWO.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . without relation to anything external. 1 2. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 .3. remains always similar and irrnovable. Y'. Y'. 3 2 ) . Y'. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'.
Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. ballistic missiles. velocity. Z) with its origin in the central body. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X.33). Note that since the coordinate set (X. Y. Y. Y. Y'. Note that this is the same as equation (1. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X.. 1. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . (1 . Z').Sec.31) we have = _ r .31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1.y X' Figure 1 .33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr.33) . GIM+ml r Equation (1. Y'.32) from equation (1. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. Z'). and acceleration in a nonrotating.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1.
" for another form called "potential energy .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. will be much less than that of the central body . Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 .3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . the mass of the orbiting body . called the gravitational GM.14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . Then equation 1 . then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. "kinetic . If you think ab out the model we have created. M. m. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. 1 some planet or the sun. 1." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . It is convenient to define a parameter.3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . 3 ·4 ) ." That is. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. If m is not much less than M. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs.
lL\I r dt JJ.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy.4. v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(.!!. Therefore. that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. ( 1 .4 frame (the large mass) does not change . Since in ge neral a 0 it aa .r ) = � r �(r . dt 1:L = O.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. 5. r 2. 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O .SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. then 1 . 1.Sec. To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . If the time rate of change of an expression is zero . C. 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. But what about the arbitrary co nstant . v =r and v= f. which appears in . r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . 1 . N 0 tlcmg that . ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0.
neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. therefore .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. dt .iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . �. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit .g. We conclude . In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 .fL 3 .  ( 1 . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary.2 Conservation of angular momentum.42) 1 . that the specific mechanical energy. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . O.iL (rxv) = O.4. Noticing that . In other words. r. at what distance . 3 4) by r 2 .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. Since in general a x a= 0. e . the earth. The expression for � is �. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. rX . If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O.
The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. h. By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec.4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v.41 Flightpath angle . But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . we have shown that the specific angular momentum. I Figure 1 . we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . Therefore . called specific angular momen tum. Therefore . (1 .43) v I h = r x v. We shall refer to this as the orbital plane ." "Up" simply means away . 1 .
4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. 1 85 2 1 + 6. c o s ¢=Jl. h. r = 12.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. and the specific angular momentum. J and K are unit vectors. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector. respectively.0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢.8143 = 35. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Ch. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y.420 .463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. the zeni th angle .4274I+2. v.899 X 107 ft. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle .18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . Also find the flight·path angle. In an inertial coordinate system. &. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth.8143 r • v > 0 .7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. however. (4. ¢.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi).2778 J + 1 0 . Determine the specific mechanical energy . • ( 1 . V =5.7 1 37J+O. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I.5936 1 + 5 . ¢. = 0.4. I h = rv c o s ¢. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are .
Also note that J. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity. we see that J!:.51) The left side of equation (1.5. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. JJ. err.& .3 3 r r r since r • i = f ..1!y r .I.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body. 1 .· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4. .51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.Sec.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 . You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .( r) r. 1 . A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain.. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ. (h xr) =. �t (B· . While this equation (1.33) is simple. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ....51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. (1. its complete solution is not.
c and a .54) .53) 1 . a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r.. in general. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. we obtain = 1 h2 /g .2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. Equation (1. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation.54) .53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle. +(81J. v.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch.. 5.9 cos V (1. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . (1. V. I r 1 + e cos V p (1.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. . To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. + r o Since." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. h2 where vector r.
cp. As r and v change along the orbit.5. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. must change so as to keep h constant.Sec. Before discussing the factors .53) and the equation of a conic section (1. potential and kinetic. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . Although Figure 1. 1. hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. the flightpath angle. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. 3. There is. however. (See Figure 1 . 4 . an exchange of energy between the two forms. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . parabola. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant.44) 1 .51 illustrates an ellipse. 5 . remains constant.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. ellipse. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path.41 and equation (1 . 2. not just ellipses.
the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. 1 Figure 1 . If the plane cuts both nappes. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. Figure 1.52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone).22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the section is a hyperbola having two branches. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines .5 2 illustrates this definition . A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. If. the section is a parabola. the section is an ellipse. or a single point.
the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion .53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . The secondary or vacant focus.53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. The prime focus. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned. F and F'. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . Figure 1 . F. F'. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci.Sec 1 .
24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse ").e2). Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter.55) p = a (1 . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2." "perihelion" or "aphelion. The dimension.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 . In the parabola. a. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 .5 3 . Thus. The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a.54))." etc. the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. ( 1 . is c�lled the semimaj or axis. Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee.
5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 . 5. Quite obviously. we encountered the vector constant of integration..52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !.59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis.Sec .4 The Eccentricity Vector. 1e ( 1 .= a( 1 +e) . . B. 1 ( 1 .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). By comparing equations ( 1 . e = BltL. 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe.58) 1 . . which points toward periapsis.1 0) . In the derivation of equation ( 1 . ( 1 . the trajectory equation.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . 5. tL r ( 1 . 1. 53).53) and ( 1 .
( 1 .1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p.26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle.1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. /or any orbit. x v. Therefore. By inspection. Figure 1 .p.5. equation ( 1 . 1. p. 1 . Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. h. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth. and that as h is .p. v. e . e = ( v v ) r . of the satellite. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. is zero.. ( 1 . r r p.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum.61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag).6 RELATING &. e = V x (r x v) .(r .53) and equation ( 1 . _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . th . If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product.. v ) v . v)v. we get • p. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. r  r . By comparing equation ( 1 .6. is equivalent to increasing h.
1 01) . .44). .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle. We can then write.42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . .increased the parameter.. r I . R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec..  . is zero. . I '. = �. . Figure 1 . .62) we obtain &.e ) . . v.F �. �' " .�= � . as a corollary to equation ( 1 .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . p..1 ) predicts . (1 .6. 57) p rp = a(1 .
6.6.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit). the energy of a satellite (negative . You should study it together with Figure 1 . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. Many students find equation ( 1 . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 .63) misleading.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis. while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . &. of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy . Thus. This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . 1 and from equation ( l . Figure 1 .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &.56) and equation (1 .a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l .28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch .1 ) therefore p. zero. Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a.e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . a.
2 Determine its specific angular momentum. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . if & is positive . For a given satellite . m i . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.. specific mechanical energy. and specific angular momentum. mi. 2& = 3 . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. The student should be aware of this pitfall. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. Determine its altitude at apogee. and semimaj or axis.  a=  '!:. r p = rES + 200 = 3643.897  e2 ) = 3.1 and perigee altitude 200 n . e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) .. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. ra = 1 � e = 4453. m i . 64) Notice again that if & is negative. = 6. e is exactly 1 (a parabola). But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. m i . . Namely.. 3 n . 9 n . if & is zero . e is greater than I (a hyperbola).0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. 0 . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0.5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . 6 .Sec 1 .Jf5P. & = 2 . semilatus rectum.7 n . all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic.
We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. specifically r + 1 .JpjJ.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. h =. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a . An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. the distance between the foci is ( 1 .r Ell = 1 009. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . ( 1 . the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. 1 .7·2) . an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over .= 2. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. Since an ellipse is a closed curve. 2a = r a + r = 8097. 1 n.855 = 6 .7 . I ( 1 .7· 1 .7· 1 ) B y inspection. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.mi. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses.30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . = 5.m i . When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that.
Since r + r' = 2a. 2 b.74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.7 .75) which. equation ( 1 . e is defined as combine to yield da.7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .76) .71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. 1 .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 .7.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 .1 . in general. At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 .73) ( 1 . Using equation ( 1 .72) and ( 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll. when rearranged .Sec. you will see that the .72. r and r' must both be equal to a at this point. Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .7. 2 ( 1 . If you refer to Figure 1 .
d A.32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . we can rewrite equation ( 1 . is given by the expression So. 1 Figure 1 .76) as ( 1 .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. Figure 1 . d v. swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle.73 Differential element of area .77) dt 2 = 11 dA.
78) b =) a 2 .e2 ) = JaP and.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 . a.Sec. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired .77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 .79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . Of course.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. Naturally. being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. Integrating equation ( 1 . Equation ( 1 .79). the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. 1 .8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . 1 . proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a.75).8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit. Thus. ( 1 .8.8 . The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. incidentally. From equations ( 1 . 1 Circular Satellite Speed. since h = /JlP. so equation ( 1 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. 55) and ( 1 .1 ) 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus .
82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . F or a low altitude earth orbit. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again. 1 . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . circular speed is about 26 . rCS' from the energy equation.9.1 ) . The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction.9.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . Another is that. we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.9.1 . The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. the periapsis radius is just r 1 .000 ft/sec.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know.34 TWO . The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 .1 Geometry of the Parabola. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a.
= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   . as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero .9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 .Sec. 1 . Of course." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.E. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse.92) . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity. Theoretically.9. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back. first at a general point a distance . r.57).2 Escape Speed. from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � ." 1 . We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.
53374 106 ft = = 36. 5 7). = j.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell .000 ft/sec. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. a. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : ..407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 .Since the specific mechanical energy. 8. Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 .1/2a. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude . 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. As you would expect. b . 36 TWO .400 nm above the surface it is only 26.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 .92) =21 . the semimajor axis.1 57. a. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J.
amr iO. + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. 8n. 06748 106 ft 7087. 1 . m i . m i . rb i t P 7087.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21. where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .Sec.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem .8 n.53374 106 ft 2 43.
we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . 1 0. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). then the righthand branch represents the orbit. If we consider the lefthand focus. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . F . then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. The parameters a.1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). 1 . If. (L l O. 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. Obviously.1 ) . b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . 1 1 . instead. 1 0.
" We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. the smaller will b e the turning angle . we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth.1 . is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . The turning angle . 0. The angle between the asymptotes. 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity.for the hyperbola. 1 0. 1 .. V 00' . on the other hand.0.but since Sec. 1 02) becomes ( 1 .2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed. 1 0. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed. If. 1 . which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet.
Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. a million miles) from earth. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . In other words. however. 1 . 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . the concept is convenient and is widely used." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. of course .3 Sphere of Influence.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. 1 (1 . 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. 1 . absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. It is a fact. Astronomers call thi� ' . It is. It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. 1 0. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. for all practical purposes it has escaped. we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO.
If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. earth. moon. r a' r p' . h. 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. or other planet. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . then the value of the gravitational parameter. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. 1 1 . 1 1 . Using canonical units determine & . 1 . For other problems where the earth. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 1 . p." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. 5 9362 5 . In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting.Sec. J. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . 1 The Reference Orbit. will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . e. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun.l. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet.1 . We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit .
1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . � = . 5 D U e �2 _ /J. Alt = . 1 67 D U �/T U � = .42).1 .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 .
Sec. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. 5 D U = 9. = 2. 5 D U ". 25D U EB = 4.61) Find h from equation (1.= 4 .4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 .5 7)  r a = 1 e p.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft . 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. 1 .64) Find ra from equation (1.58) Find r p from equation (1. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t. = 3.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 .. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .
4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. in general. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. 2J AK IJK h = AI . . Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . (Answer : e = 1 . Find the eccentricity of the orbit. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem.000 n mi. 2K DU 2 /TU . a. Find the specific energy of the trajectory.44 TW O. 6 J 1 . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit.. The orbit eccentricity is 0. &= . + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI .1 . 1 EXERCISES 1 .1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . respectively.2. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. 1 . c. b .B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . 1 .3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system.000 ft/sec and 4 . is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. Find the period of the orbit. Why. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. 5 81) 1 .
000 ft) with a velocity of 25. r x ft ) = 3. D U /T U DU e. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. 1 . 4K r r v = . hyperbolic. p b. 91 J space. 7 Prove that d. D U 2 /T U 2 = + .Ch . 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. 1. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). 354 10" r 1 .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. a a. V ft/sec.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. &. r v c.000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 .5 DU DU DU d. p 1. 0 1K v = l + l .5 rpe r i gee = 1 . 2K + .8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular.6 18 = 59° 58') . ¢ =3 = 1 . Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. mi during descent? (Ans. (Ans. elliptical.123K = 1 .
ellipses and a hyperbolas.) 1 .2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . P 1 .2 e = . It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. d . p = 2.6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . e. p = 6. p = 6. 1 . 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. b . 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = . e=O e = . p = 3. derive values for e for circles. 1 2 Given that e = �. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.000 ft. Determine the maximum altitude attained. p = 2. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . (Neglect atmo spheric drag.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. c.
1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . Show that : b.6. rc = at +b = 0.V O U EB /TU EB ) . * 1 . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. c. What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory.Ch . 1 . 207 1 .
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
Q and W respectively. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . When describing a heliocentric orbit . you may use the same Figure 2. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart .Xw UK vectors. 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. Yw '+. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . 2 .2. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun.4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. 2 .24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane .Sec. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond .
2. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. 3 .the time when the satellite was at periapsis. time of periapsis passage . p.the angle . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. Obviously . The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. 6. i. is substituted for a in the above list. T. 4 .1 as follows : 1 . the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . Q longitude of the ascending node. e. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . Instead of argument of periapsis. a. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. in the fundamental plane . Frequently the semilatus rectum. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . 2 .the angle from to periapsis measured h. measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. Similarly. shape and orientation of an orbit . It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . K I I . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. w. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit .58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. if you know a and e you can compute p. Another system.3.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . 5 .
3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2. 2 .Sec.31 Orbital elements .
then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . in the plane of the orbit.32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. This is the dire ction in which the sun. '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) ." Direct means easterly. n=n+w. between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) .3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . both of which are always defined . From Figure 2. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . w and va are all defined.60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle .1 ) . to ' called the "epoch. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. (2 ." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . then both w and Uo are undefined. then b oth W and n are undefined. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. 1 £0 £0 + .3.31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. earth.
2 .4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 .42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. h. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. To be perpendicular to h. n. n would have to lie in the orbital plane. h. 2.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. To be perpendicular to K. n and e. 2. n must be perpendicular to both K and h. The node vector. t o .4. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . n an d e.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . Therefore .41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . vI vJ v K J (2 . n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time .
If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved .3. We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . 2. The parameter. p. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . Study this figure carefully . Now that we have h.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . We are only interested in its direction. n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known ." Specifically .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle .4.46) Of course . the cosine of the angle . The vector. h. All three vectors. An understanding of it is essential to what follows . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2.1 ) (2 . 2 nodes. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 .1 . between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. is obtained from (2 . ex. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . In general. n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements.1 1 )).S .4.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. e.
) . Since w is the angle between n and (2. c o s U o = !!. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4. 2 .Sec. Since i is the angle between K and h.48) 5 .' (2.) e.1 1) .:.1 0) 7 .) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° . � � h.L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .4. 2.4.4 3 .) c o S Po = � er (2 .47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .. Since Uo is the angle between n and f . Since Vo is the angle between e and f.. (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2. (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .49) 6. (2 . Since n is the angle between I and n.
With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v. 3 .1 and study it until they do .1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . If they don't make sense to you.64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2. 2 z x 8 . The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. look at the geometry of Figure 2 .4. .
VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations. Figure 2.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1.Sec. 5 DU e == . 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 .
2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .5 e == .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch . 2 3 Figure 2 .4 DU p == .\ .
Sec.44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1. 2.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .
. i.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 . Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid. Find p using equation (2 .6. From equation (2. e..l h2 .= 4D U = 13. ml .(r . ) r .48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane .45 ) Since h =. Find inclination.1.68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .47) = . . r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node . using equation (2 .i:. [ ( f. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). n. EEl .1 ) p = . f. 7 75 .. Using equation (2.7 4n .4. Find eccentricity.I:!:.. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 .
4 .. .  Find longitude of periapsis. 2 . II. va.1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . Find true anomaily .n = COS . since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 .Sec.n.41 0) v a c os.. From equation (2.49) W n · e W. Find argument of periapsis. II. = cos . can be determined in this case. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . From equation (2 .!!. for this case . is undefined. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis.1 (.
1 ) Find e..45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .5 .  then from equation ( 1 .. v)v] =.m i .70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM . = From equation (2.. 2 Find true longitude o f epoch. EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .25 EB EB D U EB 7748.E)r(r . From equation (2.85 n .6.\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .
Sec. va : From equation (2. From equation (2.4.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .49) w: 0 W = cos.5 Find the inclination.43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .I Find the true anomaly .5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2. I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 . From equation (2 . 2. .11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .
consists of two steps.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2.ffe si n V (2. Of the se six elements. w and v.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. that occurs in a given time . changes with time . i . v. 8. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. n. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. 2. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 .24): ro to. 2 elements are given.5 2) .to. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time .5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . lV.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. w and va . first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. shown below. 8. i.5. The method. . Let ' s assume that we know p. n.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .
A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).54) r = J � [.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .Sec.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = . 5P DU E9 (2.54) from equation r (2.5 i= p 2. Before equation (2.25 45{) (2. v �[.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 . 2.5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .
and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. For example. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing." The phrase in quotes describes what the . A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . east. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . vector represents. but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. direction . east .6. or what it represents. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. its fundamental (xy) plane . east a!1d up. Certain vectors.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. suppose you know the south. In other words. and it still represents the same thing. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. namely. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . 2 2. suppose you know the south. For example . Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. have a definite starting point . such as position vectors.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general." 2. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin .
Let us imagine three unit vectors I. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. y' and z ' axes. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. 2." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite.61) . : r Y I ex a . the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S . 2. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 . V and W along the x ' . ���________� • . Figure 2. y ����.y Y 75 .61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . Figure 2. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. and extending along the x. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis." In other words.61 illustrates the two frames.6.Sec. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame .
61 we can see that the unit vectors U. We will use subscripts to identify the basis.1 ) yields I. 2 From Figure 2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2. (2.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch . J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ).6.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.62) above and equating it with (2. 65) .
64) above .64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2. 2 .67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis.6. (2 .67) yields the set of equations (2 . 68) B '" (2.69) '" axis. Rotation about the xaxis.66) (2. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2. 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2. These are summarized belox:: .Sec. .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .
61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame .si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L .78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2. a. Figure 2. So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes.6.4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . 2 (2.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames. 1 ).7 . The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) . Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.
Now. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . We can write equation (2.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. . denoted by D .cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2. all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e . In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. Fortunately.1 . if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. AB =1= SA ).!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . The inverse of any orth. (i.61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix.e. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order).6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . The transpose of the matrix D . Equation (2. Hence .Sec. 2. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors.
2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK . 5 Tmn .Eq to th e IJ K in at . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce .".. 'o ta t.1 2) Figure 2 . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . d wi th . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc.".6 . n t rizing th .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame.".ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . anglo . O c M ma t. 62. a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. By me mo C. mu " in cid 'n ce b . d w . basis no ma t . th' O ugh w hi ch on . d th yo u will b . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . th. tluee b . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th .sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . to p' ter ho w co no. m1 " fo.." a ny mp licat e d . gl " n i lly . a bl . 6. 2 (2. 6.. axes in to CO ham . Perifo ca l to th e G Th . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 .n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a .. sh ow n in F ig u " Th .
To . .. Figure 2. 2 .. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems.. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . a K and ap . For example . R..63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit .. Thus if a i ' aJ .. aQ. from Figure 2.The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame ...63. then Sec .
the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w . P K · P In Figure 2. J and K Thus R = J . since I and P are unit vectors.1 3) i. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w.82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . Now a.1 4) R23 = . I • p I · Q J . Similarly. 2 from their dot product . The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A.sin n sin w cos i .63 . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another.cos n sin w . Q I ' W J · W K .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . a �.sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 . ! • P.6.6.
5 . Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. .7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . In this case either n or w or both are undefined. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I.1 ) and (2.Sec . Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. 2 .5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . V. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. 2.
The unit vectors S. 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight . E and Z shown in Figure 2 . is measured clockwise from north . the elevation angle . The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles. The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 .7 . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . EI. The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) .( N o rt h ) 2. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located.1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. 2.84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. The azimuth angle .2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . Az. 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. the rate at which range is changing. p. can also be measured. 7 . AZ .1 .7 . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up .7.
= Ps PE = P cos Pz.and EO/.7 4) = + P (2 . from the geometry of Figure 2.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.75) .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2.72 we see that r (2 .1 ) where . Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. We will express the po sition vector as (2 . /l!L. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . p. 2. E I . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. From Figure 2.1 . we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p.73) E l (B I ). Sec.7 .72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. Thus.7 . Az. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .7.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2.
