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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
M. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. J . . and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . Dorothy Fryar . D.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.R.D.E. Jan Irvine . Ronald Chaney ( artist) .B. United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.W. The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged.
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. 2 . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . 2 .2 The NBody Problem . . . 1 . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . 2 . 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . 61 . . . . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . . . . 2. . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . . 1 . . . 1 . . . . . . 93 . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 2. . _ 1 . . . . . . . List of References . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . . Exercises . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . 1 . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . 2 . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . 1 . . . . . . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . 2 .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 01 . . . 2. . . . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . 1 . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . . . . . . . . . ..2 Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . .12 . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . .3 3 . . . . . . .1 3 . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . . . .
. . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . 390 . . . . 25 1 . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . 7. . .5 . . 27 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . 344 352 355 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . 275 . 379 . . . . . . 297 6.5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . 8 . . . . . . . 8. . . 3 14 List o f References . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . 359 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Histor ical Background . . . . . . . . . . . 258 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exerc ises . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. 3 20 . . . . . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . . . . . . 3 84 . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . 357 . . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . .2 The Solar System . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 27 . . . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . . List o f Re ferences .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . . . . . List of References . . . . . . .1 8. 333 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . 279 6 . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . 3 87 9. . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . . . . . . 273 . . . . . 26 5 . . . . . . . . 3 85 9. . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Reference s . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . . . xi 5 . . . . . . . . . . 380 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 449 . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . . .6 9.4 9. . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs .5 . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 9. . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. Tycho. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. he might have been put into a quart mug. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. 1 642 . the year Galileo died. the poor and sickly mathematician. Newman! . yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. JarnesR. as his mother told him in later years.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1.CHAPTER 1 TWO. the noble and aristocratic Dane. Kepler.
Kepler's laws were only a description.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " .2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. discoverer of Halley's comet. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . necessarily moved in circles. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. Since the time of Aris totle . It fit. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. with the sun at a focus . The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion.1 Still. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. One day in 1 685 .1 Kepler's Laws. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world.1. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. 2 1. Finally . TWO. therefore . not an explanation of planetary motion .
The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. t he Principia. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. 4 1. "Why. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. or . 1 . of course . Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries .2 Newton's Laws of Motion. without mentioning the b et. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. casually posed the question. Dissatisfied with this explanation. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . Give me a few days and I shall find it for you.1.Sec. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. in ellipses. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. they speculated whether a force . advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. more simply. when he recovered from his shock.
.n ( 1 . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 . • . We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll.'�V .11 Newton's Law of Motion .1. The universal gravitational constant. G. .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites.. Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. Note that equation ( 1 .4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch.67Ox 1 0.G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. 1 2) Fg = .12) t o equat i. 1.1 ) (1 . / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . has the value 6. 1 .1 . .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. / .1 . . " Figure 1 . 1 .1 . . .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system.
an earth satellite . I I I Figure 1.. 1. m2 • m3 m m.. . All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion.e. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present.2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i.. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i.. At any given time in its j ourney.. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. In addition.e.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . j. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. thrust and solar radiation pressure . propellants) to pro duce thrust. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. . I " '. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation.II I I I " I I I I :. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. X I .Sec 1.. or a planet). a lunar or interplanetary probe.�I '.. . . The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. etc. . f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . An important force.
This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities..1 . regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. Y.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. Thus. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X..���Y � X n 1. Although small. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 .. 2. 1 equator. • • • z FOTHER . variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. are discussed in Chapter 3 .2' The NBody Problem Figure . These effects. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells.
2..5 ) The other external force . solar radiation pr essure. (1. etc . .2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . m'J JI 3 (rj j) .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. thrust.2 ·1 is T composed of drag. F gn where =  Gm .2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself.2. The v ector sum.I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes.3) Obviously .Se c 1. . Fg. . equation ( 1 . II 3 (1.
2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma. z coordinate system. (1. Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time . d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL..8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL.I) and all other external forces .. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0. .28 would not be zero ..I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x ..F I dt TOTAL dt (1.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 . y .. Thus. is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ.1 + F OTHER ' (l .27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'..26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion... In other words.
Y.G And for i = 0 .2.1 2) . Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. vector. Equation (1 . mi 0). Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.2.2. Then writin g equation 1 . F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc .2.Sec 1 .11) 2.G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X .1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. m· J (�i) . unpowered flight. The only remaining forces then are gravitational. r JI. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .29) is a second order . m . we get j = j � *i 1 3 .29) reduces to = r· 1 n . expelling mass or relativistic effects.1 0) for i = 1. Equation ( 1 . sun and planets .. equation ( 1 .2.. ( 1. mn may be the moon. nonlinear.10) ( . ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form..
1 4) gives. Since r 1 2 = . .1 From equation ( 1 . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 . 2 1 7 ) ..1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.2.2 1 6) each bracket. n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.21 1 ) and ( 1 .2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .1 2) into equation ( 1 .r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence. 2.10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch. .2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.2.
the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion .2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. Table 1 . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 .3. Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison.2x l O 8 2.6x l O lO 1 . sun and planets on a near earth satellite . s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies.2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n . There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . 1 . The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies.3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. 1 x l 0 10 3. The bodies are spherically symmetric . .9x l O 8 7 . Howe ver .1 Simplifying Assump tions. To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of.3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3. This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. 1.89 6x l 0 4 2. mi orbit about the earth.Sec.
Y'. . he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. " s However.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Let (X'. 1 2. Y'. Y. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. without relation to anything external.. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. 3 2 ) . Y'. remains always similar and irrnovable. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . For the time being. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'.3.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 .1 ) (1 . which "in its own nature. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1.2 The Equation of Relative Motion. Let (X.1 .3. 1 . let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame .12 TWO. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. Y' .3.
Z'). velocity. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X.32) from equation (1. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'.33). ballistic missiles.33) . noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. Z) with its origin in the central body. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. Y'. (1 . Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'.31) we have = _ r . 1.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1..3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. GIM+ml r Equation (1. Z'). Note that since the coordinate set (X.y X' Figure 1 .33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. Note that this is the same as equation (1. and acceleration in a nonrotating. Y. Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. Y.Sec.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r. Y. Y'.
3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. called the gravitational GM. Then equation 1 . 3 ·4 ) . the mass of the orbiting body . Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. 1 some planet or the sun. an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. It is convenient to define a parameter. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m.3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM." That is. "kinetic .14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . If m is not much less than M. 1." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . m. M. If you think ab out the model we have created. then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. will be much less than that of the central body . From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative ." for another form called "potential energy .
5. But what about the arbitrary co nstant .4 frame (the large mass) does not change . Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. dt 1:L = O. 1. that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .!!. C. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . N 0 tlcmg that . r 2. which appears in . Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 .4.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. Therefore. ( 1 .Sec. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . 1 . To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity.lL\I r dt JJ.r ) = � r �(r . 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O . The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . v =r and v= f.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. then 1 .' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero.
If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. dt . This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . rX .  ( 1 . that the specific mechanical energy. the earth. therefore .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. Cross multiply equation ( 1 . �. O. at what distance . The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . e . r. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy .g. The expression for � is �. 3 4) by r 2 . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion.fL 3 .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth.42) 1 . why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . We conclude . of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . Noticing that . Since in general a x a= 0. The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary.4. In other words. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O.iL (rxv) = O.2 Conservation of angular momentum.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' .
h. called specific angular momen tum. we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . (1 . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . 1 . we have shown that the specific angular momentum. </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. Therefore .41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. Therefore . I Figure 1 .The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec.4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v." "Up" simply means away .41 Flightpath angle . But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane .43) v I h = r x v.
4. Also find the flight·path angle. Determine the specific mechanical energy .8143 r • v > 0 . to express h in terms of the flight·path angle .2778 J + 1 0 . We can now define the direction of the velocity vector.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. ¢. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). and the specific angular momentum. c o s ¢=Jl. ¢. = 0. respectively.8143 = 35. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0.899 X 107 ft.7 1 37J+O. v. r = 12. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. J and K are unit vectors.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS . V =5. however. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are .54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. h. 1 85 2 1 + 6. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient.0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. (4. • ( 1 . 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. In an inertial coordinate system. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. Ch. I h = rv c o s ¢. the zeni th angle .420 . &. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma).5936 1 + 5 .4274I+2.
While this equation (1.33) is simple.. we see that J!:. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .. Also note that J.Sec.1!y r .( r) r. JJ. err..1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. its complete solution is not. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity..& .I.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 .3 3 r r r since r • i = f .5.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4. 1 .51) The left side of equation (1.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.. (h xr) =. 1 . (1. �t (B· . .5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see.
p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. (1. I r 1 + e cos V p (1. +(81J. c and a . we obtain = 1 h2 /g . which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation. + r o Since.54) . To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. Equation (1. 5. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B .. h2 where vector r. V.54) .9 cos V (1..2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle. . is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. v. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. in general.53) 1 .
51 illustrates an ellipse. the flightpath angle. Before discussing the factors . hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. 3. 5 . We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . must change so as to keep h constant.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. ellipse. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. parabola. not just ellipses. an exchange of energy between the two forms. 4 . however.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. 1.5.44) 1 .Sec.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. As r and v change along the orbit. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. Although Figure 1. (See Figure 1 .41 and equation (1 . There is. remains constant. cp. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. 2. potential and kinetic.
22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . If. the section is a parabola. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . 1 Figure 1 . There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. or a single point.52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. If the plane cuts both nappes. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines . Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. Figure 1. The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone).5 2 illustrates this definition . the section is an ellipse. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone.
has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. F and F'. F. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned.53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . F'.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . The secondary or vacant focus. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. The prime focus.Sec 1 .53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . Figure 1 .
" "perihelion" or "aphelion. It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 .5 3 . ( 1 . Thus. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 .55) p = a (1 ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c.54)). is c�lled the semimaj or axis. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". The dimension.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . In the parabola. the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a." etc. for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . a. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse ").e2).
58) 1 .4 The Eccentricity Vector.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 .52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. 53). 5. 1e ( 1 . 1. since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. 1 ( 1 . Quite obviously. By comparing equations ( 1 . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe.53) and ( 1 . tL r ( 1 . In the derivation of equation ( 1 . ( 1 . .Sec .1 0) . B. 5.= a( 1 +e) . . we encountered the vector constant of integration. e = BltL..56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e).59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . the trajectory equation. which points toward periapsis.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = .
1. and that as h is . If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . is equivalent to increasing h.5. v.p. e . p. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms.p. Therefore.. v)v.1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. e = ( v v ) r . 1 . 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. e = V x (r x v) .1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. we get • p. of the satellite. equation ( 1 . h.6.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle.6 RELATING &. x v.53) and equation ( 1 . ( 1 . r  r . v ) v .(r .. r r p. By inspection. ( 1 .61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). Figure 1 . progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. By comparing equation ( 1 .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. th . /or any orbit. is zero. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth.
 . v.61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle.e ) ..1 ) predicts . I '.42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . 1 01) .. .increased the parameter. We can then write.� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 .. 57) p rp = a(1 . of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 . is zero. . .F �. . . p. (1 .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . Figure 1 .6. .44).�= � . r I . as a corollary to equation ( 1 . R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. . �' " .62) we obtain &. = �.
63) misleading.e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy .63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.6. or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative .56) and equation (1 .1 ) therefore p.5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . Many students find equation ( 1 . the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). a.1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. the energy of a satellite (negative .a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. &. zero.6. You should study it together with Figure 1 . 1 and from equation ( l . Thus. This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive. Figure 1 .
m i .. e is greater than I (a hyperbola). mi. For a given satellite . the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . m i .Jf5P. e is exactly 1 (a parabola).897  e2 ) = 3. .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . 0 . specific mechanical energy. 2& = 3 . 6 ..Sec 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. The student should be aware of this pitfall. Determine its altitude at apogee.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. r p = rES + 200 = 3643. 9 n . m i . and semimaj or axis. if & is zero . 3 n . if & is positive . & = 2 .. ra = 1 � e = 4453. Namely. = 6. and specific angular momentum.0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. 64) Notice again that if & is negative. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 and perigee altitude 200 n .  a=  '!:. semilatus rectum. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008.7 n .
m i . specifically r + 1 . The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.855 = 6 . h =. the distance between the foci is ( 1 . We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit.30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a .7· 1 ) B y inspection.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant. Since an ellipse is a closed curve.mi. 1 .7 . Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant.7· 1 . The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . 1 n. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n.7·2) . = 5.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. I ( 1 . an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . 1 Geometry of the Ellipse. When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection.= 2. 2a = r a + r = 8097.JpjJ.r Ell = 1 009. ( 1 .6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a .
Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 . If you refer to Figure 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since.73) ( 1 . 2 b.7.Sec.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . when rearranged .1 .44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.72. in general.76) . equation ( 1 . e is defined as combine to yield da.72) and ( 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll.75) which.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit. 1 . Since r + r' = 2a. you will see that the .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v. 2 ( 1 .7.7 . Using equation ( 1 .7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 .
76) as ( 1 . d A. Figure 1 . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle. 1 Figure 1 .77) dt 2 = 11 dA. d v. is given by the expression So. we can rewrite equation ( 1 .32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .73 Differential element of area .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area.
77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 . the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius.8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit.78) b =) a 2 . Equation ( 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . a.79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 .75). proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii.8.8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . Thus. Naturally. ( 1 .77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. 1 . During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . Integrating equation ( 1 .8 . 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . 55) and ( 1 . Of course. so equation ( 1 .1 ) 1 .79). since h = /JlP. incidentally.Sec.e2 ) = JaP and. 1 Circular Satellite Speed.79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . From equations ( 1 .
B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 .1 Geometry of the Parabola.9.000 ft/sec. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction.1 . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again. circular speed is about 26 . rCS' from the energy equation. F or a low altitude earth orbit. the periapsis radius is just r 1 . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know.1 ) .9.34 TWO .9. The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . 1 . We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius. Another is that. The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola.
r. Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity. Theoretically.Sec." 1 . first at a general point a distance .57).2 Escape Speed.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 .92) . Of course. from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � . as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   . We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .E.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed. 1 . there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back.9.
5 7). a. the semimajor axis. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude . must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field.1 57. 53374 106 ft = = 36. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1.Since the specific mechanical energy.1/2a. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets.92) =21 . of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. 8.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . b . 36 TWO .000 ft/sec. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 .400 nm above the surface it is only 26.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 . = j.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. a.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . As you would expect. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : .
8 n.53374 106 ft 2 43. where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 . rb i t P 7087. 1 . + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn. m i . 8n.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . m i .amr iO. 06748 106 ft 7087.Sec.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21.
Obviously. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field .38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. F . b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . 1 0. The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . If we consider the lefthand focus. 1 . as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . The parameters a. then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit.1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). (L l O. instead.1 ) . 1 1 . 1 0. If. then the righthand branch represents the orbit.
but since Sec.1 . which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet.0. 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. 1 02) becomes ( 1 . the smaller will b e the turning angle . The turning angle . 0. is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . on the other hand. 1 . 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. 1 . we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . If..for the hyperbola. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed. is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . 1 0. we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. V 00' . The angle between the asymptotes. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . 1 0.
B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. It is. the concept is convenient and is widely used. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . however. 1 0. 1 . a million miles) from earth. 1 . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. for all practical purposes it has escaped. we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. It is a fact. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . In other words. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories.3 Sphere of Influence. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. of course . 1 (1 .40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. Astronomers call thi� ' . it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed.
1 1 . A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . earth. then the value of the gravitational parameter.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . e.l. Using canonical units determine & . If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. 1 1 .1 . The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . or other planet. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. J. h.Sec. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. r a' r p' . p. 5 9362 5 . Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . moon. 1 The Reference Orbit. 1 . 1 . 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. For other problems where the earth. In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) .x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit.
1 . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 .42). � = . 5 D U e �2 _ /J.I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 67 D U �/T U � = . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . Alt = . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1.
= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .. = 3.5 7)  r a = 1 e p.64) Find ra from equation (1. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .61) Find h from equation (1.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1. 5 D U ". 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t.Sec. = 2.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 5 D U = 9. 1 .= 4 . 25D U EB = 4.58) Find r p from equation (1.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 .
000 ft/sec and 4 .2.1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . b . 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. 2J AK IJK h = AI . Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. 1 . 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. 6 J 1 . 5 81) 1 . &= . 2K DU 2 /TU .. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI .2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . (Answer : e = 1 . Find the specific energy of the trajectory.3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi.1 . a. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. Find the eccentricity of the orbit.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . c. Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. 1 EXERCISES 1 . The orbit eccentricity is 0. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. respectively. . Why. 1 . Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. in general.000 n mi.44 TW O. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. Find the period of the orbit.
or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). 7 Prove that d. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . hyperbolic.6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth.000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. p b. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. r x ft ) = 3. r v c. 1 .Ch . ¢ =3 = 1 . V ft/sec. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . mi during descent? (Ans. 2K + . &.6 18 = 59° 58') . p 1.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. elliptical. (Ans.5 DU DU DU d. a a. 0 1K v = l + l .5 rpe r i gee = 1 .123K = 1 . 354 10" r 1 . D U /T U DU e. 1. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. 91 J space. 4K r r v = .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular.
c. p = 2. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = . p = 2. derive values for e for circles. 1 2 Given that e = �.000 ft. p = 6.) 1 .2 e = . Determine the maximum altitude attained. e=O e = . sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 .000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. e. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. (Neglect atmo spheric drag. b .6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . d . 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . P 1 . ellipses and a hyperbolas. p = 6. p = 3. 1 . 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.
c. 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. Show that : b. 207 1 .V O U EB /TU EB ) . What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 .6. rc = at +b = 0. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans .Ch . * 1 . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v. When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. 1 . 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: .
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis.Xw UK vectors. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . Yw '+. the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system.2. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . When describing a heliocentric orbit .4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System.Sec. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. you may use the same Figure 2. 2 . 2 . their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. Q and W respectively. the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation.
is substituted for a in the above list. p.1 as follows : 1 .the angle from to periapsis measured h. T. 2. w. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. between the ascending node and the periapsis point.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . Frequently the semilatus rectum. i. Similarly.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. Obviously . 6. Another system. if you know a and e you can compute p. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. Q longitude of the ascending node. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. 4 . The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . shape and orientation of an orbit .the time when the satellite was at periapsis. It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w.3. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time .the angle . between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. in the fundamental plane . time of periapsis passage . a. 2 . The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . 5 . e. 3 . K I I . In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. Instead of argument of periapsis.
Sec.3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.31 Orbital elements . 2 .
" u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . 1 £0 £0 + . Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) ." Direct means easterly. to ' called the "epoch.32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit).3.60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. both of which are always defined .31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. in the plane of the orbit. w and va are all defined. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. From Figure 2. Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. (2 . between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . This is the dire ction in which the sun. then both w and Uo are undefined. earth.1 ) . and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . n=n+w. then b oth W and n are undefined.3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial.
h. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. n must be perpendicular to both K and h. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane .41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . t o .Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . 2. Therefore . How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. 2. vI vJ v K J (2 .42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . To be perpendicular to K. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . n would have to lie in the orbital plane. n and e. 2 .4. The node vector. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. To be perpendicular to h. n.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . h.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 . n an d e.
1 1 )). The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit.3. All three vectors. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. the cosine of the angle . 2 nodes." Specifically . Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . We are only interested in its direction. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 .1 ) (2 . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . Study this figure carefully . n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. The vector.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . In general.4. between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. 2.S . h. is obtained from (2 .2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. An understanding of it is essential to what follows .4.46) Of course . Now that we have h. e.1 . You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. The parameter.4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . p. ex.
(2 . Since Vo is the angle between e and f.1 0) 7 .49) 6.47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° . � � h.4..48) 5 .) e.1 1) . Since Uo is the angle between n and f .:. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.4.Sec.. (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2. Since w is the angle between n and (2.' (2. 2.L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° . (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° . Since n is the angle between I and n. Since i is the angle between K and h. 2 . c o s U o = !!.) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° .) c o S Po = � er (2 .4 3 .) .
If they don't make sense to you. look at the geometry of Figure 2 . 2 z x 8 . With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v. The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2.4. The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative).1 and study it until they do .1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . . 3 .64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .
VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.Sec. 5 DU e == . Figure 2. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 .42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1.
5 e == .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch . 2 3 Figure 2 .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .4 DU p == .\ .
44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.Sec.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 . 2.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .
Using equation (2. Find p using equation (2 . and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth. Find eccentricity.4. [ ( f.= 4D U = 13.(r . n.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 .7 4n . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system)..68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . ml . Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.6. using equation (2 . EEl . f. i.1.i:.. From equation (2.48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane .1 ) p = .. .l h2 . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.47) = . r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node .45 ) Since h =.I:!:. 7 75 . Find inclination.. ) r . e.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 .
Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . = cos . since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis.n = COS . can be determined in this case. . II. va. is undefined. 2 . From equation (2. Find true anomaily ..n. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore . II. for this case .:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However .41 0) v a c os.  Find longitude of periapsis. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis.49) W n · e W. Find argument of periapsis.Sec.. From equation (2 .1 (.!!.1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 . 4 .
45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .E)r(r ..6.70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . v)v] =. = From equation (2. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=.25 EB EB D U EB 7748. 2 Find true longitude o f epoch. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p ..3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .. EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .  then from equation ( 1 .33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .5 .85 n .1 ) Find e.m i .\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2. From equation (2. First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .
va : From equation (2.5 Find the inclination.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. From equation (2 .Sec. 2. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .43) n Find the longitude of ascending node . .11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch. From equation (2.1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.4.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .I Find the true anomaly . I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 .49) w: 0 W = cos.
Let ' s assume that we know p. w and v. shown below. i . We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. lV. i.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 . the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. v. w and va .to. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . that occurs in a given time . This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. changes with time . The method. 2. Of the se six elements. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time .24): ro to. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. consists of two steps.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . n. 8.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. . n.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =.5.5 2) .5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2.ffe si n V (2. 2 elements are given. 8.
54) from equation r (2.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v). A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system. 2.5 i= p 2. Before equation (2.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = . v �[.25 45{) (2.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 . 5P DU E9 (2.54) r = J � [.Sec.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 .
6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. east." 2. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes." The phrase in quotes describes what the . The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. vector represents. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. Certain vectors. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . the direction of the po sitive zaxis. suppose you know the south. For example. east . In other words. For example . A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. or what it represents. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. such as position vectors. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. have a definite starting point . east a!1d up. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . namely.6. and it still represents the same thing. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . its fundamental (xy) plane . 2 2. suppose you know the south. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. direction .
61) . 2.61 illustrates the two frames. 2. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation. Figure 2. ���________� • . y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. V and W along the x ' . Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis.61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite .6. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. Figure 2. expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame .Sec. y ����.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S . and extending along the x. Let us imagine three unit vectors I." In other words." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. : r Y I ex a . y' and z ' axes.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .y Y 75 .
(2. 2 From Figure 2.6.64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .61 we can see that the unit vectors U.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix. We will use subscripts to identify the basis.62) above and equating it with (2.1 ) yields I.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch . thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ). 65) . J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2.
These are summarized belox:: .64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2. 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis. 2 .66) (2.  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .64) above . derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes.67) yields the set of equations (2 . .67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2.Sec. Rotation about the xaxis. 68) B '" (2.69) '" axis. (2 .6.
So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. 2 (2. 1 ). We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.7 . The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch .84 shows the angular relationship between two frames.4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 .61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame .6. Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . a. Figure 2.
61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. Equation (2. all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal. The transpose of the matrix D . denoted by D . We can write equation (2. 2. .Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e .6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order).61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. (i. The inverse of any orth.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative.e. Hence . Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . AB =1= SA ). Fortunately.Sec. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0.1 . In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. Now.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.
basis no ma t . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce . By me mo C. 2 (2. anglo . to p' ter ho w co no.".80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. mu " in cid 'n ce b .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK .". a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. 62.n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . 'o ta t.sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. 6. n t rizing th .ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . tluee b .." a ny mp licat e d .1 2) Figure 2 . axes in to CO ham .". d w .. d wi th .6 . m1 " fo.. d th yo u will b . oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . th. a bl . O c M ma t.. th' O ugh w hi ch on . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . 6. 5 Tmn . gl " n i lly . Perifo ca l to th e G Th .Eq to th e IJ K in at . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . sh ow n in F ig u " Th .
63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems... .63. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . For example .. then Sec . Figure 2..The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. Thus if a i ' aJ . To .. a K and ap .. 2 . aQ. from Figure 2. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I .. 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit . R..
P K · P In Figure 2.6. B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. ! • P. I • p I · Q J . Similarly. Q I ' W J · W K .sin n sin w cos i . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. a �. J and K Thus R = J . the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .1 4) R23 = . 2 from their dot product . Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 .63 . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. since I and P are unit vectors.cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .6.sin n sin w cos i R12 = R .cos n sin w .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .1 3) i. Now a.
5 . But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need .5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both .1 ) and (2. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. In this case either n or w or both are undefined. 2 . . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. 2. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. V.Sec . it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components.
The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite.71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � .84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . the rate at which range is changing. The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted .7 . the elevation angle .1 . E and Z shown in Figure 2 . The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight .7 . The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) .7. The unit vectors S. 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2.1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system.( N o rt h ) 2. 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. is measured clockwise from north .2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles. can also be measured. EI. p. 2. 7 . Az. AZ . The azimuth angle .
sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p.72 we see that r (2 .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame.7. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .7 .7 4) = + P (2 .7 . from the geometry of Figure 2.73) E l (B I ). E I .75) . /l!L. From Figure 2. Sec.72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. We will express the po sition vector as (2 . p.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI. 2. Az. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky.1 . Thus.and EO/. = Ps PE = P cos Pz. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r.1 ) where .
72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2. A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 .76) . Unfortunately.7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. 2 J topo centric frame . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth.
If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . EB x f. Therefore . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . 2 . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". (2 .73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .77) .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame .Sec. Figure 2. the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f.73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 .
5 J .612) r = R + P = 2S . 300 N Lat .866 . 3535 .707 . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.1 = [. is 2 S E + . 5 Z (units are DU). Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.6 1 2 .E + 1 .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 .612 .3535 . Figure 2. 5Z (Given) [).88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .707 o .
4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame .78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . z) system (Figure 2 . K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. (2. (2. w) . I =J =K=O. .75 ) . v. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. z).Sec. V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . 2.79) J.9 1 81 + 2..982K . rotating with respect to the (x. We will denote this quantity by w.7. however. 332J  . Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . y. The unit vectors D. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • .. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. y. It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2.
71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . .7. .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . Hence . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U.1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA.7. R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . The remaining terms of equation (2. equation (2 . Hence .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . V = w x V and W = w x W .1 0) reduces further to . Similarly. equation (2 .
. ....Sec. ..y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ ..... ......LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 ... .7. �:..7............ " F i xed " System ( x.1 2) . 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u . � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u. y. .. z) '. W) Figure 2. . Equation (2. v v.75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA.1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q... 2 .. . dt R I (2 .71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector. .
7.JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.7.) .7 .7.7 .7. Equation (2 . 2 iLl F = .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .7 .1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .1 2) to the po sition vector r. Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.7.1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 .7.1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame . (2 .9!. We will now apply the operator equation (2 . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .1 3) into equation (2 ." Ioox. The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 . (2 .
Therefore . is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted.Sec. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. of course . latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . circles. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere.) 2. Sections parallel to the equator are . 2 . 2. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid.8. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. ae . be' is just the polar radius of the earth. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . If the earth were perfectly spherical. It is known . ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. In the model which has been adopted. however . We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration .
The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter .2 The Measurement of Latitude. 2. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . 2.1 . Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. Consider Figure 2. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field .8.8.785 0.94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .3 Station Coordinates. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . When you are given the latitude of a place . The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated . 1 45 6356. While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude . it does complicate the concept of latitude.8. The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. the difference between L and is usually negligible ." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid .08182 == km km L La L . This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use .
The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e .!! o ..82...." which is illustrated in Figure 2. 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . Thus. the "reduced latitude . We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude . It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. / (2. 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 . 2 . O .1 ) . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 .Sec. c.82 . L .8 . 4 km Figure 2.
Ch . b e =a e V� = b2 + d.. Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . c:  0) x Figure 2. / ..82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. I C.96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But .and e = da.1:  (2 . 0 O D. for any ellipse .82) . z . a2 .
8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse .Sec:.85) . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2.8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . (2. 2 . Thus. d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . (2 .
{1.86) L. it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .8. sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2.8 8) . (2 . From Figure 2.98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude . If the Greenwich sidereal time . {1 ' is known . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point .8 7) 2.4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components. elevation above mean sea level.83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. 2 ( 2 . The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame .
2 . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2. the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site . the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time ." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame .8.84 shows a spherical earth. L. Although Figure 2. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 .Sec .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t.89) .
1 0) . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction . 2 j i Figure 2 .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . From (2 . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.8 .
1 2) .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . 2. It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .1 2) and a s ' a E . (2 . 2 .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .Sec. 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. so .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .9 .1 . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n .9. This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. This should be made clear by F igure 2. The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time .8. When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours.9 equation (2 .6. a Z If a l .
a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . In early January.9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2.09054 mean solar seconds . Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . when the earth is near perihelion. it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . So far.
9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. . What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. Thus. let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. This relationship is illustrated on page 99. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also .) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation .9. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. if it . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 .3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known .9. or Zulu (Z) time.is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . 2 . Universal Time (UT).0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. 2. The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours.Sec.2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . For example .
To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . 8 9=8 9 0 1 .9.4 Precession of the Equinoxes.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . Ephemeris and 2. 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. ° 229421 1. . in addition. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . m i n . 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100.104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . we express time in decimal fractions of a day. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 .
Sec . However . The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . 2 . 0 0 0 y rs " . Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic.z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . the equatorial plane is not . Due to the asphericity of the earth.6 year s .. The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge. As the earth' s axis precesses. 6 yrs I Figure 2. The period of the precession is about 2 6. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period." with a perio d of 1 8 .92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars. . the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly....000 year s . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun.9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 ... the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 .6 years. the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 .
0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 .378km = 0 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 .296° H = 6 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.1 . 00 1 From section 2 .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .296 degrees west longitude . 25 8=8 g + A = . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .00 1 + L= 0 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. at 0600 GMT.8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . 6 24 5 . x= [ z= � ae + � .6245 rad ians o 9 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 .74933340 = 1 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account . Day  = Long o 57 . 5 7 .
74) .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 .2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.6245 )1 + 1 . 00 1 c o s(S.4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.From equation (2. 0.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 . Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .6245) = .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0. 2 . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.(0.2D UES = (0.6971 + .7 1 SJ + OK Sec. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .72) PE p Pz Ps = . 00 1 (S.346E + O.
0E + 1 .866 0.0588K) From equation (2 .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.610. 1 08 Ch .8 .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .346E + l .1 .46S .73 p + (O.3. 46 = 0. 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .25 0.84J . 3.1 .77) v = [� ] [ J 0.4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .1 .433 .346J + 1 .46 P =D1 .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.73Z D U (T U r = 0.�� lO.0 1 .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .0.7·5 ) From equation (2 .061 .73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.46 D U /T U (0.Ps = .8 .(0.4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 . 0.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .5 1 .
Gibbs is. it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . and the orb it is uniquely determined. k. may be lacking.3. EI . Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . Ei. of course .Sec. p .0. Figure 2. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . 2 . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . W.081 .8J . 2.232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . As Baker S points out . Ai. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J.
1 0.r.r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p.r 3 ) = 0 . Dotting (2 . Notice that C2 may now be divided out.5 4). (2 . 1 02) gives (2 . 1 04) . 1 0. 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1 ) successively by fl . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 .1 ) by (2 . we can show that : e ' f = p . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . 1 08) . is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. (2 . and the definition of a dot product . 1 03) by f3 X r l . equation ( 1 . 2 fine scholar . Q and W. there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . 1 05) (2 . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . (2 . 1 06) Multiply (2 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. 1 0. 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. 1 05 ) and (2 . 1 03) Cross (2. then u sing (2 . 1 04) (2 . who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass.
Therefore . (2 . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . (2 . 2 . 1 0.1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . 1 09) D. 1 0.1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . i. D = N P = O' N (2 . equation (2 .e .1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. provided N .(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . N and D have the same dire ction. 1 0 pD = N . . (2. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. 1 0.1 4) (2 . 1 0. Since P.1 5) . Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. 1 0. 1 0.Let the right side of (2 . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec.1 3) : (2 .
r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . (2 .1 6) .1 9) Since P.52) we can write i X h = p.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors.1 9) to find W. 1 01 0) to find p. check N * O and D . (2 .1 8) to find Q. 1 0. 1 020) Thus.1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Then use (2 . The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2.r t ) f2 + ( rt . (2. 1 0. since NeQ = pS. 1 02 1 ) . 1 0. (2 . D and S ve ctors. From equation ( 1 . N > o.1 7) to find e. 1 0. Q and W are orthogonal. 1 020) to find P. and (2 . Before solving the problem. 1 0. P = Q X W. Therefore. 1 0. N and S vectors. (2 . N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 .r2 ) f3 ] (2 . 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2.1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . 1 0. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. 2 Again using the relationship (2 . However . 1 0. ( f  r + e) .1 8) N (2 .
(h xr r = + (a .E. S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . so c) b .Sec . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. b) c O . 1 0.h = P.( a . v) h and h . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. 2 .. v = eP./O S eW X P ) ( 2 .(h . Using the identity . 1 024) (2 . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . = p. the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . 1 025) . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. h X (h h ) v . ON (2 . e) We can write h v v = . D X r + JJ{.
The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . N and S vectors. v2 � + L S r2 • . = 0 for coplanar vectors. Finally . using the stated tests. Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . This is not exactly true. find v2 : 2.1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . to find any of the three velocities directly . possible two body orbit . Form L = = 6. 2 L + LS (2 . This method . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. 4 . 1 02 6) Thus. There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . 1 . N=FO. Test: 0 10 . proceed as follows : For example . Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size .
P = 0= N  2. Form the D . period and the velocity vector at position two . and S vectors: D= N S 1 .9000J + 0. 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar.Sec. 2 . N ." Thus. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . r 1 and r2 . If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. and the timeofflight between these po sitions.97 . eccentricity. Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). r1 r2 r3 = 1 . the semilatus rectum. 9701 = 2.000K = 0_700J .0. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.047 1 = .0471 O U = 0 . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . Since 010.5000K Find : P.8000K = 0.0774J 0. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem.
Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.963K N 1 . 1r/{: 6.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .270J + 0. 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .657K D U /T U 2 0.0.67 TU (89.0. 700J .963J .0804 e = = = 0 .0. = .576J . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 .1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .97 o lP = a = 1 .041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0.4 to solve for the elements. 2 S .270K W= N.960 DU/T U (4.497 9. .1 . 0408 1 1 .
an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . (2 . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . 3. so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . 1 1 . j = 1. As a result . (X1 ' < \ � . ° 2 . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. If we let L . In either case . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . L. 1 1 2) r . topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. = OJ + R j .7 2). 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 .z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . [:i:n :: :. (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background .1 ) (2 . 2. 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. then ' .6 2 : 1 1 . r = pL [�.g .:S :J: JS L K .Sec. These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. 2 .
... R and R are known at time t2 . f f. 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . 1 1 3) (2 . p. p and r. p. ' ' :. • 00 . say the middle ob servatio n .. r u. .[..' ' " ': . : '< ' . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . (2 . are not known . \' P2 i �� G ". I . • ' I . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. 0 (2 .1  R ) r3 .J V I . . \ . . �� I 1 " _ . . �J 1  .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch .1 . 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . however . \ [L. 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. L.r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . \ Figure 2. L. \ •. The vectors L../  L . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . � . ':. 1 1 5) At a spe cified time .
t 1 ) ( t.t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t2 ) ( t 1 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t 1 . 2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t2 ) (t.t 1 ) ( t3 .t2 ) ( t 1 . t } .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 .t2 ) .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 3 ) L2 (2.Sec.t 2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t } ) (t 3 . Since we have the value of L at.t3 ) (2 . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t 3 ) ( t } .t 1 ) ( t2 . 1 1 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .t 3 ) (t. we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.three t�es.t2 L3 ( t 3 .t 1 ) (t 3 .t3 ( t 2 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L. t2 .t 3 ( t 1 . t2 and t3 .t2 ) ( t} . 1 1 6) + 2t .t 1 .
u R Ir3 I + . D reduces to L D =2 L I L .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. p.u L 1 / r 3 L J + . 1 1 6) and (2 . I L . L J . p' and r.L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . 4 Equation (2 . L L L K K K J . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati.. 1 1 5 ) . L K + . must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . however.u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . in fact . better yet . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date .. LI . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. it is evident that L Dp = . p.u L /r 3 . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 .ons (2 . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or ..1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . L J I (2 .u R Ir3 J + . + . that if more than three observations are available . It should be noted. . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. For the time being. . This. making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. 2 . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns.
1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns.L L L J K I p . p and r. R R .Sec . 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. O O.1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2.1 0) and (2 . 0. Provided that the determinant of the coefficients.1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . R R I .. . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2.1 2) . 1 1 . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. R J . . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. 1 1 5). 2 . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . L K . .1 1) Op = . L K L J L I K (2. we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. Substituting equation (2 . L J L I K J!.. 1 1 . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 . is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I .1 0) into (2. 1 1 . If we do this we find that . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . 1 1 2).1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. 1 1 . R .4 Solving for Velocity . 2 . 1 1 . J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. 1 1 . 1 1 .
This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. ° 3 . As a matter of fact . D. This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . (2 .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 .2). k.1 4) p 2. at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . El. In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . ° . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. 2 . P.1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . 2 (2 . E l . 1 1 .1 3) for p. a3 . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . To obtain the velocity vector . Laplace ' s method fails . 1 1 . 1 1 . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . a . 1 1 . such as P.
Assuming that the residuals are small.::"P . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . . 1 Computing Residuals." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. t4 .::"P 2 ' .::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. The question then arises.g. 2. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. 1 2. 2 The Differential Correction equations. however . of course. r K ' v " vJ . \ ' t2 . 1 21) . "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. v Kl at t = to are correct. 1 2. 2. ts and t6 ' These predictions are . t3 . based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ .::"P 3 .Sec. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. Doppler rangerate. For example . a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. . p) will differ from the computed data. The six residuals are �1 ' . It may happen . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2.
(A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. rj . 1 2. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit .e. The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method. Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. i. .r l " v K )p1 ( r l .1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Nj. NI . for example . D. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon.. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. 2. usually 6 for orbit problems) n . NK. . D.VI .:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . V K ) .) Then.VK . With the aid of a digital computer. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's. The inversion of equations (2 . . 1 2 . ap1 .1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. equations (2 . Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. reduce the residuals to zero . The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. 1 2.Vj' D. by trial and error. however. r K " ' arl D.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc.
If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . 2 . = = n) . Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. Solve equation (2 . This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. 2 . minimum as described above . 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. a and (3 are the elements (two here . 3 . since p 2 below) . called the root me an square (RMS) .g . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution.W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . zero . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. 4. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M).. . for the exactly determined case (p or b. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement .tb each of the elements measured. 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 .8 1 ) . V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements.. for 90% confidence . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. use 0. In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense .
In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . Choo se ex and for the first estimates. ex VI.:. 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. the partial derivatives are : .2. 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch .j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 .Assume equal confidence in all data. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements.
= [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 .Sec. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 2. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . Thus. 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT.
To illustrate the method involved.474 and f3 = 3. 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. In practice. yet still overspecified number of measurements. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations.474 Xi 3 . corresponding to the given Xi and compute . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . we will use a simple . This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4. This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0.360 = . large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . 6 orbit elements) would be used. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch .
) 2 n .934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .000 1 9.007 0.1.865 49. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 . 934 = 1 .500 8. .000 50.Vi 2.1 26 0.Sec. 0 35 3. 2 .0 01 1 3.828 0 0.866 4 x . aa .1 05 9. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /. 3 . ( V i Yi ) 2 4.474 4 0 07 19. 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l .. 969 ____  Vi .y.._1. E ( V 1. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence . 474 x 3 .000 n = Vi 0.
= 3.3.2.733.l Now using (2 .039 £::.4 1 69...I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2.304 0.056 ""' T .1.0.001 07 33 b = 0. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 . Thus (X new = . {3 = {3 new .�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .027 12.. 1 961 0. 105. 0 18 0. 1 22) we have £::. 1 75 ] 5. The second iteration yields: £::. so we iterate. which is larger than what we started with.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .36 . 81 30 8. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.304 = ."""'" �T�� . 2 (AT\j\j'A ) . 27 A WA = [12.031 8.360.(X 26 3.670 3.z 10. 1 96 = 3.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0.474 + .021 070 20.380708 A = 40. 0.062 .
200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data.735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . However. 2 . during orbital decay.000 . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . and finally. 7 35 x 3 . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. in theory. 1 2. Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . 038 . This i s not yet the case so we iterate again .00 1 . In practice . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0.5 8 2 .Sec . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. however.5 8 1 .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . 2. 038 [3 = 3 . 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 . .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . 2 .
other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. In addition. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). 1 Radar Sensors. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . antisatellite targeting. 1 4 . The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. These detection radars with a range of 2. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected.500 miles make about 1 2 .000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. 2 . 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. At present.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . and midcourse ICBM inter ception. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. 2 2. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. the precomputed 2. In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . forming "clouds" of space debris. spacecraft failure diagnosis. the White Sands Missile Range . Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). 1 3. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance .5 003. 1 The Spacetrack System. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network .
s The prototype is located at Moorestown. 2.Sec. is now on active Spacetrack alert. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. and is on active spacetrack alert. Figure 2. while three are located at Clear. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. the FPS43. New Jersey. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. Turkey. One FPS49 . There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. Alaska. One of the earlier detection radars.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. Greenland. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir.
gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . under the 140ft radome at the left. United Kingdom. Alaska. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. 2 Figure 2. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. Florida.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. This BMEWS station at Clear. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. In addition. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. Alaska.142.