A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter . 2 J topo centric frame . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 .72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . For the moment we will assume that equation (2 . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .76) .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. Unfortunately. things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth.
(2 . EB x f. v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f.73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame .73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. 2 . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 .77) .Sec. you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. Therefore . Figure 2. If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite .
707 o . 5Z (Given) [).3535 .612) r = R + P = 2S .707 . is 2 S E + . Figure 2.612 .E + 1 .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 .1 = [. Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . 5 Z (units are DU).88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .5 J . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long. 300 N Lat . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.866 . 3535 .6 1 2 . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.
z). Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . z) system (Figure 2 . Also let there be another coordinate system ( u.. 332J  . if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x.Sec. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W .4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . y. y. . At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.75 ) . 2.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = .982K .. Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . The unit vectors D. I =J =K=O. w) . then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • .78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . We will denote this quantity by w. rotating with respect to the (x. however.79) J.9 1 81 + 2. v. (2. It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2.7. (2. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2.
7. dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame .1 0) reduces further to . Hence .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) .7. The remaining terms of equation (2.79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . equation (2 . Similarly.1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U. equation (2 . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . . . V = w x V and W = w x W . Hence .
..LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 .. " F i xed " System ( x. ...75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA. . � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u.y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ . v v. y. �:.....71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector.... . .... W) Figure 2. ... dt R I (2 .. 2 .1 2) ..Sec.7.7. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u ..... Equation (2.. ......... z) '. .1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q..
1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .7. 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .1 3) into equation (2 .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +. Equation (2 . The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 ." Ioox.7 . (2 .7.71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .1 2) to the po sition vector r.7 . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .7.1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .7.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .) .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .7.9!.1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest. Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 . 2 iLl F = . (2 .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .7.7 .1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.
in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . circles. be' is just the polar radius of the earth.Sec. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. however .) 2. It is known . 2. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. Therefore . that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . of course . latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. In the model which has been adopted. "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . If the earth were perfectly spherical. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. ae . Sections parallel to the equator are . We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier.8. 2 .
The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter .94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch ." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight .2 The Measurement of Latitude. The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid .1 . 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . the difference between L and is usually negligible . 1 45 6356.785 0. 2.3 Station Coordinates. Consider Figure 2. The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude .8. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378.8. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . 2. it does complicate the concept of latitude. The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field . When you are given the latitude of a place . This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use .8." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior.08182 == km km L La L . it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .
c. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude .8 . 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . L . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. O .1 ) .8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 .82. Thus..Sec.82 . 4 km Figure 2. 2 .. / (2. the "reduced latitude .. The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 .!! o ." which is illustrated in Figure 2.. It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.
z . Ch . b e =a e V� = b2 + d. I C. / .1:  (2 .and e = da.82) . c:  0) x Figure 2. for any ellipse .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. 0 O D.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But ... a2 . 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L.
2 .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above .Sec:. 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = . (2. Thus. (2 . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2.8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L .85) .
The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame .8 7) 2. it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time . From Figure 2. {1. 2 ( 2 .8.86) L. sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . elevation above mean sea level. (2 .8 8) .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components. If the Greenwich sidereal time . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below. {1 ' is known .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K.
3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . L. 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2. the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 .89) ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . Although Figure 2. is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) .8.84 shows a spherical earth. 2 .Sec . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time .
1 0) . From (2 . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components. The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch .8 . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction . 2 j i Figure 2 .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth .
so .6.cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 . 2.1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . This is the time kept by ordinary clocks.1 2) and a s ' a E . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n .1 2) .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. 1 Solar and Sidereal Time .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 . This should be made clear by F igure 2. minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time . 2 . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars.Sec. (2 . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval.8. The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .9 equation (2 .9. it will help to understand exactly how each is defined .9 . When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. a Z If a l .1 .
Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 .09054 mean solar seconds . when the earth is near perihelion. So far. 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical.91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. In early January. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at .
Thus. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . For example . The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . or Zulu (Z) time. Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 .9.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O.2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time .is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . This relationship is illustrated on page 99. 2 .3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known .) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . Universal Time (UT). 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . 2.Sec. The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2.9. A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. . if it .
.4 Precession of the Equinoxes. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero .sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . 8 9=8 9 0 1 .104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . Ephemeris and 2. we express time in decimal fractions of a day. in addition. 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . m i n . 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1.9. ° 229421 1. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] .
Sec . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . As the earth' s axis precesses. the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 .000 year s . . The period of the precession is about 2 6.6 year s . 0 0 0 y rs " . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly." with a perio d of 1 8 . The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation .. The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. 6 yrs I Figure 2. the equatorial plane is not .. However .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period.. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year .. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic.. Due to the asphericity of the earth.6 years. 2 ..92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars.
2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account . at 0600 GMT.296° H = 6 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. Day  = Long o 57 . x= [ z= � ae + � .378km = 0 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .00 1 + L= 0 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . 5 7 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6.378 km above mean sea level on the equator.0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 .6245 rad ians o 9 .1 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 . 25 8=8 g + A = .296 degrees west longitude . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown . 00 1 From section 2 . 6 24 5 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs.74933340 = 1 .
2Z ( D UES) From equation (2. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .(0.6245) = .6245 )1 + 1 . 00 1 (S.4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 .72) PE p Pz Ps = . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0. 00 1 c o s(S.6971 + . Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.From equation (2.7 1 SJ + OK Sec.2D UES = (0.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .346E + O. 2 .74) . 0.
8 .433 .346J + 1 . 0.1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.7·5 ) From equation (2 . 46 = 0.1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.�� lO.0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .73Z D U (T U r = 0.46S . 1 08 Ch .1 .8 .610.46 P =D1 .0E + 1 .Ps = .0 1 .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.1 .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .25 0.1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .5 1 .84J . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) . 3.0.(0.0588K) From equation (2 .3.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.73 p + (O.73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.346E + l .77) v = [� ] [ J 0.866 0.061 .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .46 D U /T U (0.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .1 .
2. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p .8J . may be lacking. Gibbs is. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique .3. EI . Ei. It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. As Baker S points out . 2 . Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method .081 . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 .Sec. Figure 2.0. p . k. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. W. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . and the orb it is uniquely determined. Ai. well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). of course .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found .
Notice that C2 may now be divided out.11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . we can show that : e ' f = p . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. Dotting (2 .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. 1 06) Multiply (2 . 1 04) . 2 fine scholar . (2 .1 ) by (2 . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . then u sing (2 . 1 0. 1 08) .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . 1 04) (2 . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . (2 . 1 03) by f3 X r l .r 3 ) = 0 . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . equation ( 1 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 05) (2 . 1 05 ) and (2 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. Q and W.1 ) successively by fl . 1 03) Cross (2. 1 0. and the definition of a dot product . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered .r. 1 02) gives (2 . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . 1 0.5 4). (2 .
(2 . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. 1 0. i. (2 .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 .1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . 1 09) D. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . 1 0. 1 0 pD = N .1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. N and D have the same dire ction.1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . . Since P. 1 0.1 4) (2 .1 3) : (2 . equation (2 . 1 0. 1 0. 2 .e . D = N P = O' N (2 . (2. provided N . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D.Let the right side of (2 . N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h.1 5) . Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec. Therefore . 1 0.
2 Again using the relationship (2 . check N * O and D . (2 .1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Therefore.1 7) to find e. 1 020) to find P.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. (2 . Before solving the problem. since NeQ = pS. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 1 0. (2.1 8) to find Q. 1 01 0) to find p. Q and W are orthogonal. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. D and S ve ctors. 1 02 1 ) .1 8) N (2 .1 7) W Q = S S N (2 .r t ) f2 + ( rt . and (2 . However . P = Q X W. N and S vectors. ( f  r + e) . 1 0. 1 020) Thus.1 6) .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . (2 . N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 .1 9) Since P. Then use (2 . 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 .52) we can write i X h = p.1 9) to find W. (2 . 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. From equation ( 1 . 1 0. N > o.
2 . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. v = eP. (h xr r = + (a .( a . 1 0. h X (h h ) v . D X r + JJ{. = p.(h ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . e) We can write h v v = . 1 025) .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . v) h and h .Sec .. 1 024) (2 . Using the identity . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . so c) b .E. b) c O . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np.h = P. ON (2 .
Test: 0 10 . proceed as follows : For example . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. 1 . 2 L + LS (2 . This is not exactly true. Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . N and S vectors. Form L = = 6. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . v2 � + L S r2 • . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. Finally .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . This method . 1 02 6) Thus. O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. N=FO. using the stated tests. The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . 4 . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. = 0 for coplanar vectors. to find any of the three velocities directly . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . possible two body orbit . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. find v2 : 2.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. and the timeofflight between these po sitions.8000K = 0. Form the D . the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.0.0774J 0. eccentricity.0471 O U = 0 . r1 r2 r3 = 1 . 9701 = 2.9000J + 0. 2 .97 . If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. N . period and the velocity vector at position two .Sec. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution .000K = 0_700J . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. P = 0= N  2. the semilatus rectum.5000K Find : P. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units).047 1 = ." Thus. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. and S vectors: D= N S 1 . r 1 and r2 .039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . Since 010.
270K W= N.963K N 1 .963J .0.270J + 0.97 o lP = a = 1 . 1r/{: 6.041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0. 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . = .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = . 0408 1 1 .67 TU (89.497 9. . 700J . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .960 DU/T U (4.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .576J .4 to solve for the elements. 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2. 2 S .1 .0.657K D U /T U 2 0.0804 e = = = 0 .0.
[:i:n :: :. 3. As a result . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. 2 .6 2 : 1 1 . r = pL [�.Sec. If we let L . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . topo centric right ascension and declination) is required.z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. L. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors.7 2). (X1 ' < \ � .:S :J: JS L K .g . optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . In either case . 1 1 2) r . = OJ + R j . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. j = 1. 1 1 . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . (2 . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. then ' . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . 2.1 ) (2 . ° 2 . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780.
�� I 1 " _ . L. 1 1 3) (2 .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . (2 . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. r u. � . are not known .1 ./  L . p and r. • ' I . .J V I .. 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . I . f f. : '< ' .1  R ) r3 . \ •.[.. The vectors L. �J 1  . 0 (2 . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . p. ':. p. however .' ' " ': . • 00 .. say the middle ob servatio n . . \ . R and R are known at time t2 . \' P2 i �� G ". .. ' ' :.r Sub stituting this into equation (2 .. . L. \ [L. \ Figure 2. . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns .
t } . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .three t�es.Sec. 1 1 .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t . 1 1 6) + 2t .t2 ) ( t 1 .t 1 ) ( t2 . 2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t 1 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t 3 ) ( t } . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2. t2 . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t2 ) .t 2 .t3 ) (2 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.t 1 ) ( t3 .t 3 ) (t.t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t2 L3 ( t 3 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t } ) (t 3 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t 3 ) L2 (2.t 1 ) ( t2 .t 1 .t2 ) ( t} . t2 and t3 .t3 ( t 2 .t 3 ( t 1 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 .t2 ) (t. 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 . Since we have the value of L at.t 1 ) ( t. We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t 1 ) (t 3 .
u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . + . I L . p. better yet . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. 1 1 6) and (2 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. 2 . L J I (2 . For the time being.u R Ir3 I + . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. 4 Equation (2 . 1 1 5 ) . that if more than three observations are available .L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . however.u R Ir3 J + . it is evident that L Dp = .u L /r 3 .u L 1 / r 3 L J + . LI .. D reduces to L D =2 L I L . L L L K K K J . L J . in fact ..u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . L K + . This. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . p.u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. It should be noted. . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch .ons (2 . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . p' and r..
1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . 1 1 . 1 1 . L K . 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns.1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. 2 .4 Solving for Velocity . . Substituting equation (2 .Sec . 1 1 . R J . 1 1 . 1 1 . O O. R R . If we do this we find that . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. r3 L L L J K I R R R J I .1 2) . is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. . 1 1 .L L L J K I p .1 0) and (2 .1 1) Op = . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . L J L I K J!. 2 . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2..1 0) into (2. R . 1 1 . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. R R I . . J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . r2 = pL RI = + p (2.. L K L J L I K (2. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. p and r. 1 1 2). 0. 1 1 5).
This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . k. 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . a3 . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . To obtain the velocity vector . 1 1 . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. P. 1 1 . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p.1 3) for p. Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . E l .2). (2 . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . 1 1 . D. Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . 2 .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . ° . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. such as P. 2 (2 . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v.1 4) p 2. 1 1 . a . ° 3 . El. If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . As a matter of fact . Laplace ' s method fails .
based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . Doppler rangerate. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. 2. ts and t6 ' These predictions are .::"P 2 ' .::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. It may happen . r K ' v " vJ . of course. . t4 . 2 The Differential Correction equations. 1 Computing Residuals. Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements.::"P . v Kl at t = to are correct. 1 2. p) will differ from the computed data. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . For example . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. The question then arises. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. 1 2. \ ' t2 . The six residuals are �1 ' .g. . 2. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. Assuming that the residuals are small. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates.Sec.::"P 3 . that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. t3 . however . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. 1 21) .
for example . r K " ' arl D. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon.VK .) Then. 2.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . equations (2 . 1 2. usually 6 for orbit problems) n . rj . by trial and error. 1 2. D.3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. . . (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. V K ) . 1 2 .r l " v K )p1 ( r l . it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. The inversion of equations (2 ..VI . Nj. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. ap1 . New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . . D. NK. NI . The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc.e. however.Vj' D. i. reduce the residuals to zero . Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. . The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. With the aid of a digital computer. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying.
3 . minimum as described above . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 .tb each of the elements measured. for the exactly determined case (p or b. Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. since p 2 below) .. zero . This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3).. . use 0. a and (3 are the elements (two here . for 90% confidence . If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. Solve equation (2 . If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. 2 . b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M).8 1 ) . = = n) .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . 4. In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. called the root me an square (RMS) . 2 . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements.g . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2.
== 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . the partial derivatives are : .j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . ex VI. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . Choo se ex and for the first estimates. Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3.Assume equal confidence in all data.2.:.
1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 . {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 2.Sec. 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. Thus. Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J .
yet still overspecified number of measurements.474 Xi 3 .474 and f3 = 3. 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. 6 orbit elements) would be used. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. In practice. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. we will use a simple .360 = . 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. To illustrate the method involved.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . corresponding to the given Xi and compute . yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution.
3 . aa .031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.828 0 0. 934 = 1 . 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .Vi 2.000 50.Sec. 2 .) 2 n .007 0.000 n = Vi 0. 0 35 3. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence . E ( V 1.000 1 9. ( V i Yi ) 2 4. .934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 ... 969 ____  Vi . 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l ._1.474 4 0 07 19. 474 x 3 .0 01 1 3.866 4 x .1.y. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.500 8.1 05 9.865 49.1 26 0.
1. 27 A WA = [12. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .380708 A = 40.360..001 07 33 b = 0. Thus (X new = . 81 30 8.039 £::.733.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2.4 1 69.3.021 070 20. 105. which is larger than what we started with.056 ""' T . 0.304 0.36 .062 . = 3.031 8.l Now using (2 . 0 18 0.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .z 10.(X 26 3. 1 22) we have £::."""'" �T�� . {3 = {3 new . 1 75 ] 5.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0.. 1 96 = 3. The second iteration yields: £::..474 + .304 = .027 12. 1 961 0. so we iterate.0. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .2.670 3.
2. Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . however. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 .735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . 038 [3 = 3 . 2 .5 8 2 . The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . during orbital decay. However. the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data.00 1 . 2 . This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . In practice . 038 . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. and finally.000 . 1 2.4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry.5 8 1 .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data.Sec . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. . The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . 7 35 x 3 . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. in theory. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its.
The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. 1 3. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). 1 4 . the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . At present. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . antisatellite targeting. 2 .000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). the precomputed 2. These detection radars with a range of 2. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges.500 miles make about 1 2 . 1 The Spacetrack System. 2 2. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar.5 003. spacecraft failure diagnosis. In addition. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. the White Sands Missile Range . and midcourse ICBM inter ception. The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. forming "clouds" of space debris. 1 Radar Sensors.
New Jersey. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. Greenland. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. Figure 2.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. One FPS49 . while three are located at Clear. Alaska. 2. Turkey. is now on active Spacetrack alert. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. the FPS43. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. One of the earlier detection radars. and is on active spacetrack alert.Sec. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range.
gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. Florida. 2 Figure 2.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam.142. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. United Kingdom. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. Alaska. Alaska. under the 140ft radome at the left. This BMEWS station at Clear. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. In addition. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is .
14. 2.Sec. When two or . 2. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia.143. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy.2 Radio Interferometers. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere.
9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . Alberta. 2 . In addition to these . Considering the type of observational data received. and therefore .3 Optical Sensors. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . 1 4 . is well established. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . the semimajor axis. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. Canada . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation.
The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. As a result.145. 2.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. A separate optical system superimposes. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. it is . Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . 1 0 Under favorable conditions. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. Alberta. and the lighting correct. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object.400 miles. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track.Sec. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. seeing conditions must be good.
With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. 2 . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . 4 Typical Sensor Errors.) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec .1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . New Mexico site. Doppler rangerat e info rmation. for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. in any case . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. on the other hand . 1 4 . is relatively accurat e .000 meters. I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. . For detection radars. Further . Massachusett s . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. In any case . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . takes time.
Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .146. nonuniform gravitational fields. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge.5 Future Developments. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein.14.7 seconds in time would remain.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. lunar attraction. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. 2.Sec 2.
but it also record s target tracks for later playback .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. In t he system under development . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . howeve r . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . Operating in the SHF b and . a continuousw ave . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . of the target . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. p. 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . Theoretically . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . Now. Many improvements . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology.
If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. 1 5 . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth .. 1 5 . 2 . F igure 2 .Sec. i.. 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i.1 Ground trace sat ellite is. 1 5 2 . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . o f the orbit . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination .1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . respectively with a launch a zimuth . The arc CB which forms the • . 1 5 . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. 1 5 . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. 18cP  2 .
A direct orbit require s . 0 i. The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . that the launch azimuth. therefore . 1 5 . i : c os i = . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth.e . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. betwe en 00 and 1 80° . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . f3 ' be easterly . 2. I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . For a due east launch equat ion (2 . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . 1 5 ·3 . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . L o?" If i is to be minimized . f3 ' should 0 be 90° .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period .
1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . su r face . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . Figure 2 .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . 2 . 1 5 . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay .Sec.
J . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. = (partial answers : 2. a solar day or sidereal day? b . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. 2 EXERCISES 2 .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a .7071 + . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. = u nd ef i ned ) = . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. Which takes longer .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. Englan d . e = .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU.7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. 9 7 0 .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans.89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . 885. Colorado ( 1 04. i = 90° .
2.2K DU . 1. Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. Determine the orbital e lements.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . 3<. 82 u a . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . . OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = .Ch. i .8 2075 .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. (Answer [partial] e = . 2 + b . c . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 .) Determine p. e.8 I J P = .
the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. (Answer : r = 1 . 1 0 January 1 9 70. LST = 63 .3 1 065 1 5 0. 2 . r2 1 . b . PST . 1 7 1 . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . 6464495 a. Site longitude is 1 2 1 . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. a.4 1 4202 0. p = 1 . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU .7 6) . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. 2. C alifornia . W. b ut not nece ssary. r3 r l I J K 1 . b .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d .4 1 4225 1 1 1 . Units are earth canonical units.3 5 35 3995 0 1 . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . U se of a computer is sugge sted . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. 2.060668 8 3 1 . 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . Q.8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . equatorial . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . 1 0 2. the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis .5 0 West .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 .system along the unit ve ctor s P.