The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry.2 Radio Interferometers. 2.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. 2. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering.Sec. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere.14.143. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. When two or . The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe.
SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. Considering the type of observational data received. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . and therefore . is well established. Alberta. the semimajor axis. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . 1 4 . These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used .3 Optical Sensors. Canada . 2 . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. In addition to these . each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake .
2. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object.145. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. Alberta. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. seeing conditions must be good.Sec. As a result. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. A separate optical system superimposes. and the lighting correct.400 miles. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . it is . Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2.
the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. in any case . Further . for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. 4 Typical Sensor Errors. (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . on the other hand . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . Massachusett s . . 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. 2 . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . Doppler rangerat e info rmation. For detection radars. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. In any case . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. New Mexico site. Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec .000 meters.) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. 1 4 .1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . is relatively accurat e . takes time. The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack .
solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. lunar attraction. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .5 Future Developments.Sec 2. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific.146. 2. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. nonuniform gravitational fields.14. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein.7 seconds in time would remain.
While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . Theoretically . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . howeve r . a continuousw ave . Many improvements . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. p. the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. of the target . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . but it also record s target tracks for later playback . In t he system under development . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . Operating in the SHF b and . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. Now. Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) .
Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i.1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . o f the orbit . 1 5 2 . 1 5 . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . respectively with a launch a zimuth .. 1 5 .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. The arc CB which forms the • . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r .Sec. 1 5 . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . F igure 2 . 1 5 .. 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . i. The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. 2 . 18cP  2 .
1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive .e . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . 2. The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . 1 5 . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . f3 ' be easterly . that the launch azimuth. If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . A direct orbit require s . L o?" If i is to be minimized . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. betwe en 00 and 1 80° . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . 1 5 ·3 . 0 i. cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . therefore . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . For a due east launch equat ion (2 . . i : c os i = . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things .
2 . su r face .Sec. A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . 1 5 . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . Figure 2 .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay .
at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a .7071 + . Englan d . i = 90° .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . J . Which takes longer . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. a solar day or sidereal day? b .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU.7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. 2 EXERCISES 2 . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . 9 7 0 .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. Colorado ( 1 04. 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. = (partial answers : 2. What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. e = . 885.2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . = u nd ef i ned ) = .89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e .
1.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. (Answer [partial] e = . Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 .) Determine p.J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . 3<. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . . 82 u a . 2 + b . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact.Ch. Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. c .8 I J P = . i . 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . e.2K DU . 2. W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. Determine the orbital e lements. 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 .8 2075 .
1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. b . equatorial . W. Q. What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. C alifornia . LST = 63 . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le .system along the unit ve ctor s P. Units are earth canonical units.4 1 4225 1 1 1 . p = 1 . 1 7 1 .5 0 West . 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e .4 1 4202 0.3 5 35 3995 0 1 . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . 1 0 2. 2. PST . 6464495 a. a. U se of a computer is sugge sted . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale .060668 8 3 1 .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. r2 1 .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 .3 1 065 1 5 0. the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . 2 . r3 r l I J K 1 . b ut not nece ssary. (Answer : r = 1 .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = .7 6) . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . b . 2. Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. 1 0 January 1 9 70.
2K with a velo city o f AI .97 0 1 .Ch.0 2 .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .6 0. . B .20709623 0 .0 1 .5 65 6808 1 0. fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .7 0 0 e.6 0.2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.0 2 . 1 4  DU/TU.0 0 2 .0 7 .8 0 0 . C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.0 1 . fl f2 f3 3 .565 6808 1 0 0 . fl f2 f3 d.707 1 0 1 0 1 0. A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.9 1 42 3467 2 . fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g. DU * 2.0 0 .89497 879 0. 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .094964 1 8 0.62 1 34384 c.0 0 .09497879 1 .94974 1 7 6 . fl f2 f3 0 .0 0 2 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .8 0 .707 1 1 25 5 0. 3 6 395 5 26 1 .207 1 25 5 1 .9 1 420062 4 .1 .0 7 .97 2 .89497724 0 0 0 1 .
Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system.75 K D U /T U )  . 9 7 . Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . * 2 . 2 a .17 p 0. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane .1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. Obj ect b . has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . Express the coordinates. ___ e. vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. v = 0. ( A ns. d . . Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 .1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . b.0078 J 0. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates.620 1 I 0. east and zenith (up) component s? c. Obj ect vernal equinox direction. Obj ect c. 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south.
A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . 4. C leeto n . New York . Thomas Nelson and 3. 1 965 . Second Revised Edition . E scobal. NY . "Space Traffic Surveillance . Navy Space Surveillance System. Thoma s. 5 . K. Dover Publications . Academic Pre ss. 9 . Space/A ero na utics ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . Henize . NY . Mass. U. S . New York .1 1 1 . Moulton . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . Paul G . New York and London . 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . No 6 . 1 9 66. "The A erospace Vehicle s . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . London . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. C ambridge . 1 0 . D avis . 2 . E . The M acmillan Company. G . Simo n and S chuster . New York .Ch. Inc. Inc. A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. Telescope . Angus. Jr . 1 9 67 . . Jame s R . Pierre Simo n . 6. Armitage . 1 95 6 . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . Forest Ray . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . John Wiley & Sons. Pedro Ramon . pp 1 08 . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . 7 . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . Edmond Halley . Laplace . Carl Friedrich. NY . 1 9 1 4." Vol 48 . 1 95 7 . C . Robert M . 1 96 3 . Sky Publishing Corp . November 1 9 67 . 1 962. 8 . NY." in The World of Math ematics . L. Newman . Gauss. Baker . Sons Ltd . New York . Vol 3 .
Colorado. New York. No 5 . NY . Bate. R. 1 4. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination." Satellite Control Facility. Electronic . SepOct 1 967. . 1 5 . American Society of Mechanical Engineers. and Eller. p 39 . Davies. Thomas J. Inc. Roger R. New York . 1 967 . R. Sunnyvale. Air Force Systems Command. 17. 1 2 . 2 1 1 . 1 962. 1 6. Robert D . 1 966. P. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. Gerald C.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Vo1 40." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Briskman. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. McGrawHill." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. California. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method." The Vol 1 4. Carson. 1 966. NY. NY. New York. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. NY. Journal of Oct 2. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. No 20 . 1 970. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . New York. S. 1 3 . 1 9 66. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. "Future Radar Developments. Cheetham. the A stronautical Sciences. USAF Academy. 1 962.
for the next 250 years. After that . It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. the idea seems to have been forgotten. according to their different velocity. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. ) 00 . or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. 1 0. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. as of 5 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. or variously eccentric. Goddard.000 or more miles. those bodies. 1 .CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. and the different force of gravity in different heights. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 .
3 . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . since it contemplated the use of military hardware . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch ." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . 3 . has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . 1 . On 4 October 1 95 7 . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . Rather . Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. still in its infancy . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. However. The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors.research. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. particularly if it is manned . the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . Manned spaceflight . The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . Project Orbiter.
mJ77/1/.::: 0(I) "" 20 10 .///11// ..rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION . . ... .. I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N ..... � ee.. .. I MONTH I . (I) CD � ..25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" .J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl .' � S' (1) 0 .. 20K (...(/} � � (I) E � � . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 . � .. 11 L ..n w .H O URS WEEK .. c. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .. ... VI/II � V � . 71.EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr. ..: fiD It: 0 It: <t .+ :=.50K �..J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E . � '" . YEAR a YEARS .J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION .rrrj..V'h WillI e: � .
Figure 3 . 1 . stated. a p ogee 1 00 n .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . 1 ·2 . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just .1 shows the limits imposed by drag .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . 1 . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. Figure 3 . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . 3 . m . m . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . m .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n .
The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. as you can see from Figure 3 . 1 2 . there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters.Sec.or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. 3 . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. 1 3 . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The vehicle is not allowed to coast . The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster.. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point.
its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . 3 . therefore. successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). 1 . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. As a result.3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . Figure 3 . You . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. 1 5 .
1 > ..9 r�=r�rr.J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N ..�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+. 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�.. 3 .D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9. "::> Figure 3 ."� ill Q rn o I � fS ..���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.2 .J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.Sec.
1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .. I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .J 5 "' C iii 0. 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch . "' "' .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 ..
Q 360 ° per 90 days :. It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. What is the inclination of the orbit? b. and oppo. 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2.67 0 /day From Figure 3 . 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . completing one revolution every 90 days.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . a. 3 .40 and 1 1 6.6 0 .N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. which also is due to oblateness.60 .6. 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes. The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle.Sec. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. Therefore = . The ascending node moves to the west .40 or greater than 1 1 6. 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . Figure 3 . With this perturbation . the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63.
2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . 3 Figure 3 . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . unfortunately. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. This is. Figure 3. On the scale of Figure 3 . ground trace of a synchronous satellite. Of course. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). 3 .2.6 earth radii above the surface .300 nm or about 5 . The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. of course. 1 2 this would be 2*. 1 The Synchronous Satellite.1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . for example . 3 . The first stage booster climbs 3 . It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator.21 shows why. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . however. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious.000 nm altitude . For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. 1 .inches from the surface. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. not the case . Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. This. 2 .
. 3.2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s... This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit. the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit. This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm .22 Ascent ellipse .. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 .Sec. burn """ " " . . Dot ted grou nd trace . . curve is \ " " .21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. At apogee of the ascent ellipse. intervals . reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more.� � Figure 3 . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr....
da a2 = fJ. fJ. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. a very precise orbit is required. 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. we get a change in .. it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if.v (3.31) If we solve for '. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . 2vdv . but . We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. and flightpath angle.32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . a? v. as they are called .  fJ. This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. we get (3 . for some other reason. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. 3 . (3 .33) or = da 2a2 vdv . (3. at appropriate points in the orbit.34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. speed. /:. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude .3 . and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . dv. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . = _ r 2a . Usually this is not serious.
we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. a 6. of the orbit given by equation (3 . 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. a2 6.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory.34) for small but finite 6. to the large orbit. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. 3 . In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . 4 Jl. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse.1 . suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. Similarly. whose radius is rl . Since the major axis is 2a. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. therefore .v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da.3. called Hohmann transfer orbits. For example . Since we know r l .34). along the transfer ellipse.V v P P (3. 3 . the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. whose radius is r2 . We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6.semimajor axis. 2 The Hohmann Transfer.h a �  da." 3 .v) .
31 (3./2 a . 2at Figure 3 . &. its speed is .1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch .31 &.37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3.36) = r i + r2 =  and. since p. (3. 3 the transfer orbit.
1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. Minimum rp = 2 DU. i n our example . ra = 3 DU.V required to double the altitude of the satellite . w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one .P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 .V implies a Hohmann transfer .39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::.3. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. & t = � = . The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU.Sec. 3 I N. to VI ' So . The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. For the transfer traj ectory. the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . Although.3. .1 0) (3 . Find the minimum /::. The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . 3 . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .
JfF"= .3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits. We can express this condition mathematically as r = . I t is obvious from Figure 3 . Figure 3.346 ft/sec 3 .061 DU/TU I::.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .V1 = .32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible . I::.707 DU /TU vi r.068 D U/TU V cs =. 3 V cs 1 = (il = .3.313) .� r 1 1 +e p p (3. 1 29 DU/TU = 3.3.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.V2 = .1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.VTOT == .
3. respectively . 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. 3 .Sec. �. in the transfer orbit.1 4) (3.1 5) . To satisfy both conditions. and the angular momentum. / 2a . we can compute the energy.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.3.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 . I &. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. Knowing and e. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. ht. (3. p p (p.33) and interpret them graphically. p p p  = . Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits.
its speed is (3 .34 /::. __ Figure 3. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 . we get (3.v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer.33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r . Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.1 is just the flightpath angle .39) The angle between v1 and va. p r2.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.. .
Or. b.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".V using the law of cosines. 1 Simple Plane Change . We can solve for the magnitude of b.V. (3 . since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3. as shown at the right of Figure 3 . 4 . b. The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . together with the b. 3.310) when the flightpath angle .1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit.1 'I' . or it can rotate the line of apsides.3. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side .3. 3 .V. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged.41) 3.4.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . and obtain directly for circular orbits. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above .34. form an isosceles vector triangle.41 . ¢l ' is zero.31 6) Now. more simply. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles.V. the b. A velocity change .4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. assuming that we know v and e. (3.Sec. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.1 . e. b. after applying a finite b. it is not surprising that equation (3 . An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3.V required. This is called a simple plane change.1 7) reduces to equation (3. If.
Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . Determine the total b.1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. b . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . for example . Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . a. A plane change of 60 0 . The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). makes b. DU circular orbit.V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized.vrequired to accomplish the mission. calculate the additional b. Therefore . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 3 Figure 3 .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites.
618 = 1 .Vl = V l .V l 1 .0. The given information is: h I = 0. 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0. 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.Sec.4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.270.. Therefore at = r2 . & t = = �= . DU 2 1 Hence .953 DU/TU L.Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' .__ = .1 = \1'1 . 3.1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) . v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( . .1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit. I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU . 1 +� 1 .
+ v�s2.626) = 0 . 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .704 DU/TU 18. 3 and we must use equation (3. 4 .(0. 2 + 0.253 ft/sec .387 DU/TU = 1 0.V2 .042 ft/sec Therefore v = . v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.626 vcs2 = V't.626) = 0.447) (.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0. 3 87 .V2 = y'l'5= 0.= 0 .4) (.447 DU/TU 2 1 .V22 v.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 . 1 5 DU/TU 6. 447)(.3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.447) 0. 31 7 + .317) to determine 6. 6.2(.2 .
0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U . F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .4. 3.Sec.447 ) ( .078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .1 ) t:::.
Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of .1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3. 0.2 Calculate the total 6.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 . r p = 1 DU e = 0.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans. i changedall other parameters remained the same. a = 2. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . i. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. (Ans.5 DU .5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. 0 . c. Ch .3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination.. 3 .4 Refer to Figure 3 . What is the minimum 6. 3 EXERCISES 3 . What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r.449 DU/TU) 3. 3.21 .5 DU/TU. a plane change or an orbit transfer. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.2 DU and 4 DU respectively.76.5 b.e. 1 1 DU and e = 0. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a. a.
1 0 Note that in problem 3 .56 c.412 5 3 . 0 . 5 & Design a satellite . 3 . 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. = 0. 95 DU 8 = 0. using Hohmann transfers. 9 Calculate the total l::. . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day .v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. (Ans.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . * 3 . C ompare this with the I::.V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) .9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . The . 34DU2 (fU d. 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 .Ch .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = .1 DU 8 1 = 0.7 3 . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . P = 1. 8 Compute the minimum I::. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth.
3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . Robert M . New York . V2 . . 1 95 5 . Washington . Berkeley and Los Angeles. NY. New York and London . Makemson. Baker. A cademic Pre'ss. and Maud W. 4 . Air Force Systems Command . A n Introduction to A strodynamics.1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 1 July 1 965 . 3 . Rockets. University of California Press. The Viking Press. L. Headquarters. 1 962. and Space Travel. 1 . Vol 2. Walter . The Viking Press. NY .. Sir Isaac. Newton . 1 96 1 . 5 . 1 9 60. Principia. Missiles. Ley. Dornberger. DC . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. New York . Willy. Space Planners Guide. 2nd revised ed.
.CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. including the earth . Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. . . I quickly took advantage of the absence. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. by taking the observations under my care . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. of the heirs. was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. or perhaps usurping them .. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . presupposed the solution of the first. the determination of the true movement of the planets.2 1 77 . Albert Einstein ! 4 . . Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. the solution of the second problem. or lack of circumspection. . This was Kepler 's first great problem. . .
. but above all to convey to him the reasons. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. . Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . When Christopher Columbus. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. Thus. detour. subterfuges. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. we not only forgive them. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . 1 . The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. "What matters to me.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2." Kepler points out in his Preface. I + . whole grand entertainment would be lost. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion.
Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. that. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. But then without a word of transition. prick your ears. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. without benefit of any preconceived notions. . in the next two chapters Kepler explains. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . since speed was inversely proportional to distance . This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. never noticing his error. with the warning: "Ye physicists. almost with masochistic delight. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. however. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit.Sec 4. for now we are going to invade your territory. His results. Moreover. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. . again incorrectly . At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. as it were. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. perihelion and aphelion. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc.
But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg.2 Finally.. he settled on the oval. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . 4 Figure 4 . He had . . 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. . but analytical geometry came after Kepler. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. as I shall prove further down .. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . " Finally. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval.
!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. came when. . but he did not know how. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. return e d by stealth through the backdoor.e . In this chapter we will.Sec 4. but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position .y it should move in an orbit at all. which I had rejected . an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. are one and the same . in a moment of despair. . believing that this was a quite different . mine] ..E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end.F L I G HT .and chased away. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. disguising itself to be accepted. have persisted to this day.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . Ah. 4. . . The climax to this comedy of errors. . In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. I thought and searched. . and velocity and the timeofflight. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . You: are .: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. : . In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. . ..2 T I M EO F . . Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. de rive the . for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . hypothesis. until I went nearly mad. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. That is to say.' " . whereas the two . made a mistake in geometry..
. P.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY .l .2. 7T a b . 4 existed .A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use . A ' in Figure 4. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. 4.2. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4. ''"'''"'. where the true anomaly is v . derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus.. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse. but more motivated.e . We will pursue a lengthier. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period..'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''.21 Area swept out by r . (4. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit .1 ) .. In going part way around an orbit. say from periapsis to some general point.2.2 . the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see.1 ) i s the area � .. i.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use .
Sec 4 . perpendicular to the major axis. From analytical geometry. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle . E E Circle : .Z x2 + . 2 T i M EO F . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. A dotted line .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse.F L I G HT . the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 .l. \/2 a2 _ . 22 Eccentric anomaly. The angle is called the eccentric anomaly.
Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 .a E) . . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis.�rea PSV minus the dotted area.22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . oos E and whose (4.22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . It Tollows directly from equation (4. 4 Hence . A2 .
substituting into equation (4. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians). and whose altitude is (a si n E ).e si n E ) I (4.28) ." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally.24) E .e si n Ai yields E) . Kepler introduced the definition M = It . Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .22.27) reduces to (4. v.1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' ." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion. we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.e si n E (4. whose base is (a CDS E). minus the triangle .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.24). Obviously .T = 4 ( E .we get � ( E . From Figure 4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .2 .Sec 4. to its corresponding true anomaly. cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.F L I G H T . E. cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .2 T I M EO F .27) (4. in order to use equation (4.e sin E (4.
T ) .24 left).( Eo  E) (4.[ 2kn + (E .to = lP (t . Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4. we can say that t .e Sin .T o ) . The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v. At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.( t o .(to .28). + t . In general we can say that t  to = 4.to = ( t . In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then . when v is between o and n. so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . from Figure 4.24 right. E Figure 4 .T) .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. 4 E E.24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.T) .
2.1 3) (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .Sec 4.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.21 2).2.2.2. .1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.2 T I M EO F.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.21 6) V 1 . From equation (4.1 2) (4.8 E ) dE (4.2.+ COS (4. Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .82 ( E .E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.82 f: ( 1 .2. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .1 1 ) easily integrable .  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS . From equations in section 1 .28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .8 si n E ) V r .F L I G H T .8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.7 .1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.2.J1=82 d E (4.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
1 2) is transcendental in x. (4 . 4. Fortunately . From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis. a trialanderror solution is indicated.1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given.2 Solving for x When Time is Known . ( 1 .42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .1 3) ro va v t" . since equation (4. a.47) has been used to eliminate z.4.Sec 4. But now we have a problem.4 4. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign .4. In one sense . An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) .aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . Therefore . Figure 4.4. Equation (4 . va' a and the trial value of x. 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa.
and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z . 1 dt r (4. B and C are coplanar vectors.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r.4. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. we must then calculate the corresponding and v.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . and A and B are not colinear. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. (4.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4. xn . In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar. With x known.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q. the four vectors fO ' (4.4. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. 4 .1 = x 2 C + x .3 The f and 9 Expressions. Thus A. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 . Substituting for r in equation (4. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane.41 9) .4. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .42.32).1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) .41 6) dx x . the iteration may be terminated.
tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w . equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q.4.1 8) into equation (4.... Crossing equation (4.1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h ..1 9) gives Sec 4 . t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities.. x. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 . First. f and 9 are not independent. = fg. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable . g . we will derive an interesting relationship between f.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates.where f.4.. however.4..420) This equation shows that f . f and g... g. f. the left side of the O . in equation (4. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity. g . We can isolate the scalar .
we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x. yw x .1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw .424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.42 1 ) We can isolate (4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.4.e2 )  r .w o Yw h (4.4.425) Combining equations (4. . . 4 h (4.4. ) .423) (4.426) . Xw .425). x wYw . o . From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4. (4. (4.r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ . x + Co cos v = .34) and (4.a l e + Sln Y.E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .
. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4. ro ..(e sin � + cos � ).429) Substituting equations (4.4... x = 0 at t = o .sin r  � (4.427) and using the definition of the universal variable .a  mitions of z.a Va 2 = 1 9.Va • W ... e quation (4. 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4..428) yw . Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4.32).43 0) 0 1 f C a = ..429) into equation (4. x =� cos x + c r . ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C . Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4. (4. ro ro ..426) and (4... r.Sec 4 .1 ) .a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum. x + co h = .42 1 ) c /Ii.43 1 ) . e quation (4...43 0) f (4.426) through (4 ..
435) (4.4·3) � r o .A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .436) . vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .4. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.4..c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4. r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 . 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a ..4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .32) (4.433) (4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r..4.202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .] � a .1 ) and (4 .
its definition.1 9) . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . 5 . then compute r and r from equation (4 . Also.4. 4 . 1 The Physical Significance of and z.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter.434) . la .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. then compute v from equation (4. 2 . Note also that if were not zero .x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 .4 . Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4. to 4.1 8). in any of the equations where z appears. but we have not said what and z represent.4.43 1 ) and (4. 3 . Si n va = Va =  c o s . Va x (4.43 6) . 1 . From and determine r and a. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4.4.420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions.34) (4. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. note that equation (4. Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z.5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. can be used.43 5) and (4.1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit . if we are going to use equation (4. 4 . Obviously .Sec 4. x + Co cos [ � . the expression (t would replace 4 . 5 .1 ) Va = _ E . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme .e E). Given (usually is assumed to b e zero).[ i + x + c 0 ] Va .
5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.E o l . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4. Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f. so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s . (4 .Do . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �). therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12. + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 . (4 . 5 ·1) at time x = 0.56) la.52) whenever is negative .1 3) .53) from (4 .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r. we get x= D .3 4) and (4.57) .4.55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 . we can conclude that = V'ii I F . a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 .204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E .F 0 1  Va I E . (4 . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.5 4) (4.53) Subtracting equation (4. 1 (4.
a. If imaginary.when z is positive . so Sec 4. the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.5 9) .F a ) '· z is zero.5.5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . Therefore . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.to 4 . from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer.1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t . 5 .8) Figure 4 . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. 5 . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. In computing the semimaj or axis. I z = I F .
a vG ) .5.All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. ( t a to) . since X = foE. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. and .v y� ( .ji11.. is large.. so S � V0r eFz 2 .z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .5 .. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. Furthermore .cosh . In the case of elliptical orbits. wherever it occu rs. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value.e .. / ( . a = ± x 3 . with £X. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 . then Z will be a large negative number .. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result.:z.. we get for elliptical orbits.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch ..P)/ 2. . convergence will be extremely rapid. so s i n h fi . X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. Use this for a first guess .a � eFz ± 2x 3 . When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4.6F. C = 1 .fZi3 = q . where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period.
if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t . 4 . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.1 1 ) .tohATci ( l .5.£. Thu s . vice versa .sign in the above expression . X will be positive and .tJ is positive .Q) eV La 2J. recognizing that X will be positive when (t . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t . Anytime t .sign (t .t o ) sign (t .L ( t .a .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4. we get � S . Therefore.r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.t o ) #a ( 1 ] .r:z . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.t o ) 2x 3 � + t .a eFz sign ( t . 5 . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .t o ) Fa .. where appropriate . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence . 5 . so Sec 4 .to is positive.t o ) x ::::: sign (t .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r . .t o ) � ( 1 .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before.
5.4. If z is near zero . the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 . use equations (4.1 0) as C where = i C = .s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .s i n i V} = i si n i B . = Similarly.cosh . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.1 3) COS .4.1 1 ) .5. (4. The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4..Ji .5. we can write equation (4.1 3). .1 0) (4. 1 .1 1 ) We can write equation (4.4. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. use equations (4.1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive.4. s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 ..". if z is negative .7! + . 4 (4 .1 1 ) as But i v:z . so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .0 6 + .1 0) and (4. .5.4.1 2) and (4 .y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 . z cos i � .4.(1  .
. (4Ir) 2 ..1 4) ·· 1 . .5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z ...5.52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z .Ji! + Ji!. Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . 0 . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ . . .Sec 4.1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity . (611)2 etc. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .+ .� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4. The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 ...5. 0 'j (4.
2C ) . it is not surprising that the derivatives. Differentiating the definition of C. r a . 39 5 . we get I � = fz.5.1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . 1 K .5 .[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0.3S ) . dC /d z and dS /d z .)] P (4. 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x.s i n z dz 2z [ 0.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch .( 1 . and v at = t=2 T U . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . 1 .[i) z ] (4 . 2& .266  . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. I dS = _ ( C . can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves. t=2 T U9 ra = I.zS . 4 functions .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Find r. va = Therefore & = 1. va > � a= :l = 1 . Given ra = I D U va = 1 .
.222 2= 95 X 1 + 2..821 1 .705 2 . we can make a 2 __ = 1 ..4. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .973 a Using equation (4.58 1 . we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.1 4) and (4.222 = 1 .277 dXn 1 . 705 . tn toward t = ZTU.1 . 1 ..t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.266 ( 1 .t o x_ 21Tya lP :..5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .8 2 1 1 .58) 2 1 . 58+.12. using a slide rule . 2 2 x 3 ' etc. solving for t .1 .8 1 6 1 .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.222 Repeating the process.222 1 . y'ii"(t .82 1 1 .279 1 .8 1 6 x n+1 .Since x = and .1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary. 24 1 = 1 .000 1 . 58+ . X l Zl y"""a6E or x .007 2.8 1 6 1 ..t.58 1 .4. xn tn fit After three iterations.
321 . and 9 = 0. v. f = 0. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. But . 236K g.1 we can see that X w = r cos v . ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D. 880 1 1 . since e = 1 .. 1 24. r = _.2) ..6. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F.1 ) From Figure 4. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit. g. for the parabola. E and F. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly.. E and F. (4.Then from the definitions of f.6..JPt::. But first some useful identities will be presented. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. E or F. f = 0. Finally. as D = v'P tan � 2 . 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. D.2.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. we will derive expressions for xw . f.0.6 . 4.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0. g = 1 ._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . yw and r in terms of D.32 1 1 + 1 . 4 4.8801 Ch . Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v.6.1 7).
1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) . the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .6.64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system. (4.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 .63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.65) .1 ) . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.Sec 4 .62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .
62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system.62 Perifocal components of r . in Figure 4 . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown.1 ) .s i n p v = ffp ta n v .66) v .6. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 . For the eccentric anomaly .J7!. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4. r • v. 4 rr. (4. Using r • r = and equation (2.
(4. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. e illS E we get another useful  �. we can say that I yw = Q. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4.Sec 4 .67) and (4 .69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4.62. (4. M  (4.1 0) e sin E also.67) (a si n E ) a But . 69) I e C OS E = 1 r . we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .6.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E . yw Just as we did for the parabola.8) and simplifying.24) .6. I Substituting from equations (4. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) .
22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words. E is imaginary . when E is a real number..6.. solving this equation for • v . For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E.:. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E . when F is a real number . v.6. e cos E from equation (4.28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4. is given by e si n rr = r = $a .Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation. we obtain E = .1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4..1 0) . F is imaginary. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.6. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.!. The .6.. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .e Si n r E Finally .1 3) ..
6 .a r  (4.6.1).e ) . r.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F .Il a •v (4.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . 6.61 6) r e cosh F = 1.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. 6.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. The rectangular components of a general position vector.  But i si n iF = si n h F. In Figure 4 . Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. so (4.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':. But l cos i F = cosh F . From equation (4.e) .el = a (cos i F . may be written as (4. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .1 8) .6. Similarly. so Yw = a � sinh F.67) we can write Sec 4 . The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4. 4. 6.
626) . r0 · = 1 . ( .. .. 623) . 62 1) (4..x"..JiLP. 4 +.c o s tv ) (4. . (4.. where tv = v ._ c��V P IW (4.A F U N CT I O N O F T. V.c os I 9 ' = v'f.V.. we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = . Figure 4..6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4...p .I M E Ch . are yw = r sin v (4.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) . so 1 � L (I .P ( 1 .625) (4.624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) ... and note that h = .: o s /:.ji! sin v p (4.:.. the rectangular components of the velocity vector .vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf .1 . 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:. tan p /:.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y .42 1 ) ..V _ 2 1 .
1 (4.Ji!.( L'!.E ) .63 1 ) (4. r (4.E) 9 r _ 0 j.e 2 ) cos E .6.6. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation. Similarly.4. 629) f = 1 . Thus Xw Sec 4. using equation (4.!Ji8 sin L'!. Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .e2 ).a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l . (4. (4. E rr .e) v! fJa( l .42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .68) .63 2) .1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .cos L'!. = .E .67) and (4.63 0) (4.. we get f = a( cos E .E ) f = .(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .cos L'!.a E sin E .e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .e cos E o ) . From equations (4.a ( 1 .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.� ( 1 .3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .e2 ) v.to ) .6.sin L'!. yw 9 and (t .e2 ) = 1.1 0).I Jlla sin E. o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4. 627) But.6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .
634) (4.to) .63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself. (4. and Sma1l4 tells us: " But.2k7T + M o .8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) .2 6) is one equation in one unknown . Kepler himself realized this. 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4. the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .t o ) . it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm.629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E. cosh 6F ) .63 6) 4.[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable . . with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F . (4. In classical terms. � V a3 ( t .26) Even though equation (4. of course .  E.. M can be obtained from = (4.6. from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .6F ) . A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .(1 E .
be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. M n .63 7) Now. of course .64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. E It would.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y .Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. compute the mean anomaly. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . E n+ l E + M . that results from this trial value . 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. � Figure 4. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. but this is not very accurate. ' (4. select a new trial value. We will resort again to the Newton iteration method.Sec 4 .638) n dM/d E I E=E n .
even when e is nearly 1 . Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence.6. 4 .1 8) and (4. d M = 1 e cos E .M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. where d M / d E l E = En En. p and va· 2 .2.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. 3 . however. Determine f and V from equations (4. va and the timeofflight. From fa and va determine r 0' a. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .t ' are given. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4. dE Therefore. Once E i s determined by any method.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 .5 cos V DU . t . 5.1 2) . 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. e. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. 1 .222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. equation (4.4 0) EXERCISES 4. Solve for V if needed.5 + . r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F).4.4.  .e cos En (4. The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits.when e is nearly 1 . the true anomaly may be found from equation (4.1 9). e. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. 2. It can be used for LW or�E .
corresponding to l:J) of 600• . it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. find r and v for . TOF = 5. V = 3481 . in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse.3. x.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. i. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. find the universal variable. Explain why this must be so .6 For the data given in problem 4. (partial Ans.85 TU) 4. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting.e. 4.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse.3 Given l:J) = ffP. (Ans. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. glven fO' vO' and t. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. 625) .348J +  1 . Find the values of f.5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. f = 4 .4 If.Ch . how should the area of search for x be limited.. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P.
Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude.5 DU. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . then . 9 At burnout. Do the same for problem 4. and give your analytic reasoning behind. Develop. in equations (4. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 .224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch.99). 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans.to and solve for f and v.73 TV) 4. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. g. 4 . (Ans.5 . 5 DU. e = . gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. with a perigee above the north pole. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. e = . 1 0. if X == x (t ) . == 1 . ra == 2. f and g. Va and t .1 1). 4 .9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. TOF = 2.10 rp 4 . 2. 1 1 For problem 4.51 0) and (4. Le.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. 4 . 7 The text. Va and w and will solve for f. 4 4 . 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. 5..
1 8). A New York.0 + . . NY.. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. Guidance . 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola.r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. equation (4. Koestler. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. 1 963 . Madison. 4. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . Battin.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. g.E.. 1 964. o 4 .( t . Small. See equations (4.2 . r. Albert.43 6). New York. Stahlman. r3 fJ.I:!:. 1 7 Derive the expression for g . 1 95 1 . The Sleepwalkers. L'. 4. 63 2). LIST OF REFERENCES 1 .to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . New York. Philosophical Library..6 TU) . NY. Kepler. Company. Wise. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. f and 9 in terms of (t .43 5) and (4.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � .. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. = . Arthur.16 * 4. 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.630) through (4.. 4 . The Macmillan 3 .and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . The University of Wisconsin Press. Einstein. 2. NY. Richard H. 2. Robert. 1 95 9 .
F . . 1 947. New 6." A str. H." A cta Vol 36. Vol 275 . 1 965 . pp 3093 1 5. E. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. 1 1 . K. S. Sundrnan. "Universal Variables. 1 2. The MacMillan Company. Sperling. J. 1 9 1 4. Stumpff. Unpublished notes." A stron. Forest Ray. Goodyear. Vol 3 1 . 1 965. A n Introduction York. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. pp 1 89. Bate.ach.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 1 965. 1 0. California. Herrick. K. 4 5 . J. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. Lemmon. Vol 70. 1 96 1 . W .1 28 . "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. 1 9 1 2 . Redondo Beach. to Celestial Mechanics. Roger R. N. W. H .1 92. United States Air Force Academy . 9. 8. H. pp 1 05 .1 79. pp 66066 1 . and 1." ARS 1. Vol 70." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. W." A stron. 7. Moulton. pp 1 08. Mathmatica. . "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. Brooks.
a 24yearold German mathematician. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. in 1 7 8 1 . Uranus.. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. But. 227 5. in the first year of the 1 9th century.
The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. If they paid some attention to philosophy . the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. Because of its importance. and the direction of . 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. 5. no more . The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. but for a different reason. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. exactly 1 year later. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. Hegel asserted. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. and for convenience in referring to it later. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . on New Year's day of 1 80 1 ."the Gauss problem. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. no less. The object turned out to be Ceres.
/ I I I I I Figure 5 .". the orbit is a degenerate conic. appears in the denominator of any expression. 5 . 2. particularly if the parameter." through an angular change greater than 7r. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used.. .. Sec .21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. The relationship between the four vectors f l .. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4..motion. or the "long way. . / ... therefore.1 . It is not surprising... p. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . . If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion.SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ ." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. Obviously . the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit.
.cos �E ) . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. p.cos �v) = 1 . bv . 2.sin �E ) � JJ. The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns.cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 .24) Si n �E (5 . Consider equations (5 . 3.r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . p. f and g.22) r2 a ( 1 . (5 . the solut �on to .26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . r . We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . g. From equation (5 .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f.230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .( 1 .cos �V .( 1 .. what we have is three equations in three unknowns. t. (5 . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . Test the result by solving equation (5 .cos �E ) f = 1 .( 1 . g. but the first four are known.24) arid (5 . There are seven variablesf1 .. a 9 = 1 .2. this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. (5 .23). a or �E.1 ) (5 .25 ) (5 . f. r2 P p rI . Use equations (5.= p 9 r1 r 2 Si. 2. so 2 . 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight .y'ii8 .25). 27) . (5 ..23) Actually. so a trialanderror solution is necessary . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . a and �E.1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f. 23) and (5 .27) and (5 .
we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. introduced in Chapter 4.3 2) .c x2 y.:t x3 S. and would enable us to use the universal variables. This last step is perhaps the most important of all. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. In each case . A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work.. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem.( 1 . r1 (5 . 3 . = 1 . This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . let's write the expressions for f. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution.Sec. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. x and z. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . g .cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. 5 . however. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. p. a and L'£ or 6F. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value.1 ) (5 .
V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch . ( 1 c o s b. we get r 1 r 2 (1 .38) y.v) (5 . p r1 j . as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.j A equation (5 .v y. rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b. such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.c o s b. we obtain A.36) may be written (5 .v) • 9 = = IE..jE: .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange..( 1 c o s b. A y= . P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b. ( 1 .1I 1 � .i n b.35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .39) .37) I y = r 1 + r2 .31 ).v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 ...A .. yields X C.232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .33)  (5... 5 X2 (5 . 1 .viI x ( 1 zS) \ .v ) 1 c o s b..( c o s b.v (5 .
3. v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 .on simplllw. we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.32) and (5 .3.".37 ) and (5 .31 5) (5 . 32).=1' Ig =r2 =.31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant . +. thi 't "p. and the auxiliary variable .r I (5 .1 0) (5 . I" � \ ·1 fr .31 7) .420).LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. so that (5 .35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 . From equations (5 . A. by using equations (5 . (5 . the last term of this expression may be simplified.1 6) (5 .. rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 . 3.34).31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . .: r I . 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .3. can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves. we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 . 3. 5 .31 3) (5 . y.1 ). 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .Sec.1 4) 1 The velocity.38).qr::oo .ff.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .
1 0) .P . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 .4.E2 and z = . 3. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained.S + X 3 _ + .0.1 2) (5 . Determine the auxiliary variable.31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. 5. may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z.1 0) and (4. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .3. 3. From f ' f and the "direction of motion.31 9) . this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly . Although any iterative scheme .31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 ." evaluate the I 2 constant. 7 . may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point.4. 4. 9 and 9 from equations (5 .37).1 4) and (5 . evaluate t. Determine x from equation (5 . Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5. (5 . 2 . Pick a trial value for z. y.31 7). dt / dz.31 8) ( ) (5 . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section.31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i .dz dz dz 2yy dz . using equation (5 .39). 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . 5.3 . If it is not nearly the same . which converges more rapidly. 5 1 . When the method has converged to a solution. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. 6.31 6) and (5 . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5.0.3.31 5). Since z = . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . from equation (5 . The derivative. a Newton iteration.= 3 x 2 . A. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 .1 1).31 3).
3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 . 5 . .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 . we showed that y.z S) dS _ . i n section 4 .Sec. 3 .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .=  dS (C .39) for dy = dz  But. 5 . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 . we get ( 1 .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .32 1 )  .320) (5 .
D M � si g n (1T L'>.322) into equation (5 . 51 r2 = 1. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = . equations (4. determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .41 1 ).32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit). Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.OK DU.324) _  (5 .320) and (5 . These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .  (5 . There is only one path for a given direction of motion. ill rl .4. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM. Using universal variables. we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . "direction of motion": rl =0. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.01 + + O. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 .319) and (5 ." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.v) .236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z.325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S. 5 so.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .326) .1 0) and (4.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 .+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .7K DU.6J + 0.318).
1 4) and (4. a convenient form of equation (5 . For ease of numerical solutions.962 radians LW long way = 21T . 327) r1 = 1 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .5.0.CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = . Now following the algorithm of section 5 . from equations (4..0488008482 OU r2 = 1 . 0488088482 + 1 . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 .3 : Step 1 : LW (5 .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = .28406 = 1 . 23287446 yT12 vm .327). I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (.321 radians Using (5 .37) does when . 5 .39). A A l ong way =1 . 5 .6V > 1T). 86474323 = 1 .1 .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T). 28406 ( __ = 3 .Sec. 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 .1 5) . 0000 + 1 .6V short way = 5. 0000 1 . 0488088482 + 1 .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .6V is small.
9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off.444689 m 0.05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration....23287446 t l o ng = 0.3. 1 3 min = 0445 z . X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : . 1 .86474323 2...3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .. Step 5: Using equation (5 ..238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 . Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now. from the given data.672625 1 6 TU + through 6. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 .. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.. the desired time o f flight is : .86474323 = 1 .28406 y'0.489482706 (6") .3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .23287446 0. (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.0 we do not normalize..1 0).28406 y'3.780 1 9540 1 /2 0. 0432z = 1 3. Y l o ng = 3.
50634848K v2 = 0. (5 .989794 D U/TU 0.5544 1 39777J 0.3.60 1 874421 . W e have : � 104 (within 0.8826885334K v2 = 0.0. 1 1 39209665J  0. (5.28406 Y = 0.31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .63049 1 80961 1 . 5 .94746230 A = 1 .28406 Y = 4.554824 D U /T U f = 3.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.t .0.5288 97 1 4 = 2.79852734 v2 = 1 .Sec.0. (5 .5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.1 3).02234 1 8 1 1 .3 .3.36 1 677491 + 0. 1 7866539741 + 1 .58 1 43981 VI = 0.314).4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.6 1 856634 = 0.1 5).83073807 v 2 = 1 .9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.96670788 z = x 0.1 6) and (5 .t solved .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>. 74994739 VI = 0. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .83236253 Using equations (5 .76973587J .6009 1 852 . 7499473 9 t = 0.
yet equation (5 .31 . the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions.1 O} VC . For "short way" trajectories.38) and (5 .= 0. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 .zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . where f::1) is less than 7T.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4.39). and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position). Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 . From equation (5 . In other words. The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .52). there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T.39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number.
4...?S. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity. we obtain 5. a and ""E.cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . 5. and 2 solving for p.Sec.c o s ""E si n ""E . F or "long way" trajectories y is positive . hence..6V p � .6V V 1 . The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.cos ""V ( 1 . The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.4.4.v./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity . we get  .6V COS .cos !:::.j1 .42) into equation (5.23).4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p . From equation (5 .)2 cos .1 ) and si n  COS . we can solve for a and get 1 . 5. This check is only necessary when is positive.4 TH E p.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .c o s x =.V ) a (5 .va si . r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . (sin xl i . for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.25). A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.
2 Expressing a as a Function of p.45) ± Using these same definitions. we obtain m p a= (5 . we get Ll.. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll. 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.Q p ) 2 (5 . E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 . (5 .43) 5.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch .v ) we can rewrite equation (5 .242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .4. (5 .J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.Qp y'2ni p .c o s bJ)) (5 .46) Ll.45) and simplify.E) •  k = k Ll.E ( k .48) k . The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information. and noting that � c os '2 .47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5. 2 Ll.E CO � = ± p= k = .E Q ± y'2ni C O S .E Solving for cos2. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .E .44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.43) as Ll.
First .6.. .4 T H E p.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr.. Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . 2. we need to determine � (or . The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 .!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter .where k. Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). 5.3 Checking the Trial Value of p.4. 5. Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later .4 . Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . Sec.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . a may not be smaller than some minimum value . Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. 5 . however.F in case a is negative).
we see that the limiting case of .6. If we look at "long way" trajectories.23) and (5 . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i . If (.f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 . To get a feeling for the problem.E . we can determine .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way.4.24) or the corresponding equation involving .6.E a If yield is negative.4." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .F: (5 . we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like .6.6.4. F ) . F . 5 c o s . The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .6.42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that. the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .49) Since we always assume .( 1 .E ) (5 . there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.25).From the trial value of P and the known information.24) and (5 .23).6. 9 and f from equations (5 ..F (5 .6.6.. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.1 3) .a r1 (1  f) (5 .4 The t vs P Curve . we can compute f.E from equations (5 . If a is positive. let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .41 2) (5 .Tar (si n h . (5 . F 1 .41 1) c o sh .F is positive.6. This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero. although t approaches infInity for this orbit. In Figure 5.6.s i n .vi.1 0) = = 1 . Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p.
As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight. Since it is important thar the first trial value. 5 . parabola hyperbola Figure 5 .. Sec.. In Figure 5 .... P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case .. we should first compute P j or P j j .43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories..4 T H E p.I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse .zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero.. For l'J) less than IT.. P must lie between P j and infinity. as well as all subsequent guesses for p. lie within the prescribed limits. P must lie between o and P j j ... we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 ..42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 . t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j .. for t:sv greater than IT. From the discussion above.
5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. . . '" E 0> '" . 5 1 :co .43 k p a rameter . In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p.4. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi). and one that gives too large a value.1 5) 5 . . I ..4.46).� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. from equation (5 . Several simple methods may be used successfully.4. 0 Q + y2in k  (5 . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. b . • .246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . . The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution. by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . p )0 p" .1 4) Q . The solution is then bracketed and. ell .yLri1 (5 ... � " . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5. one that gives too small a value for t.
44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration . ..1 and Pn . .... .1 6) This scheme can be repeated. 4 T H E p.... If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it.. always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5. O��_4o P n. .... .t n .. tn t . . . .I Figure 5 . 5 . . .. . ..t n ) ( P n .. .1 ) (t n .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p. .P n . . .. ..I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t . .1 ) (5. .... If tn. . It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer... .1 6).... . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. then a better estimate of p may be obtained from . .. ....4. .. .4.. . . ...Sec..
( � . (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .4.41 8) (S .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . fl3  fJ.si n L'> E l .24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p.41 7).iri equati �n (S. we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g .r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S . 41 9) .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.4. � ( S .
47).2mk2 Qp 2kQp . 5 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) . that ( k .4 8) . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m . we obtain . from equation (5 .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .420) From equation (5 .2 dp k ( k .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .( k .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .Sec.Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .Qp ) Q.Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.4 T H E p.47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE . bE d�E .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .E / dp and noting.
1 9).COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .. By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .Qp) si n 6E JJ.250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch .. _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F . p(k h JJ.1 8) from (5 .42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .. 5 (5 .420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .6E JJ.6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9. (5 . (5 .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .= .� (6E .4. which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.423) .4. and (5 .
1 5). t and . Solve for f. as appropriate .1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. (5 . G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola.F. 9 . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . 4 . r and Ll. we will develop and use the f and 9 series. Evaluate the constants k.2·3).24) and (5 . 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions. Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained.49) and (5 .4.4. a. 2 .423). As stated earlier .E or Ll. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. solve for a from equation (5 4 .F obtained from the trial value.4.8).6E or Ll. of p.4.4.1 1 ) . We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .44). the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. Solve for Ll. the values of g. 3 . 5 .1 4) and (5 . 5 . Pn .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .4. Solve for t from equation (5 .To evaluate the slope at Pn . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear.1 0) or equation (5 . equations (5 .II using 2 . Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. 8 . The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a.27) and (5 . 25). Q and m from r] . 5 . using equations (5 . 6. Using the trial value. 9 and f from equations (5 . 2.1 2) or (5 . should be used in equation (5 . Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 .22). 5 251 . 7 . Sec.422) or (5 .
� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 .54) we have the following recursion (5 . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . we write equation (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .57) (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. Therefore. 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 2) (5 . 5 5) r r (5 .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v. 5 . 5 4) for n = O. 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . (5 . 5 9) . (5 .
p and q which will be useful later .1 7) . We define them as follows : O. (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .5 11 ) (5 . v are known .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u.1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . q.51 2) u . 5 . as we shall u . 1 Development of the Series Coefficients .and the equation of motion f  (5 .51 6) (5 . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. p. 5 .5.515) =  ur. this can be (5 . From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec.51 3) rr and the definition of p. 5 .5. u L. Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .5W)  (r .
d q = d t .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .p (u + 2q ) . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r . _ [1 1  2 (v .1 8) Using the definition of P. .U .3u p (5 . v) _ 1 u. ) _ 24 (r .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . r) (v) 2 . = . 5.57) and (5 . 5. 1 1 1 1 . . r r (5 . 5 20) (5 . .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . 522) q = .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. (5 .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = .23 r· (V) r   u.r . ) . Summarizing: (5 .(v) 2 . 5 .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 .
= r 0.54) for n = 1 .6 u 2 p = .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u . 5.7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .u G = .Sec.5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .u G 4 = u ( u .1 5u p ( u .3p ( u + 2q ) .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 . Writing equation (5 . 2 we have : ) r( 1 = .3 u p ( u . = . Fs = F4 . p and q. Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.30p p + 3 q ) .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing. = .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u .t!:.u r = . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q . F3 = F ..30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .6 u 2 p = . = F 1 r + G 1 .
Gn n.u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T. .523) .526) .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .5.54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Vo (5 .524) (5 . ) . Referring to equations (5 .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 . 5 = U (u .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t.52) and (5 . therefore.1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q . .1 .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious.t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .tao Comparing with equation (5 .
F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .28q .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) . G = u.90q .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .51 .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O.7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) .3q . G 1 = 1 . F = 3up 3 F = u(.3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 . G = O. G = 30up(1 4p2 .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .6q . 5 .Sec.94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .2 1 q .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.30q . F 1 = 0. G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) . F 2 = 'U.1 5p 2 + 3q + U).30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .
2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. r I . p. From equation (5 . In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 .f (r I . The f and 9 series may be used .5·29) .24) and (5 . 2·5). the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. f I .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . 7) r I g (r I . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse.0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . 5.2·3).258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u . 5 .5·27) + ' (5 . Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions.51) + 9= 7  1 . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . (5 . 7) (5 .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. 5.6. The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v.
becomes dt (1 . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector.61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . thus Figure 5 .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . L£ . As. . This . so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y.6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .Sec. 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6.1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA.61 Sector and triangle area (5 . 5. A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ .
5.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss.260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .2E ) 2 . but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large.6.2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b.6.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y.c o s b. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. . we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 .62) (5 . A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 ." + l( 1 . If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one. E ) .V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .2 The First Equation of Gauss.' l'2 2 2 (5 . The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 .43) and using the identity. 4 � c o s b. x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �.
(5 .(5 .2 2 L (5 .. ( .24) and (5 . Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 ..23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .61). Si.JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 .s i n l:>E ) . 5 . so .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .Sec.6 .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 .£Q. t/y.. 3 The Second Equation of G auss. we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .61 ) becomes si n l:v .s i n l:>E ) . si n l:v cos � .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.. From the first of these equations.1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .L ..2 ( 1 r1 r . L ( l:>E .67) 1 cos l:>v =. . n l:> E ) .= . equation ..65). Using the identity.
This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . S + 1 . n = 2 si n 3 LE . We then added another independent equation.25). the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E.Si." 5 .43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. recall that we started with three equations. using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 .si n LE ) we may write. (5 . 6. 27) and (5 . (5 . there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . When convergence has occurred. Unfortunately. s and w. equations (5 . which is known as "the second equation of Gauss. since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 .6.6.2(� .64) and (5 . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E. (5 .1 ) . We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. in three unknowns.69) cos f = 1 . To review what we have done so far. !:JJ and t. more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. y.1 ) = W (LE . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. 22) completes the solution. Next.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . 23). 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. (5 . p. a and LE. The first step is to evaluate the constants.6. a good first guess is y � 1 . 24) and (5 . y and LE .69) are transcendental.64) and solving for y. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary.s) . from r I ' r2 . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. and one more unknown. y 2 ( y . pick a trial value for y.from (5 .262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .4 Solution of the Equations .1 0) . and so on. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = .
6. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section.cE.F = rush .c:. difficulties may be anticipated any time .0. we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.1 2) = X = .6.c:.c:. i sin i. If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.E and . equation (5 .c:.c:.c:.c:.s i n .F and COS i .5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit. .c:. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.E s i n 3 . Noting that .Since the equations above involve .E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.c:.F whenever the right side is greater than one .c:.F will be zero and both equations (5 . )� s + 1 .69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .c:. then .69) and · (5 .E is imaginary.F is real.1 2) become indeterminate.. S. E or . 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .c:.c:. F = si nh .69) and to determine y.F 2 ) · (5 . F.F . For this reason.6. Since we already know that when . Using the identity.F .c:.1 0) may also b e written as Sec. indicating that�.1 1 ) s i n h .E is imaginary.F . If the given timeofflight is short.S ) y (5 .E .1 0) may become greater than one. 6. the righthand side of equation (5 .6.c:.c:. equation (5 .c:.1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .c:.c:. E = i .c:. 6. they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical. as y2 = W S + x .cosh 2 . F s i n h 3 "2 .F are close to zero. 5 .
62) and (5 . (s + x ) · 1 (5 . 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s.25) and (5 . the orbit being an ellipse. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 . (5 . Depending on the type of conic.1 0) or (5 . 3 . r2 . f. 4. 6 .6.24). ) .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 .1 1). Determine p from equation (5 . 2. from rl . 5 .2 Ch . .E or 6.6.6 .1 4). (5 . Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. Determine X from equation (5 .. is . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. parabola.6. which is developed by Moulton.1 5) 1 . 2 6. and 9 from equations (5 . 2 .22). Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . or negative. Compute the constants.26). g . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 .. 7 . and then expressing 6. 1� = 2 3 1. problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 . replacing CDs 6. determine 6.6.264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . . E as a power series in x.43)..6. The result.27) and (5 . . Evaluate f.23).1 (5 .F from equation (5 . it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x.6.Y:i. Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. ( 1 + §. . E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. /:.1 4) Now. the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point.]) and t using equations (5 . s and w.63).61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . zero.1 3).
�atellite intercept and rendezvous. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . Usually.Sec. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. ballistic missile targeting. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time ." In all but the simplest cases.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. The £:. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . and ballistic missile interception. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. 72. 5 . Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. To avoid generalities. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. To make the problem even more specific.
5 i nterceptor .7... .266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . r...� .. e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary. fI }/ \ \ . ��y V \" _ .. .. at t."...� ' .\....f.�: :. ) / ot t.' ':. 7 .." \ t a rg e t / \ .... ".1 . I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 . I n . �/ �/ ".1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem . \ •• • • • • • . ".
The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200.Sec. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . 5 .7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . which is when the intercept will occur. Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 .
Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. . .238 km/sec. . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. . we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. . . launch vel.268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 them. �v? �v . . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . \ \ \ Figure 5 . " . .
2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . the better . From Figure 5 . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site .7 . 5 . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. the launch site will have moved eastward . 5 . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability.5 . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. Because of earth rotation. One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. In Figure 5 .7 .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. In summary . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 .
J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .V plot for example intercept problem .O F . 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .7.F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.) z :J « .270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ...4 /':.
Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . another method will be develope d . P3 .86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . 5 . i. now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. t2 .8 .Sec.1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L.e. v2 • P I ' P2 . P3 · . 82) t2 so (5 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . (5 .8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .84) (5 .85) (5 . the three components of r2 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. Although we have examined a very specific example .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.
8. the components of Vz be X. ' r2 . Rz . L3 .8) (5 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . y and Z .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.e. these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch . R1 . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . y. Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c.8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. b .8. � into equations (5 . Estimate the magnitude of f2 . and eliminating the K components. y and z .8·7) (5 . 526) and (5 .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . i.272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . in fact only six of the equations are independent.L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . the components of f2 and V2 . L2 . 8. 5 to (5 .
which are the components of f2 and v2 . Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 .31 3) through (5 .423) for hyperbolic orbits.1 5. 5.32). using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. Y. c. . What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . =: =: 5 .4 Verify the development of equation (5 048). 5.V required for intercept? 5. Z. I I I I  x. Limitations.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. Accuracy.Ch . Ease of computation. f. 5 . e .522).41 . (5. The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer. EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter.6 Derive equation (5 .31 ). 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04.527). f2 I + J DU). 5 Z.1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. b. Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . and (5.2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6.31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 .526) and (5 .39).t2 and t2 t } are not too large. Usirlg specific numbers.3 Verify equations (5 . verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 .
although a few iterations can be made by hand. t2 . The piteration technique. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value.0922 TU. as a function of rI r2 . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . d. The universal variable method . Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use.009 (. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5.8 using the universal variable. vI = 0.00256 (J + K» .t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . The original Gauss method. r2 'and the distance between them. (Ans. 1 1 For the following data sets for r I . 5.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 . r2 .9 Repeat problem 5 . which will contain both position vectors. 5 .7 .8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . h = 1 .J + K). d. (Ans. 5 .tl = 1 . rl r2 p. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse.t l determine v2 using a. p 1 + J + K DU DU 5. 5 Given two position vectors rI . b. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. c.
and A. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. NY. Methods of Orbit Determination.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory.7K D U t 2 . New York. 1 963. 1 . Carl Friedrich. f 1 = 1 . New York. NY. 51 + 0. 1 9 59.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. 2 . 1 9 1 4. Herrick. d . New 6.Ch .t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. A stronautical Guidance. Vol 5 . r 1 = 2I t2 . S. Pedro Ramon. Appendix A. the MacMillan Company. NY. Battin. Bell. f l = 0 . Inc. c . Davis. Moulton. .t 1 = 0. NY. Mathematics. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . Dover Publications. New York. r 1 = I t 2 ." in The World of 1 .t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. Inc. a. 2I D U t2 . 1 965.6J + 0. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . 4. Eric Temple . Forest Ray. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. Liu.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. McGrawHill Book Company.4804847 1 1 2 +0. Escobal. 3. A n Introduction York.66986 9921+0 . r 1 = 41 t 2 . (Answer : v = 0. Simon and Schuster. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 1 964. to Celestial Mechanics. "The Prince of Mathematicians.0. Gauss.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . Richard H. 1 956.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 .
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000 V2's had been fired in anger . ironically . Napoleon I 6. 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. The result is well known. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. which concern us in this chapter. The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . longrange ballistic missiles. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . Efforts. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . have a very short history . World War II as "too late . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese.
According to Dr.000 pounds thrust. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. California. Trevor Gardner . Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . After all. In July 1 95 4. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. 4 Accordingly. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 .278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. in June 1 9 53 . Brigadier General 3 .000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 .
In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . by mid· 1 95 9 . Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. Atlas was a reality. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. Blasingame . From 2 main contractors at the beginning. Otherwise. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . 6. When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. After three unsuccessful attempts.Sec. the program had. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . Progress was rapid.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. 6 .000 people participating directly. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 .
There are.. It will not be discussed in this text. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory .22) ." "height of apogee.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 1 defines these new quantities. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions.ji1Tr. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range.2. Q . Figure 6. however.2.. Since Va:. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. such terms as "height at burnout. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. 6 from launch to burnout. =." "flightpath angle at burnout." etc. 6 . we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . need not be redefined. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 .2. 6 .2 The Nondimensional Parameter.. (6 . Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere .2. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here .
21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .Sec .2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 . 6.
rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .O/r from equation (6. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit.1 ) .2. 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit. the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. 24) 6 . (6. When Q is equal to 1 .2. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed.282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. and substitute for V.23) or IQ=2�·1 p .3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . If Q is greater than 2 .the expression p. It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2.26) . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit.
be written as (6. and co s � = . 2 Equation. lies on each side of the major axis.f6. 6 .26) above can.co s v b o . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) .27) . half the freeflight range angle .Sec. 'l'. therefore.
we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.28) p. A.1 1) into equation (6. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. h = rv cos cp. the required freeflight range angle. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2.284 .2. .2./. also becomes known.e2 ). ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target.29) Now. (6. the total range angle. ¢ro.29) and (6. = r Q C O S2 cp . If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. what should the flightpath angle. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. e. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. .2.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. . since p = a( 1 .T.
and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent .23 Ellipse geometry 6 . ¢bo. F'. Sec 6 . The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . with a little algebra. is called r bo . We could . Instead . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. Now. it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. In Figure 6 .2. The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus.4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle .In other words. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse .
F' and the burnout point." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . for example. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . in fact.I n 2 and also as rb (6.1 3) (6.000 ) from equation (6. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery. shown in Figure 6.24.2.x) = sin (6. � + 'lr) = . we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 .Qb o sin � . This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. This is.1 6) . It means. light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. that.1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800.2. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal.2. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a . Qb o 2 2 (6. we can express d as 'i' d = o S .286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . d.2. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s.
the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .Sec. sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals .1 6) gives us .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory . .9.2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .2. 6.866.
The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. 2. one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose .1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . Figure 6 . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. Because a = . Table 6.1 6) does not exceed 1 . equation (6 . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. Nevertheless. 2. Provided that 'l' is attainable. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . If Q bo is exactly 1 . . 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. If Q bo is greater than 1 . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected.P/2&.
6 .Sec.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.
21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'. Assuming a symmetrical trajectory.625 . range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj .11 5 18 1 .290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . cos ¢ b o == 0.low traj .low traj .5 DU. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :. ha p og ee 0. skims earth high only . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1. During the test firing of a ballistic missile.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. hits earth 000 > 1 high only . hits earth Table 6 . vbo = 2/3 DU/TU.
36° .4Deg. 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. versus the flightpath angle . 08 1 7 ( 1 .2.025 DU respectively. 26. 6 . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36.08 1 7 DU/TU and . We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . Notice or <P b o = :. <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 .2. 'IT.Sec. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT.5 The Maximum Range Traject ory .1 2) . Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . c os � = + N .1 . 60 0W . 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. :. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . 6.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . 600 E. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . ) (60 n m i ) =2. 2<P b o + 64°20. 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM..025) = 1 . 6 2 1 . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation.
. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .1 8) L__________________� .7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight . en EO I . we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must...Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 .292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell .1 7) I (6. If the right side of equation (6. be the maximum range condition. then..'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6.. :.pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 ... (2<P bO � ) 2 .2. . A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target. 2. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero. s 0> Q) 0 � c .1 6) equals exactly 1 .� 90 Figure 6. � 80 .:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .. 0> <1> <1> � IJ. There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory.s.2.
By inspection. The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory . 6 . noting that l .1 7 ).1 9) for maximum range conditions.'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified. This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle .e cos 2 (6.6 Time of FreeFlight. 220) for maximum range conditions. 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. 2.8) .2.7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2).Qbo Qb o (6 . VI 1 800 . If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .. 6 .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6. From the symmetry of Figure 6. 2 . the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.222) . 'JI .2. but .cos 2 .Sec:. sin �= 2 2 . 2.
223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . can be obtained from equ ations (6. 23) and (6. 28. and the eccentricity. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. In fact . e. The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. 2. a.27 Time of freeflight (6. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . 6 The semimajor axis. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 1). Figure 6 .294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . since five variables have been plotted on the figure.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 .