0 2 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 . DU * 2.094964 1 8 0.89497 879 0. C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.0 7 .62 1 34384 c.0 0 .0 0 2 . fl f2 f3 d.8 0 0 . fl f2 f3 3 .89497724 0 0 0 1 .0 2 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .2K with a velo city o f AI .Ch.94974 1 7 6 .0 0 .n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .1 .97 0 1 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .0 7 . 1 4  DU/TU. fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.8 0 . fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.6 0.207 1 25 5 1 .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .565 6808 1 0 0 . .2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.20709623 0 .9 1 42 3467 2 .5 65 6808 1 0.707 1 0 1 0 1 0. A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1. B .0 0 2 .6 0.9 1 420062 4 .97 2 .0 1 . fl f2 f3 0 .707 1 1 25 5 0.7 0 0 e.0 1 .09497879 1 .
* 2 . has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . . b. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 .17 p 0. Obj ect c. d .1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0.620 1 I 0. east and zenith (up) component s? c. vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . Obj ect vernal equinox direction.1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. v = 0. 2 a . has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 9 7 . Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion .75 K D U /T U )  . Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . Express the coordinates. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. ( A ns.0078 J 0. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. ___ e. Obj ect b . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N .
K. Space/A ero na utics . E . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. 1 0 . E scobal. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 1 95 7 . . Forest Ray . 7 . 1 962. Simo n and S chuster . 1 9 67 .Ch. Pedro Ramon . "Space Traffic Surveillance . 1 965 . 6." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. 2 . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . L. Telescope . 1 95 6 . "The A erospace Vehicle s . John Wiley & Sons. C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . No 6 . Mass. November 1 9 67 . Armitage . Jame s R . Second Revised Edition . Navy Space Surveillance System. C . Paul G . 9 . New York . 1 9 1 4. New York . Inc. C ambridge . G . Edmond Halley . New York and London . U. 5 . The M acmillan Company. Academic Pre ss. Inc. 8 . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . New York . Newman . D avis ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . 4. Vol 3 . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . Dover Publications . Gauss. Thoma s. A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . NY. Sons Ltd . NY . Laplace ." Vol 48 .1 1 1 . S . Sky Publishing Corp . Thomas Nelson and 3. Jr . Robert M . Henize ." in The World of Math ematics . 1 96 3 . Pierre Simo n . New York . NY . Angus. London . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . 1 9 66. A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. pp 1 08 . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . Moulton . Carl Friedrich. Baker . C leeto n . NY .
Electronic . 1 5 . "Future Radar Developments. NY. Gerald C." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. 1 966. SepOct 1 967. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. NY . Robert D ." Satellite Control Facility. No 20 . USAF Academy. 1 962. 1 970. New York . 1 4. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. 1 2 . R. 1 3 . . Briskman. Sunnyvale. 1 967 . American Society of Mechanical Engineers." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. New York. Bate. NY. 17. No 5 . California. Davies. Carson. McGrawHill. and Eller. Roger R. Thomas J. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. 1 9 66. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. New York. the A stronautical Sciences. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Air Force Systems Command. Vo1 40. New York. p 39 .150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 2 1 1 . 1 966. P. NY. S." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Journal of Oct 2. Inc. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . 1 6. Cheetham. 1 962. R. Colorado." The Vol 1 4.
Goddard.000 or more miles. or variously eccentric. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . and the different force of gravity in different heights. 1 0. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. 1 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. ) 00 . Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. the idea seems to have been forgotten. and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. After that . Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. those bodies. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. for the next 250 years. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . as of 5 . according to their different velocity.
the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . 1 . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . Project Orbiter. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. particularly if it is manned . was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. 3 . On 4 October 1 95 7 . 3 . For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. However. 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . still in its infancy . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. since it contemplated the use of military hardware . the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. Manned spaceflight . Rather . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch .research. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes.
: fiD It: 0 It: <t . YEAR a YEARS .. � ee.rrrj..J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl .J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E .. VI/II � V � .rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION .25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" ..EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ . 20K (... ... I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N .(/} � � (I) E � � .. 11 L . mJ77/1/.. . � '" .' � S' (1) 0 ..V'h WillI e: � .50K �.. (I) CD � . c.H O URS WEEK .J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION . I MONTH I . .. ...n w . � ...+ :=.::: 0(I) "" 20 10 .. 71.///11// ... .. . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 ...
1 . m . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit.1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . 3 . Figure 3 . stated. we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . Figure 3 .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. m . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. m .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. radiation and meteorite damage considerations. a p ogee 1 00 n . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . 1 ·2 . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . 1 .
The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of .or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 .Sec. The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. as you can see from Figure 3 . since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. 1 2 . between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. 1 3 . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit.. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. The vehicle is not allowed to coast . there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . 3 . The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad.
3 . successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. 1 5 . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . You . therefore.3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . 1 . The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and.1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . As a result. Figure 3 . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 .
1 > .2 ...."� ill Q rn o I � fS .J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS . 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " . "::> Figure 3 .:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�. 3 ..9 r�=r�rr.Sec.J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .
"' "' .J 5 "' C iii 0. I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch ..J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.. 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .
Therefore = . 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 .60 . and oppo.40 and 1 1 6. which also is due to oblateness.6 0 . 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 .Q 360 ° per 90 days :. What is the inclination of the orbit? b. a. the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . Figure 3 . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi .6. completing one revolution every 90 days.67 0 /day From Figure 3 . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. With this perturbation . It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. 3 .40 or greater than 1 1 6. The ascending node moves to the west .Sec.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits.
3 Figure 3 . however. This is. ground trace of a synchronous satellite. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. 1 . On the scale of Figure 3 . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). of course. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. not the case .6 earth radii above the surface .2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. Figure 3. 2 .inches from the surface. for example .1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 1 The Synchronous Satellite. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . 3 . If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator.300 nm or about 5 . Of course. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . 3 . The first stage booster climbs 3 . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS .2. There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . 1 2 this would be 2*." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. unfortunately.1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 .21 shows why.000 nm altitude . This. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable.
.. . intervals . Dot ted grou nd trace .� � Figure 3 . burn """ " " ..Sec. the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit.. curve is \ " " .. At apogee of the ascent ellipse. This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit. Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr. .21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more. 3. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 .22 Ascent ellipse ...2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s.
fJ. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height.v (3. dv. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . a very precise orbit is required.32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. for some other reason. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. at appropriate points in the orbit. 2vdv . but .da a2 = fJ. This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. = _ r 2a . we get a change in . We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 .3 .. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. speed. (3.  fJ. and flightpath angle.33) or = da 2a2 vdv . Usually this is not serious. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. (3 . In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . 3 . we get (3 .34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. /:.31) If we solve for '.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . a? v. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. as they are called .
v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. For example .v) . We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . along the transfer ellipse. to the large orbit. Similarly. of the orbit given by equation (3 . a2 6.34). 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. Since the major axis is 2a. a 6. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6.V v P P (3.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory.3. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have.semimajor axis. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit .V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. Since we know r l . 3 .h a �  da. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. whose radius is r2 . the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . called Hohmann transfer orbits. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee.34) for small but finite 6. whose radius is rl .1 . therefore . 2 The Hohmann Transfer. 3 . 4 Jl." 3 . We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3.
1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch . its speed is . since p.31 (3. 2at Figure 3 .t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3./2 a . 3 the transfer orbit. &.36) = r i + r2 =  and. (3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.31 &.37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.
Minimum rp = 2 DU.3. A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one .P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .3. 3 I N. Find the minimum /::.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::.V implies a Hohmann transfer . 3 . The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion .Sec. .V required to double the altitude of the satellite . to VI ' So . & t = � = . I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. i n our example . For the transfer traj ectory. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . Although. ra = 3 DU.1 0) (3 .39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section .
3.068 D U/TU V cs =.313) . I::.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .3.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .061 DU/TU I::. We can express this condition mathematically as r = .32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .V2 = . Figure 3.JfF"= .346 ft/sec 3 .� r 1 1 +e p p (3. Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.707 DU /TU vi r.VTOT == . I t is obvious from Figure 3 . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.V1 = . 3 V cs 1 = (il = .3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.
Sec. 3 . To satisfy both conditions.3.3.33) and interpret them graphically.1 5) . and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.1 4) (3. respectively . (3. ht.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. / 2a . we can compute the energy. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. and the angular momentum. p p p  = . I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . in the transfer orbit.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. p p (p. I &. Knowing and e. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. �. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits.
.1 is just the flightpath angle .v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 . p r2. its speed is (3 .34 /::.39) The angle between v1 and va.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. __ Figure 3. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit . we get (3.
A velocity change .V.1 . To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. together with the b.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. This is called a simple plane change. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. the b. 3.31 6) Now. assuming that we know v and e.4.1 7) reduces to equation (3. form an isosceles vector triangle. e.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.34. 3 . An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . after applying a finite b.41 .V. it is not surprising that equation (3 . If. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape .V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . and obtain directly for circular orbits.V. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. (3.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. 1 Simple Plane Change . then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . or it can rotate the line of apsides. b. more simply. as shown at the right of Figure 3 . we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . 4 . Or. We can solve for the magnitude of b. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . (3 .3.310) when the flightpath angle .1 'I' .V using the law of cosines.41) 3.Sec.V required.3. ¢l ' is zero. b. b.
Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. A plane change of 60 0 .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. a.V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. b .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . makes b. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). for example . The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0.vrequired to accomplish the mission. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . DU circular orbit. Therefore . . Determine the total b. calculate the additional b. If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. 3 Figure 3 . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized.
270.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit..V l 1 . 3. 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.1 = \1'1 . I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . & t = = �= .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) . 1 +� 1 .0. v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .Sec.1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.618 = 1 . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.953 DU/TU L. The given information is: h I = 0. Therefore at = r2 .Vl = V l . DU 2 1 Hence .__ = . .
3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :. 447)(. 2 + 0.V2 = y'l'5= 0. 3 and we must use equation (3.626) = 0 .042 ft/sec Therefore v = .V22 v. 6. 31 7 + .447) 0.626 vcs2 = V't.317) to determine 6.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0. 1 5 DU/TU 6. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .447) (.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch . 3 87 .704 DU/TU 18.387 DU/TU = 1 0.(0.2 .4) (.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .626) = 0.2(.253 ft/sec .V2 . v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0. + v�s2.= 0 .447 DU/TU 2 1 . 4 .
3.1 ) t:::.4.Sec.V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 . F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .447 ) ( .0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .
1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.76. 3 .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination. i changedall other parameters remained the same.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of . r p = 1 DU e = 0. Ch . = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2.. 0. 3 EXERCISES 3 .5 DU .1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time .2 Calculate the total 6.e. a = 2. (Ans. 0 .449 DU/TU) 3. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. 1 1 DU and e = 0.21 . What is the minimum 6. a plane change or an orbit transfer.2 DU and 4 DU respectively.5 b.5 DU/TU. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 .4 Refer to Figure 3 . a. 3. i. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a. c.
9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . = 0. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. * 3 . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . 95 DU 8 = 0. . 5 & Design a satellite .7 3 .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . 9 Calculate the total l::.V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer.56 c.Ch .v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU.1 DU 8 1 = 0. P = 1. 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . 34DU2 (fU d. using Hohmann transfers.412 5 3 . (Ans. parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . The . 3 . C ompare this with the I::. 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. 0 . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 .V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . 8 Compute the minimum I::.
A cademic Pre'ss.1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . L. Air Force Systems Command . 3 . and Space Travel. V2 . The Viking Press. Washington . Newton . The Viking Press. . and Maud W. 2nd revised ed. Space Planners Guide. 1 96 1 . Vol 2. 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . 1 9 60. New York . 1 . Ley. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1 95 5 . New York . Baker. New York and London . Walter . University of California Press. 4 . Dornberger. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Missiles. Headquarters. Willy. Sir Isaac. 1 962. DC . Principia. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. NY . Rockets.. Robert M . 1 July 1 965 . Makemson. 5 . NY.
if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event.2 1 77 . . was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. I quickly took advantage of the absence. . Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. of the heirs. who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death.CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . by taking the observations under my care . including the earth . Albert Einstein ! 4 . . or perhaps usurping them . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. the solution of the second problem. Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. or lack of circumspection.. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. presupposed the solution of the first. . the determination of the true movement of the planets. . . This was Kepler 's first great problem. .
Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 1 . (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. . When Christopher Columbus. detour. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. . and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. "What matters to me. subterfuges. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy .1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. we not only forgive them. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . but above all to convey to him the reasons. I + . It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. whole grand entertainment would be lost. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. Thus. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 .1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered." Kepler points out in his Preface. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter.
again incorrectly . the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. as it were. however. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. Moreover. prick your ears. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. never noticing his error. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. that." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. His results. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne.Sec 4. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . for now we are going to invade your territory. with the warning: "Ye physicists. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. . Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. without benefit of any preconceived notions. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. But then without a word of transition. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. perihelion and aphelion. . since speed was inversely proportional to distance . almost with masochistic delight. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic.
On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. as I shall prove further down .. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. 4 Figure 4 . As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. .180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to .2 Finally. he settled on the oval. . He had .. the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. " Finally.
4. . whereas the two . : . until I went nearly mad. believing that this was a quite different .y it should move in an orbit at all. I thought and searched. but he did not know how. In this chapter we will. .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. in a moment of despair. are one and the same . but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. . hypothesis.. have persisted to this day. return e d by stealth through the backdoor. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. Ah..F L I G HT . . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. and velocity and the timeofflight. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature.and chased away. The climax to this comedy of errors.' " .2 T I M EO F . . . for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . de rive the . time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. came when. Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. made a mistake in geometry. You: are . That is to say. . I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses.e . Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th.Sec 4. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end. mine] . Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. . . which I had rejected . disguising itself to be accepted..: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY .
. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4. say from periapsis to some general point. 4.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY . ''"'''"'. but more motivated.. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. 4 existed . It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically.e . The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4.21 Area swept out by r .2. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit .A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch ..2. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . A ' in Figure 4. In going part way around an orbit.2. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use .l .1 ) . i. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments.1 ) i s the area � . the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''.2 . 7T a b . where the true anomaly is v .. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus. P. We will pursue a lengthier. (4.. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use .
The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. 22 Eccentric anomaly. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . \/2 a2 _ .F L I G HT . A dotted line .l. From analytical geometry. has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse.Z x2 + . 2 T i M EO F . E E Circle : .Sec 4 . perpendicular to the major axis.
A2 . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. 4 Hence . oos E and whose (4.23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is .�rea PSV minus the dotted area.22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae .a E) . It Tollows directly from equation (4. Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 . .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) .
minus the triangle . and whose altitude is (a si n E ).we get � ( E . substituting into equation (4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation . to its corresponding true anomaly. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). From Figure 4.Sec 4. v. Kepler introduced the definition M = It . E. Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) . in order to use equation (4.T = 4 ( E .27) (4.e si n Ai yields E) . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.F L I G H T .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV . whose base is (a CDS E).1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' .22.24).e sin E (4. Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally.e si n E ) I (4." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E ." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.e si n E (4.2 T I M EO F .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.27) reduces to (4.28) . cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.2 . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .24) E . Obviously .
to = lP (t .24 left). Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4. If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then . + t . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4.28).29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.T) . we can say that t .e Sin .T ) .24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.24 right. from Figure 4. The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .T o ) .( Eo  E) (4.to = ( t .T) .[ 2kn + (E . so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . In general we can say that t  to = 4. E Figure 4 .( t o . when v is between o and n.(to . 4 E E.
2.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.2.8 si n E ) V r .+ COS (4.1 2) (4.21 2).7 .E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.2. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .21 6) V 1 .2.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa. From equation (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 . .Sec 4.2.82 f: ( 1 .2.2.1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.82 ( E .8 E ) dE (4.1 1 ) easily integrable .1 3) (4.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .J1=82 d E (4. From equations in section 1 .8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.F L I G H T .2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.2 T I M EO F.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
( 1 .2 Solving for x When Time is Known .47) has been used to eliminate z. since equation (4. va' a and the trial value of x. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign .1 3) ro va v t" . But now we have a problem.4. a trialanderror solution is indicated. In one sense .4. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . Therefore . Fortunately . Figure 4. 4.4.1 2) is transcendental in x. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn .1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. a.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4.Sec 4. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known .42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .4 4. 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa. From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. (4 . Equation (4 .
1 = x 2 C + x .1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. With x known.4. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . (4. Substituting for r in equation (4. B and C are coplanar vectors. Thus A.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.4. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. the four vectors fO ' (4.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.41 9) .32).42.41 6) dx x .3 The f and 9 Expressions.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible.4. and A and B are not colinear. 1 dt r (4. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . we must then calculate the corresponding and v. the iteration may be terminated. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z . An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. xn . 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 . 4 .1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y .
in equation (4.1 9) gives Sec 4 .4. f and 9 are not independent.420) This equation shows that f . however.. f. g . The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q.. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. g.4. We can isolate the scalar .. g . x.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w ... First.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4.. f and g. the left side of the O .. Crossing equation (4. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 .where f.. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities.1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h .4. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity. = fg.1 8) into equation (4.
423) (4. Xw . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.4.1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.w o Yw h (4. . 4 h (4.E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .425) Combining equations (4. (4.r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ . o .4.a l e + Sln Y. x wYw .4.425).42 1 ) We can isolate (4. x + Co cos v = . From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .e2 )  r . yw x .X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . (4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.34) and (4. ) . .426) .1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw .
4. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4..428) yw .Sec 4 . 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.sin r  � (4.a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum. ro . x =� cos x + c r . x = 0 at t = o .. e quation (4..Va • W . ro ro .. (4..a  mitions of z.. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4.(e sin � + cos � ).. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C ..42 1 ) c /Ii..43 0) 0 1 f C a = .427) and using the definition of the universal variable ....426) and (4.43 1 ) .1 ) . \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .32).43 0) f (4..a Va 2 = 1 9.426) through (4 .429) Substituting equations (4. x + co h = . r.429) into equation (4. e quation (4.42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4..
433) (4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .4·3) � r o .1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.435) (4.4.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .4. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §..32) (4. r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY ..] � a . 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .436) ..j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.4.1 ) and (4 . vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .
x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 .4. 1 . in any of the equations where z appears. solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme .43 6) .43 1 ) and (4. Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4. then compute r and r from equation (4 . 1 The Physical Significance of and z.4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. 5 . 4 . its definition. Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos .1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit .5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero). Note also that if were not zero . can be used.434) . Va x (4.420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions.4. if we are going to use equation (4.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. the expression (t would replace 4 .[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . 5 .1 ) Va = _ E . 4 . 2 . Si n va = Va =  c o s . to 4.4 . Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. x + Co cos [ � . but we have not said what and z represent. From and determine r and a. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4.1 8). note that equation (4. 3 . Also.34) (4.1 9) .43 5) and (4.4. la . then compute v from equation (4. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t.e E). Obviously .Sec 4.
since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r. To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4. (4 . we get x= D . 5 ·1) at time x = 0. (4 .4. + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .5 4) (4.204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E .56) la.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.53) Subtracting equation (4. 1 (4. therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.F 0 1  Va I E .52) whenever is negative . we can conclude that = V'ii I F .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s . (4 .53) from (4 .57) . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x . a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 .Do . Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f.3 4) and (4.E o l .1 3) .
5 .5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . I z = I F . 5 . so Sec 4.when z is positive .to 4 .1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t .5. Therefore .F a ) '· z is zero. If imaginary.5 9) . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. In computing the semimaj or axis. the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4. either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.8) Figure 4 . a.
with £X. so S � V0r eFz 2 . can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result.fZi3 = q .a vG ) .cosh . Use this for a first guess .1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . so s i n h fi . since X = foE.6F. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 . The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. In the case of elliptical orbits. wherever it occu rs. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number.. a = ± x 3 . . / ( . Solving for X and letting lP = 2n.. C = 1 .ji11. ( t a to) . When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value..5.. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period..5 .e .a � eFz ± 2x 3 . convergence will be extremely rapid.:z.. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly.v y� ( . we get for elliptical orbits. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. Furthermore . and .P)/ 2. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp.. then Z will be a large negative number . is large.All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a.z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .
.a .t o ) x ::::: sign (t .L ( t . we get � S . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .t o ) 2x 3 � + t .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations. for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .t o ) Fa .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before. Thu s . 5 . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term. Therefore. if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the .to is positive.t o ) � ( 1 .t o ) sign (t .Q) eV La 2J.r:z . X will be positive and .tJ is positive . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t .£. The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.5. 5 .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.sign (t . where appropriate .sign in the above expression .tohATci ( l .1 1 ) .a eFz sign ( t . . so Sec 4 . vice versa . Anytime t . recognizing that X will be positive when (t .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.t o ) #a ( 1 ] . 4 . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.