750 n m . It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6.95 From Figure 6. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.Sec. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.8 period vs.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.075) == 0.000 nm.884) ( 1 .29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 6 . What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.25 D U == 7 .
!:: 7:�i� I� : : : .aje.� '" �� :. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free . . : :/ . hi. :: : J: : : .. :: :"/ N . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: . .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:.. : : . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. : : . .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 .CI�rie� v X I .. : ' .9h Ir. .I ' : ' : : : : : : . . . ' .
If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. For a fixed burnout altitude . . As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. . impacting at B.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ .220) . at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. F or purposes of this example.933 D Urr U � 24. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.OOO nm max = 3.77 0 = 0 .1 � 0. the crossrange error. 8.6X. In Figure 6 . For brevity . 6 .3 . There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first. 3 . 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point. The arc length . 6 . and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point.  Vbo 6.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors.6C.444 n m = 2.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . 2 00 ft/sec . perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit.2.32 r ads = 1 33.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors.6C represents the cro ssrange error. 'l' From equation (6.Sec. .3 ° From equation (6. 957 Hsi 66. position.6C may be / 9 57 1. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.6X and .
the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. Equation (6.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X. for example. if they are in degrees.1 ) to (6. we get (6. we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. cos .31 Lateral displacement of burnout point . In Figure 6 . 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation. 3. if the intended target had been the north pole .1 . I 1 .32) 2 X Figure 6.3 .thought of as angles. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 ."2 to simplify equation (6 . If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. . X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .3.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center.
32 is the crossrange error . 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . are as planned. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . P. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. will result. a crossrange error. 'l1.33) . 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error.32 Azimuth error 6 . Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth.3 . Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 .'l1. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. 6 . 299 Figure 6. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. Figure 6 . The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . before . we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. �C.2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. 6(3.Sec.
An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.� I a q.3 . If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3.21 about the center of the Earth.D. (6. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.0. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it .\]I.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range..C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation.34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn .3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point. if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth. \]I. 6. it will hit the target anyway .4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. are shown by a solid line in the figure . <Pbo' In Figure 6. This .oo a "'00 Fl ight . cos X � 1 . 6 If we assume that both 43 and .y I  : : i.33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 ...x ' to simplify equation (6. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 ..\]I will represent a downrange .0.0.33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount . In other words.path angle .
If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3.3. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 . The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.Sec.1 2) of this chapter . But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 . 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target. We could get an approximate value for .2.cot <P b o (6.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation.6. 6 . The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .36) (6.8) (6.1 0) Qbo I i . we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o . 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.3 .'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory.
1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6. Let us first express equation (6. 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .3.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo . a'l1 .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6. Vb Substituting from equation (6.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = . 3.3.1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .3.1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 . _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.3.
6 . Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . angle errors. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 .3 .1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . A plot of range versus burnout radius. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. While we need equation (6. equation .33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors.3.33. the actual range error on a 3 . In fact. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). particular burnout error . Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. If this seems strange.600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. 3 .000 nm range. Figure 6. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . when used in the manner described above.Sec. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) .1 3) This partial derivative .
3.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 . too slow and the missile falls short.1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation . Again. the missile overshoots .3. differentiating the range equation (6 . the missile falls short of the target in every case .3. is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended. The magnitude of the error is (6.1 4) for small values of .1 1) implicitly.31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . if burnout occurs too low. 6 however. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 .3.3.1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6.. b o 'fJ ' (6 . .3. 6.6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler . Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots .1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = .2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .
735 = 6 . LW b o = . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error . like the other two influence coefficients.3.4 rad ians. 6 .1 8) would reveal that. a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high.6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .1 0.6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . Total downrange error : .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) .5 x 1 05 D U/TU .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . 1 ) 2 . An analysis of equation (6 .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .9 0 5 D U !TU . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 .905) 2 ( 1 .4 D U .Sec. ub o = 5 x 1 0 .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range . r bo = 1 . . Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better. 649 r ad U D U/T . 3. 735 rad DU r b o ( . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = . 1 D U .6V b o + a 'lr . There is no crossrange error.6¢ b o = . We will need Q bo (.
we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target.4.2 1 (. That is. In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. <p. v.1 .649 (5x 1 O . ove rshoot 6. 56x 1 0 . and its azimuth angle. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. The rotation is from west to east. 6 =2. The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. m i .735 ( 5x 1. for example). 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar.5 24 ft/sec. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 . then all three . {3. its flightpath angle.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . 0. 6.4 )+6.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame .1 .S ) .4 ) (3444) � 4 n . If we know the timeofflight of the missile .1 0.2sin 1 60 o 2 = . That is.56x 1 0. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed.4 ) TOT =1 1 . both the launch point and the target are in motion. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it.
.1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. (6. of 45 0 . and a speed of. Like the observer on the moving train. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction.I ·=<� • . Hereafter.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . we will refer to measurements of burnout . of 900 (east).41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. 1>. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e.4. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . and the azimuth considerably less than 900 .000 ft/sec. an azimuth.4.000 ft/sec.5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . .Sec. An observer at rest would not agree . we make our measurements in a moving reference frame .1 ) . we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . of train l \\�. say 1 . This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. 6 . an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle. A simple example should clarify this point. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . �.
first. We can obtain the south. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. east . Vs (6 . lies.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . flightpath angle . v. this will not be difficult. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. of course. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 .44) �.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem.42) The true speed. v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . (6 . finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. It is. Thus. Once you have the components of ve. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . break up V into its components. and up components of the true velocity. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site .43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. �.
so the arc length OA in Figure 6. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. when the missile arrives at point B. the target will be there also. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 .Sec. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . The term. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively .4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4.4.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. Hopefully. Rather . 6.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched .43 is just 90 0 L o. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . In Figure 6 .43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched.
A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target.0.0. and if.48) Again.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. If you are firing the missile the "long way" around. Once we know the total range angle. {3.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. .N + wffitA' where . then a value of . A.47) Solving for cos {3.N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3.N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. (6 .N. this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . (6 .0.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 .0.0.N + w ffitA ) . {3.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . tA . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . (6 . . we can solve for the required launch azimuth. Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target. we get c o s {3 = sin L t . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . The longitude difference. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 . by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.0.
By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. Needless to say. A. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . 6 . In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range .Sec. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . tA But . and launch azimuth. the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. (3.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch .
9 s i n 300= . 87 9 30. 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = ..( .. 1 DU. 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . 33° ¢bo = v E = . 5 1 1 95 v .9 DU/TU. flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 339 ) 2 + ( . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 .675 s (J=333 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM .. 85 From Figure 6 . 1 ) 1 .42) through (6 . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 .. 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 9cos3 00cos 3300= . . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . 6 .0 58 8cos290 = .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .. Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . 79 . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 339 ) =. 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of . 29 .3 ° W burns out at 30o N.4 5) : v= .5022 ta .. what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N. 45 ) 2 = ..j( . using Q bo = . v = . 8° v n /3 = v = .
7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = . 77° = . 334)=135° . tff=3. 2 5 TU :. 6. using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. 6 70) =.4 . 334TU ) =123. 334 TU boN = 135° . 3709 �GG (3.Sec.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 .3.13 = 7. 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1. 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = .80° . 770 N re = 156.we(3.7 8 0 . 29 . E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again.203. w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 .85 and ¢bo = 3 0.123 . .
5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. r b o = 1 . m i .05 D U = 1 0° .1 9)? Why? 6 .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U .6 ft/sec) 6 .926 D U /TU . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N.000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 . and a spherical Earth.840. m i . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude.5 D U!TU 1 . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. R = 6 0 n . 6 EXERCISES 6 .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0.2. = . v = 1 6 .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 .
. (Ans. 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. Rtf = 5 . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . Do not use charts. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . 7 I n general.06 DU. he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . Using the equations si n iL.02.6. A lateral displacement . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory .x and L¥3 be? .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 .)(. 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N .Ch.02. 6 .2 1 2 run) 6.'lr ).98 to 1 . Rtf = 4 .400 n mi.6. an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans.000 run) 6 . 1 0 During a test flight. how large can . 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. . 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of .
642 DU/TU) . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . vbo = 0.800 nautical miles? (Ans.346 n mi long) b. 6 6 .0 DU for a ballistic missile. or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 . 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . 7 . b . a.r = 0. 6 . (Ans.31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Is this a high. c . ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range.V = 25 . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 . ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 .6888 n mi L:.. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:..936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . low.
700 n mi using a high trajectory. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. tff 40. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans.23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : .20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N. b. determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. Q bo + .e . 6 .¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 . 5 DU and whose perigee is ..4 min) = 6. Do not use charts. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.22 The range error equation could be written as: b. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 . 3 0 0 E. 5 DU.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi.QL. R t of 4. at the same altitude . 1 2 00 W. i. 6 . What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum.530 ft/sec. using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). �bo and analyze the result . 6.ri. 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . 1 5 00 E. at an altitude of 2. If the velocity at burnout was 28. Ch .'I' = � b..where e is the 6 .6 ...
02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. (Ans. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.1 045 . 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed .3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 .1 0 .4 rad ian s a. 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of . low. Do not assume a nonrotating Earth.48966 = 3 1 5 . It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 .500 ft/sec=O. How far will the missile miss the target? 4. b. c.905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . elevation . v bo = . 1 200W .25 An ICBM is to be flight tested. 92S1 0608.66E+20784. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20. 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44.0057 ° = . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 . or maximum range trajectory? 6 .318 V bo =23.5 0 .
5 7 min) == * 6 . tff 3 2 . == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 1 20 OW .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a.649 n mi . downrange displacement of burnout point . atmosphereless Earth. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . L t 54 0 3 1 '. Assuming a symmetric orbit. .Ch . What was the freeflight range. rotating.6 1 8 . 43e . 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . site located 319 During the actual firing. 0 (Ans. == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . 1. 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . and r bo � r(fl. ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 .1 2 ' .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans.73 n mi. What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . (Ans.
New York. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. Garden City. Inc. Vol 2. 5 . A History of the U. . Albert D. 3 .3 1 The approximation : * 6.800 n mi. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. Burgess.6Vb o . NY. Calif. R ff ::: 1 0. 1958. NY. The MacMillan Company.S. 6 * 6. New York. ed .1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . Frederick A. Ernest G .4) .3 . 1 95 5 . Walter. Space Technology Laboratories. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . Lt Col Kenneth. How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . Gantz . Inc. * 6.02 DU. 1 960. 4. 2.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 .2. Doubleday & Company.1 2) . Publishers.2. "Free Flight . altitude at bo ::: . (Hin t : See section 6. The Viking Press. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). Dornberger . NY. Eric. Schwiebert. 1 965 . LIST OF REFERENCE S 1.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. NY. Los Angeles. New York . 1 962. V2 . Praeger." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. Wheelon .320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .
according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. though principally attracted by the Earth. does. move round the Sun once a year. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. Proctor. .CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. . The Moon is the more useful. have been discovered. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . when it is dark. and moving round it. about which she moves. the Sun or the Moon? . of all which. and is. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy .. when it is light anyway. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. the 32 1 . together with the Earth. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth.the Moon. since it gives us light during the night.
The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. Clairaut . Lagrange and Laplace . has given a full account. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. . Brown . 7 Author in this book. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. Even interplanetary trajectories. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . which are the subj ect of the next chapter. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . 7. with no less subtility than industry. A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more .in this case the Sun.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. D'Alembert. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . W. not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. but because it comes close to being a double planet. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . W.
the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. :. Darwin. ��===c==Q.Sec. The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. According to one theory advanced by G.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge .67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface .3 days.3 04 of the mass of the Earth. . in fact. The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation.:. . The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 .. . H. . 7 . . the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . .3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. .. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). This puts the center of the system 4. As a result . The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. . . . This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . .: =j Figure 7.400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .
In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements. In the case of the Moon's orbit .22 Lunar orbital elements 7. due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .2. 7 Figure 7. the orbital elements are constantly . The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon.
Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . This effect .054900489 . b. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . called "evection.400 km.3 1 66 1 days. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . c. their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. The line of nodes. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0." was discovered more than 2 .Sec. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. 7 .000 years ago by Hipparchus.8 days.
If the Moon's orbit were = . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . where the Moon crosses from north to south. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. d . the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S .2 Lunar Librations. 23 ° 27' . the other .000 years. in l S72. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . Thus. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . e . but more than a century later . Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis.23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. its mean value is 5 0 S ' .6 years. is the descending node . for only then can Sun. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . From Figure 7. and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26.9 years. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . rotates westward. making one complete revolution in l S .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' .6 years. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S.2." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic.
M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. at one time or another. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H .3 . Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . monthbymonth basis. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. we would see exactly half of its surface . among other things.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. 7 . SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. solar pressure .Sec. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. the computer time required could become prohibitive . Actually we see . At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. and 7. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. solar perturbations. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. This permits us to see about 7 . As a result. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour .75 0 around each limb of the moon. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. daybyday. Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit.
In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories.Q. semimaj or axis. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. 7 .3.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . this will not introduce significant errors.0549 . but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . 2& e = y'1  pia . and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ.400 km.. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. a = :l:!:..6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . It is not important that the analytical method be precise. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384. 7. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.3 .2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. With this thought in mind. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about .
II...3 .  I.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed . We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.r1 1...Sec.c C/) . 1 r1 1 . 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression..:.. we can solve for va .2 10.. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.i.g' . j 80 . 60 \ \ I njection .0 S pe e d .c " 0 . F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10... we get c o s V = 2. In Figure 7. 7 .M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .. E i= . .31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly. e r Figure 7. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit.9 I njection 1 1.
In Figure 7... For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape ..: / :1 . 7 an injection altitude of . If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP. Actually.J! .330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3 . the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection. then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \.05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . 7 .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. .. : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero.')'.. As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . .. . : . 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . \ 0 �� ' earth " ... We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed ... to parabolic.. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' .. It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.
Sec. . Moon from our assumed inj ection point . Eventually . 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . this minimum injection speed is 1 0. if we keep reducing the injection speed . 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. 1 8 8 km/sec.32 we see that. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. From Figure 7 . an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . 3 . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. which we can call 1/1. Assuming an inj ection altitude of . Assuming no lunar gravity . 82 km/sec. we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. In general the sweep angle . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. In such a case .966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . if we try to take longer by going slower. 7 . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . as the injection speed is decreased. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. 7 . is a function of .we will never reach the Moon at all. We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter.32.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. due to errors in guidance or other factors.
7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. that is. But. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. If. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . the initial velocity is too high. . so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft.33 . Neglecting lunar gravity. This may be seen from Figure 7 . for example .332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted.. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. and wrrft.
for all practical purposes. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle.4. R s' given by the expression Sec. however.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. In effect. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance .1 ) . the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . only are interested in determining ap. 7 ." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. There is. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. 7.arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 .3 00 km. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . 5 However.0 km/sec. 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 .4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. . which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite .
" The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7. a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth.4. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . 7 . 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin.4.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 ) can be found in Battin .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.4 . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n .1 ) yields the value Rs = 66. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.4. Figure 7 .) Then. 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit. A full derivation of equation (7 .
43) From the law of cosines.42) (7 .r h V 1 I (7 .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . from geometry . the radius. This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables. A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence.45) COS <P I . r 1 . at lunar arrival is (7 . r 1 . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. Finally. 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration.Sec.44) . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. 1 . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 .
41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight. 1 p ia  a = :l!.4.to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.49) (7 . p=� (7 . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p.336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .47) 2& e = ". JJ. 7 Figure 7.48) (7 . t l . a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .1 0) .
6 rad/sec 1 0 . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.1 6) The phase angle at departure.4.to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence . Eo and E1 from Finally.1 5) 2. .Sec.1 1 ) (7 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.3 rad/TUEIl (7 .4. Wm = = t 1 .e 1 r1 __ (7 . 7 .4.4.1 2) Next. 1 37 X X 1 0. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .4. we can determine the eccentric anomalies.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 . the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 .4.649 2. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.1 3) (7 .
a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 .0 1 8 k m/sec. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . 7 . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft .4.45). We will do this in the sections that follow. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. 7 .2 Conditions at the Patch Point . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch .48) through (7 . (7 . at arrival is completely determined by \ .1 6) above . then the selena centric radius. result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact .4. In Figure 7 .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.42 : V m = 1 .4. r 1 .4. (7 . The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed.1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth.which we chose arbitrarily . It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 .4.45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO .1 8) (7 . r2 .1 9) . The geocentric radius.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
50 � � c 0 i e 1.20 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7. 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 . «>  0.348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .40 .30 .
b oth of which are undesirable.5. As a result . we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct . Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. There are several interesting features of Figure 7 .5 3) . Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination . If lighting conditions are important.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent . However.5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely. then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.5 0 . 5 4 worth noticing. If lunar declination at intercept is specified.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date .si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . sir! 0 1 .5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. 54. if we add a coasting arc. Figure 7 . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 .52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 .52) and Figure 7 . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon.Sec. we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. 7 . we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . It should be obvious from equation (7 . 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . From Figure 7 .5 0 and 28 . 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct.
56 .41 7 1 67 .963 1 8 27 5 5 .4 1 3 1 66 .308 1 8 22 22. 7 1 7 1 66 .1 44.39 28 3 0 34. 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.998 17 5 7 20.3 1 9 3 . 5 9 28 34 33 .89 28 24 29 .45 8 0.47 28 25 3 8 . 973 FIgure 1 65 .949 1 8 05 42.87 28 34 22. 1 90 1 67 .27 3 5 . 1 3 .85 4 1 .44 28 2 1 1 8 .46 1 1 67 .58 73.34 28 32 1 7 .435 1 65 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 . 267 1 67 .90 28 33 5 3 .254 1 67 .242 1 66 .32 1 1 67 . 8 0 1 36. 8 1 28 32 47 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40. F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch .00 28 28 1 5 . 1 0 1 6. 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 . . 5 8 67. 1 67 1 7 29 26 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 . 2 1 28 34 42 . 1 0 28 27 29 .78 1 3 1 .05 8 1 65 .97 28 34 3 9 . 1 969 .3 . 5 7 1 1 66 .72 1 1 8 25 08. . 1 1 28 22 1 7 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.3 3 3 1 67 .88 28 33 3 5 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .07 47.342 1 7 40 3 5 .374 1 8 00 07 .695 1 8 02 54 .460 1 67 .38 + 9 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .766 1 7 43 23 .970 1 66 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .3 1 28 29 48 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 .862 1 65 .385 1 67 .449 1 67 .97 29.08 28 29 08 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON . 1 7 2 1 67 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0. 1 9 173.020 1 8 1 6 49.97 1 1 9. 1 4 1 06. 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 . 624 1 7 3 5 00.538 1 8 3 6 1 1 . 1 5 28 34 1 0.9 8 9 8 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .23 1 23 .203 28 1 8 49 .76 28 3 1 09 .737 18 1 9 36 .44 22.85 1 1 66 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .7 1 54. 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.424 1 67 . 24 28 23 34 . 86 28 26 29 .3 1 8 5 .376 1 67 .95 7 1 7 37 48. 078 1 66 . 24 .84 60.445 1 67 .97 28 3 1 47 .63 1 1 1 .35 28 1 6 08 .3 1 + 1 48 . 7 .05 28 33 1 1 .
89) : (7 56) . 7 . c o s 1/1 t .Sec. Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . The difference i n right ascension . at the launch point (see Figure 2. \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. which may be computed from the injection conditions. 1/1 c ' Thus. it is possible to adjustt l . I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. slightly (7 . between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . and may be obtained from equation (2. This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. the total time . we get cos 6a. 5 3 . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . ao' at this launch time . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 .54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E ." 8. Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. �. !::lX . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 .53 . is the same as the "local sidereal time . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch.55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. 5 4). tt ' is (7 .si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . The launch time. To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept . 84).3 .9 .5 .
54) agree.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = . 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. What additional 6. � . 7 .and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 .2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. 000 k m 33 .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. . 7. and the exact We now know the injection conditions.3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. 7. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier.3 224 .t I ES Ch . 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth.426 k m 2 /sec2 6.
7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A..9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions.6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon.400 k m : a . a . What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b .Ch . b.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . . At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec . Determine the /:. 7 . On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c.v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 .
1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. <1>0 = = = * 7 . 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. select ro ' vo ' to meet this . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. . 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . Use h bo l OO n mi . CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. 7 7 . One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. Specifically. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . requirement.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion).) * 7 . You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (.
1 6. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. A stronautical Guidance. The Moon . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. New York. NY. Berkeley and Los Angeles. The Story of the Moon . Doran and Company. . Battin. 1 964. NY. Principia . New York. 1 967. London and New York. Doubleday. Abelard Schuman. Garden City. 1 962.Ch. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 1 9 5 9 . 6. an d Maud W. George . Makemson. Richard H . 2. Clyde . Robert M. 4. Baker. Second Edition. 3 . Newton. Fisher." ARMA Document DR 220. L. University of California Press. November 1 95 9 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. NY. 5. 1 943 . Academic Press. Inc. Gamow. McGrawHill Book Company. Isaac .