If z is near zero .4.5..(1  .4. s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4. .1 1 ) as But i v:z .1 0) (4.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .". 4 (4 .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! . use equations (4.s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .0 6 + .s i n i V} = i si n i B .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive. the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.1 0) and (4. Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .4.1 3) COS .7! + .cosh .5. 1 . w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .4. z cos i � .1 3).1 0) as C where = i C = .B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0. if z is negative .. .Ji . use equations (4. (4. we can write equation (4. = Similarly.5.4.5.1 2) and (4 .4.1 1 ) .1 1 ) We can write equation (4. so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .
.. .5. 0 .1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity ... 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ . (611)2 etc..5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z . .5.� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4..+ . .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .Sec 4. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity . 0 'j (4.Ji! + Ji!. The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 . Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . (4Ir) 2 .1 4) ·· 1 .
21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . 1 K . r a . dC /d z and dS /d z . t=2 T U9 ra = I. 1 .)] P (4. it is not surprising that the derivatives.2C ) . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM. we get I � = fz.[i) z ] (4 . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x. Find r.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .5 .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ.s i n z dz 2z [ 0. I dS = _ ( C . Differentiating the definition of C. 4 functions .3S ) . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. and v at = t=2 T U .5. Given ra = I D U va = 1 . 2& . 39 5 . va = Therefore & = 1.zS .266  . va > � a= :l = 1 .( 1 .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S .
222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.4.222 Repeating the process.82 1 1 . 2 2 x 3 ' etc.1 .8 1 6 x n+1 .Since x = and . xn tn fit After three iterations.4. Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary. using a slide rule .8 1 6 1 ..1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 .279 1 .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .8 2 1 1 .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .007 2.58 1 .277 dXn 1 .1 4) and (4. 58+ . tn toward t = ZTU.58 1 . we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.266 ( 1 .000 1 .. y'ii"(t . 1 . 58+..t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.58) 2 1 . 24 1 = 1 .222 = 1 ... X l Zl y"""a6E or x .973 a Using equation (4.1 .821 1 . 705 ..t o x_ 21Tya lP :.12. we can make a 2 __ = 1 . solving for t .705 2 .222 1 .8 1 6 1 .t.
.6..2. But . as D = v'P tan � 2 . 880 1 1 . since e = 1 . 4. But first some useful identities will be presented. D.2) . for the parabola. 236K g. yw and r in terms of D. 4 4.Then from the definitions of f. f = 0. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit..031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0.32 1 1 + 1 . Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum.0._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. E and F. and 9 = 0.1 7). r = _.1 ) From Figure 4. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v.6.6 . f = 0.JPt::.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly .8801 Ch . In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . f.6. v. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. E and F.321 . You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. Finally. E or F. (4.. 1 24.1 we can see that X w = r cos v . we will derive expressions for xw . g = 1 . ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. g.
6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 .1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system.65) .Sec 4 . the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .6.1 ) . (4.62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.
in Figure 4 .66) v .s i n p v = ffp ta n v . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown.62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system.1 ) . (4. For the eccentric anomaly .6. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product.J7!. r • v.62 Perifocal components of r . 4 rr. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 . Using r • r = and equation (2. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .
t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . I Substituting from equations (4.67) (a si n E ) a But . M  (4. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r . yw Just as we did for the parabola. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E . since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae.6. (4. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle . 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4.6.62. we can say that I yw = Q.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4.1 0) e sin E also.8) and simplifying.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4.24) .Sec 4 . (4. e illS E we get another useful  �.67) and (4 .
1 0) . v.22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words. when E is a real number.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4.:..28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4.6. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly. E is imaginary .6. e cos E from equation (4.. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch ... solving this equation for • v .. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4. we obtain E = . F is imaginary.!.e Si n r E Finally .6. The . when F is a real number .1 3) .1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation.6. is given by e si n rr = r = $a . we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E .
2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . r.a r  (4.67) we can write Sec 4 . so Yw = a � sinh F. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning. The rectangular components of a general position vector. Similarly. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .Il a •v (4. Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF.el = a (cos i F .1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.e ) . 6. 4.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation.6.range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.1). But l cos i F = cosh F .1 8) .6 .6.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. From equation (4. may be written as (4. In Figure 4 .1 4) Xw = a(rosh F . Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic. so (4. 6.  But i si n iF = si n h F.e) .61 6) r e cosh F = 1. 6.
625) (4._ c��V P IW (4... ( . 4 +.A F U N CT I O N O F T.1 . (4...624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . 623) . and note that h = .. tan p /:.P ( 1 . 626) .. r0 · = 1 .42 1 ) .x". 62 1) (4. V.. where tv = v .I M E Ch . are yw = r sin v (4..ji! sin v p (4. we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = . the rectangular components of the velocity vector . .: o s /:. . 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.JiLP.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y .V.p .c o s tv ) (4..V _ 2 1 .. Figure 4.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) . so 1 � L (I .:.vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf ...c os I 9 ' = v'f..6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4.
o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4. E rr .cos L'!.E ) f = .a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l . yw 9 and (t . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 . (4.I Jlla sin E.a ( 1 .e 2 ) cos E . we get f = a( cos E .cos L'!. Thus Xw Sec 4. 629) f = 1 .!Ji8 sin L'!.6.63 2) .63 1 ) (4.628) r If we now substitute into equation (4. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .6.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .e) v! fJa( l .E) 9 r _ 0 j.1 (4.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .63 0) (4.. 627) But.e2 ).� ( 1 .e2 ) = 1.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .4. (4.Ji!. Similarly.e2 ) v. r (4.a E sin E .e cos E o ) .6.68) . using equation (4.E ) .1 0).(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o . From equations (4. = .67) and (4.( L'!.6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .to ) .sin L'!.E .
2 6) is one equation in one unknown . A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some ..634) (4.26) Even though equation (4. � V a3 ( t .6F ) .t o ) . ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .6. of course .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) .629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E. (4. and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .(1 E . . and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it.2k7T + M o .63 6) 4.[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E . In classical terms.to) . it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . Kepler himself realized this." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself.  E. cosh 6F ) .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch .j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F . 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true. (4. M can be obtained from = (4. from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .
' (4. 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . compute the mean anomaly. that results from this trial value . Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >.638) n dM/d E I E=E n . We will resort again to the Newton iteration method.63 7) Now. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4.Sec 4 . but this is not very accurate.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. M n . E n+ l E + M . � Figure 4. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . E It would. select a new trial value. of course .
5 + . where d M / d E l E = En En. equation (4. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. va and the timeofflight. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated.4.t ' are given. 5.2.1 2) .4. Determine f and V from equations (4. t .6.e cos En (4. From fa and va determine r 0' a. 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation. Solve for V if needed.5 cos V DU . 2. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4.1 8) and (4. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4.when e is nearly 1 .1 9). dE Therefore. d M = 1 e cos E . 1 .636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . Once E i s determined by any method.  . Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. 4 . Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. 3 .4 0) EXERCISES 4. p and va· 2 . even when e is nearly 1 .1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. e. e. however.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . It can be used for LW or�E .M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a.
f = 4 . find the universal variable. x. (partial Ans. (Ans. i. glven fO' vO' and t. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. Find the values of f.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse.348J +  1 .. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. V = 3481 .4 If.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans.6 For the data given in problem 4. 4.Ch . one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P. how should the area of search for x be limited. TOF = 5. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 .5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. find r and v for . it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. corresponding to l:J) of 600• .3 Given l:J) = ffP. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting.3. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4.e.85 TU) 4. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. Explain why this must be so . 625) .
in equations (4. 4 . Va and w and will solve for f. e = . fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 .10 rp 4 . 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. with a perigee above the north pole. 5 DU. g. 4 . what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. f and g.. Va and t . Do the same for problem 4. 1 1 For problem 4.51 0) and (4. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. (Ans. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 .to and solve for f and v. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 .5 .22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit.1 1). ra == 2. and give your analytic reasoning behind. Develop. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. == 1 . TOF = 2.9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. 4 . 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. 7 The text. e = . then . if X == x (t ) . gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. 1 0.73 TV) 4. 2.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch.5 DU. Le. 4 4 .99). 5. 9 At burnout.
to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . Kepler. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . The Macmillan 3 . NY. 1 963 . Koestler.630) through (4. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. 1 964. Robert. NY. New York. 4. o 4 . 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola.r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. g. 2.. 4 . r3 fJ. equation (4.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters.0 + . The Sleepwalkers.16 * 4. 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f. Battin. Small.. f and 9 in terms of (t .. Richard H. New York. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. The University of Wisconsin Press. Arthur. Einstein.. 4. 63 2). Guidance . 2.43 5) and (4. r. Wise.6 TU) . 1 95 9 .43 6). Albert.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch .tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. 1 7 Derive the expression for g . f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly.1 8). L'. See equations (4. 1 95 1 . A New York. Madison. = . NY. Company. Stahlman.I:!:..E.2 . . LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Philosophical Library. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D.( t .
" A str. Forest Ray. Mathmatica. The MacMillan Company. pp 3093 1 5. 1 947. Brooks. K.1 79. Sperling. 1 965. W ." A stron. 1 1 . "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. Stumpff. pp 66066 1 . "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. pp 1 05 . 7. A n Introduction York." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems.ach. N. 1 9 1 4. 4 5 . Goodyear.1 92. to Celestial Mechanics. F . Unpublished notes. 1 9 1 2 . Lemmon. W. H. United States Air Force Academy . pp 1 89. 9. W. K. H . 1 96 1 . E. Moulton. Redondo Beach. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Vol 70. J. Vol 3 1 .1 28 . pp 1 08. Sundrnan. . 8. 1 965. Vol 275 . "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. 1 0. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. J. S. and 1. 1 2. 1 965 . New 6. Vol 70." ARS 1. Roger R. . Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. California." A stron." A cta Vol 36. Bate. "Universal Variables. H. Herrick.
Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. in the first year of the 1 9th century.. in 1 7 8 1 . a 24yearold German mathematician. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. But. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. Uranus. 227 5. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas.
The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . no less. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. exactly 1 year later. 5. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. If they paid some attention to philosophy . the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting."the Gauss problem. no more ." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. The object turned out to be Ceres. Because of its importance.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. and the direction of . Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. and for convenience in referring to it later. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. Hegel asserted. but for a different reason. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo .
. particularly if the parameter. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit.. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r).. 5 . or the "long way.. that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4.". find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way." through an angular change greater than 7r. If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r)... 2. the orbit is a degenerate conic. p.. appears in the denominator of any expression. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion.1 . / I I I I I Figure 5 . . Obviously .SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ . the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M .motion. Sec ... . The relationship between the four vectors f l . therefore." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians.21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. It is not surprising. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. / .
( 1 .( 1 .cos �E ) . t.230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .. n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . 2. what we have is three equations in three unknowns.r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 .24) arid (5 .1 ) (5 .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. bv . There are seven variablesf1 . From equation (5 .23) Actually.cos �V . Use equations (5. a or �E.23). p. the solut �on to . g. a and �E.sin �E ) � JJ. so 2 .y'ii8 . (5 . p. We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. 23) and (5 .27) and (5 . 2. 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . r . so a trialanderror solution is necessary . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . (5 .22) r2 a ( 1 . 27) . f.cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . but the first four are known.25).cos �v) = 1 ..1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f. The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. r2 P p rI .2. g.22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f.. Consider equations (5 .( 1 . 3.. 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight .cos �E ) f = 1 . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns.25 ) (5 . (5 .26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. Test the result by solving equation (5 . (5 .24) Si n �E (5 . f and g. a 9 = 1 . 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns.
r1 (5 . adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree.:t x3 S. a and L'£ or 6F. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. let's write the expressions for f. 5 . 3 . including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value.3 2) . and would enable us to use the universal variables.Sec. = 1 .3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . however. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem.( 1 . This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . p..1 ) (5 . suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5.c x2 y. g . In each case . introduced in Chapter 4. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. x and z. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. This last step is perhaps the most important of all. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated.
jE: .v ) 1 c o s b. we get r 1 r 2 (1 .v (5 . A y= .39) . 5 X2 (5 . yields X C..V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch ..35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .31 ).i n b. ( 1 c o s b. ( 1 .v) • 9 = = IE.v y.A .33)  (5..j A equation (5 . we obtain A. such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.viI x ( 1 zS) \ . p r1 j . rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.38) y.c o s b.1I 1 � .v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 .v) (5 . as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant...232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .( c o s b.( 1 c o s b.37) I y = r 1 + r2 .. P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b..34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.33) and cancelling vwp from both sides. 1 ..36) may be written (5 .
9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .32) and (5 .37 ) and (5 . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .on simplllw.=1' Ig =r2 =. I" � \ ·1 fr . A. +.1 ).38). and the auxiliary variable . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . 32). rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 .1 6) (5 .1 4) 1 The velocity.ff.3. From equations (5 . .".LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ.31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I .31 5) (5 . 3..420). by using equations (5 . so that (5 . 5 .3. the last term of this expression may be simplified.1 0) (5 .qr::oo . we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 .31 7) .3.35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 .: r I .Sec.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 . 3.r I (5 . can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves. y. 3 We can also express X in equation (5 . thi 't "p. we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But. (5 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .34).31 3) (5 .
If it is not nearly the same . 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 .1 0) and (4. y. using equation (5 . 3.S + X 3 _ + . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. The derivative. Determine x from equation (5 . 3.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 .31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight.31 6) and (5 .3. From f ' f and the "direction of motion. from equation (5 .31 5).31 8) ( ) (5 .= 3 x 2 . 6. this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .P . a Newton iteration.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .dz dz dz 2yy dz . (5 . which converges more rapidly.1 0) . evaluate t. 5.3 . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 .E2 and z = . Pick a trial value for z. When the method has converged to a solution. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i .4.31 3). 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. Since z = .39). Although any iterative scheme . A. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.31 9) . Determine the auxiliary variable.1 4) and (5 .0.3.1 1). may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. 5. 5 1 . 4.31 7). 2 .0." evaluate the I 2 constant. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. 9 and 9 from equations (5 .4. A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section.37).1 2) (5 . 7 . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 . dt / dz.
Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . .32 1 )  .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C .320) (5 . 5 .=  dS (C . 5 .Sec. 3 . we get ( 1 . i n section 4 . we showed that y.31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .39) for dy = dz  But.3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .z S) dS _ .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .
determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two . These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .318). To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM. There is only one path for a given direction of motion. Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.  (5 ." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.6J + 0.322) into equation (5 . we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 .+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit).326) .324) _  (5 .41 1 ).01 + + O.v) .1 0) and (4.4. "direction of motion": rl =0. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . equations (4.7K DU.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.319) and (5 . I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S.320) and (5 . 5 so.325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Using universal variables. ill rl .OK DU. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 . Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. 51 r2 = 1. D M � si g n (1T L'>.
A A l ong way =1 .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .39). from equations (4.321 radians Using (5 . 5 . For ease of numerical solutions. 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = . 23287446 yT12 vm . 0488088482 + 1 . 28406 ( __ = 3 .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = .1 5) ..6V short way = 5.Sec.1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T). OM = +1 we have "short way " (.28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = .5. I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 .6V is small. 0488088482 + 1 .28406 = 1 . 5 .0. 86474323 = 1 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 . 0000 + 1 .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 .37) does when .1 4) and (4. 0000 1 .962 radians LW long way = 21T . a convenient form of equation (5 .3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . 327) r1 = 1 .1 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 .6V > 1T).327).
..23287446 t l o ng = 0.780 1 9540 1 /2 0.28406 y'0.. from the given data.1 0).3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 ..0 we do not normalize.. 1 3 min = 0445 z .86474323 = 1 . X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : .05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 . 0432z = 1 3.3. Y l o ng = 3.3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.86474323 2.9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off.672625 1 6 TU + through 6. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way. 1 ...23287446 0..238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .28406 y'3. the desired time o f flight is : . (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way. Step 5: Using equation (5 .489482706 (6") .) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration.444689 m 0.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .
1 1 39209665J  0.0.842624 1 9K 9= f = 0. (5.250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0. W e have : � 104 (within 0.4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.554824 D U /T U f = 3.6 1 856634 = 0.Sec. 7499473 9 t = 0.314).36 1 677491 + 0.31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .8826885334K v2 = 0.t . (5 .63049 1 80961 1 .662242 1 3 A = · 1 .96670788 z = x 0.6009 1 852 .3 .5544 1 39777J 0.989794 D U/TU 0.5288 97 1 4 = 2.0. (5 .1 5).60 1 874421 .50634848K v2 = 0.83073807 v 2 = 1 . 5 .5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .28406 Y = 4.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.1 6) and (5 .58 1 43981 VI = 0.28406 Y = 0.3.3.02234 1 8 1 1 .0. 1 7866539741 + 1 .94746230 A = 1 . 74994739 VI = 0.t solved .83236253 Using equations (5 .79852734 v2 = 1 .76973587J .1 3).
2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 .636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative.31 . the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 . The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 . For "short way" trajectories. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 . From equation (5 . there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T.52). 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.1 O} VC .0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. yet equation (5 . 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number.9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position).38) and (5 .076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.= 0. In other words. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell .39).zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation . There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. where f::1) is less than 7T. the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths.
.25).4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. a and ""E.4.. a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .V ) a (5 . we get  . 5. 5.1 ) and si n  COS .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.j1 ./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity . hence. The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.cos !:::.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . we can solve for a and get 1 . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve . (sin xl i . 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity..?S.4. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.v.23).cos ""V ( 1 .6V p � .c o s x =.c o s ""E si n ""E . The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns. and 2 solving for p.Sec.6V V 1 .)2 cos . From equation (5 . This check is only necessary when is positive. we obtain 5.42) into equation (5. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 .4.4 TH E p.va si .6V COS . for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity.cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . F or "long way" trajectories y is positive .
4. (5 .E CO � = ± p= k = .E) •  k = k Ll. (5 .c o s bJ)) (5 . and noting that � c os '2 .48) k . 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll. we get Ll.E Q ± y'2ni C O S . E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.Qp y'2ni p .E . a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5. 2 Ll.45) ± Using these same definitions.44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.45) and simplify.46) Ll.v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .2 Expressing a as a Function of p.E ( k . We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 . The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.43) 5.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 ..43) as Ll. we obtain m p a= (5 .E Solving for cos2.Q p ) 2 (5 .
3 Checking the Trial Value of p. we need to determine � (or .6.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . 2.where k. Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . however.4. Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic.F in case a is negative).. 5 . Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses).1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr. Sec. First .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 .!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . 5..4 T H E p. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). a may not be smaller than some minimum value . 5. .4 .
To get a feeling for the problem.F is positive.6.( 1 . In Figure 5.42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length. let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 . we can compute f. F .4 The t vs P Curve .6. If (.E a If yield is negative.6.25). 5 c o s . F 1 .6. we see that the limiting case of .6.6.s i n .6. If we look at "long way" trajectories. the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving . although t approaches infInity for this orbit.23)..E .1 0) = = 1 .49) Since we always assume . Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. (5 .23) and (5 .6.41 1) c o sh . we can determine . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like . The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 . 9 and f from equations (5 . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . F ) . As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that.4.F: (5 .24) or the corresponding equation involving .vi.24) and (5 ..6.E ) (5 .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 . let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way. If a is positive.a r1 (1  f) (5 .41 2) (5 .1 3) . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i . The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.4. there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.E from equations (5 .F (5 .4.6.Tar (si n h ." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .From the trial value of P and the known information.
43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 ..I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse .. 5 . lie within the prescribed limits.. we should first compute P j or P j j ..zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero.. as well as all subsequent guesses for p.. P must lie between P j and infinity.. From the discussion above. t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j . For l'J) less than IT. P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case .4 T H E p.. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 .42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 .. Since it is important thar the first trial value. In Figure 5 ... for t:sv greater than IT. Sec... P must lie between o and P j j .
4.1 4) Q .43 k p a rameter ... Several simple methods may be used successfully. 0 Q + y2in k  (5 . '" E 0> '" .yLri1 (5 . such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi).246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. one that gives too small a value for t. 5 1 :co . . p )0 p" . The solution is then bracketed and. In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p.4. The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution.46). b .1 5) 5 .5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. • . .. ell . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. � " . and one that gives too large a value. by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two .4. . from equation (5 . I . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5. .
. .1 6).. .... . then a better estimate of p may be obtained from . . .4.. .. . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5. .... ..I Figure 5 .. .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p.. . ... . then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t . ..1 6) This scheme can be repeated..1 ) (t n . . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. 5 . . O��_4o P n.. . . If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. ...44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration .. tn t . .t n .. ... It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer. If tn. . .. ....Sec. 4 T H E p..P n .4.1 ) (5.. ...I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. . . .1 and Pn . ...t n ) ( P n .
5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point. From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .41 7).4. fl3  fJ. � ( S .iri equati �n (S. (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S . ( � .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .si n L'> E l . we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 41 9) .4.24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  .41 8) (S .1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. We must now obtain an expression for the derivative .
4 T H E p.Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.47).= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 . from equation (5 .2mk2 Qp 2kQp .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .Qp ) Q.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m . that ( k .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) . 5 .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE . we obtain .4 8) .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .Sec.420) From equation (5 . bE d�E .E / dp and noting.( k .2 dp k ( k .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .
� (6E .4.6E JJ.. and (5 .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F . which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve...42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .423) .= .1 8) from (5 .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 . (5 . _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2. p(k h JJ. 5 (5 . (5 .1 9).Qp) si n 6E JJ.COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .4.
Using the trial value. using equations (5 . Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. r and Ll. As stated earlier . 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . we will develop and use the f and 9 series. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.6E or Ll. Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 .44). The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. 8 . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained.To evaluate the slope at Pn . equations (5 . Solve for t from equation (5 .1 0) or equation (5 .4.8). We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 . This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. Evaluate 9 from equation (5 .27) and (5 .24) and (5 .1 1 ) .4. should be used in equation (5 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 . the values of g. Evaluate the constants k.F.22). 5 .1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. a. 2 .1 2) or (5 . 5 .2·3).4. Solve for f. Pn . Q and m from r] .1 5).4. 5 251 . Sec. solve for a from equation (5 4 .E or Ll.4. Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola.II using 2 .F obtained from the trial value. Solve for Ll. (5 .4. as appropriate . 6. The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a. 9 . 7 . 9 and f from equations (5 .423). of p. 3 . 25). 5 . t and . 4 . 2.1 4) and (5 .422) or (5 .49) and (5 .
5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . 5 2) (5 . (5 .54) we have the following recursion (5 .57) (5 . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. Therefore. we write equation (5 . 5 9) . 5 4) for n = O. (5 .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . 5 5) r r (5 . 5 .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v.
1 7) . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .5.51 2) u . p and q which will be useful later .515) =  ur. 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . 5 .and the equation of motion f  (5 .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. 5 .51 3) rr and the definition of p. v are known .5 11 ) (5 . 5 . p. u L.5. q. as we shall u . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .51 6) (5 . 1 Development of the Series Coefficients . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 . this can be (5 . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate.5W)  (r . From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. We define them as follows : O.
q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .1 8) Using the definition of P. _ [1 1  2 (v .p (u + 2q ) . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . 5 .57) and (5 .23 r· (V) r   u. 5. 5. r r (5 .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. 5 20) (5 .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .U . 1 1 1 1 . . .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 .r . (5 . d q = d t . ) . Summarizing: (5 . r) (v) 2 .(v) 2 . = . .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = .3u p (5 .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . 522) q = . v) _ 1 u. ) _ 24 (r .
Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.3 u p ( u .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) . Fs = F4 .1 5u p ( u . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \.1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P . F3 = F .54) for n = 1 .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .t!:. = .6 u 2 p = .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .u G = .3p ( u + 2q ) .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = . Writing equation (5 .Sec. = r 0. 5. p and q.1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.6 u 2 p = . = .u G 4 = u ( u .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . = F 1 r + G 1 .u r = ..30p p + 3 q ) .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u .
u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .526) . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. 5 = U (u . therefore.524) (5 .5.54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t . Vo (5 .1 .tao Comparing with equation (5 .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .Gn n.2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Referring to equations (5 .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .523) . ) . .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.52) and (5 . .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.
1 5p 2 + 3q + U).6q .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .90q .Sec.51 .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) . G = O.u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (. G 1 = 1 .28q .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .2 1 q .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 . F 2 = 'U.7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) . F 1 = 0. 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).30q .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) . G = u. G = 30up(1 4p2 .3q .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 . F = 3up 3 F = u(.1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) . 5 .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .
f (r I . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 .51) + 9= 7  1 . 5. From equation (5 . Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v.0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. 2·5). 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only.2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. p.5·27) + ' (5 . f I . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . 5.5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. r I .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . 7) (5 . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse.258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u .24) and (5 .2·3). In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . (5 . The f and 9 series may be used . 5 . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . 7) r I g (r I .5·29) .6.
61 Sector and triangle area (5 .Sec. A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . This . so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. As. becomes dt (1 . The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . 5. L£ .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA.61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6.6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD . thus Figure 5 .
If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss. 4 � c o s b. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 . The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.2 The First Equation of Gauss. 5.2E ) 2 .62) (5 . A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �.V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .6. E ) .' l'2 2 2 (5 .c o s b. .2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b.43) and using the identity. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information." + l( 1 . This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3.260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .6.
equation .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.£Q.= . 5 . (5 .s i n l:>E ) . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 ..Sec.JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.(5 . 3 The Second Equation of G auss.. Using the identity.jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .61 ) becomes si n l:v .24) and (5 . n l:> E ) .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . Si. .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .2 2 L (5 .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J. L ( l:>E .65).67) 1 cos l:>v =. si n l:v cos � . From the first of these equations.1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E ..61).. Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 ..L .6 . ( ..65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .2 ( 1 r1 r .L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 . so . t/y.s i n l:>E ) . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .
6.2(� . we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . a good first guess is y � 1 .s) ." 5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. !:JJ and t.1 ) = W (LE . p.1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. y and LE . 22) completes the solution. n = 2 si n 3 LE . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. Unfortunately.4 Solution of the Equations . When convergence has occurred. By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. (5 . y. (5 .Si. y 2 ( y . 6. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . in three unknowns.si n LE ) we may write. To review what we have done so far. equations (5 . (5 . and one more unknown.6. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . (5 . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical.1 ) . and so on. recall that we started with three equations.1 0) . 27) and (5 .25).64) and solving for y.from (5 . there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE .262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . The first step is to evaluate the constants.69) are transcendental.6. We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E.69) cos f = 1 . a and LE. from r I ' r2 . 24) and (5 . pick a trial value for y. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . 23). Next. more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. We then added another independent equation. s and w. using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 .cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . S + 1 .43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. which is known as "the second equation of Gauss.64) and (5 .
c:. E or .cE. Using the identity.F . the righthand side of equation (5 .1 0) may also b e written as Sec.F whenever the right side is greater than one . )� s + 1 . i sin i. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 . If the given timeofflight is short.c:. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section. E = i . indicating that�. they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.c:.F are close to zero. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y .S ) y (5 .5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit. 6.c:. . S.1 1 ) s i n h .69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 . as y2 = W S + x .Since the equations above involve . F = si nh .1 2) = X = .c:.E .c:..c:. For this reason.c:. equation (5 .c:.0.F .6. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables. Noting that . F s i n h 3 "2 .c:.c:.c:.6.c:.69) and · (5 .c:. 5 .c:. equation (5 .E s i n 3 .69) and to determine y.c:.F will be zero and both equations (5 .6.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.E is imaginary.F .F is real. F.1 2) become indeterminate.F = rush .c:.E is imaginary.E and .1 0) may become greater than one. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .c:. Since we already know that when . then .s i n .F and COS i .cosh 2 .c:. 6.F 2 ) · (5 . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.6.c:. difficulties may be anticipated any time .
6. f. 4.1 3). ( 1 + §.2 Ch . or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. 7 .]) and t using equations (5 . from rl . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . is .6. The result.1 5) 1 . the orbit being an ellipse. 2 .22).23). which is developed by Moulton.61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . 1� = 2 3 1. ) . (5 .1 0) or (5 .. 3 . /:. Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution.25) and (5 . Determine X from equation (5 . Determine p from equation (5 . Evaluate f. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x.F from equation (5 .264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . or negative. 6 . 2 6. (5 .24). and 9 from equations (5 . . parabola. determine 6.43).27) and (5 .Y:i.1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . Compute the constants. the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. zero. problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 .1 4). .6 . g .E or 6. (s + x ) · 1 (5 ..62) and (5 .6.1 4) Now. 5 . E as a power series in x.6.26). r2 . 2.63). E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit.1 (5 . . Depending on the type of conic. and then expressing 6.. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. replacing CDs 6. The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. . Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . s and w.6.1 1).6.
72. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8." In all but the simplest cases. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. Usually. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . ballistic missile targeting. The £:. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. To avoid generalities.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. and ballistic missile interception. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . �atellite intercept and rendezvous. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. To make the problem even more specific. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. 5 . the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific.Sec. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site.
. ...' ':.. ��y V \" _ .7..".\.� ' ..f. e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.. 7 . I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 .. at t. fI }/ \ \ ..." \ t a rg e t / \ . ".�: :. \ •• • • • • • ..� ... 5 i nterceptor .266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . ". I n ..1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem . . �/ �/ ".1 . r.. ) / ot t..
Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. which is when the intercept will occur. 5 . The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 .Sec. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island.7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor.
. The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 .238 km/sec. . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. . . launch vel. \ \ \ Figure 5 .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . . . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . . . Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. 5 them. we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. " . . 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. . �v? �v .
7 .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . In summary . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . the launch site will have moved eastward .5 . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . In Figure 5 . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot .7 . we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. the closer the intercept point is to the launch site .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . 5 . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. the better . From Figure 5 . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. Because of earth rotation. This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. 5 .
F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .7..4 /':.270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .V plot for example intercept problem ..J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .) z :J « .O F .
1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. Although we have examined a very specific example . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6.86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 .8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 . the three components of r2 . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. P3 · . 82) t2 so (5 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series.8 . v2 • P I ' P2 . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.85) (5 . (5 .84) (5 . 5 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . P3 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . another method will be develope d . i. t2 .Sec.e.
8. Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . y and z .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . y and Z . in fact only six of the equations are independent. f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . 5 to (5 .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a.T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . 8. 526) and (5 . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . the components of f2 and V2 .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns.8·7) (5 . the components of Vz be X.272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . i. Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . ' r2 . R1 . � into equations (5 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . L3 . b .8) (5 .8. Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . Rz . y. Estimate the magnitude of f2 .e. and eliminating the K components. L2 .
Usirlg specific numbers.6 Derive equation (5 .31 3) through (5 . Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 .1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l.31 ). Limitations. b.39). I I I I  x.t2 and t2 t } are not too large. . 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04. EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter.31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 .423) for hyperbolic orbits. f2 I + J DU).41 .V required for intercept? 5.1 5. c. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a.522).3 Verify equations (5 . Ease of computation. 5. =: =: 5 . (5.32).4 Verify the development of equation (5 048). Y.527). using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. Z. which are the components of f2 and v2 . but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times.526) and (5 .Ch .2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. 5 Z. f. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . 5.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. and (5. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . 5 . e . Accuracy. The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.
which will contain both position vectors. c. (Ans. as a function of rI r2 . 1 1 For the following data sets for r I .t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . 5 .8 using the universal variable. The original Gauss method.tl = 1 . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . although a few iterations can be made by hand.009 (. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series.J + K). 5 . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5.t l determine v2 using a. (Ans. h = 1 .7 . r2 . t2 . 5 Given two position vectors rI . r2 'and the distance between them. The universal variable method .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch .8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 .9 Repeat problem 5 . 5. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 .00256 (J + K» . d. The piteration technique. b. Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. rl r2 p.0922 TU. d. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. vI = 0.
a.t 1 = 0. (Answer : v = 0. New York. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections.66986 9921+0 . Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . Escobal. 1 965.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . . Appendix A. Moulton. 3. r 1 = 2I t2 . New York. Herrick.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. Forest Ray. Inc. Bell. 2 . 1 9 59. New 6. to Celestial Mechanics. c . 2I D U t2 . Davis. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. the MacMillan Company. Battin.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory.0. "The Prince of Mathematicians. 4. Vol 5 . Liu. Inc. NY.4804847 1 1 2 +0. McGrawHill Book Company. Eric Temple .Ch . A stronautical Guidance. 1 956.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory.7K D U t 2 . Pedro Ramon. f 1 = 1 . r 1 = I t 2 . Simon and Schuster.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. New York. 1 964. 1 . (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. 1 963. Carl Friedrich. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . Gauss. New York. and A. r 1 = 41 t 2 .6J + 0.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . NY. Richard H. NY. Mathematics. d . A n Introduction York. Methods of Orbit Determination." in The World of 1 . a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. S. 51 + 0. f l = 0 .J D U Use "long way" trajectory. Dover Publications. John Wiley & Sons. NY. 1 9 1 4.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = .
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have a very short history . 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . World War II as "too late . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . Napoleon I 6. Efforts. longrange ballistic missiles.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. . As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . which concern us in this chapter. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery .000 V2's had been fired in anger . ironically . begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. The result is well known.
But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. Trevor Gardner . Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. In July 1 95 4.000 pounds thrust. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood.278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. 4 Accordingly. After all. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. Brigadier General 3 . They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. in June 1 9 53 . convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . California. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . According to Dr. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 .
Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . 6 . After three unsuccessful attempts. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. From 2 main contractors at the beginning.Sec. 6. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. Progress was rapid. Otherwise. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . Blasingame .2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout.000 people participating directly. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. by mid· 1 95 9 . the program had. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. Atlas was a reality.
Q . We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. There are. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. Figure 6. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 6 from launch to burnout. 1 defines these new quantities." "flightpath angle at burnout. such terms as "height at burnout. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere .. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions.2. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory . 6 . need not be redefined." "height of apogee." etc.2 The Nondimensional Parameter.2. Since Va:.. 6 . The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. however. It will not be discussed in this text.ji1Tr.2.22) .. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . =.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. (6 .2. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics.
6.2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .Sec .21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .
25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . and substitute for V.2.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. 24) 6 . This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6. This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit.1 ) . the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point.26) . the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed. When Q is equal to 1 .2. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2.the expression p.23) or IQ=2�·1 p . (6. If Q is greater than 2 .O/r from equation (6. 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit. the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit.
2 Equation. 'l'. 6 . lies on each side of the major axis.27) .co s v b o . be written as (6.Sec. half the freeflight range angle . therefore.f6.22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) .26) above can. and co s � = . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .
/. .284 . be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. since p = a( 1 . e. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . ¢ro.2. (6. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile.28) p. the total range angle.29) and (6. A.2.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions.T. . h = rv cos cp.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6.2. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.e2 ). also becomes known. = r Q C O S2 cp . the required freeflight range angle.1 1) into equation (6. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2.29) Now. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. what should the flightpath angle. .
In Figure 6 . ¢bo. choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . We could . The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle .In other words. it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. with a little algebra. the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . is called r bo . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . Instead . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. Sec 6 . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse .4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. Now. F'.2. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point .23 Ellipse geometry 6 .
that.I n 2 and also as rb (6. in fact. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery.2. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .Qb o sin � .24. shown in Figure 6.x) = sin (6." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � .1 6) .000 ) from equation (6. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. � + 'lr) = . If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . Qb o 2 2 (6. It means.2. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. d. F' and the burnout point.1 3) (6. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. This is. we can express d as 'i' d = o S .23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse .2.2. for example.
8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = . sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 .Sec. .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .1 6) gives us .866. 6.9.2.
Because a = . Table 6.P/2&. Nevertheless. . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. If Q bo is exactly 1 . there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . 2. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. Figure 6 . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. Provided that 'l' is attainable. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . If Q bo is greater than 1 . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . 2. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting.21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . equation (6 . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy.1 6) does not exceed 1 .288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable .
Sec.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6. 6 .
625 .low traj .21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :. During the test firing of a ballistic missile. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. skims earth high only . vbo = 2/3 DU/TU.5 DU.11 5 18 1 . hits earth 000 > 1 high only . hits earth Table 6 . what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . cos ¢ b o == 0.low traj . ha p og ee 0. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU. Assuming a symmetrical trajectory.
2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. 60 0W . As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again .2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 .2.. 6. Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . c os � = + N .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation. 08 1 7 ( 1 .4Deg. Notice or <P b o = :. :. 6 . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . 6 2 1 . 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . 2<P b o + 64°20. 36° . 'IT. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2.025) = 1 . versus the flightpath angle .08 1 7 DU/TU and .1 .5 The Maximum Range Traject ory .2.Sec. ) (60 n m i ) =2.1 2) . 600 E. 26. 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.025 DU respectively.
(2<P bO � ) 2 . One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory. then.1 8) L__________________� . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6..2.s. en EO I . A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target. � 80 ..7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight . 0> <1> <1> � IJ. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell . 2. :. be the maximum range condition..pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 .:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' . we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.1 7) I (6..� 90 Figure 6..2. ..Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 . If the right side of equation (6. s 0> Q) 0 � c ...1 6) equals exactly 1 .
Sec:.1 9) for maximum range conditions. 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. 'JI .1 7 ). We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6.6 Time of FreeFlight.'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . 2 . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .2. the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 .2. By inspection. 2. From the symmetry of Figure 6.7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2)./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. noting that l . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory . sin �= 2 2 . but .Qbo Qb o (6 .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4.cos 2 .e cos 2 (6.222) . 6 . 220) for maximum range conditions. due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified.8) .. 2. VI 1 800 . 6 .
6 The semimajor axis. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. Figure 6 . 23) and (6. 2. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude.27 Time of freeflight (6. and the eccentricity. In fact . can be obtained from equ ations (6.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . e. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . since five variables have been plotted on the figure.1 1). 28. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . a.
25 D U == 7 .29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM.8 period vs.750 n m .28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.075) == 0. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.Sec. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6. 6 . It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.000 nm.95 From Figure 6. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.884) ( 1 .
: : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: ..� '" �� :.. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free .. . .aje.9h Ir. . :: : J: : : . : :/ . ' .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 .CI�rie� v X I . : : . :: :"/ N . hi. : ' . : : . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. .I ' : ' : : : : : : . .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : .
6C may be / 9 57 1.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north. impacting at B.32 r ads = 1 33.6X and .6C represents the cro ssrange error.1 � 0. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance .OOO nm max = 3. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors.2. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. 3 . 'l' From equation (6. For a fixed burnout altitude . 6 . the crossrange error.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . 6 .1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target. . payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ .933 D Urr U � 24.220) . . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. 2 00 ft/sec .3 ° From equation (6. The arc length . range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first. 8. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. In Figure 6 . at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry.444 n m = 2. For brevity . .  Vbo 6. 957 Hsi 66. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.6X.77 0 = 0 . F or purposes of this example. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth .3 . If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed.6C.Sec. position. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point.
Equation (6. In Figure 6 ."2 to simplify equation (6 . for example. 3. I 1 .31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . if the intended target had been the north pole .400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane .3 .thought of as angles. we get (6.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn.3.1 . . If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .1 ) to (6.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles.32) 2 X Figure 6. cos . you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center. if they are in degrees. Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation. the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr.
Sec. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section.'l1. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 .32 Azimuth error 6 . P. will result. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. 'l1. are as planned. The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown .32 is the crossrange error . before .2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . �C. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. Figure 6 .33) . we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. 6 . 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. a crossrange error. 299 Figure 6. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6.3 . 6(3.
0.0.3 ..path angle . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.\]I will represent a downrange .\]I.� I a q.33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 . This . <Pb o IM� Figure 6 .34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r. 6.C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact....y I  : : i.oo a "'00 Fl ight . it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it .3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point.21 about the center of the Earth.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. <Pbo' In Figure 6. (6. \]I.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . 6 If we assume that both 43 and . if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.D.3. it will hit the target anyway .300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn . If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount .33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.x ' to simplify equation (6. In other words. cos X � 1 . are shown by a solid line in the figure .0.
6 .35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .cot <P b o (6. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3. We could get an approximate value for . But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .Sec.1 0) Qbo I i . The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o . 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.2.1 2) of this chapter .6.3 .'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .3. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation.36) (6.8) (6.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.
3. _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .3.1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.3.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = . Vb Substituting from equation (6. a'l1 . Let us first express equation (6. 3.1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .3.
1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient.1 3) This partial derivative . 3 .Sec. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . If this seems strange.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 .3. when used in the manner described above. equation . In fact. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . particular burnout error .33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . A plot of range versus burnout radius. the actual range error on a 3 . While we need equation (6. 6 . angle errors. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height.33. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 .3 .000 nm range. Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. Figure 6. the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6.
the missile falls short of the target in every case .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.3.3. the missile overshoots .304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . b o 'fJ ' (6 .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .1 1) implicitly. is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.3. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . if burnout occurs too low. Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . too slow and the missile falls short. 6. 6 however.6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .1 4) for small values of .1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .3. differentiating the range equation (6 . The magnitude of the error is (6. Again.3.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 . ..1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = .1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6.3.
1 ) 2 . 649 r ad U D U/T .6V b o + a 'lr . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error . 3.3. Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.4 D U .6¢ b o = .4 rad ians. ub o = 5 x 1 0 . . 735 rad DU r b o ( .9 0 5 D U !TU .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .1 0. There is no crossrange error. like the other two influence coefficients.6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . r bo = 1 . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . An analysis of equation (6 .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . LW b o = . We will need Q bo (.905) 2 ( 1 . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = . 6 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 . 1 D U .Sec.9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) .735 = 6 .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range .1 8) would reveal that. a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high.5 x 1 05 D U/TU . Total downrange error : .
then all three .1 0. ove rshoot 6. its flightpath angle. and its azimuth angle.4 )+6. 56x 1 0 . {3. 6. That is.5 24 ft/sec. That is.649 (5x 1 O .2 1 (. both the launch point and the target are in motion. for example).306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . <p. 6 =2.56x 1 0. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 .1 . We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. m i . The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. If we know the timeofflight of the missile .4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another.1 . we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation.4 ) (3444) � 4 n . The rotation is from west to east.2sin 1 60 o 2 = .4 ) TOT =1 1 . v. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it.S ) .4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation.4. 0.735 ( 5x 1. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives.
(6. . �. 1>. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 .4.I ·=<� • . Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction.1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 .. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. we will refer to measurements of burnout .:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. of 45 0 . of train l \\�.5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. 6 . Hereafter. an azimuth.000 ft/sec. Like the observer on the moving train. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . A simple example should clarify this point. and a speed of.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) ." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame .000 ft/sec.Sec.4. say 1 . An observer at rest would not agree . of 900 (east).1 ) .
finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy.44) �. east . then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve .45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 .308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. v. Once you have the components of ve. lies. v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . �. (6 . We can obtain the south. this will not be difficult. first.42) The true speed. It is. Vs (6 . The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. of course. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . Thus. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . and up components of the true velocity. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. flightpath angle . break up V into its components.
and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . The term. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. Hopefully. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . Rather . In Figure 6 . The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively .4. If the coordinates of the target are ( 4.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory.43 is just 90 0 L o. 6.Sec. the target will be there also. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 .2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. so the arc length OA in Figure 6. when the missile arrives at point B.
These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point.N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. we get c o s {3 = sin L t .N + w ffitA ) . Once we know the total range angle. this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 .0.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 .0. by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3. . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . {3. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target. and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 .0. The longitude difference. then a value of .N + wffitA' where . and if. Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target. A.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. we can solve for the required launch azimuth.48) Again. (6 . If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.0. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 .0. (6 .47) Solving for cos {3.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . (6 .si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . . 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.0. tA . {3. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target.N.
6 . A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. A.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess.Sec. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . and launch azimuth. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range . (3. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. tA But . Needless to say. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range.
6 . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 .42) through (6 . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . 33° ¢bo = v E = . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 87 9 30. 339 ) 2 + ( . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .j( .4 5) : v= . 85 From Figure 6 ..0 58 8cos290 = . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . 45 ) 2 = . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = .. v = . 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = .3 ° W burns out at 30o N... 8° v n /3 = v = . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 9 s i n 300= . 5 1 1 95 v . 1 ) 1 . 9cos3 00cos 3300= . 339 ) =. 29 .5022 ta . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.. using Q bo = .. 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . .9 DU/TU. 1 DU.312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 79 . 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( ..( .675 s (J=333 .
770 N re = 156. 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1. 77° = .80° . 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = .Sec. w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . 334 TU boN = 135° .4 .7 8 0 . 6. 29 . E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. 6 70) =.we(3. .203. tff=3. using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0.123 .85 and ¢bo = 3 0. 334TU ) =123. 3709 �GG (3.3.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . 2 5 TU :. 334)=135° .13 = 7.
Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .2.000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal .926 D U /TU . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . r b o = 1 . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude.5 D U!TU 1 .6 ft/sec) 6 . and a spherical Earth. m i .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans.1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. 6 EXERCISES 6 . R = 6 0 n . v = 1 6 . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.05 D U = 1 0° .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . m i . . = . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing.1 9)? Why? 6 .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 .840.
8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0.0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .06 DU. .6.6. Rtf = 4 . Using the equations si n iL.2 1 2 run) 6. in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. 6 . Do not use charts. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 .000 run) 6 .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. how large can . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . 7 I n general.400 n mi.Ch. A lateral displacement . 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . 1 0 During a test flight.)(.02. (Ans.02. Rtf = 5 .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 .x and L¥3 be? . . 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N .98 to 1 .'lr ). 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of . an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .
6 .V = 25 .r = 0.642 DU/TU) . ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . vbo = 0. 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. 7 .800 nautical miles? (Ans. a. (Ans. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . Is this a high. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . c . ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range .346 n mi long) b..0 DU for a ballistic missile. low. b . or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .6888 n mi L:.. Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. 6 6 . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 .31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .
i. What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum. 3 0 0 E. �bo and analyze the result . 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans.QL. 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 . using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . 1 2 00 W. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth .23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : .. If the velocity at burnout was 28. at the same altitude .6 .¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N. 1 5 00 E. 5 DU. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range .700 n mi using a high trajectory.. 5 DU and whose perigee is ..4 min) = 6. at an altitude of 2. Do not use charts. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 .530 ft/sec.ri.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. b. using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . R t of 4. 6 . 6. Ch . Q bo + . 6 . 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.where e is the 6 .'I' = � b..22 The range error equation could be written as: b. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means.e . tff 40.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N.
500 ft/sec=O. How far will the missile miss the target? 4. and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. c. It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .1 045 . 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.66E+20784.48966 = 3 1 5 .3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 .905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 .318 V bo =23.0057 ° = . (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. low.25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.5 0 . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of .6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . or maximum range trajectory? 6 .1 0 . b. (Ans. 1 200W . elevation . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 . 92S1 0608.4 rad ian s a. v bo = . 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44.
What was the freeflight range. What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical.1 2 ' . 0 (Ans. site located 319 During the actual firing. 5 7 min) == * 6 . What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d .Ch . the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . Assuming a symmetric orbit. and r bo � r(fl. rotating. (Ans. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . L t 54 0 3 1 '. ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. 43e . In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain .73 n mi. . == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. atmosphereless Earth.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth.8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 .649 n mi . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. tff 3 2 . 1. 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . downrange displacement of burnout point .6 1 8 . 1 20 OW .
altitude at bo ::: . Gantz . Garden City. Los Angeles. Vol 2. Frederick A. Lt Col Kenneth. Inc. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). Wheelon . 5 . Dornberger .3 1 The approximation : * 6. NY. 3 . LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. 1 960.2. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . Doubleday & Company. (Hin t : See section 6.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . New York. . NY. Burgess. The MacMillan Company.1 2) .800 n mi.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . Space Technology Laboratories. Eric. The Viking Press. NY.S. Ernest G . A History of the U. Inc. Calif.3 . Praeger. V2 . New York . 1 95 5 ." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles.4) . 1 962. 6 * 6. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. Publishers. 4.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . R ff ::: 1 0. Albert D.02 DU. 1958.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 .6Vb o . 2. 1 965 . * 6. New York. ed . A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. "Free Flight . Walter. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. NY.2. Schwiebert.
2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. does. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . .the Moon. about which she moves. Proctor. move round the Sun once a year. of all which. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . when it is dark. though principally attracted by the Earth. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. together with the Earth. since it gives us light during the night. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. the 32 1 . and is.. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. and moving round it. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. The Moon is the more useful. when it is light anyway. . "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy .CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. have been discovered. the Sun or the Moon? .
322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Even interplanetary trajectories.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. which are the subj ect of the next chapter. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system.in this case the Sun. but because it comes close to being a double planet. D'Alembert. 7 Author in this book. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. Brown . In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. Clairaut . Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. 7. Lagrange and Laplace . but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. with no less subtility than industry. . not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. W. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. W. has given a full account.
the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing.Sec. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. .. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). in fact. :. . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward ..: =j Figure 7. H. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . . the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . 7 . . As a result . . .:. son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. . . This puts the center of the system 4. Darwin.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . According to one theory advanced by G. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962.3 days.3 04 of the mass of the Earth.400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . . . These periodic fluctuations in longitude were.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. . ��===c==Q.
the orbital elements are constantly .1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . In the case of the Moon's orbit . due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun.2. 7 Figure 7.22 Lunar orbital elements 7. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements.
7 . Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384.8 days. This effect . The line of nodes. b. The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0.400 km. called "evection.Sec. their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac." was discovered more than 2 . which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 .3 1 66 1 days. c.000 years ago by Hipparchus.054900489 . We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27.
When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . If the Moon's orbit were = . is the descending node . The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S.6 years. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. where the Moon crosses from north to south. so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth .2. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node .6 years. Thus. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. its mean value is 5 0 S ' . the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. in l S72.000 years. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . 23 ° 27' . rotates westward.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . for only then can Sun. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . the other . e .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. d . When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. but more than a century later . The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis.9 years. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned .2 Lunar Librations. and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . making one complete revolution in l S . From Figure 7." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse .
M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . and 7.Sec. SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. the computer time required could become prohibitive . we would see exactly half of its surface . actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris.3 . As a result. daybyday. This permits us to see about 7 . Actually we see . The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . among other things. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. solar pressure . 7 ." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. monthbymonth basis. solar perturbations. Because of the complex motions of the Moon.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca.75 0 around each limb of the moon. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. at one time or another.
Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. a = :l:!:. 7 .2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. It is not important that the analytical method be precise.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 2& e = y'1  pia .3 .0549 . We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. semimaj or axis. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . 7. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories... With this thought in mind. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384.6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. this will not introduce significant errors. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions.3. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ.400 km.Q.
1 r1 1 ..i.:.31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly. j 80 . ..r1 1.c " 0 .. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.3 . e r Figure 7.Sec..0 S pe e d . 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . In Figure 7.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 ... 60 \ \ I njection . F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10. II.. E i= . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.  I. we can solve for va . 7 . we get c o s V = 2.g' .... if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit.9 I njection 1 1. We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.c C/) .2 10.
. .... 7 .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . \ 0 �� ' earth " . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.: / :1 . to parabolic.32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP. 7 an injection altitude of .32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . . : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 . 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . Actually. : ..')'. As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . . the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection.330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite ..3 .. then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed . In Figure 7. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero....J! ..
From Figure 7 . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. 3 . we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case .32. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . 1 8 8 km/sec. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. as the injection speed is decreased. . Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the .Sec. Moon from our assumed inj ection point .we will never reach the Moon at all. 82 km/sec. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . this minimum injection speed is 1 0. 7 . this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission .966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. In general the sweep angle . if we try to take longer by going slower. 7 . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. In such a case . 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . Assuming no lunar gravity . The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. Eventually . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. if we keep reducing the injection speed . Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. Assuming an inj ection altitude of . is a function of . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. due to errors in guidance or other factors. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example.32 we see that. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. which we can call 1/1.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon .
so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. and wrrft. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. that is.. But. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. . the initial velocity is too high.33 . If. Neglecting lunar gravity. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. This may be seen from Figure 7 . for example .
It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation.3 00 km. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis.encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . 7 .1 ) . 5 However. for all practical purposes. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . R s' given by the expression Sec.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . There is.4. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 .arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . only are interested in determining ap. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. however." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. In effect. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . 7. .0 km/sec. 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle.
4. a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h . 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.4.1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.4 . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .4. 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin.1 ) can be found in Battin .) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . 7 . Figure 7 . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent . A full derivation of equation (7 . 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.1 ) yields the value Rs = 66.) Then.
r 1 .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables. The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . 1 . r 1 .42) (7 . 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. at lunar arrival is (7 .r h V 1 I (7 .44) . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 . Finally.45) COS <P I . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. from geometry .Sec. Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. the radius.43) From the law of cosines.
336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 Figure 7. 1 p ia  a = :l!.1 0) . p=� (7 .48) (7 .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight. Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. JJ.4.49) (7 . a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.47) 2& e = ". t l .
.1 5) 2.4. 1 37 X X 1 0.4.3 rad/TUEIl (7 .4. 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually. where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.Sec. Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .4.1 2) Next.4.to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .1 6) The phase angle at departure. Wm = = t 1 .6 rad/sec 1 0 .1 1 ) (7 . 7 . we can determine the eccentric anomalies. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 . Eo and E1 from Finally. the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .e 1 r1 __ (7 .649 2.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .1 3) (7 .4.
it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 .1 6) above . Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 .1 9) . The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO .2 Conditions at the Patch Point . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 .42 : V m = 1 .45). It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. then the selena centric radius. the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . 7 .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. r 1 . We will do this in the sections that follow. 7 . (7 . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory.1 8) (7 . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. In Figure 7 . at arrival is completely determined by \ . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact .4. We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft .4.45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. (7 .48) through (7 . r2 .4.4.which we chose arbitrarily .4. The geocentric radius. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is.0 1 8 k m/sec.42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 . «>  0.50 � � c 0 i e 1. Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7. 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .20 .348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .30 .40 .
52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. If lighting conditions are important. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 .Sec.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date .5. sir! 0 1 .52) and Figure 7 . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. It should be obvious from equation (7 .52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . Figure 7 .54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . b oth of which are undesirable. then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7. Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7.5 0 and 28 . As a result . From Figure 7 . Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 .5 3) . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . 7 . if we add a coasting arc. once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. 5 4 worth noticing.5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris.5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. If lunar declination at intercept is specified. if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. However. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . 54.5 0 .
97 28 3 1 47 . 267 1 67 .84 60.3 1 + 1 48 .460 1 67 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . 1 7 2 1 67 .3 .44 28 2 1 1 8 .85 1 1 66 .88 28 33 3 5 .3 1 8 5 . 8 0 1 36.7 1 54. 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 . 7 1 7 1 66 .376 1 67 .47 28 25 3 8 .72 1 1 8 25 08.05 28 33 1 1 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . 1 9 173.445 1 67 .41 7 1 67 .737 18 1 9 36 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .3 3 3 1 67 . 1 3 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .242 1 66 .76 28 3 1 09 . 624 1 7 3 5 00. 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .97 28 34 3 9 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .424 1 67 .63 1 1 1 .32 1 1 67 . 5 8 67.766 1 7 43 23 .44 22.6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 . 1 90 1 67 .4 1 3 1 66 .97 1 1 9.08 28 29 08 .342 1 7 40 3 5 . 1 4 1 06. 7 . 1 969 .970 1 66 .56 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.374 1 8 00 07 . .85 4 1 . 24 28 23 34 .949 1 8 05 42.00 28 28 1 5 .38 + 9 . 86 28 26 29 .9 8 9 8 . 973 FIgure 1 65 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.963 1 8 27 5 5 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 .58 73.538 1 8 3 6 1 1 . 8 1 28 32 47 .35 28 1 6 08 .020 1 8 1 6 49. 078 1 66 .203 28 1 8 49 .27 3 5 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0. 24 .89 28 24 29 .78 1 3 1 .05 8 1 65 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 . . 1 0 28 27 29 .97 29.95 7 1 7 37 48.385 1 67 .308 1 8 22 22.23 1 23 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .34 28 32 1 7 . 5 9 28 34 33 . 1 5 28 34 1 0. 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.435 1 65 .3 1 9 3 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8. 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .3 1 28 29 48 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 . 5 7 1 1 66 .90 28 33 5 3 .862 1 65 .39 28 3 0 34.07 47.449 1 67 .1 44.45 8 0. 1 0 1 6.695 1 8 02 54 .46 1 1 67 . 2 1 28 34 42 .998 17 5 7 20.254 1 67 .87 28 34 22.
The launch time. to' and the right ascension of the launch site . we get cos 6a.ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . ao' at this launch time . at the launch point (see Figure 2. to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. �.3 .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E .Sec. 5 3 . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . tt ' is (7 . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. the total time . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. The difference i n right ascension . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . it is possible to adjustt l . 7 . is the same as the "local sidereal time . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . which may be computed from the injection conditions. I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 .9 .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time." 8.5 . slightly (7 . !::lX . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. 5 4). c o s 1/1 t . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 .53 . 84). and may be obtained from equation (2. 1/1 c ' Thus. Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept .89) : (7 56) .54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 .
V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon.3 224 . 7. 7. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl .54) agree. The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7. 000 k m 33 .4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods. . r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier.2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . � .3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . and the exact We now know the injection conditions. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. What additional 6. 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I.426 k m 2 /sec2 6. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. 7 .t I ES Ch .
What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec . 7 .6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384.v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 .. Determine the /:. b. Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.400 k m : a . Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. a . 7 EXERCISES 353 7 .9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. .Ch . Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions.
1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. Specifically. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. <1>0 = = = * 7 . requirement. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). 7 7 . given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . select ro ' vo ' to meet this . CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 .354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. . Use h bo l OO n mi . 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit.) * 7 . 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 .
Clyde . 1 964. NY." ARMA Document DR 220. 4. Principia . Abelard Schuman. A stronautical Guidance. Fisher. Second Edition.1 6. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. McGrawHill Book Company. London and New York. 6. George . Academic Press. Doran and Company. 5. Makemson. Battin. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. 1 962. Doubleday. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Garden City. Robert M. 1 967. 1 9 5 9 . The Story of the Moon . .Ch. 2. Baker. 1 943 . Inc. an d Maud W. University of California Press. New York. L. 3 . Berkeley and Los Angeles. NY. NY. November 1 95 9 . New York. The Moon . Richard H . Gamow. Newton. Isaac .
.
which it were tedious to enumerate .CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. two ears. compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . such as the seven metals." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations.. etc. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. At first it was not understood . two eyes. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. two nostrils. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. But the tide of opinion ebbed. indeed. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. two unpropitious. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . C opernicus. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. and a mouth . By 1 507 he was 357 . two luminaries.
Saturn. Neptune. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. and Pluto . 8. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in.2." as may be seen in Table 8 . Jupiter . . Venus. indeed. If we write down the series 0. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. Uranus. at the age of 70. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. 6. nevertheless. . Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. 1 2 . The "law. 1 Bode's Law. Earth. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. are spread much more widely throughout the system. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. some of which pass near the Sun. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false .2. In addition. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. comets. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. diameter. 3. . 8. the members of the solar system.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . Mars." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system.1 . .
28 3 0.0 1 9 .8 5 .22. 8. The size.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.00 1 . which defines the position of the planet in its orbit. Table 8 .8 77.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered. 8. 0 is presented in Table 8 .39 0. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune .6 2.Sec.65 5. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 .21 Actual Distance 0. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .6 3 8 . Only for brief periods. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. 1 7 39.7 1 . compared with the total mission duration.2 Table 8.2 1 0.20 9. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.0 1.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun.52 1 9.52 2.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants. is its path . Except for Mercury and Pluto . changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 8.72 1 . Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune . The sixth orbital element.2.4 0.
28 3 0..773 1 7° .76 . 2056 . 5 68 3 1 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .096 1 88 ° . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.7233 1 . 000 1 °. 05 1 4 .497 1 3 ° .970 7 6 ° . 76 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.400 276 ° .2583 7 ° . 1 42 1 02 ° . 0482 . 3 97 1 09 ° .0539 .. 1 1 1 326 ° .405 undefined 49 ° .000 1 . 1 1 7 265 ° .005 0 .. 1 39 1 1 3 ° .) 00 .489 0° .225 237 ° .203 9. 8 94 341 ° .5 1 9 1 9 . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° . 5 73 1 75 ° .306 2 ° .850 1 ° . 1 7 3 9 . 0 1 67 . 0068 .441 73 ° .870 L.004 3 ° . 074 1 83 ° . 38 7 1 .684 93 ° .828 1 7 1 °.322 1 00 ° . 1 3 6 47 ° .394 0° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 0934 ..275 222 ° .. 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 7 73 1 ° .5 24 5 .
04 29.6 1 7 .65 6.5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .8 8 1 1 1 . 0 1 1 64.3 . 5 227...0 95.87 3 5 .257x l O s 3 .49 4.000 1 .820x 1 0 6 6 .000 . 1 08 3 1 8 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .74 2 .06 9 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.2 1 4.9 1 08 ." .896x 1 0 6 3 .3 05x 1 04 1 .986x l O s 4.268x 1 0 B 3 .8 6 29.6 1 5 1 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .232x l 0 4 3 . 1 1 49 .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .24 1 .05 6 .46 84.8 1 7 1 .7 5 7 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .79 24.9? 1 . 1 4 1 3 .795x 1 0 7 5 .80 5 .8 247 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .
v required. The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. however. was the Hohmann transfer. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . The Hohmann transfer. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . this consideration is important. if continued past the destination planet . would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar.3l . If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. from the standpoint of /:. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . For transfers to mo st of the planets. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. 8. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. Just as in lunar trajectories. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months.3 .
. Therefore .V. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip. \ _.. . the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .v required for an interplanetary mission.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit." .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / .d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit. Nevertheless. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.Sec. 8.' .u o_____+.
The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.78 kIn/sec. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f.3 and should be reviewed .3.where f.33) In Table 8 . B (8 . If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time.3 .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. • . then. the difference between the heliocentric speed. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity. In any case .1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. The heliocentric speed. for the Hohmann transfer. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .l 0 (8 .1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 3 . From Table 8.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun.
22 the radius to Mars from the Sun.74 6. VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight .04 1 6. r d = 1 .05 4 1 .748 .73 38.379 1 . 1 2 5 8 . In other words .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence.5 1 46 . t2 .9 1 6 1 . 1 6 30.07 4 1 .60 Table 8. Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.28 27. rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun. 40.78 46. From Table 8 .3 9 1 1 .099 1 . rE9> are respectively : . 8.524 A U From equation (8 . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .397 22.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .57 . Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.42 4 1 .\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .9  2 .31 1 05 .Sec.31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .28 32.345 1 . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.295 1 .
2 Phase Angle at Departure. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.9 d ays 8.32 for a Mars trajectory.7088 years = 258.32) the heliocentric speed .3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .t 1 = 1T = 4.3.35) wt (t2 . From equation (8 . vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.34) __ (8 . and is illustrated in Figure 8 . the phase angle at departure . where is the angular velocity of the target planet. The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 .VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected. 8 From equation (8 . The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. Thus. v .3.099A U/TU 0 = 32.t1 ) wt . the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.73Km/sec .4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 .
Sec. 367 .1 76 .. pp 1 60. . .. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun. . Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself.. . . . If we miss a particular launch opportunity. 8.. Figure 8.36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . 'Yl (8 .3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet. ..32 Phase angle at departure.. . and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct...
we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. Thus.W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.37) (8. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.2 1 7 3 . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth. so W EfJ7 s .09 1 .38) . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed. yrs 0.368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. rad/yr 26 .07 1 1 0.v 1 determined.03 8 .60 2.07 5 .01 1 .w t I (8 . Mars and Venus. the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long. 340 . 3 ·2. 8.213 .00 Table 8. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated.3. 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period.0 1 1 .32 1 .32 In a time .530 .04 1 . 1 3 1 .025 Synodic Period.
we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo.33 / . . .310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in .. � _ i t_ r b_ .. (8 . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 .. .. � Figure 8. ". '?. . . . ..39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . . 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . . '\ .r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<.. . .:V. 8 . .Sec. . . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. . �..
For transfer to one of the outer planets.98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . From Figure 8.34 we see that the angie . so equation (8 . 3. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 . fI. This may be seen by solving equation (8 .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. C but since e = da for any conic.1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. fI. the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8. is given by cos fI =  §.the injection speed . we may write . between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola.33 .3.1 1 ) becomes = 2 . the angle . km/sec.6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 .2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed.
Sec.3. 3. 8 . 3 T H E PATC H E D.3. is obtained directly from the injection (8 .1 e where the eccentricity .1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. conditions : = (8 .CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .1 2) e.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .
4 Arrival at the Target Planet.3. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . At arrival.36. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 .3.35 Interplanetary launch (8 .1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . 8. however.3. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. Generally. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 . cfJ as shown in Figure 8.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .
8 .1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 .36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 . 3 .1 8) . sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .Sec.1 6) (8. 3.3. 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. (8 .
s i n if> 2 v (8 . 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. In Figure 8. 3 7 . If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance .1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. 3 7 we see that  (8 . resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory.36).38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. in Figure 8. 3. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. From Figure 8 . It also means that the relative velocity vector.The angle . the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. e. 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known.320) y = x si n e (8. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. will be directed toward the center of the planet. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. 8 . If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. .36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch .3 . is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 .
lt/ 2 X _ . 8 . (8 . 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.322) .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f.Sec.37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.
326) Because angular momentum is conserved. 324) (8.327) for y Yields (8 . 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance.(8. we obtain .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence.376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Solving equation (8 . the speed at periapsis is simply . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet . y. 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 .
8.39. the "inwact parameter. The. then a much smaller target must be considered. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun .t 3  rt (8 . V2 + 2fJ.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 .Sec. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission. The given information is . This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. b. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision . If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. rt This particular offset distance is called b .05 DU.328) we 'get (8 . only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b .329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet.329). The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
099 A U/TU 0.1 VI = 1 .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.05 D U 1 .099 A U/TU = :. 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .099 .1 :: 0.39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 . 3 . 6V 1 = 1 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.
4. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept. t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::. 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .1 ) . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic. 8 .4.v (8 . 1 39 + 1 .Sec. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.1 . From Table 8 . the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.07 6 ft/sec 2 .044 8 . departure Figure 8 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .43 DU/TU .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.v = 2v si n L 2 /::.905 = = 379 37 .
1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. 8.1 )) .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun . 7.7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years. 8 ..5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.1 ) .4.3..3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel. 8 as derived in equation (3 .. 8. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 8. _  /' .3 .62 DUJTU� 8. " . 8.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units.. EXERCISES 8 . 5 for the planet Jupiter. 8. (Ans.32..
e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit .348 DUe/TUE9> . What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the . M = 5.V required? (Ans.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. vesc = 1 .000 ft/sec.V = 0. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. 1 00 ft/sec) c. If c = 9 .v ? (Ans. . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j . 1 DUE[) radius. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =. It can be shown that . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence .Ch.l:. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 .l:.l:.l:.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans.900 ft/sec. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. a. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.394 DUe/TU� b .35) ITbo no . where 8.. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i.l:. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 .v = 1 5 . v = 39 .
Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. The mission will begin in a 1 . v= 0.0. a. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. What is the 6.254 AU/TU� . 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a.V at apogee or perigee? 8.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .which results if the same 6.. Is it more efficient to apply a 6.V of .28 AU2 /TU2 .? (Ans. What is the 6. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 .. a.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.73 1 DU8TU� b .. (Ans.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b .9 00 ft/sec) 8 . v=' (Ans. 0.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. 09 DUe/TU$) = . (Ans. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans. so work carefully and follow any suggestions. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans.0. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long..V is applied at perigee.0. 8 8 . = 0. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0.. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 . Find the hyperbolic excess speed. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 ..046 DU� /TU � b . 1 DUe/TUEl1. 6. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. 8. What is the 6.. 0.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit.5 DUEI1 circular orbit. 0. Find the 6.. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6. 3 . � = 0.
373 AU/TU � f. 'Y1 . Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. O o) 8. it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. for the above transfer.5 AU. (Ans. called the turning angle .867 AU/TU� e . 3 . Compute the phase angle at departure. c.) (Ans. For a given planet. Vrrw = 0. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . 1 . What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . <P2 and vll1II in that order. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination.5 AU? (Ans. 0. 1 4 a. 1 .Ch. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. then find h.2 AU/TU� d. P.050 ft/sec) 8 .2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans.87 TU� b . 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans.3 9 DU oITU& 2 . 8 . Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . (Ans. 0.
James R. London. Fimple . transfer time. No 2 . . LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. 1 95 6 . Vol 1 . Assume circular. pp 430434.V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . 3 .where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. Newman. 1 . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. The World of Mathematics. * Ch . What would be an estimate of the return b.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. D C . 1 969. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. W ." AIAA Journal. 1 96 1 . 1 967. Simon and Schuster. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. R. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . and the angular rates of the planets. NY. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. U S Government Printing Office . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. Vol 2. 8 8. Washington. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . 1 963. New York. coplanar planet orbits. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. 4 .
but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. and at times unexplainable . one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . Seldom does anything go exactly as planned ." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. it is found that there seem to be distinct. Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. Macroscopically . After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. " Webster 9 . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). There is always some variation 385 . irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented.
many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. solar radiation effects. Brown 's papers of 1 897.from the norm. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. meteoroid collisions. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. and relativistic effects. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. In fact. The wind gust was a perturbation. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. Fortunately. Then. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 .1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . E. 9 . etc. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. except the motion of the perigee. magnetic. atmo spheric drag and lift. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. about a century later. M. 6 . which had not been treated by Newton . It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner.
H. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . In particular. With the capability for orbital flight . This is the main emphasis of this chapter.Sec. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. 9. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. a section discussing methods and errors is included . 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. 9 . Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems .2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. See section 1 . It was developed by P. Encke. Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. the Cowell. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter.
and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. the equation would be (9 .23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration. 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. including all the perturbations.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body .2. the equations would be . For the twobody problem with perturb ations.22) would be further broken down into the vector components. Sun and planets. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. r=Y �r (9 . y = vy (9. F or numerical integration equation (9 .388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .
The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . 9 . and he would be correct .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. 8 . 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . Even in double precision computer arithmetic.'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 . smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff.22). Classically. Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. There are some disadvantages of the method . Intuitively.Il m ( 3 .23). This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . When motion is near a large attracting body .24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 .Sec. roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small.25) . Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. In spherical coordinates (r.  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to.
contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. reference or b i t Figure 9.3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . and .25) As a reminder. Presumably . The term connotes the sense of contact. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . in our case .31 The osculatil.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. 9 (9 . it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . 9. In the Encke method .390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch .'l. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere .
e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method.1 ) and (9 . At that time .. 3 .  (9 . Now w e will consider th.1 ) and for the osculating orbit. and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .Sec. r + � r3 r = a t . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it.33) we obtain . or epoch.32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit . Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration. Let r and p be the radius vectors to . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits.. Note that at the epoch. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch).3. respectively . be defined as (see Figure and . the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.32)  Sr.to ) ' p (9 . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. 9 .33) Sub stituting equations (9 .3 . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r .1 ) .3 2) into (9 . the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 .1 ) . neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 . 9.3. = p ( tb ) p p to = 0.
34) then becomes (9.35) 3 3 r _ (9 .was to obtain more accuracy. p is a known function of time ..lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . For a given set of initial conditions. 6r (to + .6. one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method.lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object . So .3 / 2 (9 .3 6) Equation (9 .6r ) . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . However. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r ..37) .. theoretically. so r can be obtained from 6r and p. 6r. A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:.t) can be calculated numerically.392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .6r] r3 r (9 .
we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] .32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. 9 . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / .Sec. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit ./  Our problem is not yet solved . In terms of its components Figure 9. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. Expanding. OZ are the cartesian components o f or. o y . however.
.2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9.38)  1 . (9 . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.(1 . .2q So q =  Now. There are two methods of solution at this point .3. 9 From equation (9 . /) y2 .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .37) becomes (9 . 3. at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q.1 0) (9 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.38) and (9 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .37). but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.31 2) .( 1 . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .
d .3. If. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . r (to ) . The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. Rectification should be initiated when . Integrate another t:. g. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated . If equation (9 .01 ).t). Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. a.t to get (jr{ to + kt:. f(to + t:. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. 9 . and 5r 0 at this point. Calculate r = p + (jr.> a specified constant. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . although the use of equation (9 . k. The method using equation (9 . Knowing 5r(to + t:. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits.t) calculate 1 .3 8) 3. Otherwise (jr p . = = = = = p continue. so larger step sizes can be taken.t where k is the step number. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid.t ) from equation (9 .t .1 2) is used.39) is recommended for use with the computer.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. For an integration step. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) .does not remain quite small. but of the order of magnitude of 0.1 0). e . Vol 2.t) from equation (9 . q( to + t:. t:. calculate (jr (to + t:. Go to step c with t:. c. Then the tables could be u sed to find f .t) 2 .t) . v = p + (jr.nowing p (to ) .Sec.3. (jr 0. p(to + t:. b.t replaced by kt:.1 2) may be slightly faster. p 229). In (jr p v as described earlier.3. f. q (to ) O. rectify and go to step a .
A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six .6.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch.6./l m {m s . they would remain constant. at the outset. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration .1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. e eccentricity. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . Thus. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . this method may seem more difficult to implement. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. A similar check could be made on i . The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. In the absence of perturbations. Similarly.3.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. For instance. See equation (9 . etc . one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. = .cSr ) (9 . One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs. Then e � . then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. from the Encke method 9. a .23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration .r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r .t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . Though.
2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . n. 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time .. Therefore . along the instantaneous radius vector. e. Vol 2 .g. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. 9 . This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. p 246. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow.4 .T (or M) will be used. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. � .n (t . or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method.and dM ?. Eventually .Sec. .. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . i. for a table of parameter sets). The standard orbital elements a. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. . 9 .I OOS . w and. The axis S is . the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature .variations (e. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. r. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . R (unit vector R).
1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9.43) . W.41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 . The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G. The third axis.4.rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .
dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .45) To express this in known terms.45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a . expressions for found.46) and F S (9 .48) we find da dt = (9..44) (9. (9 .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.1:!:.� 2& ' = 399 (9 .48) Substituting in equation (9.43).4.44).49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations. 9. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .4 and . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .Sec.1 0) .o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a . Differentiating the conic equation Qr. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed. (9 .!I=8!" nr from (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.
.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.) Since h = hW.1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.lae dt h $) a dt .la _ (9 04.�) % J. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 . 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt . so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation. r hW + h da S dt (9 .2 )% a = (1 .400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .4.
1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).1 8) . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .4.1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 .4.4. 4 ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 . but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .n di dt (9 .. 9 .4.1 6) we obtain .4. 1 e2 (9 .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .h cos i rF s h2 .4. K .1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .sin QL = dt . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'. K) � (9 .Sec.
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
and V are small.vat a+v a .4. From equation (9 . but more practically we would consider � = v .vt 2p. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 .2 (at + C)2  .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 . Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion . .45 0) should be small. For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 . allowing c to vary with time .. ] (9 .e . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics. (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.454) + 2p.v = .v which can be easily solved for c. .J.5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . {at + c) + 3p.450) and solving for e we find (9 .vt .2p.2 p. . Since p.2p. The constant of integration.2p.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.45 1 ). 9 .5 1 ) correct to first order in J. C. • . . .4..v {at + c ) c (9 .4.v 2p.Sec.45 1 ) . c = ve 2 p. 4 where c will be the parameter.45 2) The righthand side of equation (9.vc .
the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. efficiency. c. In theory. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. economical in computing time. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. b . Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. 9 . or has not carefully selected. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. d. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. 9 . highly questionable. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. at best. his integration method. Unfortunately.e. 5 . The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. 9 in detail. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. should be the criteria. storage and complexity. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. such as the disturbing function. not expediency.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. accuracy. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. . allow as large a stepsize as possible..
476. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors.accumulated roundoff error . The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. The larger the . suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4.5 (9.567 = 7. In fact. 4. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation.Sec. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. They are roundoff and truncation errors.57 = 7 . For instance .843. Obviously . 9 .388.276 + 3 .476. 9 . i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. and f. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . 2 Integration Errors.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved .28 + 3.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . but the rounding error has caused it to be a s .864. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2.388. 5 .5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. Baker (v 2.
9. Thus. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . 9 stepsize. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. EulerCauchy and Bowie .6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth.6. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. We will treat the first order equation . GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). 6 . 1 RungeKutta Method. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change .62) (9. h. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. 9 . Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems.1 ) . AdamsMoulton.63) dx dt (9.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. Gill. Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. the larger the truncation error. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes .= f(t. In general. There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. Of course . The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods.
. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize . One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . x n .63) and n is the increment number.__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .yV:. and stepsize is easily changed . easy to implement .( 1 . They are relatively simple . 9 .( 1 + y. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.6. 9 . they are faster than the singlestep methods.% ] + k 2 [ 1 . x n + k 3 ) (9.yry.65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .k +. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + .64) 1 1 + .h ) k3 +. X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. In general. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .) k2 6 3 l2 (9. have a relatively small truncation error.Sec. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.
\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0. 3 /8 . In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). . 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k.67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. 3 9.\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . 25 1 /720.3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas.beginning and after each stepsize change.66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 .\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . 1 /2 . The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell .1 f . 5 / 1 2 .6. .
9 . Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis). Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . . for instance.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .Sec. the error terms are not generally known. This method.x n + (5 5 f ri .68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +.6.59 f n .h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9.x n+1I I (P 270 (9.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see.69). In equation (9.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method. The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here.1 + 37 f n2 . fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas.
1 f(t n + h).6.6 .2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k.1 .2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n .h ) .° n 60480 (9. "x. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn.° n + . It is.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods.1 f(t n h) 2 2   .8 k .12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . though it also includes a corrector.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. n + 1 2 n i \. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. .418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 9 like other multistep methods. x. n + � 84 "x.1 ' etc. The GaussJackson method is one of the best. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". though. and most used. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations. 9.
including some which were not discussed in this chapter.Bashforth) methods are preferred. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. If the potential function. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. ¢.1 ) One such potential function. However.5 Numerical Integration Summary . the accelerations can be found from (9. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. but only the simpler forms will be treated. p/r. according to Vinti. 9 .7.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references.7. is ¢ = � [1 . The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods.6. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. 9.72) . is known. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. 2 . 9.I n=2 r (9. Table 9.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec.e presented in this section. V. Some of them become quite complex.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods.1 The Nonspherical Earth . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. 9 . 2 and NASA C R. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth.6. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works.l 005). For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique.
very difficult to determine proper size.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. it could be very fast. Vol t . Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. 9 CI) .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***.
.2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 . r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .L = gravitational parameter Sec. = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .2. if> = I!:.where J.J s � ( � ) (35� ..945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .  I.] (9 .7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) ..e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r . 9.30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .74) ..42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .
5)x 1 0. .(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .57 ± O. l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .5 ± O.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .44 ± O. The first term in x. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.6 J = (0. l )x 1 0. Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .6 J4 = (1 .6 ± O.l ( �) 3 ( 3 .2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .3003 ""6 ) + . I )x 1 0.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity . .64 ± O. which are slightly in variance .70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75). 1 5 ± O. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9. p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � .6 . 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. l )x 1 0.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2. These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker. Vol 1 ..03)x 1 0.1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J . y.6 6 (0.
2 Atmospheric Drag.7. Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). equatorial coordinate system. but will not be presented here. 7 Drag. the drag coefficient. 9 .. There are a few ctmtiol). s 9.Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 .s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . and other parameters. Therefore . term) to the RSW sy stem. by definition. However. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . Thus. A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. The equations are formulated in the geocentric . simply use r3 r= where . frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). To do this. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . Vol 1 . so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point .. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. p 147). 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) .Sec. care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 .77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric.. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth .
9 m p C O A . altitude above an oblate Earth. equatorial coordinate system.ie. z refer to the geocentric. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here.7 . atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . 9 .7 . Equation (9 .424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9.t b ae ==ic. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. etc. but the reader can find this in other documents.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo). y . .78) z .ilc coffc. Radiation pressure. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. though small.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y .lli.3 Radiation Pressure. In the geocentric. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x.
4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates. m = mass of vehicle (grams) . .1 5) . 7 . but a major force . iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 .4.4 Thrust. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . y. 9 . EXERCISES 9.79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. See equation (9.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm). Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming.4349 0 x . 9 . 1 Verify the development of equation (9 .25). Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. z directions. m (9. but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation.2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . . Prove this assertion . 9.Ch. 9 . the variation of eccentricity. 9 where A = cross section f = 4.3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method.
A. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Vol VI. and Wl). London . R. Planetary Coordinates for the. Allione . Inc. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. * 9. 5 . New York.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . John Wiley and Sons. Robert M . L. Methods of Celestial Mechanics. D. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. M.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . 1 967. LIST OF REFERENCES 2. Baker.445). Brouwer..l 005 . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. G. Ralston . New York. Academic Press. M. New York." NASA CR. Moulton . 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon.ittouck. * 9 . 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. and Clemence. Feb 1 968. . * 9 . DC. 1 . Washington. J . A.000 n mi. 4. Blackford. 9 . New York. Academic Press. Guidance. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. M. . and Wilf. 9 9 . Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. 1 960. 6. The Macmillan Co . . F . Mendez. 1 96 1 . Years 1 9601 980. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . S . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. M. 1 9 1 4. C . 3 . "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. L. Jr .
New York. R . McGrawHill.Ch . . Jr and Makemson. Townsend. New York. Vol 1 . John Wiley and Sons. 1 95 3 . New York. John Wiley and Sons. Washington. The Computation of Orbits. New Yark. W . M . 1 4 . Herget. 8 . Inc. Longmans. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. Smart. 1 0. Methods of Orbit Determination. . A stronautical Guidance . New York. R. E . Inc. C. Published privately by the Author. DC . 1 95 6 . Th e Determination of Orbits. 1 968 . Maud W. McGrawHill. Paul. 2nd ed. B . P . Dynamical A stronomy . 9 . Cambridge University Press. 1 967. L. G. Ann Arbor. Orbital Flight Handbook. New York. P.. 1 6. 1 3 . NASA SP33 . 1 5 . 1 964. M. D. New York. R. 1 1 . The Macmillan Co. Methods of A strodynamics. Dubyago . 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). Part 1 . 1 963. Jr. Hildebrand. 1 96 1 . Academic Press. 1 2. H. 1 96 5 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Robert M. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . Battin. Baker. Plumber. 1 948 . Michigan. Escobal. Celestial Mechanics. A . Escobal. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. F . New York.
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.. 'Derived from those values of Il .922786 NM 1 3 . and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 . r.68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . 2593 6.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 . r. English Units Metric Units 2.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. Speed Unit I� TU. 44686457 min 6378... Ile Angular Rotation. . Canonical Units I DU.9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .9053682 8 km' . 1 Center. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4.05883 36565 � TV. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter.. 1 97 5 .092567257 x 107 ft 3963 . Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . 1 328 2 1 days 9. 1 .4959965 x 1 0' km 5 . 3.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter.24764 11sec 806 ..77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 . 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. we 0. I DU� TUi.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4. 2506844773 deg min 7.
foot = 0.07 1 0 1 50424 4 . 1 2 64963205 0 . i. .01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .3 14 .08 1 52366 0 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii. 1f = 3 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .8 9.77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .4 3 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.239446309 x 1 0. there is no roundoff or truncation.e .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .2342709 5 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .
velocity . I DEFINITIONS Vector. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. force and acceleration. Unit Vector. Examples are displacement. speed. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. C. If A i s a vector . The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. K) and (p. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. J. 43 1 . time or any real signed number. (Example : 3 or A). Thus. Examples are mass.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . temperature .relationships involving vector quantities. length of a vector . A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . Q. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. W). Scalar. not a null or zero vector.
Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. B and C are coplanar vectors. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. and A and B are not collinear. 1 Similarly. . Coplanar Vectors. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude .. If A. regardless of the position of their origins.
From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . The "dot" product of two vectors A and B.l ) C.2. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.. is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin.B which is the same as A + (B). denoted by A • B.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A . e I I l (C . V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C . Scalar or Dot Product. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. l .2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.C.1 ) I AI cos B .
J =K . That is.8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . The cross product of two vectors A and B. B and C form a right handed system.22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.1=J . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. A o A = Aft.K= 1 I .(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible . . denoted by A x B .. J .24) (C. < 180° ) AxB =C .(B + C) = A .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A . K are unit orthogonal vectors. is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them.434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A .J = J o K=K o I = O where I . then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + .B + A . 23 ) (C. sma l lest ang le ( L e .
e < In fact A x B = .(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C. J.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. K are unit orthogonal vectors.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C.C. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . then A X B = O.
from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C.29) Scalar Triple Product. BI C1 .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .
l 3) (C. denoted b y A x (B x C) . is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .2.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .1 2) (C.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 . The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .2. Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.C.1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .B3 C) + A ( B3 C .21 4) C. The vector triple produce. 2.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.2.
YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of . then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + .... .. thus .. ...9... .. x J Then the velocity relative to the (I.... K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P..... " .. v C P K y ..438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o .......with itself.. dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ... ..
.= . dr v = . the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path.C.= .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .3 b. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. v = wT . VE LOCITY 439 which. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . In this special case then.
Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . range rate . and of the satellite (R and V). altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . Az. azimuth rate. EI. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. EI. and altitude above mean sea level are specified .APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. The radar determines p. elevation rate . It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . longitude. latitude of the launch site. The input to TRACK should be range. p. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . azimuth. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. elevation. From the 440 . positive to the east) of the launch site. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. Its geodetic latitude. D . radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . The input to SITE should be latitude.
040075. REAL LONG. . y. . 1 4923608.0027379093®2®PI®D .74933340. .8 N 7 8 .044 1 8440. 8 0.74933340.7 . . . An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. 5 7 5 for data set 3).MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .08 30. 0) = (. Input UT as a decimal (i.7 5.2045 72 1 6 .5 . UT. GST. 5. . . . LST) .05 1 37. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 .62624920) = (. UT. 2 2 29. 9 W 0 1 9 05.27907 599.75 components are : (. E 7 2 . W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . . LST.05 1 9 5238) . : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . DAY. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . PI . 6 8 2. GST _ 1 . If the above program is used.5 1 35 . INTEGER DAY.07 1 05 . 007 N 1 04 .57 76. .7 .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . 22 1 0.. Following are five sample sets of data for site location. e . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4.01 2035 7 5 . 6 . = (. Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 . observation time and radar tracking data.75 1 003 9 1 .5 3 4 ON 4 5.3 . 3 315 . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 .63745829) z = . END OF LSTIME .775 1 80 1 9. LST and LONG are in radians.8 S 1 7 5. 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST.D. PI.26347 1 9 8 . 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . BEGIN REAL D. 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . GST.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 .5 3 0 .5 90 .48 201. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI).
Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth.4 1 4 2. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK).8 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach. 01 . 0) (.9 1 .5 0 . . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. elliptical.703 . 49 0 0 2. 05 . 5 .293 . 48 4 0 2.49 0 . rectilinear. From this information you are required to fmd : a. 1 0 0 2 .001 5 30 0 .4 1 4 0 0 65 . d.001 1 0 . 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . 0 1 7 45 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. 1 29579 1 9 .1 0 22. hyperbolic).707 .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29.2 VI . 00001 . b . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.1 . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 .85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse .1 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. 7 0 3 VK .4 1 722472 .6 0 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. c. Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. 6 2 ..9 1 046 1 80. .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . The type of trajectory (circular. . parabolic. Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 .9 0 2 0 .01 .
The following data is given in e arth canonical units. RJ 61 . 1 5 0689 1 . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. To determine when convergence has occurred.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations.7 .jiL d.025 9 1 7 . Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 . Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x.3 D. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used.3 1 0 .4 of the text for guidance . x should never be greater than 2m. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. 1 38878 .5 0 0 . 61. and dt/dx for each iteration.8 . b.5 . c. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x.0. you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. a . Also for an ellipse. 61 (calculated) .5 . If your iteration process is efficient.
. For instance note that y can never be negative . 1 362596) = (0.70655823.00006057 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set... It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). For ellipses limit z to (211')2 .6 for 1 :::. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points.. 00 1 074 .5 1 ..1 . One of the data sets tests this situation..... and sign (7T .w)..444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.999 o 1 03 D. 0 . Use the universal variable method to solve the problem.6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. 0. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations. 1 65 08 . I�I :::. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 .. 3.1 .002 1 7 7 1 .01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z.t c l :::. t :::. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives. Given r l ' r2 . Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. 1 06 1 0.. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . bt. 1 8 1 .4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later.9 20 . 1 0. R2 V2 = (0. 0003 6 1 . I t ..
D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM .0 . location of the tracking site . .S = (0.6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D. . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program. Check for this case .8 5 +1 .5 .201 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .2 .4804847 1 .66993 1 97 .1 specifies the long way.4 1 . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .9378 1 789) = 4.3 . 1 2298 1 44. print out a message and go to the next data set .1 .2 . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. 1 92 1 62 1 2 . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target.6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite.6 .7 . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.3 .5 .66986992. so a check should be made for that condi tion..2 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT. The following data i s i n canonical units.7 0 1 0 20 1 .4 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.1 . time of radar observation. t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.6 . 1 . Also print t:J) and a for each data set .4 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z .4 .6 . and the location of an interceptor launch site .7 0 1 0 1 .2 1 . x. 7 for further discussion o f this project .3 . The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .6 .0001 +1 .6 . See section 5 . y. .
The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . e . Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. To make your program flexible . KEPLER and GAUSS. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . and the number of timeofflight increments desired . This will aid you in verifying your solution . c. Times should be read in as minutes. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . Make some provision to print out all of your input data. the desired increment size for reaction time . TRACK. Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. b . f.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. the number of reaction times desired . Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . g. d.45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. When you point out your arrays.3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . the starting value of timeofflight increment size.
5 p = 1 86.9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .1 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.92 deg/sec 1 .6 1 3 km EI = 56. When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .038 .0.74. 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8. of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.338 **** **** **** 10 8 .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4. 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 . 844 **** **** **** 35 7 . 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 . of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.
448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LATL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .
INDEX .
.
109 B akerNunn camera. 4 1 . 1 00. 5 3 . 74 geocentricequatorial. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 1 8 3 mean. 24 height adjustment. 1 620. 3 3 Circular satellite speed.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 3 9 0 station. 24 Apparent solar time. 94. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 423 Azimuth. B urnout. 3 3 period of. 5 8 Aristotle. 3 8 9 . 1 09. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 279 C anonical units. 4 3 0 Conversions. 102 Apoapsis.1 3 1 G auss problem. 56 Celestial sphere. 296 geometry. 60 Argument of periapsis. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 1 22. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 28 1 B arker's equation. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 9 3 . 4 gravitational h armonics. 2427 Apogee. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 2 1 2 B asis. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 20.9 8 gravitational constant. 429 Astronomical Unit. 1 8 8 . 2 1 . 1 3 3 B inomial series. 374 Computer projects. 3 4 Collision cross section. 1 09 Angular momentum. 277320 computation chart. 60 and universal v ariables. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 246 Brahe. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 84. 1 5 . 5 5 heliocentric. 5 7 principal direction. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 5358. 1 4. 4043 Celestial equator. 429 flattening. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 297299 451 . 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 54 orbit plane. 3 2 5 . 84. 203 Aphelion. 84 ecliptic. 422 gravitational parameter. 74 BMEWS. Tycho. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 9498 transformations. 3 5 8 . 7483 Coordinate systems. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 5 3 . 54 fundamental plane. 6. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 8 4 Copernicus. 57 perifocal. 429 lunar distance. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 349 Angle of elevation. 2 3 4. 1 8 5 true. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 3 2 3 masses.
84. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to.1 1 6 Gravitation. 1 4 0 . 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 3 00 launching. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 1 8 2. Carl Fredrich.1 4 3 . 2 1 2. 25 1 . 3 1 . 2 1 2. 221 hyperbolic. 3 90 . 56. 227 418 ( y ) . 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 3 22 trajectories. 2 4 .1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 1 0 9 Ellipse.1 3 1 Direct ascent. 4 1 9.riod o f . 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 1 8 1 . 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 3 6 8 local. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 8 0 f and g expressions. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 1 22. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 22827 1 . Elliptical orbits. 1 0 6 precession. 1 0 9 . G auss problem. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 1 54. 20 1 202 f and g series. 306 EarthMoon system. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 3 0 . 4 G ravitational parameter.1 90. 40. 1 1 7. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 25. 4 3 3 Drag. 444 algorithm. 2 1 . 2 9 . 1 4 G ravitational potential. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 58 from position a n d velocity. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 2 1 ff. 3 5 . 1 04 Escape speed.2 1 2 parabolic. 1 8 8 . 7 G ravitational constant. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous.452 Declination. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 25 1 258. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 60 Dot product.3 3 pe. 1 7 equations. 6 1 Elevation angle. 26 ff. 264 eccentric anomalies. 2 0 . 62 Ecliptic. 1 0 twobody. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 62 vector. apparent. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 1 42. 9 4 Geoid.93 . 3 5 0 Epoch. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 2 9 7 . 8 7 . 94 . 4 G alileo.1 5 5 Direct motion. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 1 8 8. 2 3 3 . 3 5 . 5 5 true anomaly a t . 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 1 0 3 G round track. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 4 Newton's law of.3 9 6 Energy. 26. 2 3 0 . 9. 423 424 Earth oblate. 3 89 nbody. 2 5 8 264 piteration method.3 0 6 numerical integration. function o f true anomaIles. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 2 8 2 time. zenith angle. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 1 0 6 mean. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 54 Elements of orbit. 5 8 . 1 60 low altitude. 60 true longitude at.
3 89 trajectories. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 247 Newton's laws. 1 5 1 . 3 8 1 Hohmann. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 1 9 8 . 5 8 Longitude. Isaac. Edmund. 1 5 6. 220 Mean motion. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 3 69 . 9 9 . 1 0 twobody. 1 7 Local sidereal time. Greenwich. 2. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. true at epoch. 1 4 1 . 3 44 . 60 Lunar trajectories. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 2 1 . 3 9 6 constraints. 1 1 7 Latitude. 1 Kepler's equation. 1 8 8 . gravitational parameter. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 3 5 0 free return. 3 65 noncoplanar. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 1 8 5 . 94 geodetic. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit.1 8 1 first. 3 9. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous.1 6 6.3 05. 2 Heliocentric constants. 1 7 7. 5 Newton. 60 Latus rectum. 2 7 7 . 3 7 0 Integration. 3 1 Moon. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 3. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 1 56 vector. 6 rotation of. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 3 64. 207 I nclination. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 54 Heliocentric transfer. numerical rotation of. 62 longitude of ascending. 1 03 Minor axis. 1 5 6. 3 2 6 Line of apsides.3 8 4 general coplanar. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 6 . 1 57 Line of nodes. argument of at epoch. 1 1 7 derivatives. 2 second. 22 1 . equations o f nbody. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 8 6 . 3 24326. 6. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 8 Node ascending. 2. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 94 reduced. 3 57 . 3 0 3 . 3 27. 5 1 . 58 regression. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 62 . 4. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 3 7 9 . 3 62 . 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 20 Least squares solution. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 1 8 Influence coefficients. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 1 52 Mass of planets. 3 1 6 Injection.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 3 8 . 3 69. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed.I N D EX H alley. 238. 3 24 . 22. 3 1 Manned flight. 3 80 Kepler. limitations. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 2 8 8 . 2 H alley's comet. 1 4 1 . 2. 8 9 . 7. 2. 1 . J ohann. 1 02 Mean solar time. 3 9 6 M otion. 2 6 5 27 1 . 1 0 1 . 234. 1 6 3 .9 3 Mu ( � ) . 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 1 0 2 Meridian. 3 59374.8 9 derivatives i n . 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 3 26 orbital elements of. 1 80 third.
3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 94 Potential energy reference. 1 1 7 . 56. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary.9 8 Optical sensors. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 3 6 1 shape of. 20. 2427 argument of. 1 5 6 . 3 1 . 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 57 Perigee. 2 1 . 1 1 7 . 424 R ange and rangerate data. 1 3 Rendezvous.1 22 from position and velocity. 58 determination from position and velocity. 3 60 physical characteristics. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 220 classical formul ations. 3 90 . 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 26527 1 Residuals. 4 1 4 sum squared. 203.1 22. 3 8 7 . two body. 2 1 Osculating orbit.1 76 inplane changes. 3 59 . 27 1 273 from three position vectors.3 44 Periapsis. 1 90 Numerical integration. 34. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 83 from optical sightings. 3 3 Perturbations. 24 height adjustment. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 3 3 3 . 3 9 0 Relative motion. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 423 due to the moon. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 2 0 . 440448 Q parameter. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 60 Right ascension. 2 1 2 computer solution. flightpath angle. 1 0 3 P rojects. 1 9 3 . 1 62 O rbit.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 5 symbols. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 1 69 Orbit determination. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 443 algorithm. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 2 1 . 3 44 . 1 62 .1 1 6 from two positions and time. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 3 24 . 20 Polar radius. 1 0 9 Rectification. 424 thrust. 2 4 Periselenium.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion.1 59 examples. 3 24 . 1 1 7. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 3 8 6 general. 6 1 from sighting directions. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 1 09 . 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 1 5 1 . 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) .1 50.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 6 1 o f moon. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. true anomaly. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian.454 Nu (v ) .3 9 0 Encke's method. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 1 6 Potential function.3 7 9 lunar. 4 1 9 . 22727 1 Orbit plane. 2 4 . 3 4 1 Period. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 9 3 . 420 c riteria for choosing. 4 1 2425 errors.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 425 Phi ( � ) . 3 9 0 Parabola. 5 1 .
1 0 1 . 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 23.1 40 Selenocentric. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 2 1 5 hyperbola.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 9 1 . 1 6. 425 Time. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 5 8 Time zones. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum.1 6 6 True anomaly.1 40 errors.8 9 derivatives in. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 58 Semi minor axis. 1 52 Station coordinates. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 3 6 1 Solar time. 4 3 1 Velocity. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites.4 3 9 Velocity components. 3 27. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 287 low. 9 3 . 4 3 7 . 1 9 1 development of. 4. 9. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 1 8 1 . 4 3 7 . 9498 Sum square d numerical method.1 69 Hohmann. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 40.9 8 of planets.1 0 4 Solar system. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 1 3 2. 5 radio interferometers. 8 6 . 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 20 Semimajor axis. 3 60 physical characteristics. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 1 3 6 radar. 7 Universal time. 23. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 2 8 8 . 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 44 1 mean solar. 1 8 8 universal variables.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 1 1 Units.1 0 9 apparent solar. 85 Traj ectory equation. 2 8 7 maximum range.3 59 orbital elements. 1 0 3 universal. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 2 1 7 parabola.1 9 0 if. 2062 1 0 use of. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 1 60 Synodic period.4 3 9 d o t product. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 1 8 8 . 3 1 Sensors. 9 Sidereal time. 2 3 5 evaluations of.1 8 8 . 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 1 3 5 ellipse. 1 8 (see Nbody . 1 9 high. 30. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 1 6 3 . 60 True longitude at epoch. 20. 1 5. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 99. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters.1 4 assumptions. 40 Unit vectors. canonical. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 1 8 1 .1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 8 4 . 1 02. definition of. 1 0 1 . 1 03 local sidereal. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 1 1 . 1 9 3 physical significance of. 1 6 Sputnik. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 3 5 8 . 1 9 6 derivatives of. 6. 4 3 3 triple product. Universal gravitation. 9 9 . 1 9 1 225. 1 6 6. 425 Thrust perturbation. 1 3 8 optical. 2 1 at epoch. 1 3 1 . 4 3 7 unit. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 9 9 . 1 3 1 . 99. 1 0 1 Spacetrack.
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