.
who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . two ears. such as the seven metals." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. two eyes. two unpropitious. which it were tedious to enumerate . etc. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. indeed. compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . C opernicus. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. and a mouth . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. At first it was not understood .. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. But the tide of opinion ebbed. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . two luminaries. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . By 1 507 he was 357 . and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. two nostrils.
2. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing.1 . some of which pass near the Sun. Neptune. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. Jupiter . Saturn. 6.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. . Uranus. comets.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 8. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. In addition. are spread much more widely throughout the system. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. the members of the solar system. If we write down the series 0. 1 Bode's Law." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. 8." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. nevertheless. indeed. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. Earth. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. . at the age of 70. .2. The "law. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. 1 2 . and Pluto . After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. Venus. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position." as may be seen in Table 8 . was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . . diameter. Mars. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. 3.
2 Table 8. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.52 1 9. 1 7 39.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets. 0 is presented in Table 8 . A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .39 0.6 3 8 .2. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Except for Mercury and Pluto . The sixth orbital element.8 77.7 1 .65 5.72 1 .4 0. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic.0 1. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune .22.8 5 .00 1 .6 2. Table 8 .76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered. Only for brief periods.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.28 3 0.52 2. 8. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit. The size.Sec. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . compared with the total mission duration. is its path . Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. 8. 8.2 1 0.21 Actual Distance 0.20 9.0 1 9 .
76 ° .. 1 7 3 9 .. 0 1 67 . 0068 .306 2 ° .322 1 00 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28..497 1 3 ° . 7 73 1 ° . 8 94 341 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° . 0934 .004 3 ° . 38 7 1 .275 222 ° ..225 237 ° .684 93 ° .. [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.405 undefined 49 ° .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .0539 . 074 1 83 ° . 1 1 1 326 ° .5 1 9 1 9 . 1 42 1 02 ° .000 1 .773 1 7° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .970 7 6 ° . 000 1 °. 0482 . 1 3 6 47 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a .) 00 .203 9.2583 7 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° .096 1 88 ° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .441 73 ° . 5 73 1 75 ° . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .400 276 ° .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c. 2056 . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° .5 24 5 .005 0 .870 L.7233 1 .28 3 0.489 0° .76 .828 1 7 1 °. 05 1 4 .394 0° .850 1 ° .
9? 1 .04 29..65 6.74 2 . 1 08 3 1 8 .9 1 08 .986x l O s 4.l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .6 1 7 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .000 .8 247 .8 1 7 1 .896x 1 0 6 3 .79 24.24 1 .80 5 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .795x 1 0 7 5 ..05 6 .49 4. 1 1 49 .257x l O s 3 ." .2 1 4.000 1 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.8 6 29. 1 4 1 3 .3 .7 5 7 .3 05x 1 04 1 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .46 84. 0 1 1 64.232x l 0 4 3 .820x 1 0 6 6 .0 95.06 9 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .6 1 5 1 .8 8 1 1 1 .268x 1 0 B 3 . 5 227.87 3 5 .
8. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . For transfers to mo st of the planets. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit.v required. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet.3l . this consideration is important. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . Just as in lunar trajectories. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. The Hohmann transfer. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence.3 . At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference .362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . was the Hohmann transfer. however. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. from the standpoint of /:. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. if continued past the destination planet . it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee.
" . \ _. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip.v required for an interplanetary mission. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by . 8. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8.V.Sec.d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit.' .. Nevertheless.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit.. Therefore . .u o_____+.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / .
If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time.3. 3 . for the Hohmann transfer. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . The heliocentric speed. The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the difference between the heliocentric speed. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit. then.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun.l 0 (8 . From Table 8. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity.33) In Table 8 . r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. B (8 . VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f.3 .where f.78 kIn/sec.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity. In any case .3 and should be reviewed .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion.1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. • .
8.03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence. it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.57 .379 1 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun. In other words .74 6. Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.748 .9  2 .\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . rE9> are respectively : .28 32. t2 .3 9 1 1 . rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.5 1 46 .42 4 1 .28 27.05 4 1 . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.04 1 6. r d = 1 . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .73 38.Sec.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .397 22.31 1 05 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . 40. 1 6 30.524 A U From equation (8 . From Table 8 .345 1 . 1 2 5 8 .78 46.07 4 1 .099 1 .295 1 .60 Table 8.9 1 6 1 .
2 Phase Angle at Departure. From equation (8 .4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 . v . the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points.73Km/sec . where is the angular velocity of the target planet.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 .34) __ (8 .9 d ays 8. vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 . 8 From equation (8 .VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected. If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure. the phase angle at departure .t 1 = 1T = 4.32 for a Mars trajectory. Thus.3. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.099A U/TU 0 = 32.32) the heliocentric speed .7088 years = 258.35) wt (t2 .3.t1 ) wt . The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 .366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . and is illustrated in Figure 8 . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.
Sec. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. . how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet.1 76 . . .. 367 .. pp 1 60.. Figure 8. If we miss a particular launch opportunity. ... 'Yl (8 .32 Phase angle at departure.. . . .. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct.3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . . The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun.36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place .. 8. Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself.
we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.37) (8.025 Synodic Period.01 1 . we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again.60 2.0 1 1 . if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed. Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.3. Thus.w t I (8 .07 1 1 0.530 .W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 .00 Table 8. 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. rad/yr 26 .3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. 8.368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . yrs 0. Mars and Venus. so W EfJ7 s . 1 3 1 . 3 ·2.213 .07 5 .04 1 . we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.09 1 .32 In a time . then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated.38) .03 8 .v 1 determined. It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth.32 1 .2 1 7 3 . the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long. 340 .
r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. . . (8 .. . . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. . .33 / . � _ i t_ r b_ ..Sec.. . .. � Figure 8. '?. .39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . . ".:V. . 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . .310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in .. . 8 .. '\ . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . .. �.
we may write .2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. C but since e = da for any conic. For transfer to one of the outer planets. From Figure 8.34 we see that the angie . 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 .1 1 ) becomes = 2 . 3. so equation (8 .1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars.98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . is given by cos fI =  §. fI. fI.the injection speed .33 . This may be seen by solving equation (8 . km/sec.3.39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola.6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 . the angle .
3 T H E PATC H E D.3.34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .1 e where the eccentricity .1 2) e.3. is obtained directly from the injection (8 .1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8. 3.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = . conditions : = (8 . 8 .1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .Sec.
At arrival.72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle . cfJ as shown in Figure 8. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity.35 Interplanetary launch (8 . The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.36. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.3.4 Arrival at the Target Planet.3. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . 8. however.3. then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 . Generally.
1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .3.1 8) . (8 . 8 . 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.1 6) (8.Sec.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 . 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 . 3. 3 .2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet.
36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . 'Yl should be selected from equation (8.3 . then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. 8 . If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. will be directed toward the center of the planet. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence .The angle . 3 7 .s i n if> 2 v (8 . e. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure.320) y = x si n e (8. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. 3 7 we see that  (8 . If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet .36). the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. in Figure 8. then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. 3. From Figure 8 . In Figure 8.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. It also means that the relative velocity vector.
lt/ 2 X _ . 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f. (8 . 8 .Sec. X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.322) .
323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet . 324) (8. 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance. 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . y.326) Because angular momentum is conserved. the speed at periapsis is simply . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .(8.328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . we obtain . Solving equation (8 .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .327) for y Yields (8 .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 .
V2 + 2fJ. b. The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .Sec.05 DU.39. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. The given information is .t 3  rt (8 .329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. 8. then a much smaller target must be considered.328) we 'get (8 . rt This particular offset distance is called b . In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. The. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 .launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0.329). the "inwact parameter.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b .
1 :: 0. 3 .05 D U 1 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .099 A U/TU 0. 6V 1 = 1 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .099 . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .099 A U/TU = :.39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .1 VI = 1 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .
From Table 8 .v (8 .4.4. the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 . This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.1 ) .07 6 ft/sec 2 . 8 .044 8 .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.Sec. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept.v = 2v si n L 2 /::.22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic.43 DU/TU . departure Figure 8 .905 = = 379 37 .1 . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 . 1 39 + 1 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic. t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::.
8 . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .62 DUJTU� 8. EXERCISES 8 . 8.7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years. 8. _  /' .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun .3...1 ) . Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 . 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. 5 for the planet Jupiter. 8. " ... (Ans. 8 as derived in equation (3 . 7.32.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units..5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 . 8.1 )) . 8.4.8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.3 .
e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit . It can be shown that .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit.l:. where 8.. a. vesc = 1 .l:.000 ft/sec.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission.l:.v = 1 5 . If c = 9 . lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. 1 DUE[) radius. 1 00 ft/sec) c.35) ITbo no . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .900 ft/sec.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 .V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.V required? (Ans.v ? (Ans.l:. v = 39 . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence .Ch.348 DUe/TUE9> .394 DUe/TU� b . & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.V = 0. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .l:. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. . h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the . M = 5.
Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d.0.. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. 8.V at apogee or perigee? 8. 3 . 8 8 .9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b .? (Ans. 1 DUe/TUEl1... (Ans. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a..V of .9 00 ft/sec) 8 . What is the 6. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .73 1 DU8TU� b . (Ans. so work carefully and follow any suggestions. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. Find the 6. � = 0. 0. What is the 6. 0.. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 ... 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c..5 DUEI1 circular orbit. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 . What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. Find the hyperbolic excess speed. v= 0. Is it more efficient to apply a 6.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 6. What is the 6. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 .0.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars.0. = 0. 09 DUe/TU$) = .Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit.254 AU/TU� .046 DU� /TU � b . v=' (Ans.V is applied at perigee. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee.which results if the same 6. 0. The mission will begin in a 1 .28 AU2 /TU2 . a. a. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans.
it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. for the above transfer. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. P. (Ans. then find h. 8 .2 AU/TU� d.5 AU.373 AU/TU � f.Ch. 1 . called the turning angle . 1 .4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . 3 . The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. For a given planet. 0.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. O o) 8. 'Y1 . 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination.867 AU/TU� e .3 9 DU oITU& 2 .87 TU� b . (Ans. <P2 and vll1II in that order. Vrrw = 0.050 ft/sec) 8 . 0. 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. c. Compute the phase angle at departure.5 AU? (Ans. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . 1 4 a. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth.) (Ans. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount.
The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. W . . No 2 . American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 1 95 6 . Assume circular. Newman. 1 963. 8 8. London. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. U S Government Printing Office . R.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. coplanar planet orbits. Simon and Schuster. 4 . Washington. James R. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. What would be an estimate of the return b. Vol 2. 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. Fimple . Vol 1 . D C . 1 967." AIAA Journal. pp 430434. The World of Mathematics. and the angular rates of the planets. * Ch . NY. 1 969. 1 . New York.V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . 1 96 1 . 3 . 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. transfer time. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 .
Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. " Webster 9 . and at times unexplainable .CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. it is found that there seem to be distinct. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . Macroscopically . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). There is always some variation 385 .
yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. 9 . E. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. The wind gust was a perturbation.from the norm. meteoroid collisions. solar radiation effects. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. Fortunately. etc. In fact. Then. 6 . Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. magnetic. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. atmo spheric drag and lift. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. except the motion of the perigee. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. and relativistic effects. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. M. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. which had not been treated by Newton . mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. Brown 's papers of 1 897. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . about a century later.
It was developed by P. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. With the capability for orbital flight . This is the main emphasis of this chapter. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. the Cowell. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. 9 . Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. In particular. 9. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. Encke. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. H. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms .2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods.Sec. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common .2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. a section discussing methods and errors is included . See section 1 .
2.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. y = vy (9. the equations would be . For the twobody problem with perturb ations. Sun and planets. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . F or numerical integration equation (9 . r=Y �r (9 . 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. the equation would be (9 . and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. including all the perturbations.22) would be further broken down into the vector components.
This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method.Il m ( 3 . When motion is near a large attracting body . 8 . Even in double precision computer arithmetic. and he would be correct . the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to.23). Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time .'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 .24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation .22).  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . In spherical coordinates (r. The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9.25) . 9 . satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. Intuitively. It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff.Sec. This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . There are some disadvantages of the method . Classically.
contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field .3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell.31 The osculatil. 9 (9 . one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. Presumably .g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . In the Encke method . 9. The term connotes the sense of contact. In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit.'l. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . reference or b i t Figure 9. and .390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . in our case . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known .25) As a reminder.
Now w e will consider th.3 . 9. At that time . respectively . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch).  (9 .1 ) . 9 . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 .33) we obtain . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it.to ) ' p (9 .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit .32)  Sr. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. be defined as (see Figure and .3 2) into (9 .3.1 ) .1 ) and (9 . Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration.. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 .33) Sub stituting equations (9 . Note that at the epoch.e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method..1 ) and for the osculating orbit.3.Sec. = p ( tb ) p p to = 0. the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . Let r and p be the radius vectors to . 3 . r + � r3 r = a t . or epoch. The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.
lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . theoretically. For a given set of initial conditions.37) .34) then becomes (9. p is a known function of time . one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method. 6r (to + . However. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .3 6) Equation (9 . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . So . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:...t) can be calculated numerically.392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .. we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object .6r] r3 r (9 .was to obtain more accuracy.lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . 6r.6r ) . so r can be obtained from 6r and p. == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .3 / 2 (9 .35) 3 3 r _ (9 .6.
9 . OZ are the cartesian components o f or./  Our problem is not yet solved . o y . Expanding. however.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / .Sec. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . In terms of its components Figure 9.
2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ .1 0) (9 .2q So q =  Now. . 9 From equation (9 . (9 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9. It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .38) and (9 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 . 3. .31 2) . There are two methods of solution at this point .3.(1 .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .37). /) y2 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q.( 1 . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.38)  1 . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .37) becomes (9 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.
calculate (jr (to + t:.t) . care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. In (jr p v as described earlier.1 2) may be slightly faster.1 2) is used. p 229).t . The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. Vol 2. Knowing 5r(to + t:. q (to ) O. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . k. Otherwise (jr p .39) is recommended for use with the computer. r (to ) . It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. Calculate r = p + (jr. 9 . t:. rectify and go to step a . p(to + t:.t replaced by kt:.t) from equation (9 . d . For an integration step.3. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . c. Rectification should be initiated when .Sec.3. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . f(to + t:.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used.> a specified constant.t) 2 .01 ). The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r. and 5r 0 at this point.t where k is the step number. although the use of equation (9 .t) calculate 1 .nowing p (to ) . The method using equation (9 . (jr 0. If. so larger step sizes can be taken. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .does not remain quite small.t to get (jr{ to + kt:. If equation (9 . = = = = = p continue. Go to step c with t:. q( to + t:. Then the tables could be u sed to find f .3. e . but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. a. f.3 8) 3. Integrate another t:.t). b.t ) from equation (9 .1 0). g. but of the order of magnitude of 0. v = p + (jr.
cSr ) (9 . so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. See equation (9 .1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. = .4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. For instance.6. from the Encke method 9. a . one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . they would remain constant. A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six .r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . Similarly. etc . at the outset. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) .t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . e eccentricity. if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs. In the absence of perturbations. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. Though./l m {m s . this method may seem more difficult to implement. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. Then e � .3.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. Thus.6. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . A similar check could be made on i .
4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. Vol 2 . where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M .4 . The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . along the instantaneous radius vector. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . R (unit vector R).. .and dM ?. w and. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. e. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . i. . 9 ..T (or M) will be used.I OOS .g. It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . � . 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. p 246.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. 9 . 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. n. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . The standard orbital elements a. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. The axis S is . r.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary.n (t . Eventually . The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired.variations (e.Sec. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. for a table of parameter sets). Therefore .
9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .4. The third axis. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .43) . W.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .
� 2& ' = 399 (9 . dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:. expressions for found.48) Substituting in equation (9.1 0) . (9 . Differentiating the conic equation Qr. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .48) we find da dt = (9.4 and .44) (9.!I=8!" nr from (9 . (9 . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .43).46) and F S (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system..49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.Sec. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a . 9.44).45) To express this in known terms.1:!:.4.
r hW + h da S dt (9 ..1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.�) % J.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .lae dt h $) a dt .la _ (9 04.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.) Since h = hW.2 )% a = (1 .4. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation. 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt . Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .
but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) . 1 e2 (9 .1 8) ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .n di dt (9 .Sec.sin QL = dt .1 6) we obtain .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h . 9 .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .h cos i rF s h2 . K) � (9 .4.4.4.�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.4. 4 .4. 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h. so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .4. K .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 ..
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
4 where c will be the parameter.4. allowing c to vary with time . • . so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . .Sec.2p.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p.vc .vt 2p. Since p.45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion . and V are small.2p. . c = ve 2 p.4.v which can be easily solved for c.4.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v. For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence .v {at + c ) c (9 .. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l .5 1 ) correct to first order in J. but more practically we would consider � = v .45 1 ). which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P. {at + c) + 3p.vat a+v a .J.v = . The constant of integration.e . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .2 p.vt . C. From equation (9 .v 2p. .2p. ] (9 ..450) and solving for e we find (9 . . 9 . .2 (at + C)2  .45 1 ) .45 0) should be small.454) + 2p. (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.
Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. 5 . such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. accuracy. storage and complexity. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. allow as large a stepsize as possible. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. his integration method. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. c. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs..e. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . should be the criteria. such as the disturbing function. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. economical in computing time. 9 . Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. efficiency. or has not carefully selected. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. . In theory. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. b . Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. not expediency. Unfortunately. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. 9 in detail. at best. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. highly questionable.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. d. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. 9 .
276 + 3 . 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . The larger the . Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.476. Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method.476.Sec. 2 Integration Errors. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic.864.28 + 3. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. For instance . it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. 9 . 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. They are roundoff and truncation errors.843.accumulated roundoff error . but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method .86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. Baker (v 2. and f.388.5 (9.5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . 9 .51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2.567 = 7. 5 .388. Obviously . 4. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . In fact.57 = 7 . In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation.
AdamsMoulton. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation .6. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch .63) dx dt (9. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. 9 stepsize. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. the larger the truncation error. any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). In general. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. Of course . 9. EulerCauchy and Bowie . 6 . 1 RungeKutta Method.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. Gill. h. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes .1 ) . Thus. There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. 9 .= f(t. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. We will treat the first order equation .62) (9.
X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. 9 .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. easy to implement . This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .h ) k3 +. They are relatively simple . X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .yry. have a relatively small truncation error..) k2 6 3 l2 (9.yV:.k +.6. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step .65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% .( 1 . they are faster than the singlestep methods. x n . Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula. The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated.( 1 + y. and stepsize is easily changed . though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + .Sec.64) 1 1 + . In general. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. 9 . x n + k 3 ) (9. It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + . x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h .63) and n is the increment number.% ] + k 2 [ 1 . so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .
beginning and after each stepsize change. 5 / 1 2 . .6.\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . . 25 1 /720.3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods.66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 .\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + .1 f .\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. 3 9. . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 3 /8 . 1 /2 . 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0.67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas).
68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +.Sec. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .x n+1I I (P 270 (9. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations. The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. . the error terms are not generally known. This method.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see.69).61 O) (C ) � I x n+l .69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term.1 + 37 f n2 .h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.6. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas.x n + (5 5 f ri .59 f n . for instance. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. 9 . Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis). 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9. In equation (9.
1 . x.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method.° n + .1 f(t n + h).2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods.6 .1 ' etc.8 k .12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . The GaussJackson method is one of the best. though it also includes a corrector. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ".° n 60480 (9.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n.1 f(t n h) 2 2   . and most used. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. "x. though. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect. n + � 84 "x.h ) .418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 9. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations. 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ".6. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. n + 1 2 n i \. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. . It is.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n . 9 like other multistep methods.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x.
1 ) One such potential function. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. is known. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth. 9 . However. V. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references.I n=2 r (9.7.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker.Bashforth) methods are preferred.7.6.1 The Nonspherical Earth . the accelerations can be found from (9. p/r. is ¢ = � [1 . 9. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. but only the simpler forms will be treated. If the potential function. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. 2 and NASA C R. 9. 2 . 9 . but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques.l 005). Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize.72) . Table 9. Some of them become quite complex.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec.6.5 Numerical Integration Summary . according to Vinti.e presented in this section. ¢.
very difficult to determine proper size. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. Vol t . it could be very fast. 9 CI) . Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .
30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .J s � ( � ) (35� . if> = I!:.L = gravitational parameter Sec.945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r ..( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .  I. 9..�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .74) .2.] (9 .2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 ..� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r . r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.where J..J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) . = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .
3003 ""6 ) + . 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr.6 6 (0. 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .64 ± O.6 J4 = (1 .1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J . These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2.6 . . l )x 1 0.422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 1 5 ± O. Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 .l ( �) 3 ( 3 .75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . which are slightly in variance .6 J = (0. 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .44 ± O. y.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).57 ± O. .03)x 1 0.5)x 1 0. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients. l )x 1 0.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .5 ± O.6 ± O. Vol 1 .76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 . l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 . I )x 1 0.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9. The first term in x..
. There are a few ctmtiol). The equations are formulated in the geocentric . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2.Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . To do this. Thus. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only).. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent .Sec. s 9.s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . Vol 1 . 9 .7. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). the drag coefficient. However. Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker..2 Atmospheric Drag. equatorial coordinate system.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. by definition. p 147). frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). 7 Drag. and other parameters. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. term) to the RSW sy stem. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. but will not be presented here. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . simply use r3 r= where . C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. Therefore .
7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects.7 .lli. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . though small. Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. In the geocentric.7 . but the reader can find this in other documents. etc. 9 m p C O A . equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . z refer to the geocentric. 9 . altitude above an oblate Earth. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo). y .78) z .t b ae ==ic.424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch.ie. Radiation pressure. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. equatorial coordinate system.3 Radiation Pressure. Equation (9 .ilc coffc. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. .
but a major force .4 Thrust.79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 .4. 1 Verify the development of equation (9 .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates. 9 . 7 .2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . . See equation (9. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . the variation of eccentricity. 9 .5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. 9 .Ch. 9 where A = cross section f = 4. EXERCISES 9. Prove this assertion .4349 0 x .25). . m (9. Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. y. z directions.1 5) . m = mass of vehicle (grams) . Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. 9.
* 9 . 1 96 1 . M. and Wilf. J . C . L. 9 . London . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Moulton . 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. * 9 . Inc. 1 9 1 4. D. 6. and Wl). LIST OF REFERENCES 2.ittouck. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. F . Guidance. M. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. New York. DC. Ralston . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. Jr . 1 960. R. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. Baker. 4. . . * 9. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . Allione . New York. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method .426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . G. 9 9 . 1 967. John Wiley and Sons.000 n mi. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. Blackford. A.. S .l 005 . Feb 1 968. Methods of Celestial Mechanics. The Macmillan Co . M. . 5 . 3 . Brouwer. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. A. Vol VI. Washington." NASA CR. Robert M . M. New York. Academic Press. L. Academic Press. Mendez. Planetary Coordinates for the. 1 . New York. Years 1 9601 980. and Clemence.445).
P . Jr and Makemson. R. Townsend. New York. . 1 5 . Herget. A . Dynamical A stronomy . A stronautical Guidance . Plumber. Orbital Flight Handbook. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). New York. Vol 1 . R . Th e Determination of Orbits. NASA SP33 . Methods of A strodynamics. John Wiley and Sons. 1 6. Washington. M . 1 95 3 . 1 0. Inc. Baker. New York. McGrawHill. Escobal. 1 96 1 .Ch . C. 1 4 . Jr. E . 1 963. 1 2. B . Battin. 9 . Escobal. DC . Robert M. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . Michigan. 1 96 5 . Paul. 1 964. Cambridge University Press. Longmans. Maud W. 1 948 . Methods of Orbit Determination. Academic Press. The Macmillan Co. M. New York. F . 2nd ed. 1 1 . 1 95 6 . 1 3 . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Ann Arbor. New York. D. R. 1 967. John Wiley and Sons. New Yark. Published privately by the Author. Part 1 . 8 . Dubyago . H. P. G. Inc. New York. L. New York. Hildebrand. 1 968 .. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. The Computation of Orbits. Celestial Mechanics. McGrawHill. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. . W . Smart.
.
1 . 44686457 min 6378. 1 Center.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. Canonical Units I DU.908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 . 3.. English Units Metric Units 2.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance. I DU� TUi.68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . r. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4..APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. Speed Unit I� TU..922786 NM 1 3 . Each of the two sets is consistent within itself. .. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 .4959965 x 1 0' km 5 .. r. 'Derived from those values of Il . 2593 6.05883 36565 � TV.9053682 8 km' .092567257 x 107 ft 3963 . Ile Angular Rotation.77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. 1 328 2 1 days 9..24764 11sec 806 . 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29. 2506844773 deg min 7. 1 97 5 . 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . we 0.
1 2 64963205 0 .5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 . foot = 0.2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 . there is no roundoff or truncation.01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 .3 14 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A. 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown.e .07 1 0 1 50424 4 . .4 3 . i.08 1 52366 0 .8 9.239446309 x 1 0.9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 . 1f = 3 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .2342709 5 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .
A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . not a null or zero vector. K) and (p. Examples are displacement. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. length of a vector . 43 1 . I DEFINITIONS Vector. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. Examples are mass.relationships involving vector quantities. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. If A i s a vector . temperature . force and acceleration. Scalar. W). vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . speed. Q. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . velocity . Thus. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . Unit Vector. (Example : 3 or A). C. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. J. time or any real signed number.
1 Similarly. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors).. If A. . have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. and A and B are not collinear. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. B and C are coplanar vectors.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. regardless of the position of their origins. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. Coplanar Vectors.
is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin.1 ) I AI cos B . l . Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .B which is the same as A + (B). Scalar or Dot Product.2. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C . The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle.l ) C.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . denoted by A • B.. C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . e I I l (C .C. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.
. is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them. The cross product of two vectors A and B. The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A.B + A . 23 ) (C. That is. .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . < 180° ) AxB =C . then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + .J = J o K=K o I = O where I . B and C form a right handed system.K= 1 I .24) (C.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . sma l lest ang le ( L e .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.(B + C) = A . K are unit orthogonal vectors. if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible .C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A .8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . denoted by A x B .1=J .J =K . A o A = Aft. J .
(Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where .(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. then A X B = O. K are unit orthogonal vectors.C. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C. e < In fact A x B = . 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C . J.
28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C. from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) . BI C1 .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.29) Scalar Triple Product.Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .
B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .C.2.3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.1 2) (C.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C. denoted b y A x (B x C) . The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K . The vector triple produce. 2.2.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .B3 C) + A ( B3 C .(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.l 3) (C.2.21 4) C.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .
....... K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P.. x J Then the velocity relative to the (I.. ...... thus .. v C P K y ..with itself.. ...YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of . ....... " . ...438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o . then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + ..9. dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ..
This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) . Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector.T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. In this special case then. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. VE LOCITY 439 which.= .C..3 b.= . v = wT . dr v = .
p. elevation rate . They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. EI. EI. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. The input to SITE should be latitude. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). Az. longitude. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . range rate . The input to TRACK should be range. It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . and of the satellite (R and V). and altitude above mean sea level are specified . latitude of the launch site.APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). D . From the 440 . Use standard unit conversions given in the text. AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. The radar determines p. Its geodetic latitude. elevation. azimuth rate. positive to the east) of the launch site. azimuth.
74933340. 3 315 .74933340.8 S 1 7 5. 6 8 2. e . .7 5. 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897.48 201.05 1 37. 040075. GST _ 1 .3 . LST and LONG are in radians. 0) = (. UT. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . 5. 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 .62624920) = (. 8 0. .5 3 0 . W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . . GST. LST _ LONG + GST + 1 .775 1 80 1 9. DAY.75 1 003 9 1 .8 N 7 8 . REAL LONG. GST.5 1 35 . . . An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. .57 76.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 .07 1 05 . y. 1 4923608. LST.. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x .5 3 4 ON 4 5.044 1 8440.08 30.0027379093®2®PI®D . END OF LSTIME . observation time and radar tracking data.5 90 . 2 2 29.75 components are : (. = (.27907 599.D. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). If the above program is used. 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. .7 . 007 N 1 04 . a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST.5 .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .26347 1 9 8 . 9 W 0 1 9 05. 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . 22 1 0. PI. 6 . Input UT as a decimal (i. BEGIN REAL D. . E 7 2 .63745829) z = .01 2035 7 5 . PI .7 . UT. 5 7 5 for data set 3).05 1 9 5238) . INTEGER DAY.2045 72 1 6 . . LST) . Following are five sample sets of data for site location. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .
d.1 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity. 5 . 0) (.9 1 046 1 80.2 VI .9 0 2 0 .85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 .4 1 4 2. Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . c. 1 0 0 2 . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth. 00001 . 1 29579 1 9 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK).4 1 3 59 3 1 7 ..998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29. elliptical.707 .5 0 .703 . 49 0 0 2. hyperbolic). .9 1 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach. 6 2 . b .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. From this information you are required to fmd : a.8 .4 1 4 0 0 65 . 05 . rectilinear. . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. The type of trajectory (circular.001 5 30 0 . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. 0 1 7 45 .49 0 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix.4 1 722472 .293 .6 0 . 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . 7 0 3 VK .1 0 22.01 .001 1 0 . parabolic. . 01 .1 . 48 4 0 2.
61. Also for an ellipse.5 . Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used.4 of the text for guidance . 61 (calculated) . 1 38878 .025 9 1 7 .3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. a .0. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. 1 5 0689 1 . you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. RJ 61 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods.jiL d. c. The following data is given in e arth canonical units.5 . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4.7 .3 1 0 .5 0 0 . and dt/dx for each iteration. x should never be greater than 2m. If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z).8 . If your iteration process is efficient. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. To determine when convergence has occurred. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 .3 D. b. When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds.
002 1 7 7 1 .. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives. 0 . It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. For instance note that y can never be negative . 1 65 08 . Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text.4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. R2 V2 = (0. I t .01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 .. 1 0.t c l :::. In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z.. 0003 6 1 .5 1 .9 20 .70655823..w)... 3. t :::.1 . 1 362596) = (0. 1 06 1 0. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. bt... and sign (7T .6 for 1 :::.6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. 0.444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations.. 00 1 074 . For ellipses limit z to (211')2 .00006057 . Given r l ' r2 . Use the universal variable method to solve the problem.999 o 1 03 D. 1 8 1 . Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 .1 .. . One of the data sets tests this situation. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points.. I�I :::..
6 .1 .2 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . The following data i s i n canonical units. y.3 .4 . .8 5 +1 .5 .201 .4 .7 0 1 0 1 .S = (0. = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D. 1 2298 1 44.2 .6 . Check for this case . Also print t:J) and a for each data set . so a check should be made for that condi tion.5 .7 0 1 0 20 1 .7 .2 1 .1 .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT. 1 92 1 62 1 2 . location of the tracking site .66993 1 97 . print out a message and go to the next data set . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program.3 . 7 for further discussion o f this project .1 specifies the long way.0001 +1 .9378 1 789) = 4.0 . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.66986992. This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. x. The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .6 . . and the location of an interceptor launch site .2 .4 1 .6 .6 ..4804847 1 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.4 . See section 5 . time of radar observation. 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (. a message printed and you should go to the next data set . 1 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .3 . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. .
45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. the number of reaction times desired . Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . and the number of timeofflight increments desired . c. When you point out your arrays. TRACK. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . KEPLER and GAUSS. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. e . Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . the desired increment size for reaction time . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time .05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . d. Make some provision to print out all of your input data. This will aid you in verifying your solution . To make your program flexible . f.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . b .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. Times should be read in as minutes.3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . g. Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out .
0.1 .5 p = 1 86. 844 **** **** **** 35 7 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 .038 .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.338 **** **** **** 10 8 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .74.92 deg/sec 1 . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No.44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4. of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 .6 1 3 km EI = 56.09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .
LATL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL.
INDEX .
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429 lunar distance. 28 1 B arker's equation. 56 Celestial sphere. Tycho. 2 1 . 24 height adjustment. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule.1 3 1 G auss problem. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 349 Angle of elevation. 84 ecliptic. 5358. 74 geocentricequatorial. 57 perifocal. 5 3 . 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 277320 computation chart. 20. 1 8 3 mean. 3 5 8 . 429 Astronomical Unit. 74 BMEWS. 5 3 . 54 fundamental plane. 1 00. 24 Apparent solar time. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 3 8 9 . 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 5 5 heliocentric. 3 3 period of.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 1 4. 9 3 . 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 28 Constants astrodynamic. B urnout. 8 4 Copernicus. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 6. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 422 gravitational parameter. 3 2 3 masses. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 4 3 0 Conversions. 94. 7483 Coordinate systems. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 279 C anonical units. 1 8 8 . 54 orbit plane. 296 geometry. 5 7 principal direction. 423 Azimuth. 84. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 2 3 4. 109 B akerNunn camera. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 3 2 5 . 374 Computer projects.9 8 gravitational constant. 246 Brahe. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 84. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 102 Apoapsis. 1 5 . 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 9498 transformations. 2 1 2 B asis. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 1 09 Angular momentum. 1 09. 297299 451 . 1 3 3 B inomial series. 2427 Apogee. 1 8 5 true. 3 4 Collision cross section. 203 Aphelion. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 429 flattening. 60 and universal v ariables. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 1 620. 4 gravitational h armonics.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 5 8 Aristotle. 4043 Celestial equator. 60 Argument of periapsis. 4 1 . 1 22. 3 9 0 station. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles.
2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 3 0 . 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) .1 90. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 1 60 low altitude. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 54 Elements of orbit. 3 5 . 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 3 90 . 1 7 equations. 6 1 Elevation angle. 2 1 2. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 3 00 launching. 7 G ravitational constant. 1 22.93 . 2 1 . 2 6527 1 original G auss method.1 4 3 . 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 60 Dot product. 1 8 1 . 3 5 . Carl Fredrich. 1 0 twobody. 3 22 trajectories. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. function o f true anomaIles.3 3 pe. 2 1 2. 3 1 . 5 8 .riod o f . 2 9 7 . 4 G ravitational parameter. 20 1 202 f and g series. 40. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 2 9 . 306 EarthMoon system. 62 vector. 84.3 0 6 numerical integration. zenith angle.1 1 6 Gravitation. 264 eccentric anomalies.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 3 5 0 Epoch. 444 algorithm. 9 4 Geoid.452 Declination. 1 4 0 . 4 Newton's law of. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 3 6 8 local. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 9. 2 0 . 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. G auss problem. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 25 1 258. 8 7 . 4 1 2 Euler angles. 1 8 8 . Elliptical orbits. 2 3 3 . 26. 1 8 8. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 4 G alileo. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 1 54. 4 3 3 Drag. 1 1 7. 58 from position a n d velocity. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections.1 3 1 Direct ascent. 227 418 ( y ) . 2 4 .2 1 2 parabolic. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. apparent. 2 1 ff.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 8 0 f and g expressions. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 1 0 6 mean. 2 8 2 time. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 60 true longitude at. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 25. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 22827 1 . 1 0 3 G round track. 221 hyperbolic. 4 1 9. 25 1 . G ibbsian orbit determination method. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 423 424 Earth oblate. 94 . 56. 1 0 6 precession. 62 Ecliptic. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 2 3 0 . 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 1 42.3 9 6 Energy. 3 89 nbody. 26 ff. 1 04 Escape speed. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 1 8 2. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 1 0 9 . 2 8 5 Freeflight range.1 5 5 Direct motion.
9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 1 5 6. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 58 regression. 2. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 6 rotation of. 1 5 1 . 3 5 0 free return. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. argument of at epoch. 1 03 Minor axis. 7. 220 Mean motion. 3 0 3 . 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 2 8 8 . gravitational parameter. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 60 Lunar trajectories. 1 56 vector. 3 57 . 2 7 7 . 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 5 8 Longitude. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 3 9 6 constraints. 22 1 . 3 26 orbital elements of. 238. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 3 62 . 6. 3 69.8 9 derivatives i n . 3 69 . 60 Latus rectum. 2. 5 Newton. 1 6 3 . 2. 1 Kepler's equation.I N D EX H alley. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 247 Newton's laws. 1 0 1 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 1 52 Mass of planets. 62 longitude of ascending. 6 .1 6 6. 3 9 6 M otion. 1 . 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 3 24326. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 3 65 noncoplanar. 1 4 1 . 1 02 Mean solar time. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 3 80 Kepler. 1 9 8 . 1 7 7.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 1 0 twobody. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 8 9 . limitations.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit.3 05. 1 1 7 derivatives. equations o f nbody. 3 7 0 Integration. 3 27. 3 8 . 2 Heliocentric constants. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 234. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 94 reduced. Isaac. 1 1 7 Latitude. numerical rotation of. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 3 9. 3 1 Moon. 3 7 9 . 1 4 1 . 1 25 Librations of Moon. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 3 59374.3 8 4 general coplanar. true at epoch. Edmund. 1 5 6. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 3 1 Manned flight. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 8 Node ascending. 1 8 8 .3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 2 1 . 8 6 . 207 I nclination. 5 1 . 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 3. 3 89 trajectories. 22. 1 80 third. 2 H alley's comet. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 94 geodetic. 20 Least squares solution. 1 0 2 Meridian. 3 1 6 Injection. 62 . 2 second. Greenwich. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 4. 3 64. 1 57 Line of nodes. J ohann. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 3 24 . 2 6 5 27 1 . 1 8 5 .1 8 1 first. 3 623 65 Hyperbola.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 3 44 .9 3 Mu ( � ) . 2. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 9 9 . 1 1 9 Local horizontal.
1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 3 44 . 2 1 Osculating orbit.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 2 1 . 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 3 24 . 3 59 . 58 determination from position and velocity. 5 1 . 1 62 . 57 Perigee. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 1 3 Rendezvous. 2427 argument of. 1 1 7 .9 8 Optical sensors. 2 4 Periselenium. 1 5 6 . 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 3 3 Perturbations. 9 3 . 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 24 height adjustment.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 1 1 7 . 203. 1 1 7. 60 Right ascension. 3 6 1 shape of. 3 90 . 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 83 from optical sightings. 425 Phi ( � ) . 3 4 1 Period. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 420 c riteria for choosing. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 5 symbols.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 3 9 0 Parabola. 3 8 7 . 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 2 0 . 4 1 4 sum squared. 1 6 Potential function. 1 5 1 .3 7 9 lunar. 6 1 o f moon. 94 Potential energy reference. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 1 90 Numerical integration. 2 1 2 computer solution. 3 1 .3 9 0 Encke's method.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 2 4 . 1 1 Retrograde motion. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. flightpath angle. 3 60 physical characteristics. 22727 1 Orbit plane. 220 classical formul ations. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. two body. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth.1 76 inplane changes.1 22 from position and velocity. 440448 Q parameter. 1 62 O rbit. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 1 09 . 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 443 algorithm. 1 69 Orbit determination. 3 9 0 Relative motion.1 50. 1 0 3 P rojects. 26527 1 Residuals.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 56. 1 0 9 Rectification.454 Nu (v ) . 34. 424 thrust. 4 1 2425 errors. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 1 9 3 . Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 3 3 3 . 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 20. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 3 24 . 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 6 1 from sighting directions. 3 8 6 general. true anomaly. 4 1 9 . 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 20 Polar radius.3 44 Periapsis.1 22. 423 due to the moon.1 59 examples. 2 1 .
4 3 9 d o t product. 1 0 1 . 1 0 3 Universal variables. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 2 8 8 . 1 3 8 optical.1 69 Hohmann. 3 60 physical characteristics. 85 Traj ectory equation. Universal gravitation. 1 6 3 . 2062 1 0 use of. 44 1 mean solar. 1 8 1 . 1 3 2. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 1 02. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of.1 4 assumptions. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 1 9 1 225.1 6 6 True anomaly. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 1 8 1 . 7 Universal time. 1 3 5 ellipse. definition of.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 4 3 1 Velocity. 1 0 1 . 1 6 Sputnik. 3 6 1 Solar time. 9 3 . 2 1 at epoch. 30.1 0 4 Solar system. 287 low.1 40 Selenocentric. 1 3 1 .8 9 derivatives in. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 1 9 1 . 4 3 4 derivative o f . 20. 1 1 . 1 5. 99.4 3 9 Velocity components. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 23 1 Universal variable formulation.1 9 0 if. 4 3 7 . 58 Semi minor axis. 4 3 3 triple product. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 1 03 local sidereal. 4 3 7 unit.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal.9 8 of planets. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 60 True longitude at epoch.3 59 orbital elements. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 1 Units.1 40 errors. 3 5 8 . 4 3 7 . 23. 1 8 8 . 9 9 . 9 9 . 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 6. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 2 8 7 maximum range. canonical. 4. 1 8 8 universal variables. 1 9 high.1 8 8 .I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 1 9 1 development of. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 40 Unit vectors. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 1 6. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 425 Time. 5 8 Time zones. 8 4 . 23. 425 Thrust perturbation. 1 3 1 . 40. 5 radio interferometers.1 0 9 apparent solar. 1 3 6 radar. 1 8 (see Nbody . 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 99. 9. 20 Semimajor axis. 3 27. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 9 Sidereal time. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 1 52 Station coordinates. 3 1 Sensors. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 1 0 3 universal. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 2 1 7 parabola. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 1 6 6. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 8 6 . 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical.