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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
J .R. Dorothy Fryar . United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged.B.W. Ronald Chaney ( artist) . Jan Irvine . Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P .E. D.M. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. .D.
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. 2 . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The NBody Problem .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . Exercises . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . 2 . . . . . .1 Historical Background . 1 09 . . . _ 1 . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . 2. .8 The Circular Orb it . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . 2 . . . . . . . .2 Coordinate Systems . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . 71 . . . . . . . . 1 . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . 1 . . . . . . 2 . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of References . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 2 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . . . 2 . 14 . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . . . . 1 . 2. . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . 83 . . . 1 . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 .3 Classical Orbital Elements . 93 . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . 1 01 . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 2. . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4.2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 49 . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . .1 3 . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. 380 . 258 . . xi 5 . . . . . 390 . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 9. .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 . . . . . . 8. . .5 . . . . . . . . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 6.8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . 7. 3 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . .2 The EarthMoon System . 8 . . . . . . . . . 359 . . . 25 1 . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 87 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 84 . . . Histor ical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . 7 . . . . . . . . . 344 352 355 . . List o f Re ferences . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . List of Reference s . . 379 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Solar System . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . 357 358 . 357 . . . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1 . . . . . . . . . . 26 5 . . . 8 . . . . . 333 . .1 9. . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 6. . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . 275 . 279 6 . . . . . . . Exerc ises . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . 3 27 . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . 277 6. 3 14 List o f References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 06 Exercises . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Projects . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . 414 9. . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . 43 1 . . . . . . . . 440 449 . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . .
and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. the poor and sickly mathematician. Kepler. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day.CHAPTER 1 TWO.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. 1 642 . the year Galileo died. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. as his mother told him in later years. he might have been put into a quart mug. Newman! . He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. Tycho. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. JarnesR. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton. the noble and aristocratic Dane.
but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . necessarily moved in circles. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. Finally . Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion.1 Kepler's Laws.1.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. therefore . Since the time of Aris totle .BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. not an explanation of planetary motion . Kepler's laws were only a description. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. One day in 1 685 . From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars. with the sun at a focus . The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . TWO. It fit.1 Still. Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. discoverer of Halley's comet. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . 2 1.
Dissatisfied with this explanation. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. t he Principia. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . of course . casually posed the question. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. "Why. in ellipses. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you.1. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . more simply. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . they speculated whether a force . in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation.Sec. 4 1. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. 1 . without mentioning the b et. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. when he recovered from his shock. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. or .
. Note that equation ( 1 .1 .1. 1 2) Fg = .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.1 . . 1. G. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll. .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites. " Figure 1 .. 1 .67Ox 1 0. 1 . has the value 6. • . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.1 ) (1 .'�V . .4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch. / .1 .G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. The universal gravitational constant. Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 . .n ( 1 .11 Newton's Law of Motion . .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system.12) t o equat i.
For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies . .. thrust and solar radiation pressure . I " '. I I I Figure 1. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. etc. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion.. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i.2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. At any given time in its j ourney.. An important force... To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation. X I . .e.e. j.. .�I '.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. In addition.12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . . a lunar or interplanetary probe. . solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. 1. or a planet). an earth satellite . the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present.II I I I " I I I I :. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag.. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. propellants) to pro duce thrust.Sec 1. m2 • m3 m m.
1 equator. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. Y.2' The NBody Problem Figure . this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton.���Y � X n 1. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 . regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides.. are discussed in Chapter 3 . Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2.1 . This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. Although small.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch .. 2. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. • • • z FOTHER . Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator.. These effects. Thus.
2. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r .2 ·1 is T composed of drag. . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 .5 ) The other external force . the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . The v ector sum.3) Obviously . m'J JI 3 (rj j) . etc .Se c 1.I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . equation ( 1 .2. (1. of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. thrust. solar radiation pr essure. .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. Fg.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself.. The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . II 3 (1. F gn where =  Gm . . perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation .
y .F I dt TOTAL dt (1.28 would not be zero .28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 . it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma. z coordinate system. In other words..27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.. is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ.. Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time .. Thus.I) and all other external forces .8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. .26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL... (1.2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0.I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x ..1 + F OTHER ' (l ..
.G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. Y.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X . we get j = j � *i 1 3 ..1 0) for i = 1.2. ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system .2. F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc .2. expelling mass or relativistic effects. nonlinear. sun and planets . unpowered flight. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 .29) reduces to = r· 1 n .29) is a second order ..1 2) .G And for i = 0 . vector. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. m . equation ( 1 . m· J (�i) . Then writin g equation 1 . ( 1. The only remaining forces then are gravitational. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present. Equation (1 .1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1.2. mn may be the moon.11) 2. Equation ( 1 . r JI. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form.Sec 1 .2.10) ( . It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions. mi 0).
2 1 7 ) .2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.2.1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch..G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth . 2. . Since r 1 2 = .2.1 From equation ( 1 . n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.1 4) gives. .2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1.21 1 ) and ( 1 .2 1 6) each bracket. Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence.1 2) into equation ( 1 .
3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3. To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. The bodies are spherically symmetric .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies.2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 .2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n . Table 1 . sun and planets on a near earth satellite . 1 x l 0 10 3.Sec.2x l O 8 2. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. mi orbit about the earth. There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . 1. Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. Howe ver . the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite . The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 . 1 .3.1 Simplifying Assump tions. This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers. . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion .6x l O lO 1 .9x l O 8 7 .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite .89 6x l 0 4 2.3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.
3. . Let (X. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Y' . which "in its own nature.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 .2 The Equation of Relative Motion..BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . For the time being. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. " s However. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 .3. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1. Y'. remains always similar and irrnovable. 3 2 ) . Let (X'. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space.3. without relation to anything external. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. 1 . 1 2.1 . N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Y. Y'. Y'. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies.12 TWO.1 ) (1 .
33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. Z'). Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. Note that this is the same as equation (1. Y. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. (1 .3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr.Sec.33). Y. ballistic missiles. Z) with its origin in the central body.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. Y'. Z'). Note that since the coordinate set (X.y X' Figure 1 . 1.33) .32) from equation (1.. GIM+ml r Equation (1. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . Y.31) we have = _ r . Y'. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1. velocity. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'. and acceleration in a nonrotating.
an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation ." for another form called "potential energy .3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text.4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM." That is. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . M. Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. 1. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . If m is not much less than M.14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch.3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . called the gravitational GM. 1 some planet or the sun. It is convenient to define a parameter. Then equation 1 . If you think ab out the model we have created. m. Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . 3 ·4 ) . "kinetic . then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). the mass of the orbiting body . will be much less than that of the central body . namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass.
lL\I r dt JJ. r 2. 5.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . ( 1 . Since in ge neral a 0 it aa .4. N 0 tlcmg that . that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. v =r and v= f. I n the next two sections we will prove these statements.4 frame (the large mass) does not change . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . But what about the arbitrary co nstant . ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 .r ) = � r �(r .!!.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .Sec. 1 . 3 4) by r ' ro�r= O . 1. dt 1:L = O. To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity. Therefore. then 1 . C. which appears in .1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy.
therefore . dt . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. Noticing that .iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . r. 3 4) by r 2 .g.4. as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth.fL 3 . The expression for � is �. O. the earth. We conclude . Since in general a x a= 0. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . rX .iL (rxv) = O. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O.16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. In other words. at what distance . �. The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . e . Cross multiply equation ( 1 . This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . that the specific mechanical energy. do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary.42) 1 . In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy.  ( 1 .2 Conservation of angular momentum.
The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h. </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. called specific angular momen tum.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . h. 1 .43) v I h = r x v. we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec.41 Flightpath angle .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v. Therefore ." "Up" simply means away . We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . (1 . Therefore . I Figure 1 . we have shown that the specific angular momentum.
8143 r • v > 0 . ¢. (4. In an inertial coordinate system.8143 = 35. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). and the specific angular momentum. J and K are unit vectors. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5.4. v. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). V =5.5936 1 + 5 . 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle . 1 85 2 1 + 6. ¢.420 . therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y.899 X 107 ft. however.2778 J + 1 0 . respectively. h.4274I+2. &. r = 12.4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. c o s ¢=Jl. Ch. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are . = 0. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. Determine the specific mechanical energy . The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. Also find the flight·path angle.7 1 37J+O. I h = rv c o s ¢.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. • ( 1 .18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS .0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. the zeni th angle .
. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 . we see that J!:. While this equation (1.( r) r.& . r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. Also note that J. its complete solution is not.51) The left side of equation (1. 1 . . err.3 3 r r r since r • i = f . �t (B· .· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ..51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. JJ.5.1!y r . (1.33) is simple. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.Sec.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. 1 . (h xr) =... times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain. You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body.I.
a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. I r 1 + e cos V p (1. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. 5. h2 where vector r. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation. . in general.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.54) . +(81J. v.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B ..54) .53) 1 .. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. V. (1. we obtain = 1 h2 /g .20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. c and a .2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section.9 cos V (1.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation. Equation (1." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. + r o Since.
an exchange of energy between the two forms. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. Although Figure 1. not just ellipses. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 .51 illustrates an ellipse. must change so as to keep h constant. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. (See Figure 1 . ellipse. 3. 1.44) 1 . Before discussing the factors . parabola. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. potential and kinetic.53) and the equation of a conic section (1. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. remains constant. 2. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. 5 . hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. There is. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path.5.Sec.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . As r and v change along the orbit.41 and equation (1 . 4 .51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. cp. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. the flightpath angle. however.
There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . the section is a parabola. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. 1 Figure 1 . There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines .5 2 illustrates this definition .22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . If the plane cuts both nappes. Figure 1. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. If. the section is an ellipse. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone).52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. or a single point.
F. Figure 1 . The prime focus. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. F and F'. marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned.Sec 1 .5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) .53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. The secondary or vacant focus.53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . F'.
5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses".5 3 . In the parabola. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. a.55) p = a (1 . Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . ( 1 . Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . Thus.e2).54)). Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . The dimension." etc. is c�lled the semimaj or axis. The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c. It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 .24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse ")." "perihelion" or "aphelion.
58) 1 . . By comparing equations ( 1 . 1. which points toward periapsis.1 0) . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 . since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis. e = BltL. 1 ( 1 .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). 5.= a( 1 +e) . 1e ( 1 .53) and ( 1 .. 5. .4 The Eccentricity Vector. In the derivation of equation ( 1 .Sec . we encountered the vector constant of integration. the trajectory equation. Quite obviously. tL r ( 1 . 53).59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . ( 1 .57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . B.52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !.
26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p.1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased. and that as h is . Therefore. r r p. equation ( 1 .61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). e = ( v v ) r . progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. v)v.54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. /or any orbit. we get • p.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle.. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . v ) v . AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p.53) and equation ( 1 . x v. v.(r . 1. is equivalent to increasing h. r  r . 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. e . e = V x (r x v) . If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired.. Figure 1 . By comparing equation ( 1 . of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. of the satellite.p.p. is zero. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth. h.5. 1 . By inspection.6 RELATING &. th . p. ( 1 .6. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms.1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. ( 1 .
�= � .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle..62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . . .e ) . (1 .  .1 ) predicts . 57) p rp = a(1 . = �. of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 . v.. .. r I .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 . 1 01) . . p.6. �' " . is zero.62) we obtain &. R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec.44).increased the parameter.F �. I '. Figure 1 . . as a corollary to equation ( 1 . . We can then write.
the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit).28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch .6. Thus. 1 and from equation ( l .a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . zero.56) and equation (1 .63) misleading. Many students find equation ( 1 . Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. Figure 1 . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive. a. This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . the energy of a satellite (negative . of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &.e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive .6.1 ) therefore p. or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . You should study it together with Figure 1 . &.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.
1 and perigee altitude 200 n . = 6. 6 . 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM.  a=  '!:.Jf5P.0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. m i . 9 n . 3 n . 0 . semilatus rectum.897  e2 ) = 3. & = 2 .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic.. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . and specific angular momentum.7 n . and semimaj or axis.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. The student should be aware of this pitfall. 2& = 3 . if & is positive . Namely. e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . e is greater than I (a hyperbola).Sec 1 . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather.. ra = 1 � e = 4453. mi. e is exactly 1 (a parabola). . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008.. For a given satellite . 64) Notice again that if & is negative. specific mechanical energy. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. m i . if & is zero . r p = rES + 200 = 3643. m i . Determine its altitude at apogee. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
1 . 1 n. specifically r + 1 .m i . Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period. I ( 1 .7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa.855 = 6 . 1 35 x 1 06 ft n.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses. 2a = r a + r = 8097.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread.r Ell = 1 009.7· 1 ) B y inspection. ( 1 .861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a . = 5. Since an ellipse is a closed curve.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .7· 1 . h =.mi.7 .7·2) .= 2. the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit.JpjJ.30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . the distance between the foci is ( 1 .
when rearranged .71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. in general.72) and ( 1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point. Since r + r' = 2a.Sec.76) . e is defined as combine to yield da. becomes r dt = 11 dll.73) ( 1 . Using equation ( 1 .7.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . 2 ( 1 . 2 b. If you refer to Figure 1 .2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .7 . 1 .1 . equation ( 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.75) which.72.7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v. you will see that the . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 .7.
32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 Figure 1 .72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. we can rewrite equation ( 1 . d A. swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle.77) dt 2 = 11 dA. d v.73 Differential element of area .76) as ( 1 . is given by the expression So. Figure 1 .
the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis.8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit. the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius.8 . Equation ( 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . since h = /JlP. 1 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii.77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period.79). During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse . 1 Circular Satellite Speed.Sec. Of course.1 ) 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . From equations ( 1 . Naturally.e2 ) = JaP and. 55) and ( 1 .79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . so equation ( 1 .75). 1 . Integrating equation ( 1 .79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 .8. a.77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 . ( 1 . Thus. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . incidentally. The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a.78) b =) a 2 .8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 .
9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 .000 ft/sec. 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 .9. Another is that. The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius. 1 . The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. circular speed is about 26 . An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again. One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know.34 TWO . The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. rCS' from the energy equation.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 .1 Geometry of the Parabola.1 .9.1 ) . F or a low altitude earth orbit.9. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit .B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . the periapsis radius is just r 1 .
its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back.9. as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . 1 .2 Escape Speed.Jf2il ' r  ( 1 ." 1 .9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . Of course. first at a general point a distance .= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   . from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � ." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse.Sec. r. Theoretically. Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory.57).92) .E.
400 nm above the surface it is only 26. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 .1/2a.92) =21 . the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. the semimajor axis. b .B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 . As you would expect.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. 36 TWO . Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. 53374 106 ft = = 36.Since the specific mechanical energy. (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : .700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8..1 57. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. 8.000 ft/sec. = j. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude . a.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 . 5 7). a.
rb i t P 7087.8 n.53374 106 ft 2 43.Sec. 06748 106 ft 7087. where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 . m i . 1 . m i . 8n.amr iO.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn.
1 0. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). The parameters a. F . 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. 1 .38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . Obviously.1 ) .1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). then the righthand branch represents the orbit. 1 1 . Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . If. If we consider the lefthand focus. The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. 1 0. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . (L l O. instead. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola.
on the other hand. 1 0. which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet.0. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . 1 . 1 . we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth.for the hyperbola.1 . the smaller will b e the turning angle . The turning angle . 0. 1 0." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity. If. The angle between the asymptotes. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. 1 02) becomes ( 1 . it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 .but since Sec. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . V 00' . This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed.. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin .2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed.
3 Sphere of Influence. It is a fact. It is. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. 1 (1 . 1 . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. the concept is convenient and is widely used. 1 0. for all practical purposes it has escaped. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. In other words. a million miles) from earth. 1 . e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. Astronomers call thi� ' .40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. of course . however. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch .
In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . Using canonical units determine & .Sec. 1 1 . earth. h.1 . e.x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . p. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 ." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. 1 . Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. then the value of the gravitational parameter. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . 5 9362 5 . r a' r p' . We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. moon. 1 The Reference Orbit. J. 1 1 . Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 .l. or other planet. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. 1 . For other problems where the earth.
Alt = . [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . � = . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 .1 . 5 D U e �2 _ /J.I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units.42). 1 67 D U �/T U � = . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1. 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 .
44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 5 D U = 9. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t.= 4 .Sec.61) Find h from equation (1. 25D U EB = 4.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 ..5 7)  r a = 1 e p. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.64) Find ra from equation (1.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .58) Find r p from equation (1. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = . 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. = 2. 5 D U ". 1 . = 3.
Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. 1 . Find the eccentricity of the orbit.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . 1 . b .. c. 5 81) 1 . 6 J 1 . . 2J AK IJK h = AI . Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth.44 TW O. The orbit eccentricity is 0.000 n mi. Why.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . in general. &= .2.1 . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. a.3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi.000 ft/sec and 4 . respectively. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. 1 EXERCISES 1 . (Answer : e = 1 . Find the specific energy of the trajectory.1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . Find the period of the orbit. 2K DU 2 /TU .
What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. 7 Prove that d.5 rpe r i gee = 1 . 2K + . D U /T U DU e. 4K r r v = . D U 2 /T U 2 = + . r x ft ) = 3.123K = 1 . ¢ =3 = 1 .5 DU DU DU d. 1. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 .6 18 = 59° 58') . 0 1K v = l + l . 354 10" r 1 . 1 .000 ft) with a velocity of 25. 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 .6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth.9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300.Ch .000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. p b. r v c. 91 J space. hyperbolic. &.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. mi during descent? (Ans. elliptical. p 1. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). V ft/sec. a a. (Ans.
1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points. 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. p = 3.6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . c. e.000 ft. Determine the maximum altitude attained.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m .2 e = . (Neglect atmo spheric drag. b . P 1 . ellipses and a hyperbolas. 1 2 Given that e = �. p = 6.) 1 . p = 2. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. e=O e = .000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. derive values for e for circles. d . sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. p = 6. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = . p = 2.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . 1 .
1 . What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a.Ch .V O U EB /TU EB ) . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. Show that : b. 207 1 . * 1 . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point.6. rc = at +b = 0. c. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans .
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars. the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun.Sec. Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. When describing a heliocentric orbit . 2 .4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation.24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the .2. Q and W respectively. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond .Xw UK vectors. you may use the same Figure 2. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . Yw '+. 2 .
e. in the fundamental plane . Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different.3. the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. if you know a and e you can compute p.the angle . p. 6. i. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . shape and orientation of an orbit .the time when the satellite was at periapsis. the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . 2. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . 2 . between the ascending node and the periapsis point. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . a. T. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. time of periapsis passage . The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. Obviously . 4 . semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit . Frequently the semilatus rectum.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . K I I . In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. Another system. Q longitude of the ascending node. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. Instead of argument of periapsis. 5 .58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 3 . w. Similarly.the angle from to periapsis measured h. is substituted for a in the above list.1 as follows : 1 .
2 .Sec.31 Orbital elements .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.
2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . From Figure 2. n=n+w." Direct means easterly. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . 1 £0 £0 + . '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) .3. in the plane of the satellite's orbit.1 ) . Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . both of which are always defined . This is the dire ction in which the sun. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. earth. between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . to ' called the "epoch." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle .60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . (2 .31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. w and va are all defined. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . in the plane of the orbit.32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). then b oth W and n are undefined. then both w and Uo are undefined. Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde .
n. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . 2. To be perpendicular to h.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. n an d e. vI vJ v K J (2 . 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 .4. t o . h. 2 . n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . The node vector. n and e. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. To be perpendicular to K.42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. n must be perpendicular to both K and h. Therefore . or in their intersection which is called the "line of . n would have to lie in the orbital plane.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. h.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK .43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . 2.
46) Of course . An understanding of it is essential to what follows .4. We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . 2." Specifically . The vector. n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. In general.1 ) (2 .2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. e. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . Study this figure carefully . The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle . The parameter. All three vectors. You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 .4. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . ex.S .3. 2 nodes. between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. p. n and e are illustrated in Figure 2.1 1 )). Now that we have h. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . is obtained from (2 .1 . We are only interested in its direction. the cosine of the angle . h. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .
1 0) 7 .4. Since n is the angle between I and n.. (2 . Since w is the angle between n and (2. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4. Since i is the angle between K and h. 2.4.) e.4 3 .1 1) . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.Sec.49) 6. 2 . c o s U o = !!.L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° . � � h.) c o S Po = � er (2 . Since Vo is the angle between e and f.) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° . Since Uo is the angle between n and f .48) 5 .:. (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° ..' (2.) .
If they don't make sense to you.4. Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2.1 and study it until they do . 2 z x 8 . . look at the geometry of Figure 2 . The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v.1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense .64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). 3 .
Figure 2. 5 DU e == .Sec. VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations. 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 .42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1.
2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .4 DU p == .\ .5 e == . 2 3 Figure 2 .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .
2.4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.Sec.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .
45 ) Since h =. n.(r .6.= 4D U = 13. A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system). [ ( f. using equation (2 . Find eccentricity. .l h2 .i:. 7 75 .4.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . ) r . From equation (2. Find inclination. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.. Using equation (2.7 4n .1.. EEl .47) = .. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node .. and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth.68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid. e. i.1 ) p = . f. Find p using equation (2 . ml .I:!:.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 .
= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis. From equation (2. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector . II. 2 . II.  Find longitude of periapsis.!!. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again .. 4 . since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . va.:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. Find true anomaily .1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 .n = COS .n. .1 (. for this case .Sec. is undefined. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis.. Find argument of periapsis. = cos .41 0) v a c os. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .49) W n · e W. From equation (2 . can be determined in this case.
 then from equation ( 1 .70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . = From equation (2.6. v)v] =. First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) . EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .m i .\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.5 .. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = .33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 2 Find true longitude o f epoch..85 n .1 ) Find e.E)r(r .25 EB EB D U EB 7748..45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� . From equation (2. 1 [6 \ h=rxv=.
49) w: 0 W = cos. va : From equation (2. 2.I Find the true anomaly . I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 .43) n Find the longitude of ascending node .48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.4. . From equation (2 .Sec.5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch. From equation (2.5 Find the inclination.11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .
5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 .24): ro to. v.5. w and v.ffe si n V (2.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2.to. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. changes with time .72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . . n. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. The method. 2. 8. 2 elements are given.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . i . 8.5 2) . first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. that occurs in a given time . Let ' s assume that we know p. In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly. shown below. w and va . lV. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. n. consists of two steps. Of the se six elements.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. i.
5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 2.5 i= p 2.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 . v �[.54) from equation r (2. 5P DU E9 (2.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 . A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .54) r = J � [.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.25 45{) (2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .Sec. Before equation (2.
Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis." 2. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . and it still represents the same thing. For example . A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame .6. east . direction ." The phrase in quotes describes what the . The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. In other words. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south. have a definite starting point . east a!1d up. such as position vectors. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). suppose you know the south. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. namely. 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. For example.74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . suppose you know the south. vector represents. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. its fundamental (xy) plane . The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. east. or what it represents. but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . 2 2. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . Certain vectors. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis.
2." In other words. Figure 2. and extending along the x. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U.61 illustrates the two frames. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S . y' and z ' axes. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. : r Y I ex a .61) . y ����." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite.6.Sec. Let us imagine three unit vectors I. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. Figure 2.y Y 75 .61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . V and W along the x ' . expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . 2.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. ���________� • . the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .
62) above and equating it with (2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ). 65) .64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch . 2 From Figure 2. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.6. (2.61 we can see that the unit vectors U.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.1 ) yields I.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2.
68) B '" (2. These are summarized belox:: .64) above . 2 . 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis.69) '" axis.67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. (2 .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .66) (2. Rotation about the xaxis.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.Sec.6.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame .67) yields the set of equations (2 . The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2. .
1 ).4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. a.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames.7 .si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation. Figure 2.61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame . We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) . in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame .78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2. 2 (2. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch .6.
(i.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. We can write equation (2. . if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. AB =1= SA ). For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . The inverse of any orth. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors.e.6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . Hence .Sec. Fortunately. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). 2. denoted by D .61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix.1 .Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e .!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . The transpose of the matrix D . Equation (2. Now.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.
. oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . By me mo C. an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . n t rizing th . Perifo ca l to th e G Th . O c M ma t. 5 Tmn .". a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [.1 2) Figure 2 . to p' ter ho w co no.ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . mu " in cid 'n ce b . gl " n i lly . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. axes in to CO ham . anglo . th' O ugh w hi ch on . d th yo u will b . sh ow n in F ig u " Th . 6.sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch .6 . 2 (2.". a bl . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK . tluee b . 62. m1 " fo. d wi th .. basis no ma t . th.".n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . d w .. 'o ta t. 6.80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame." a ny mp licat e d ..Eq to th e IJ K in at .
For example .63.63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry. 2 . R... it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . aQ. we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I . then Sec .. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. . To . Thus if a i ' aJ .. Figure 2. a K and ap ..The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix.... from Figure 2. 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit .
sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 . Similarly.1 4) R23 = .1 3) i. Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. P K · P In Figure 2. The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . Q I ' W J · W K .6. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. ! • P.82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .6. a �. J and K Thus R = J .63 .cos n sin w . since I and P are unit vectors. Now a. the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w . 2 from their dot product .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R .sin n sin w cos i . B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides. I • p I · Q J . the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w.
1 ) and (2. 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix.Sec . Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. V. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements.5 . 2. 2 . Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . .7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. In this case either n or w or both are undefined.5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s .
7 . The azimuth angle . The unit vectors S. Az.1 . 2. 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. can also be measured. The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . is measured clockwise from north . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted .7 . The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles. The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite.84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . the rate at which range is changing. If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . E and Z shown in Figure 2 .( N o rt h ) 2. (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. the elevation angle . The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. p. 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located.7. AZ . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. EI.2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame .7 .
Sec.72 we see that r (2 .7 . Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El. we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p.75) . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r.3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame.1 ) where . From Figure 2.7 .72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 .1 .73) E l (B I ). p.and EO/. Az. Thus.7 4) = + P (2 . We will express the po sition vector as (2 . as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. from the geometry of Figure 2. = Ps PE = P cos Pz.7. E I . 2. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 . /l!L.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.
The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 .76) . A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . For the moment we will assume that equation (2 . Unfortunately. 2 J topo centric frame . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth.86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v.
73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . Figure 2. where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". EB x f. the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. 2 . the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite .73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame . It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. (2 . Therefore . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .77) . movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed.74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame .Sec.
5 Z (units are DU).5 J . Figure 2.612 . 300 N Lat .1 = [.88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. is 2 S E + . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.707 o .6 1 2 .707 .E + 1 .3535 .74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 . 5Z (Given) [).866 .612) r = R + P = 2S . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 . 3535 . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates.
78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2.78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. . (2. 2. 332J  . w) . if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.. z).982K .75 ) .7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . I =J =K=O. y. Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame . then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • .. v. z) system (Figure 2 . We will denote this quantity by w.79) J. y. (2.7. however. V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial.4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x.9 1 81 + 2.Sec. rotating with respect to the (x. The unit vectors D.
equation (2 . . The remaining terms of equation (2.90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .7.79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w .7. V = w x V and W = w x W . Hence . . . Similarly. You should prove to yourself that U = w x U.1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . Hence . equation (2 .1 0) reduces further to .
....... .. �:......y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ . ... " F i xed " System ( x. ... W) Figure 2..LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 . dt R I (2 ..7..7. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u ..1 2) . y... . � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u.1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q.75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA. 2 .... v v.. z) '..Sec.71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector. ... .. .. Equation (2. .
71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration ." Ioox. 2 iLl F = .7.1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .1 3) into equation (2 .1 2) to the po sition vector r.7 .1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .) .where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get . (2 . Equation (2 .7. (2 . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .7 .1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.7. The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 . Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.9!.1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.7.7.7.7 . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .
in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude.) 2. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. Therefore . latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. 2.Sec. It is known . We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation .8.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . however . We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. ae . (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. In the model which has been adopted. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . circles. If the earth were perfectly spherical.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . 2 . Sections parallel to the equator are . of course .
While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude .8. What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field .08182 == km km L La L . When you are given the latitude of a place ." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . it does complicate the concept of latitude. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. 2. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude .3 Station Coordinates.1 . 1 45 6356. The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid . The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .8. 2. the difference between L and is usually negligible .785 0.2 The Measurement of Latitude. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use . The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude .8. The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378.94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Consider Figure 2.
8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 .. L . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.1 ) .82 .. / (2. 4 km Figure 2.!! o . O .82..Sec. It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 . 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e . Thus.8 .." which is illustrated in Figure 2. c. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude . 2 . the "reduced latitude .
I C. z . for any ellipse . c:  0) x Figure 2.1:  (2 .and e = da. b e =a e V� = b2 + d. Ch ...82) . 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . a2 .96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But .82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. / . 0 O D.
85) . 2 .Sec:. = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2. (2. d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . (2 . 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = . Thus.
8 7) 2. it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .8 8) . If the Greenwich sidereal time .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K.85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . From Figure 2.86) L. (2 . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. {1 ' is known .98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below.4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components.8. elevation above mean sea level. 2 ( 2 . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . {1. The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .
Sec . L.89) . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . 2 .8." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . Although Figure 2.3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2.84 shows a spherical earth. the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time .
We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components. For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . 2 j i Figure 2 .8 .1 0) . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year . From (2 .
cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () .Sec. Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .1 2) . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day .9 .1 2) and a s ' a E . a Z If a l . The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . so . It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. This should be made clear by F igure 2. This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . 2 .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time .1 .9. 2.6. 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2.00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .9 equation (2 . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . (2 .8. it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars.
we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . when the earth is near perihelion. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2.09054 mean solar seconds . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical.1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. So far. Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 . In early January.
) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . Thus. .Sec. The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . or Zulu (Z) time. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. 2 . If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . This relationship is illustrated on page 99.9. 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year .0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. Universal Time (UT). if it .2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart .is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. For example .3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . 2.9. A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa. let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O.
" If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 .4 Precession of the Equinoxes. 8 9=8 9 0 1 . . 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If.9.104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 . The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. in addition. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. we express time in decimal fractions of a day. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1.sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. m i n . ° 229421 1. To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . Ephemeris and 2.
The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge.Sec . Due to the asphericity of the earth. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic.. 2 .. on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. 6 yrs I Figure 2.92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars. 0 0 0 y rs " . so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year . the equatorial plane is not . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . However .. . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 .000 year s . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period.6 years.. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . As the earth' s axis precesses. the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly." with a perio d of 1 8 . the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 .6 year s . The period of the precession is about 2 6...
00 1 + L= 0 .74933340 = 1 . x= [ z= � ae + � . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown .296 degrees west longitude .6245 rad ians o 9 . at 0600 GMT.e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 .296° H = 6 . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. 5 7 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 . Day  = Long o 57 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. 6 24 5 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 25 8=8 g + A = .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 . 00 1 From section 2 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl .378km = 0 .1 .
4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.6245 )1 + 1 .72) PE p Pz Ps = .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 .9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .(0. 0. 2 .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.From equation (2.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 .346E + O. 00 1 (S. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.7 1 SJ + OK Sec. 00 1 c o s(S.6971 + .2D UES = (0.6245) = .74) . Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .2Z ( D UES) From equation (2.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.
0588K) From equation (2 .346E + l .8 .1 .46 P =D1 .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.0 1 .0.�� lO.866 0.7·5 ) From equation (2 .46S .73Z D U (T U r = 0.73 p + (O.(0.84J .46 D U /T U (0.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .3.25 0.0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.610.4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 . 3.433 .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0. 1 08 Ch .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 . 0.Ps = .5 1 .346J + 1 .(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.8 .1 .0E + 1 .061 .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .77) v = [� ] [ J 0. 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .1 .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) . 46 = 0.
1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . W. f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 .Sec. It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique .081 .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. and the orb it is uniquely determined. Ai. EI . well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics.8J . As Baker S points out . These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . may be lacking.3. 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . 2 . 2. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . k. Figure 2. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 .0. Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . of course . Ei. Gibbs is. p . it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics.
1 0.r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p. and the definition of a dot product .1 ) by (2 . (2 . 1 08) . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. 1 05 ) and (2 . then u sing (2 .5 4). Dotting (2 . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. 1 0. Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 . (2 . 2 fine scholar . 1 06) Multiply (2 .1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section.r. 1 02) gives (2 . 1 0. is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . we can show that : e ' f = p . 1 03) by f3 X r l . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I .1 ) successively by fl .r 3 ) = 0 . (2 .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Notice that C2 may now be divided out. 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 04) . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . Q and W. equation ( 1 . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . 1 03) Cross (2. 1 04) (2 . 1 05) (2 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o .
1 3) : (2 . 1 0 pD = N . 1 0.Let the right side of (2 .1 5) . 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . 1 09) D. equation (2 .1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. (2. (2 .1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . 1 0. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. Since P. (2 .1 4) (2 . 1 0. Therefore . then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec.(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . N and D have the same dire ction. i. 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. 1 0.e . .1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. 1 0. 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . 1 0. D = N P = O' N (2 . 2 . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. provided N .
1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2.1 8) to find Q. 1 0. ( f  r + e) . check N * O and D .r t ) f2 + ( rt . 1 0.1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1 9) Since P.52) we can write i X h = p.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . P = Q X W. (2 .1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . 1 01 0) to find p. 1 0.1 7) to find e. (2 . Before solving the problem. (2. (2 . 2 Again using the relationship (2 . Therefore.1 8) N (2 .r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . From equation ( 1 . 1 0.1 9) to find W. (2 . N and S vectors. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. 1 020) Thus.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . 1 020) to find P. 1 0. However . 1 02 1 ) . to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. and (2 . 1 0. Then use (2 . Q and W are orthogonal. D and S ve ctors. N > o. 1 0. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 . it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. since NeQ = pS. 1 0.1 6) .
the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . e) We can write h v v = . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 .. so c) b . (h xr r = + (a . v = eP. S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . D X r + JJ{. 1 0.E. b) c O .( a .(h . v) h and h . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP.Sec . 1 025) . 2 . h X (h h ) v . ON (2 . Using the identity . 1 024) (2 . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np./O S eW X P ) ( 2 .h = P. 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb.2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . = p.
This method . but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . 1 02 6) Thus. Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . v2 � + L S r2 • . 4 . Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. using the stated tests. find v2 : 2. 1 . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. N and S vectors. Form L = = 6. O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. proceed as follows : For example . 2 L + LS (2 . possible two body orbit . Test: 0 10 . to find any of the three velocities directly . Finally . N=FO. = 0 for coplanar vectors. Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . This is not exactly true. There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 .
eccentricity.0774J 0. The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). and the timeofflight between these po sitions. N .000K = 0_700J .97 . Since 010. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . 2 . r1 r2 r3 = 1 . 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar. P = 0= N  2." Thus.Sec. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) .0. 9701 = 2. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem. and S vectors: D= N S 1 . period and the velocity vector at position two .039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . the semilatus rectum. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.8000K = 0.047 1 = . Form the D . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . r 1 and r2 .9000J + 0. If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors.5000K Find : P.0471 O U = 0 .
497 9. 2 S .0.4 to solve for the elements.0.379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = . 1r/{: 6. Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.270K W= N.963J .963K N 1 . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 . 700J . 0408 1 1 .0.1 .576J . .657K D U /T U 2 0.97 o lP = a = 1 .1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .960 DU/T U (4.041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0. = . 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type. 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 .7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .270J + 0.67 TU (89.0804 e = = = 0 .
is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . (2 . then ' . r = pL [�. 3.6 2 : 1 1 . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background .Sec. we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . j = 1. 1 1 2) r . Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. = OJ + R j . 2 . ° 2 . topo centric right ascension and declination) is required.1 ) (2 . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . If we let L . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . (X1 ' < \ � . L. Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s .7 2). 1 1 .z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. 2. [:i:n :: :.g .:S :J: JS L K . As a result . In either case . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera.
1 1 5) At a spe cified time . �J 1  . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P..[. p. 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . ' ' :..J V I . \ •. • ' I . . p and r. r u. • 00 . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. \ [L. I . 1 1 3) (2 .. 0 (2 .' ' " ': . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . L. are not known . R and R are known at time t2 . . 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = . .. \ Figure 2.. The vectors L. however . . : '< ' .1  R ) r3 . \' P2 i �� G ".1 . say the middle ob servatio n . \ . p. �� I 1 " _ .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . � . ./  L . (2 . f f. L. ':.1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 .
t 1 .t2 ) .t 3 ) L2 (2.t2 L3 ( t 3 . 2 .t 1 ) ( t.t } ) (t 3 .t 1 ) ( t3 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t2 ) ( t 1 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .t 3 ( t 1 . Since we have the value of L at.t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t 1 ) ( t2 . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t 2 . t } .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t 3 ) ( t } . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t2 ) ( t} .t 1 ) ( t2 . 1 1 .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 . 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector .three t�es.t2 ) (t.t3 ( t 2 .Sec.t 1 ) (t 3 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 3 ) (t. t2 .t 1 ) ( t2 . 1 1 6) + 2t .t3 ) (2 .t 1 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =. we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t 2 ) + ( t 3 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L. t2 and t3 .
better yet . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . 2 . however.u R Ir3 J + . L J . This.L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . + . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. p.u L 1 / r 3 L J + . must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . L L L K K K J .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . .u L /r 3 .. 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. It should be noted.. it is evident that L Dp = .. that if more than three observations are available . I L . For the time being. 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. L J I (2 . The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. p' and r. L K + . in fact . LI . 1 1 5 ) . p.1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce .u R Ir3 I + . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . 4 Equation (2 . D reduces to L D =2 L I L . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or .ons (2 . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. 1 1 6) and (2 .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column.
1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. R J . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. 1 1 . 1 1 .1 0) and (2 . 1 1 .. R R . Substituting equation (2 . If we do this we find that . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. 1 1 . . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . R . O O. 1 1 . 0. .1 1) Op = . 1 1 ..4 Solving for Velocity . L J L I K J!.L L L J K I p . From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 2). Then _ __ K I L J L L K I . 1 1 . 2 . 1 1 . 1 1 5). L K . . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 .1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration.1 0) into (2. J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2.Sec . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. R R I . L K L J L I K (2. p and r. is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. 2 . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I .1 2) .
such as P. a . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . Laplace ' s method fails .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . 2 . k. ° .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . 2 (2 . (2 . ° 3 . 1 1 . 1 1 . El. E l .2). then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . 1 1 . As a matter of fact . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . To obtain the velocity vector .1 3) for p. Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. D. 1 1 . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . P.1 4) p 2. a3 . This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . 1 1 . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations.
based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . t4 . For example . Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. ts and t6 ' These predictions are . p) will differ from the computed data. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. The six residuals are �1 ' . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. .::"P 2 ' . 1 Computing Residuals." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. of course.::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements.::"P 3 . 1 2. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates.::"P . t3 .g. 2. The question then arises. 1 2. however . It may happen . a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . Doppler rangerate. . we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. \ ' t2 . v Kl at t = to are correct.Sec. 1 21) . Assuming that the residuals are small. 2. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. 2 The Differential Correction equations. r K ' v " vJ .
e.3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. rj . ap1 . such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's.VI . r K " ' arl D. D.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. Nj.Vj' D. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method. 1 2 . Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. i. usually 6 for orbit problems) n . .) Then. . The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. With the aid of a digital computer. however. NK. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. NI . 1 2. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations. for example . V K ) .VK . Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. .r l " v K )p1 ( r l . Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. by trial and error. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. The inversion of equations (2 . . The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. D. equations (2 . it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . 2.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. 1 2. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient.. reduce the residuals to zero .
A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. since p 2 below) . V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement .. 3 . Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. zero . 2 . I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . 2 . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . use 0. . called the root me an square (RMS) . for the exactly determined case (p or b. minimum as described above . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. 4. If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution .. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M).g . a and (3 are the elements (two here . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. Solve equation (2 .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements.8 1 ) . = = n) .tb each of the elements measured. for 90% confidence .
17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 .:. ex VI. 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . Choo se ex and for the first estimates. Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. the partial derivatives are : . To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2).j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM .Assume equal confidence in all data.2. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and .
1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . Thus.Sec. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . 2. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 .
This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. To illustrate the method involved. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit .360 = . corresponding to the given Xi and compute . This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. we will use a simple . 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small.474 Xi 3 . In practice. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch .474 and f3 = 3. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. 6 orbit elements) would be used. yet still overspecified number of measurements. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
1.y.0 01 1 3. 3 . 2 ._1.) 2 n .828 0 0.000 1 9. ( V i Yi ) 2 4. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence . 969 ____  Vi . 474 x 3 .865 49..Vi 2.Sec.. E ( V 1. 934 = 1 .1 26 0.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.007 0. 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l . aa .934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 . 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2.866 4 x .1 05 9.000 n = Vi 0. .474 4 0 07 19. 0 35 3.500 8.000 50.
027 12.360. 81 30 8.001 07 33 b = 0.062 .I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2.. 0.039 £::.0.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0.�T�� {3 new {3 new = = . 27 A WA = [12. 105."""'" �T�� . 1 96 = 3.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .733.2.(X 26 3.380708 A = 40. = 3. The second iteration yields: £::. so we iterate. 1 22) we have £::.3.056 ""' T ..304 = .474 + .z 10.36 .021 070 20.1.. {3 = {3 new .304 0.l Now using (2 . 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .4 1 69. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 . 0 18 0. 1 961 0. which is larger than what we started with. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.670 3.031 8. Thus (X new = . 1 75 ] 5.
If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. 2. 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 .Sec .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3.5 8 2 . 2 . The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . 2 . In practice . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry.00 1 . W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. and finally. . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. 1 2. Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit .5 8 1 . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s.000 . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . This i s not yet the case so we iterate again . 7 35 x 3 . during orbital decay. 038 . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . However. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 .735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. however. in theory. we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. 038 [3 = 3 .
500 miles make about 1 2 . These detection radars with a range of 2. and midcourse ICBM inter ception. the White Sands Missile Range . The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. 1 The Spacetrack System. antisatellite targeting. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas.5 003.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . 1 3. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . At present. 2 2. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. 2 . the precomputed 2. 1 4 . other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. forming "clouds" of space debris. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . spacecraft failure diagnosis. 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . In addition. 1 Radar Sensors.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System.
One of the earlier detection radars.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. Greenland. Turkey. Figure 2. New Jersey.Sec.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. the FPS43. One FPS49 . at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. and is on active spacetrack alert. Alaska. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. is now on active Spacetrack alert. while three are located at Clear. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. 2.s The prototype is located at Moorestown.
2 Figure 2. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. In addition. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. Florida. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. This BMEWS station at Clear. under the 140ft radome at the left. United Kingdom. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. Alaska. Alaska.142. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya.
The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. 2.Sec. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite.14. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. 2.143. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry.2 Radio Interferometers. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. When two or . The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan.
is well established. SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. In addition to these . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. 1 4 . Canada . the semimajor axis. 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . Considering the type of observational data received. each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake .3 Optical Sensors. Alberta. 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . 2 . and therefore .
and the lighting correct.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2.Sec. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features.145. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . on the same strip of Cinemascope film. Alberta. it is . the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. seeing conditions must be good. 1 0 Under favorable conditions. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. As a result.400 miles. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. 2. it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. A separate optical system superimposes.
in any case . For detection radars. Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . Massachusett s . takes time. SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . Doppler rangerat e info rmation. Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . is relatively accurat e .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics.1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. In any case . 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . New Mexico site.000 meters. Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. 1 4 . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. Further . for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. 4 Typical Sensor Errors. The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . 2 . 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. on the other hand .
more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. lunar attraction. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .14. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated.7 seconds in time would remain. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects. 2.Sec 2. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0.146. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. nonuniform gravitational fields.5 Future Developments.
Theoretically . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . p. An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . of the target . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. Now. Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. but it also record s target tracks for later playback . howeve r . Operating in the SHF b and . a continuousw ave . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . In t he system under development . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . Many improvements .
20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . F igure 2 . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime .1 Ground trace sat ellite is. 1 5 2 . o f the orbit . 1 5 . 18cP  2 . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 .1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. 1 5 . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . 1 5 . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . i.. The arc CB which forms the • . 2 . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . 1 5 . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination .Sec. respectively with a launch a zimuth . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion ..
. therefore . 1 5 .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . 1 5 ·3 . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . 0 i. cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth .e . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . f3 ' be easterly . L o?" If i is to be minimized . A direct orbit require s . For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. For a due east launch equat ion (2 . i : c os i = . that the launch azimuth.c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . betwe en 00 and 1 80° . 2. 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. The result is illustrated in Figure 2 .
1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . 1 5 .Sec. 2 .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . su r face . Figure 2 . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day .
= (partial answers : 2.1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . Colorado ( 1 04. What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c.2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2.7071 + . Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . Englan d . J . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d.3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. 9 7 0 . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. = u nd ef i ned ) = . i = 90° . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. e = . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U.89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a . 885.4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. 2 EXERCISES 2 . a solar day or sidereal day? b . Which takes longer .
82 u a .2K DU . 3<. Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU.8 2075 . 1. 2 + b .Ch. Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system.7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . i . e. W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. Determine the orbital e lements. (Answer [partial] e = . c . u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. 2.) Determine p. .8 I J P = .
PST . a. 2 . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. b ut not nece ssary.4 1 4202 0. C alifornia .8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . r2 1 . 2. b . LST = 63 . Q. By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. r3 r l I J K 1 . p = 1 .4 1 4225 1 1 1 . 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis .060668 8 3 1 .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = .8 1 06 5 65 9 1 .5 0 West . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . 1 0 January 1 9 70.system along the unit ve ctor s P. b . 1 0 2. the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . 2. the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis.7 6) . 1 7 1 . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . (Answer : r = 1 . the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 .3 1 065 1 5 0. W.3 5 35 3995 0 1 . Units are earth canonical units. circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . U se of a computer is sugge sted . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. 6464495 a. equatorial .
0 0 2 .0 7 .565 6808 1 0 0 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.0 2 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .0 7 . DU * 2.20709623 0 . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.207 1 25 5 1 .62 1 34384 c.2K with a velo city o f AI . fl f2 f3 d.2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.8 0 0 .9 1 42 3467 2 .89497 879 0.707 1 0 1 0 1 0.97 2 .0 0 .8 0 .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .94974 1 7 6 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 .6 0.0 0 .0 1 .89497724 0 0 0 1 .n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A . fl f2 f3 0 .Ch.0 2 .97 0 1 .5 65 6808 1 0. .094964 1 8 0. C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.0 0 2 . fl f2 f3 3 . 1 4  DU/TU.9 1 420062 4 .7 0 0 e.1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .0 1 .5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .6 0.09497879 1 .1 .707 1 1 25 5 0. fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g. B .
Obj ect vernal equinox direction. vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. Obj ect b . ___ e. v = 0. Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system.17 p 0. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . b.0078 J 0.620 1 I 0. d . * 2 . has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 .75 K D U /T U )  . 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type .1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . Express the coordinates. 9 7 . Obj ect c. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . 2 a . ( A ns.1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0. . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . east and zenith (up) component s? c.
" Vol 48 . Baker . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . C . Armitage . NY. Vol 3 . Jame s R . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. S . Sons Ltd . Pedro Ramon . Inc. . 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . "Space Traffic Surveillance . November 1 9 67 . 7 . 1 0 . Forest Ray . Academic Pre ss. New York and London . Gauss. Pierre Simo n . Simo n and S chuster . Jr . Thomas Nelson and 3. 1 96 3 . Thoma s. No 6 . 1 965 . pp 1 08 . and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . D avis . E .Ch.1 1 1 . Henize . Space/A ero na utics . L. C leeto n . NY . 1 962. New York . NY . "The A erospace Vehicle s . 1 95 7 . C ambridge . U." in The World of Math ematics . Inc. 1 9 1 4. John Wiley & Sons. Navy Space Surveillance System. Laplace . Moulton . Edmond Halley . 1 95 6 . 5 . Newman ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . New York . 1 9 66. K. C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . Mass. London . A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . Paul G . 2 . Robert M . Second Revised Edition . 8 . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . Telescope . Sky Publishing Corp . G . Carl Friedrich. Angus. Dover Publications . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . Memo ires de 1 78 0 ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . E scobal. 1 9 67 . The M acmillan Company. 6. 4. New York . NY . 9 . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. New York .
Robert D . New York." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. Roger R. California. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. Vo1 40. 1 5 ." Satellite Control Facility. 1 966. USAF Academy." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. New York. p 39 . R. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 ." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Briskman. Air Force Systems Command. Carson. No 20 . P. McGrawHill. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. R.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . SepOct 1 967. 1 966. 2 1 1 . "Future Radar Developments. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Gerald C. Electronic . 1 4. the A stronautical Sciences. . "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1 970. New York." The Vol 1 4. 1 967 . 1 962. 1 6. New York . Inc. NY . Davies. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. NY. 1 3 . NY. 1 962. Cheetham. Colorado. Bate. 1 2 . Sunnyvale. S. Journal of Oct 2. and Eller. 17. NY. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. 1 9 66. No 5 . Thomas J.
000 or more miles. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. 1 . Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. After that . Goddard. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . or variously eccentric. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. according to their different velocity. It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. the idea seems to have been forgotten. 1 0. ) 00 . and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. those bodies. and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . as of 5 . Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. and the different force of gravity in different heights. for the next 250 years.
particularly if it is manned . the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. However. 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. Manned spaceflight . 1 . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. still in its infancy . 3 . to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . On 4 October 1 95 7 . 3 .research. since it contemplated the use of military hardware . The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . Project Orbiter. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. Rather .
.J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl .. ..50K �.. 71.' � S' (1) 0 .rrrj. c...n w . (I) CD � .H O URS WEEK .V'h WillI e: � . 11 L ...25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" ..(/} � � (I) E � � . � ee. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .+ :=... ..J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION ..///11// .. .: fiD It: 0 It: <t ..rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION ...EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr.. � '" . . I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N .::: 0(I) "" 20 10 . VI/II � V � .. � . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 . mJ77/1/.. I MONTH I .... 20K (. .J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E . YEAR a YEARS . .
For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . stated. 1 ·2 . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft.1 shows the limits imposed by drag . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . Figure 3 . 1 . m . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . Figure 3 . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch.1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. m . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . m . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. a p ogee 1 00 n . 3 . 1 . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than .03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth.
The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters.or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself.Sec.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 . The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster.. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. 1 2 . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. 3 . The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . as you can see from Figure 3 . 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. The vehicle is not allowed to coast . 1 3 .
When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. Figure 3 . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . 3 . but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . therefore. The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. You . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. As a result. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude.3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. 1 5 .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. 1 .
9 r�=r�rr. 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " . 3 . 1 > .."� ill Q rn o I � fS .J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�.���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+.J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .2 . "::> Figure 3 .Sec....
J 5 "' C iii 0. "' "' .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 ..1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch . 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 . I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .. 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.
Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude .N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. The ascending node moves to the west . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes.6 0 .40 or greater than 1 1 6.40 and 1 1 6.Q 360 ° per 90 days :. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . which also is due to oblateness.Sec. completing one revolution every 90 days. The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. and oppo. With this perturbation . What is the inclination of the orbit? b. 3 .67 0 /day From Figure 3 . 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days.6. the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63. a.60 .site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. Therefore = . Figure 3 .
not the case . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China.1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . On the scale of Figure 3 . of course. unfortunately.6 earth radii above the surface . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude.000 nm altitude ." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. Figure 3. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time . for example . 3 .inches from the surface. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious.300 nm or about 5 . 1 The Synchronous Satellite. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame .2. 1 . This. If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . 3 Figure 3 . If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). The first stage booster climbs 3 . Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. 1 2 this would be 2*. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. Of course.1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. 2 . ground trace of a synchronous satellite. however. 3 . 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS .2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. This is.21 shows why.
. 3. . This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr. At apogee of the ascent ellipse. the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit.. intervals . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 .22 Ascent ellipse .� � Figure 3 .. Dot ted grou nd trace .Sec.. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more.. .2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. curve is \ " " .21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically.. burn """ " " .. This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit.
we get a change in . 2vdv . (3. 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. a? v. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. and flightpath angle.  fJ. /:. at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. (3 . but . We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . = _ r 2a . In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 .32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. at appropriate points in the orbit. a very precise orbit is required. as they are called .v (3.31) If we solve for '. Usually this is not serious. for some other reason. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis.da a2 = fJ. 3 . speed.33) or = da 2a2 vdv . 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. dv. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit .34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. we get (3 .3 . the exact orbit desired may not be achieved. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . fJ.. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:.
whose radius is rl . Similarly.1 .35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. 4 Jl.semimajor axis. The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are . 3 . along the transfer ellipse.34)." 3 . of the orbit given by equation (3 . 2 The Hohmann Transfer.3. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . a 6. called Hohmann transfer orbits. whose radius is r2 . For example . therefore . we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. Since we know r l . we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. 3 . We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height.v) . Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . Since the major axis is 2a. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse. to the large orbit. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit.V v P P (3.34) for small but finite 6.h a �  da.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. a2 6.
&. its speed is . 2at Figure 3 . (3.36) = r i + r2 =  and. since p.31 &.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3. 3 the transfer orbit.31 (3./2 a .37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch .
Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . For the transfer traj ectory.3.V implies a Hohmann transfer . ra = 3 DU. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . Although. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit .� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. 3 I N. .1 0) (3 . to VI ' So .Sec. it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. 3 . Minimum rp = 2 DU.3. i n our example . The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction.V required to double the altitude of the satellite . A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU.39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. Find the minimum /::. & t = � = .
JfF"= .707 DU /TU vi r.068 D U/TU V cs =.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .3.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.V1 = .3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits.VTOT == .061 DU/TU I::.� r 1 1 +e p p (3. 1 29 DU/TU = 3. 3 V cs 1 = (il = .32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits. Figure 3. I t is obvious from Figure 3 . I::.346 ft/sec 3 .3.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.V2 = . We can express this condition mathematically as r = .313) .1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .
We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 .Sec. in the transfer orbit.1 4) (3.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. p p p  = . Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. we can compute the energy. ht.1 5) . p p (p. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. I &. respectively . Knowing and e. To satisfy both conditions. and the angular momentum. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. 3 .33) and interpret them graphically. / 2a . �.3. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. (3.3. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area.I' l l  e ' )l2 p.
38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit..33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>. its speed is (3 .v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 .1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . p r2.1 is just the flightpath angle .34 /::. we get (3. __ Figure 3. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit .39) The angle between v1 and va. .
1 Simple Plane Change .41 .1 'I' . Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . and obtain directly for circular orbits.V required. 4 . the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".1 7) reduces to equation (3. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. together with the b.V. b.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . This is called a simple plane change. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and.3. form an isosceles vector triangle.31 6) Now. b. (3. after applying a finite b. 3 . it is not surprising that equation (3 . ¢l ' is zero. b.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit.V using the law of cosines. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. We can solve for the magnitude of b.3. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. assuming that we know v and e. 3. as shown at the right of Figure 3 . then only the plane of the orbit has been altered .1 .34. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side .4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.Sec.4. A velocity change . more simply. If. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b.41) 3. the b. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . Or. e. or it can rotate the line of apsides.V.310) when the flightpath angle . The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle .V. (3 .
Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . DU circular orbit. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required .41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit.V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites.1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . Therefore . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. 3 Figure 3 .V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer.vrequired to accomplish the mission. b . A plane change of 60 0 . calculate the additional b. . a. for example . it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . Determine the total b.170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . makes b. a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit .
I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.270.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit.1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0. .0.V l 1 .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L. Therefore at = r2 .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.Vl = V l .618 = 1 . 1 +� 1 .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU . & t = = �= .Sec.953 DU/TU L.1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) . The given information is: h I = 0.__ = .1 = \1'1 . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . DU 2 1 Hence .. 3. v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .
704 DU/TU 18.(0.447 DU/TU 2 1 . v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.253 ft/sec .V2 . 447)(.447) 0.4) (.= 0 . + v�s2.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .317) to determine 6. 3 87 .4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.V2 = y'l'5= 0. 4 . 6.447) (.2(.387 DU/TU = 1 0.042 ft/sec Therefore v = . 31 7 + .2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 . 2 + 0. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 .V22 v. 3 and we must use equation (3.3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.626 vcs2 = V't.626) = 0 .626) = 0. 1 5 DU/TU 6.2 .
078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .1 ) t:::.0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b . 3.4.447 ) ( .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .Sec. F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .
r p = 1 DU e = 0.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.76. 0. What is the minimum 6.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 .2 Calculate the total 6. a = 2. 3 EXERCISES 3 . lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes. a plane change or an orbit transfer. Ch .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r. (Ans. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . 1 1 DU and e = 0.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.4 Refer to Figure 3 .5 b. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2.2 DU and 4 DU respectively.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S . i.5 DU/TU. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of . 0 .21 . What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . a.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination.5 DU .449 DU/TU) 3.e. 3 . i changedall other parameters remained the same. 3. c..
v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. 0 .Ch .1 DU 8 1 = 0. beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 . 3 . 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. 34DU2 (fU d. * 3 . = 0.V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . . C ompare this with the I::. 8 Compute the minimum I::.9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . (Ans.V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned. The . 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . P = 1. 95 DU 8 = 0. 5 & Design a satellite . using Hohmann transfers.412 5 3 . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 . 9 Calculate the total l::.7 3 .56 c. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer.
The Viking Press. Rockets. Principia. Newton . New York . DC . Willy. 1 96 1 . Sir Isaac. 3 .. 5 . New York .1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. V2 . Dornberger. Vol 2. Missiles. 1 July 1 965 . Baker. Ley. 1 9 60. University of California Press. 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . The Viking Press. 1 962. and Space Travel. 2nd revised ed. Air Force Systems Command . Headquarters. NY. 4 . 1 . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Berkeley and Los Angeles. . L. 1 95 5 . NY . and Maud W. A cademic Pre'ss. Makemson. New York and London . Space Planners Guide. Robert M . Washington . Walter .
if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. I quickly took advantage of the absence. presupposed the solution of the first. or lack of circumspection. .2 1 77 . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died.. Albert Einstein ! 4 . . or perhaps usurping them . . . . Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. This was Kepler 's first great problem. the determination of the true movement of the planets. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. . . including the earth .CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . by taking the observations under my care . The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. of the heirs. who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. the solution of the second problem. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations.
1 . Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. but above all to convey to him the reasons. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. . detour. Thus. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. "What matters to me. When Christopher Columbus. whole grand entertainment would be lost. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. . 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . I + . and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys." Kepler points out in his Preface. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . we not only forgive them. subterfuges.
there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. for now we are going to invade your territory. with the warning: "Ye physicists. without benefit of any preconceived notions. almost with masochistic delight. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. never noticing his error. the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. however. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis.Sec 4. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy. perihelion and aphelion. as it were. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. Moreover. that. prick your ears. again incorrectly . His results. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. . At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. . But then without a word of transition.
with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion.2 Finally. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity. a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. he settled on the oval. " Finally. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. . as I shall prove further down . As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. . On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval... arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. He had . the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . but analytical geometry came after Kepler. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. 4 Figure 4 .180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch .
. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . . disguising itself to be accepted..F L I G HT . Ah.: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. in a moment of despair. have persisted to this day. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. . and velocity and the timeofflight. The climax to this comedy of errors. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. 4.!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. came when. until I went nearly mad. whereas the two . That is to say. . . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. I thought and searched. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . . time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. are one and the same .' " ..2 T I M EO F . believing that this was a quite different . return e d by stealth through the backdoor. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. but he did not know how. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. which I had rejected . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them.. mine] . witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton.and chased away.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. In this chapter we will. de rive the . : .2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . .Sec 4. hypothesis. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. . I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature.e . but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler.y it should move in an orbit at all. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . made a mistake in geometry. You: are . .
the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. (4. say from periapsis to some general point. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area. P. We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse.'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''.2 ..1 ) i s the area � . 4 existed ... but more motivated.. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY .2. 4. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . i.2. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period.1 ) .2. ''"'''"'.e . A ' in Figure 4. In going part way around an orbit.21 Area swept out by r . It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus.A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . We will pursue a lengthier. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit .l . where the true anomaly is v . This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use ..22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4. 7T a b .
From analytical geometry. 2 T i M EO F . \/2 a2 _ .F L I G HT . the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . 22 Eccentric anomaly.Sec 4 . A dotted line . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. E E Circle : .E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse.l. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle .Z x2 + . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. perpendicular to the major axis.
22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae . Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 . sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse .a E) . we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis.�rea PSV minus the dotted area. Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V . oos E and whose (4. .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . 4 Hence . It Tollows directly from equation (4. A2 .
Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally.F L I G H T . From Figure 4. in order to use equation (4.T = 4 ( E ." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E . Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) . whose base is (a CDS E).27) reduces to (4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .we get � ( E . which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians).1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' .e si n Ai yields E) . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly. cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4. minus the triangle . and whose altitude is (a si n E ).e si n E ) I (4. to its corresponding true anomaly.e sin E (4." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.27) (4.2 T I M EO F . Kepler introduced the definition M = It .24) E .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV .25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.e si n E (4. v.22. Obviously . substituting into equation (4.24).2 . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v . E.Sec 4.28) .
to = ( t .24 right. we can say that t .T ) .T) . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.(to . In general we can say that t  to = 4.e Sin . + t . so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. E Figure 4 .T) .[ 2kn + (E .to = lP (t . from Figure 4.T o ) .24 left). when v is between o and n.28). In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a .( Eo  E) (4. Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.( t o . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v. 4 E E.
7 .8 si n E ) V r .1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.F L I G H T . we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .21 2).8 E ) dE (4.2.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .82 ( E .2 T I M EO F.2.1 3) (4.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.J1=82 d E (4.2.+ COS (4.2.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a. Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here . From equation (4.1 1 ) easily integrable .21 6) V 1 .2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.82 f: ( 1 .2.2.2.Sec 4. From equations in section 1 . .1 2) (4.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given.1 3) ro va v t" . ( 1 . a trialanderror solution is indicated.2 Solving for x When Time is Known . a.4.4 4. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign .4. Therefore . Fortunately . But now we have a problem.42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e . 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa. since equation (4. Equation (4 . 4. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . va' a and the trial value of x.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. (4 .Sec 4. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known .1 2) is transcendental in x.1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r.47) has been used to eliminate z. From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis.4. Figure 4. In one sense . C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn .
1 dt r (4. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . B and C are coplanar vectors. the iteration may be terminated.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.42. Thus A. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. Substituting for r in equation (4.3 The f and 9 Expressions. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point. and A and B are not colinear. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z . Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. we must then calculate the corresponding and v.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. xn . In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.4.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q.1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y .1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4. the four vectors fO ' (4.41 9) . 4 . (4. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 . Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 .41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible.32).4.4.41 6) dx x .1 = x 2 C + x . With x known.
We can isolate the scalar . O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 . g . x.tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w . The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates.1 8) into equation (4. f and g.4. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities. First..1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h .1 9) gives Sec 4 .4. g .. f and 9 are not independent.4.. however. Crossing equation (4.. = fg.. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. the left side of the O . g..420) This equation shows that f ..where f. if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity. f. in equation (4. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4..
4. .X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw . (4. .e2 )  r . yw x . 4 h (4. Xw .a l e + Sln Y.4.425).426) .425) Combining equations (4.E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f .424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.34) and (4. (4.1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.w o Yw h (4.4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4. ) . x + Co cos v = .42 1 ) We can isolate (4. From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ . x wYw . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x. o .423) (4.
42 1 ) c /Ii. ro ro .a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum..Sec 4 . r. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin .sin r  � (4.428) yw . x =� cos x + c r ...42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4. e quation (4.426) and (4. (4. ro ..43 1 ) .43 0) 0 1 f C a = ..4.1 ) .. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4.429) Substituting equations (4. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C .. 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.a  mitions of z. x = 0 at t = o .427) and using the definition of the universal variable .(e sin � + cos � ). x + co h = .. e quation (4.Va • W .. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4..32)..429) into equation (4.a Va 2 = 1 9..426) through (4 ...43 0) f (4.
4..4.202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a . r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .] � a .433) (4. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4. vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .436) .1 ) and (4 .4·3) � r o .435) (4.4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.32) (4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r..
1 The Physical Significance of and z.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation.4. to 4.1 ) Va = _ E . then compute v from equation (4. Si n va = Va =  c o s . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . then compute r and r from equation (4 . Obviously .43 1 ) and (4. Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z.43 6) . 1 . Va x (4. Note also that if were not zero .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4.1 8). can be used.[ i + x + c 0 ] Va .420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. 4 . 5 . The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter. its definition.e E). note that equation (4. if we are going to use equation (4. Also. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4.5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. From and determine r and a.4.43 5) and (4.1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit .4 . x + Co cos [ � . Given (usually is assumed to b e zero). 2 . Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . la . 4 . 3 . 5 .1 9) . rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t.x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . in any of the equations where z appears. the expression (t would replace 4 .4.434) . but we have not said what and z represent.Sec 4.34) (4.
(4 .3 4) and (4.55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 . (4 . we get x= D .53) from (4 .53) Subtracting equation (4.7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE. a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 .E o l . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.57) . Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x . we can conclude that = V'ii I F .1 3) .56) la. 1 (4. + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.F 0 1  Va I E .4. since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ .Do .52) whenever is negative .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �). 5 ·1) at time x = 0.204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E .5 4) (4. (4 . Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f. therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.
5 .5 9) .5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. I z = I F . 5 .5. so Sec 4. either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4. If imaginary. In computing the semimaj or axis. the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t .F a ) '· z is zero. Therefore . from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer.to 4 .8) Figure 4 . A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem.when z is positive . a.
z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 .. 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp.cosh . ( t a to) ..z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z . Furthermore . with £X. / ( . convergence will be extremely rapid. . wherever it occu rs. since X = foE. C = 1 . is large. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value.:z. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X.P)/ 2. When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4.a vG ) .5 . where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. In the case of elliptical orbits. we get for elliptical orbits. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. Use this for a first guess ..All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. then Z will be a large negative number .ji11.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .6F....e . If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly.a � eFz ± 2x 3 . so s i n h fi . a = ± x 3 . and ..v y� ( .fZi3 = q . so S � V0r eFz 2 .5. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number.
Q) eV La 2J. 5 . vice versa . so Sec 4 ..tohATci ( l . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .t o ) � ( 1 .tJ is positive . Anytime t . we get � S . 5 . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .sign (t .L ( t . X will be positive and .r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.to is positive. .t o ) 2x 3 � + t . Therefore. The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4.£.5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term. for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.t o ) #a ( 1 ] .t o ) sign (t .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before.sign in the above expression .5. Thu s .1 1 ) . where appropriate . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z. recognizing that X will be positive when (t .t o ) x ::::: sign (t .a . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence .a eFz sign ( t .t o ) Fa .r:z . 4 .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .
4.5.s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .1 0) and (4.. The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.4.1 3) COS . (4. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz.1 0) (4.1 1 ) as But i v:z . Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .4. use equations (4. 1 . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .cosh .y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 . z cos i � . 4 (4 . If z is near zero .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .(1  .1 0) as C where = i C = .1 2) and (4 .B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.1 1 ) .4.5.5. so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .0 6 + .s i n i V} = i si n i B . the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S. = Similarly.7! + .4.".4.1 3)..1 1 ) We can write equation (4. if z is negative .5. s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 . .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive. we can write equation (4.Ji . . use equations (4.
1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity ..1 4) ·· 1 .Ji! + Ji!. The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 .5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z . ..� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4. .+ .. 0 'j (4.5. 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ . (4Ir) 2 .. (611)2 etc.5. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity . 0 .. .Sec 4..52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z . Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 .
t=2 T U9 ra = I. va = Therefore & = 1.1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . it is not surprising that the derivatives. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves. r a .5 .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0.[i) z ] (4 .5. we get I � = fz. va > � a= :l = 1 . 4 functions . 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . dC /d z and dS /d z . 2& .( 1 .zS .2C ) . I dS = _ ( C .[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM.s i n z dz 2z [ 0.)] P (4. and v at = t=2 T U .3S ) . Find r. Given ra = I D U va = 1 .266  . 1 K . 1 .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ. 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x. 39 5 . Differentiating the definition of C.
. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .222 1 .279 1 .821 1 .8 2 1 1 .222 Repeating the process. 24 1 = 1 . using a slide rule .t. we can make a 2 __ = 1 .82 1 1 . 58+. 705 .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.8 1 6 1 . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.266 ( 1 . solving for t . X l Zl y"""a6E or x .t o x_ 21Tya lP :.222 = 1 .4.973 a Using equation (4.4.8 1 6 x n+1 .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .58 1 .000 1 .58 1 . 2 2 x 3 ' etc. 1 .277 dXn 1 ..t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.Since x = and .1 . 58+ .58) 2 1 .8 1 6 1 . xn tn fit After three iterations..12..007 2.1 4) and (4.1 . tn toward t = ZTU. y'ii"(t .1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 ..705 2 .
1 we can see that X w = r cos v .1 ) From Figure 4. g = 1 . 4 4. 1 24.. E and F.32 1 1 + 1 . yw and r in terms of D.0. we will derive expressions for xw . 4. since e = 1 .6. 236K g.. v. f = 0..8801 Ch . Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit.321 .Then from the definitions of f.6. E and F. D. f = 0. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly .2. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. and 9 = 0. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. But first some useful identities will be presented.1 7).A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. (4.2) .031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0.. f.6.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. g. But . E or F.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY . for the parabola. as D = v'P tan � 2 ._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D.JPt::. In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. 880 1 1 .6 . we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D. Finally. r = _. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum.
62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .Sec 4 .64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system.1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .65) .6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . 2 If we substitute from equation (4.1 ) . (4.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r. the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .6. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.
62 Perifocal components of r . w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known.J7!. The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown. (4. in Figure 4 .s i n p v = ffp ta n v . Using r • r = and equation (2.66) v . 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 4 rr. For the eccentric anomaly .Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product.62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .6. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4.1 ) . r • v.
69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. (4. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle . since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae.67) and (4 . I Substituting from equations (4. (4. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . M  (4.6. e illS E we get another useful  �.Sec 4 . 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .62.24) . To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) . we can say that I yw = Q.1 0) e sin E also.67) (a si n E ) a But . 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4.8) and simplifying.6. yw Just as we did for the parabola. we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4.
6.. when E is a real number.1 3) .6. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E . The .216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.. we obtain E = . F is imaginary..28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4.1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation. is given by e si n rr = r = $a . e cos E from equation (4.1 0) . when F is a real number .1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4.e Si n r E Finally . relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly. E is imaginary . v.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.6. solving this equation for • v .:.22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.6.!.. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E..
2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F .6 .6. Similarly. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4. The rectangular components of a general position vector. may be written as (4. so Yw = a � sinh F.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v . 6. From equation (4. Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF. 4.Il a •v (4. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system.e ) .6.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. so (4. Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.  But i si n iF = si n h F. 6.67) we can write Sec 4 .1).61 6) r e cosh F = 1.range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning.a r  (4. In Figure 4 . But l cos i F = cosh F .e) .1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.1 8) . r.el = a (cos i F . 6.
.218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y . and note that h = . V.c o s tv ) (4. 623) .I M E Ch .V. so 1 � L (I .1 ... tan p /:. where tv = v .c os I 9 ' = v'f. 62 1) (4. the rectangular components of the velocity vector .624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) ..A F U N CT I O N O F T. r0 · = 1 ._ c��V P IW (4. 626) .. .6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4.vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf .JiLP.ji! sin v p (4.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .....: o s /:.x".V _ 2 1 . 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.P ( 1 . Figure 4.p . ( .42 1 ) . are yw = r sin v (4. (4. we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = .625) (4.... 4 +.:.. .
Similarly.E . we get f = a( cos E . From equations (4.e2 ) = 1.63 2) . yw 9 and (t .6.3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .e2 ).E ) f = . r (4.a ( 1 . (4. E rr .6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .!Ji8 sin L'!.sin L'!.68) .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.e) v! fJa( l .� ( 1 .cos L'!.4.1 (4.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .E ) . o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.67) and (4.1 0).(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .E) 9 r _ 0 j.I Jlla sin E.( L'!. using equation (4. Thus Xw Sec 4.cos L'!..42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .63 0) (4.63 1 ) (4. 629) f = 1 .e2 ) v.e 2 ) cos E .a E sin E .1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E . 627) But.6.e cos E o ) . (4.Ji!.to ) . = .6. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.
.2 6) is one equation in one unknown . (4. In classical terms.to) . 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F .t o ) . with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true.6F ) . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E . � V a3 ( t . M can be obtained from = (4. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it.2k7T + M o . Kepler himself realized this.6. and Sma1l4 tells us: " But.629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.  E. of course .[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .63 6) 4. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) .4 Kepler Problem Algorithm.26) Even though equation (4.(1 E .634) (4. it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . ." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself. cosh 6F ) . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly . A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t . (4.
638) n dM/d E I E=E n .64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. � Figure 4. but this is not very accurate. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . M n . that results from this trial value . ' (4. of course . We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. compute the mean anomaly. select a new trial value. 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. E n+ l E + M .Sec 4 .Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. E It would.63 7) Now.
when e is nearly 1 .4. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. 2. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. e.4. where d M / d E l E = En En.5 cos V DU . va and the timeofflight. Determine f and V from equations (4.e cos En (4. 5.1 9).1 8) and (4.1 2) . dE Therefore. however. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . equation (4. It can be used for LW or�E .636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . e.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 1 . p and va· 2 . The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation. 3 . Once E i s determined by any method. d M = 1 e cos E .1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola.2. From fa and va determine r 0' a. even when e is nearly 1 . 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F). 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 .  . Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. t .6.4 0) EXERCISES 4. Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(. Solve for V if needed. 4 .t ' are given. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem.5 + .
348J +  1 .2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse.3 Given l:J) = ffP. find the universal variable. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. how should the area of search for x be limited. find r and v for . 4. i. (Ans. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU.4 If.. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. f = 4 . TOF = 5.6 For the data given in problem 4. V = 3481 . Find the values of f.Ch . Explain why this must be so .5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 . 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee.85 TU) 4. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse.e.3. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. corresponding to l:J) of 600• . 625) . x. (partial Ans. glven fO' vO' and t.
Develop. (Ans. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa..to and solve for f and v. 1 0.73 TV) 4.22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. and give your analytic reasoning behind. Le. ra == 2. Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 .10 rp 4 . a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . in equations (4.9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. 4 .5 . f and g. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. Va and t . what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. 4 4 . then .5 DU.51 0) and (4. g. Do the same for problem 4. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. 5 DU. e = . 2. 7 The text. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. if X == x (t ) . 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans.99). Va and w and will solve for f. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 .1 1). TOF = 2. with a perigee above the north pole. 4 . == 1 . 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. 4 . 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. 1 1 For problem 4. 9 At burnout. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. 5. e = .
6 TU) ..to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . 63 2)..16 * 4. 4. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t .1 8). LIST OF REFERENCES 1 .to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . 4.0 + . r3 fJ.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression.. 1 964. Koestler. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. Kepler. The University of Wisconsin Press. Company. r. NY. 2. Stahlman. The Sleepwalkers. Albert. The Macmillan 3 . L'. 1 963 .I:!:. Battin. See equations (4. 4 . Einstein. 1 7 Derive the expression for g . New York. 1 95 1 . NY. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch .r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. Richard H. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. Small. = . Wise. 1 95 9 . A New York. Arthur. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. 2. Philosophical Library.. Guidance .43 5) and (4. Robert.E. f and 9 in terms of (t .. Madison. g. equation (4. New York.2 .630) through (4. o 4 .( t . NY.43 6). . 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.
Roger R. W. 4 5 . and 1. New 6.1 79. pp 3093 1 5. "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. 1 9 1 4. pp 1 89. pp 1 05 . Forest Ray.1 92. Stumpff. J." A stron. pp 1 08. 7. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. Sperling. 1 96 1 . Unpublished notes. "Universal Variables. . Vol 3 1 . S. A n Introduction York. . 9. 1 965 . pp 66066 1 . 1 9 1 2 ." ARS 1. 1 947. California. Vol 70. Lemmon." A stron. 1 0. Brooks. W. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. to Celestial Mechanics.ach. 1 1 . United States Air Force Academy ." A cta Vol 36. E. Redondo Beach. Vol 70. Moulton. W . Bate." A str. 8. K. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung.1 28 . H. 1 2.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . F ." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems. Herrick. The MacMillan Company. N. J. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. 1 965. H . K. 1 965. Vol 275 . Mathmatica. Goodyear. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. H. Sundrnan.
But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . But. Uranus. in the first year of the 1 9th century. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants.. in 1 7 8 1 .1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 227 5. a 24yearold German mathematician. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas.
I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. but for a different reason. This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. no more . The object turned out to be Ceres. To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. Hegel asserted. no less. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. exactly 1 year later. and for convenience in referring to it later. Because of its importance."the Gauss problem. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. If they paid some attention to philosophy . and the direction of .228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . 5. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found.
2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M .. .21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. the orbit is a degenerate conic... or the "long way. It is not surprising.SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ . ." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. appears in the denominator of any expression. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. p. / .. 5 . find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. Obviously . / I I I I I Figure 5 . Sec .". the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. . 2. The relationship between the four vectors f l . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case.motion... If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4." through an angular change greater than 7r.1 .. therefore. that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). particularly if the parameter..
25 ) (5 . a and �E. (5 . (5 . bv . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . what we have is three equations in three unknowns. g.( 1 . g.. a or �E.2. We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . Use equations (5.= p 9 r1 r 2 Si..25).26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. t. 2.( 1 . There are seven variablesf1 . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. so 2 . 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 .( 1 . the solut �on to .23).cos �E ) f = 1 .cos �V . Consider equations (5 .230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. From equation (5 .24) arid (5 .27) and (5 .24) Si n �E (5 . p. p. so a trialanderror solution is necessary . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. 3.. r2 P p rI . f. a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p.cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 . (5 . r .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f. (5 .y'ii8 . 27) .22) r2 a ( 1 .cos �E ) .cos �v) = 1 . 23) and (5 . Test the result by solving equation (5 . a 9 = 1 . but the first four are known. f and g. 2.1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f.sin �E ) � JJ. 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight ..1 ) (5 .23) Actually.
including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f .3 2) .c x2 y. a and L'£ or 6F. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who .1 ) (5 . 3 . 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. In each case . however. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution.( 1 . introduced in Chapter 4. = 1 .:t x3 S. and would enable us to use the universal variables. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. x and z. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter.. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. g . let's write the expressions for f.Sec. This last step is perhaps the most important of all. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. 5 . r1 (5 . p.
31 ).( 1 c o s b. yields X C..38) y. we obtain A..35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 . p r1 j .33)  (5..viI x ( 1 zS) \ .v ) 1 c o s b.33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.v y..( c o s b. ( 1 .j A equation (5 .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.1I 1 � . we get r 1 r 2 (1 ..v) (5 . 1 . ( 1 c o s b. P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b.c o s b.v) • 9 = = IE... such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.v (5 .A .232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 . A y= .37) I y = r 1 + r2 . 5 X2 (5 .jE: .V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch . rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.i n b..36) may be written (5 .v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 . as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.39) .
I" � \ ·1 fr .31 7) .3.1 ). A.420). 5 .32) and (5 .31 5) (5 . can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves. 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .3.LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ.1 4) 1 The velocity.. 3. y.37 ) and (5 .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant .Sec. . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . by using equations (5 .on simplllw.qr::oo . we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 . (5 . the last term of this expression may be simplified.31 3) (5 .1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 . 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .34).: r I . +.r I (5 .=1' Ig =r2 =.1 0) (5 .3. and the auxiliary variable . so that (5 . we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.".38). rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 .ff.1 6) (5 . From equations (5 . 3. thi 't "p.35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 . to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: . 32).31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I .
1 0) .31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 . necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 . a Newton iteration.1 0) and (4.31 8) ( ) (5 .31 5)." evaluate the I 2 constant. 9 and 9 from equations (5 .0. (5 . may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4. A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. Although any iterative scheme . 7 . 5.31 3). from equation (5 . may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z.37).4.3. using equation (5 . 4. When the method has converged to a solution. A. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. 5 1 . then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. Pick a trial value for z. Since z = . 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . Determine x from equation (5 .0. 3. 6. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation.P . 3.3. y. 5. From f ' f and the "direction of motion. 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. evaluate t.31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. Determine the auxiliary variable.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . The derivative. If it is not nearly the same . 2 .= 3 x 2 . Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 . which converges more rapidly. dt / dz.4.39).1 2) (5 .dz dz dz 2yy dz .1 4) and (5 .31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i .31 7). this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .E2 and z = .1 1).3 .S + X 3 _ + .31 6) and (5 .31 9) . Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5.
3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 .320) (5 . 3 . we showed that y.2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 . we get ( 1 .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C .z S) dS _ .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS . .32 1 )  . 5 . 5 . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .=  dS (C .39) for dy = dz  But. i n section 4 .Sec.
+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 . D M � si g n (1T L'>." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 . Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM.6J + 0. Using universal variables.326) .  (5 . the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z.4. determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . ill rl .32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit). 51 r2 = 1.322) into equation (5 . From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .OK DU.320) and (5 .v) . we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 .324) _  (5 .+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .7K DU.318). equations (4. At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0.319) and (5 . we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .41 1 ). 5 so. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S.01 + + O.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero. "direction of motion": rl =0. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = . Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period. There is only one path for a given direction of motion. These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .1 0) and (4.
327) r1 = 1 .321 radians Using (5 .5..CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = .37) does when . 0488088482 + 1 .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 . 28406 ( __ = 3 . 5 .Sec. A A l ong way =1 .327).28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = . 0488088482 + 1 . 0000 1 . 23287446 yT12 vm . 5 . For ease of numerical solutions.28406 ( __ ) = 0 .6V is small.962 radians LW long way = 21T . OM = +1 we have "short way " (. Now following the algorithm of section 5 . from equations (4. Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 .0.6V > 1T).39).6V short way = 5.1 5) . a convenient form of equation (5 . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .28406 = 1 . 0000 + 1 .3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 .1 4) and (4.1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T). 86474323 = 1 .1 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 .
. Step 5: Using equation (5 . (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way. from the given data.489482706 (6") .05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0.444689 m 0.. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off...86474323 = 1 . 1 ..672625 1 6 TU + through 6.28406 y'3.28406 y'0. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative. 0432z = 1 3.0 we do not normalize.3. the desired time o f flight is : . Since �t for this problem is less than 1 ...3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .. Y l o ng = 3.1 0). so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.780 1 9540 1 /2 0.23287446 0. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : ..238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration..86474323 2.23287446 t l o ng = 0. 1 3 min = 0445 z .3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .
0.554824 D U /T U f = 3. 1 1 39209665J  0. (5 .0.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .1 5). W e have : � 104 (within 0.1 6) and (5 . 7499473 9 t = 0.28406 Y = 4.58 1 43981 VI = 0.31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .50634848K v2 = 0.36 1 677491 + 0.79852734 v2 = 1 . (5 .6009 1 852 .5288 97 1 4 = 2.28406 Y = 0.96670788 z = x 0. 74994739 VI = 0.02234 1 8 1 1 .94746230 A = 1 . 5 .314).9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.8826885334K v2 = 0.250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.1 3).t .Sec.4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.63049 1 80961 1 .83073807 v 2 = 1 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.60 1 874421 .0.3. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .3.83236253 Using equations (5 .6 1 856634 = 0.989794 D U/TU 0.t solved . (5.5544 1 39777J 0.3 . 1 7866539741 + 1 .76973587J .
076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. yet equation (5 .= 0. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation . Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 . In other words.39). Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . where f::1) is less than 7T.39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on.31 . From equation (5 . the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths.38) and (5 .1 O} VC .9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative. For "short way" trajectories.52).2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 .0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 .636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position).
cos ""V ( 1 .va si . The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity.4.6V COS .23).cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . hence.6V p � .1 ) and si n  COS .4. 5. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive . a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .v. This check is only necessary when is positive.. 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.6V V 1 .25).1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . and 2 solving for p.4 TH E p. 5.cos !:::. we obtain 5. we can solve for a and get 1 . (sin xl i . A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.j1 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.c o s ""E si n ""E .. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .Sec./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .4..V ) a (5 . The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5.)2 cos .42) into equation (5. we get  .c o s x =. a and ""E. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::. From equation (5 . for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity.?S.
2 Ll. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch . and noting that � c os '2 .E Q ± y'2ni C O S .E) •  k = k Ll.48) k .2 Expressing a as a Function of p.c o s bJ)) (5 . The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.E CO � = ± p= k = .43) as Ll.4.J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll.v ) we can rewrite equation (5 . (5 .45) ± Using these same definitions.47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5. 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .E Solving for cos2.43) 5.45) and simplify.E ( k . we obtain m p a= (5 .. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 .44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.Q p ) 2 (5 . we get Ll. (5 .Qp y'2ni p . We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .46) Ll.E .
First . Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 .4 T H E p.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr..6.4 . The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . we need to determine � (or .3 Checking the Trial Value of p. 5. Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. 5 .!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight .. Sec.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 .where k.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 . however. a may not be smaller than some minimum value .F in case a is negative). . 5.4. Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. 2.
9 and f from equations (5 . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero. As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that. p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i . F 1 ..E from equations (5 .E a If yield is negative..a r1 (1  f) (5 .6.From the trial value of P and the known information.Tar (si n h . we can determine .25).6.4 The t vs P Curve .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .F: (5 .4.6.6. we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like .6.F is positive. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First. Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. In Figure 5.6.6.6. F ) .49) Since we always assume .6.4. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 . the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving . If a is positive.F (5 . (5 . let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .24) and (5 . 5 c o s .6.41 1) c o sh .4. To get a feeling for the problem.24) or the corresponding equation involving .1 0) = = 1 .( 1 . although t approaches infInity for this orbit. F .23).41 2) (5 .1 3) .E ) (5 .E . If (.vi. we see that the limiting case of . If we look at "long way" trajectories. there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.s i n . we can compute f. let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.23) and (5 .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .
lie within the prescribed limits. for t:sv greater than IT.. Since it is important thar the first trial value.. P must lie between o and P j j .4 T H E p... t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j .. In Figure 5 ... we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 .. Sec. we should first compute P j or P j j .I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse .43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. as well as all subsequent guesses for p. P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case .. For l'J) less than IT. P must lie between P j and infinity..zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero.. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 .42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 .. 5 . From the discussion above.. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight.
. one that gives too small a value for t. � " . Several simple methods may be used successfully. In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p.4. and one that gives too large a value.4. 5 1 :co . 0 Q + y2in k  (5 .� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. '" E 0> '" . • . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5. . I . we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. b ..46).246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE .4.1 5) 5 . p )0 p" . . The solution is then bracketed and. from equation (5 .1 4) Q .yLri1 (5 . .43 k p a rameter . by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two ..5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi).. ell .
44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration .. .. 4 T H E p.4... ..I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn.4. It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer. If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it.. tn t .I Figure 5 . . .t n . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p.... . . . . . .. .. . If tn. . then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t .. ..1 ) (t n . 5 ....1 6). .1 ) (5. then a better estimate of p may be obtained from .1 and Pn ..Sec... . .. . . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5. O��_4o P n..1 6) This scheme can be repeated. .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p.. . .. ..t n ) ( P n . . .. ... .. ...P n ... ...
41 7).1 7) I t =9 viIZ. 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.4. we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . ( � .iri equati �n (S.24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S . � ( S .4. 41 9) . fl3  fJ.1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .si n L'> E l .41 8) (S .r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .
I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .Sec. bE d�E . that ( k . from equation (5 .4 T H E p.Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .4 8) . we obtain . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .2 dp k ( k .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .2mk2 Qp 2kQp .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .47).Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m . 5 .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.k2 ] 2 [ (2m .E / dp and noting.420) From equation (5 .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .( k .Qp ) Q.
which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.6E JJ... _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.423) .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .= .. and (5 . p(k h JJ. (5 .Qp) si n 6E JJ.1 8) from (5 .4. By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F . (5 .4.42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 .250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch . 5 (5 .� (6E .1 9).COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .
Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. 2 .49) and (5 . 5 . 5 251 . 8 . 25). solve for a from equation (5 4 . 4 . 2.6E or Ll.4.4.1 2) or (5 .1 4) and (5 . 6. r and Ll.6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 .1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem.423). should be used in equation (5 .1 0) or equation (5 . The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a. Pn . t and . 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES .2·3). (5 . Solve for Ll.F obtained from the trial value. Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions. As stated earlier . 5 . We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .4. equations (5 . Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . 5 .422) or (5 .22). Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained.4. using equations (5 . Q and m from r] .44). of p.E or Ll. we will develop and use the f and 9 series. Solve for t from equation (5 . as appropriate . Solve for f. Sec. Evaluate the constants k.24) and (5 . Evaluate 9 from equation (5 .4. 3 . a. 7 . This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. 9 . the values of g.1 1 ) .1 5).4. Using the trial value.8). If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo .F.27) and (5 . 9 and f from equations (5 .To evaluate the slope at Pn .II using 2 . Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola.
5 2) (5 . 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v.u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . 5 9) . 5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . Therefore. 5 4) for n = O. we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v.1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . (5 . we write equation (5 . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion.57) (5 . 5 5) r r (5 .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . (5 . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 .54) we have the following recursion (5 .
this can be (5 .5W)  (r . 5 .1 7) .51 3) rr and the definition of p. 1 Development of the Series Coefficients . v are known . u L. Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 . From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate.51 6) (5 .515) =  ur. 5 . p and q which will be useful later . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .5 11 ) (5 . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .5.51 2) u . q.5. We define them as follows : O.1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 . as we shall u .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u.and the equation of motion f  (5 . 5 . p.
p (u + 2q ) . r) (v) 2 . (5 .U .(v) 2 .57) and (5 . _ [1 1  2 (v .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . ) . v) _ 1 u.r . 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . 522) q = . 5 .3u p (5 .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . . 5 20) (5 . r r (5 .23 r· (V) r   u. Summarizing: (5 .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 . 5. q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r . = .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . 5.1 8) Using the definition of P. . 1 1 1 1 . d q = d t .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. ) _ 24 (r . .
3 u p ( u .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u . Fs = F4 ..1 5u p ( u .3p ( u + 2q ) . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .Sec. 2 we have : ) r( 1 = .u r = .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. = F 1 r + G 1 . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue. = .6 u 2 p = .6 u 2 p = . = . F3 = F .30p p + 3 q ) . p and q.t!:. 5.u G = .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 . Writing equation (5 .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing. = r 0.30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .u G 4 = u ( u . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .54) for n = 1 .
tao Comparing with equation (5 .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .52) and (5 .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .5. Referring to equations (5 .524) (5 .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. therefore. ) . 5 = U (u .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious. Vo (5 .523) .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 . .1 .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .526) .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .Gn n. .
6q .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O. G 1 = 1 . G = O.90q .28q .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .2 1 q . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .1 5p 2 + 3q + U).51 .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 . F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 . F 2 = 'U.30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 . 5 . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u). F 1 = 0.u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) . F = 3up 3 F = u(.l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 . G = 30up(1 4p2 .30q .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .Sec.1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .3q . G = u.
7) r I g (r I . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v.0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . From equation (5 . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle .2·3). Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions. 5.5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only.2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . 5.5·29) . 7) (5 . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods.51) + 9= 7  1 . The f and 9 series may be used .f (r I . r I . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u .24) and (5 .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 .5·27) + ' (5 . p. (5 . 5 . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. 2·5). This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large.6. f I .
thus Figure 5 . becomes dt (1 .Sec. As. This . L£ . 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6.61 Sector and triangle area (5 .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA.77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude .6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD . .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ . so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. 5.
62) (5 .V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 .2 The First Equation of Gauss.c o s b. 4 � c o s b. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 . If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 . we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 .43) and using the identity.2E ) 2 . but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.6.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3." + l( 1 . 5. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b. E ) .' l'2 2 2 (5 .6. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information. x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss. 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. .
.67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . so .65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 . ( .65).2 2 L (5 . si n l:v cos � . 5 . t/y. (5 .(5 .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression. Si..jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J..67) 1 cos l:>v =.2 ( 1 r1 r .s i n l:>E ) . we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .£Q.L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 .. 3 The Second Equation of G auss.= .L . equation .68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J..61). 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 . L ( l:>E .6 .Sec. From the first of these equations.s i n l:>E ) . n l:> E ) .24) and (5 . Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J. Using the identity.1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E . ..61 ) becomes si n l:v .
262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E.1 0) . When convergence has occurred. recall that we started with three equations. (5 . 6.2(� .4 Solution of the Equations . (5 . Next.si n LE ) we may write. pick a trial value for y. n = 2 si n 3 LE . 27) and (5 . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . To review what we have done so far. a and LE. 22) completes the solution. more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. and so on.1 ) = W (LE . a good first guess is y � 1 .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . y.43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. y 2 ( y .6.69) cos f = 1 . 23). in three unknowns. p. !:JJ and t. Unfortunately. which is known as "the second equation of Gauss. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns.25). until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. 24) and (5 . We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. The first step is to evaluate the constants.1 ) .6.69) are transcendental.from (5 .6. so a trialanderror solution is necessary. (5 . there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . s and w. (5 . using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . from r I ' r2 . S + 1 .Si." 5 . equations (5 . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) .64) and solving for y. We then added another independent equation.64) and (5 . and one more unknown. By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations. the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 .s) . y and LE .
c:.1 2) become indeterminate. 6. F = si nh .F and COS i .69) and to determine y.1 2) = X = .c:.c:.c:.. If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.c:.c:.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.E . For this reason.1 0) may also b e written as Sec.c:.E s i n 3 .cosh 2 . they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.c:. then . 5 . the righthand side of equation (5 .c:.F 2 ) · (5 .F will be zero and both equations (5 .6.1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .F are close to zero.E is imaginary. equation (5 .6.F is real. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section.c:.c:.F .S ) y (5 . we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs. Using the identity. difficulties may be anticipated any time .c:. i sin i. E or .c:. Since we already know that when . E = i .F whenever the right side is greater than one . x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .6.69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .F . S.c:.cE.Since the equations above involve .c:.c:. equation (5 . F s i n h 3 "2 . If the given timeofflight is short. 6. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . as y2 = W S + x .6.1 1 ) s i n h .c:. F.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.0.c:.c:. indicating that�.s i n .c:. )� s + 1 .1 0) may become greater than one.69) and · (5 .E is imaginary.F .F = rush . .E and . Noting that .
problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 .1 (5 . Depending on the type of conic. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. Compute the constants.1 3).24). and 9 from equations (5 .6 .6. ) .264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E .F from equation (5 . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point.1 4).. f. (5 . The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 .6.25) and (5 . g .1 4) Now. E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit.E or 6.1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . r2 . is .6. 7 . parabola. Evaluate f. and then expressing 6. 6 . 5 . 1� = 2 3 1. or negative. (5 . . 2 . replacing CDs 6. .26).6.1 1). Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. ( 1 + §. . s and w. which is developed by Moulton. Determine X from equation (5 .. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &.43).61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 .]) and t using equations (5 .23). or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. E as a power series in x. the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x. the orbit being an ellipse.2 Ch .22). 2. 3 . Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . determine 6. 2 6. Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 .6. Determine p from equation (5 .27) and (5 . .1 0) or (5 .Y:i.6.62) and (5 . 4. (s + x ) · 1 (5 . zero. /:. The result..1 5) 1 . from rl .63).
72. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . To avoid generalities. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. ballistic missile targeting. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time .v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM.Sec. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. The £:. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. and ballistic missile interception. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . 5 . Usually.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. �atellite intercept and rendezvous." In all but the simplest cases. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. To make the problem even more specific.
� . . 5 i nterceptor . fI }/ \ \ .f." \ t a rg e t / \ .\.266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch ...' ':.1 . �/ �/ "........... e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary. I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 . ��y V \" _ . \ •• • • • • • . ".� ' . I n .". 7 .. at t.�: :. ". r.1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem ... ..7. ) / ot t.
we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . 5 .Sec. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. which is when the intercept will occur. Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island. The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0.
7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . . . . The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . " . 5 them. . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is.268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission.238 km/sec. . �v? �v . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. . \ \ \ Figure 5 . launch vel. . so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. . . we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest.
the better . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . 5 . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . In summary .7 . the launch site will have moved eastward .7 . From Figure 5 . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . Because of earth rotation.2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions .5 . One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. In Figure 5 . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. 5 . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) .
F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E ..270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .7.4 /':..O F .V plot for example intercept problem .J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .) z :J « .
v2 • P I ' P2 . Although we have examined a very specific example . (5 .85) (5 .1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . t2 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. P3 · . the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 . 82) t2 so (5 . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. the three components of r2 . another method will be develope d .Sec.8 . P3 .e. 5 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. i.84) (5 .V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis .8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .
Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . i. Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . 8.e. y.8. L3 . in fact only six of the equations are independent. and eliminating the K components. Estimate the magnitude of f2 . b . the components of f2 and V2 . y and z . R1 .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. y and Z . 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . the components of Vz be X.1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x. 526) and (5 .8·7) (5 . � into equations (5 .8. f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . Rz .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . ' r2 . L2 . 5 to (5 . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z .1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a.8) (5 .
5 Z. Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 .31 ). Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. . Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . which are the components of f2 and v2 . Limitations. Accuracy. Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6.423) for hyperbolic orbits.41 .\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 .522). f2 I + J DU).t2 and t2 t } are not too large.39). c.31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 .4 Verify the development of equation (5 048). f.Ch . 5. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04. using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. Usirlg specific numbers.3 Verify equations (5 .526) and (5 . Y.1 5. Z.6 Derive equation (5 . 5 .527). EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. 5. (5. I I I I  x. =: =: 5 . b. e .1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l.V required for intercept? 5.31 3) through (5 . and (5. but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times.2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. Ease of computation.32).
tl = 1 . b. d. The universal variable method . d.8 using the universal variable. (Ans.009 (. Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. (Ans.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . 1 1 For the following data sets for r I .8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 .9 Repeat problem 5 . The piteration technique.t l determine v2 using a.7 . The original Gauss method.00256 (J + K» . r2 'and the distance between them.J + K). 5 . Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse. 5 Given two position vectors rI .0922 TU. 5 . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . t2 . as a function of rI r2 . although a few iterations can be made by hand. r2 . = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. rl r2 p. which will contain both position vectors. c. h = 1 . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5. 5. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. vI = 0.274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch .06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 .
Methods of Orbit Determination. Liu. Mathematics.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory.Ch . f 1 = 1 . "The Prince of Mathematicians. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. Escobal. 1 963. New York. r 1 = 41 t 2 ." in The World of 1 . A n Introduction York.t 1 = 0. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. 3. Bell.J D U Use "long way" trajectory.0. New York. r 1 = I t 2 . 2 . 51 + 0. New York. and A. Gauss. NY. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . McGrawHill Book Company. New 6. 2I D U t2 . Pedro Ramon. 1 965. 1 9 59. Davis. r 1 = 2I t2 .66986 9921+0 .t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . 4. Moulton. Carl Friedrich. NY. d . 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . Richard H. 1 964.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. Herrick. NY. S. a. Inc. Simon and Schuster.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . Vol 5 . 1 956. 1 . (Answer : v = 0. Appendix A. Inc. Dover Publications. . (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. the MacMillan Company. John Wiley & Sons. Forest Ray.7K D U t 2 .000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. New York. A stronautical Guidance. to Celestial Mechanics.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . c . 1 9 1 4. NY.6J + 0. Eric Temple .4804847 1 1 2 +0. f l = 0 . Battin.
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During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . ironically .000 V2's had been fired in anger . By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. Efforts. As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. The result is well known. World War II as "too late . longrange ballistic missiles. The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. Napoleon I 6. which concern us in this chapter. begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . have a very short history .CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. .
Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers. Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. Trevor Gardner .278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . After all.000 pounds thrust. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . No German was permitted to enter this separate building. in June 1 9 53 .000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. Brigadier General 3 . In July 1 95 4. California. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. 4 Accordingly. According to Dr.
Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . Progress was rapid.000 people participating directly. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. the program had. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. Otherwise. After three unsuccessful attempts. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know.Sec. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. 6. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. Atlas was a reality. the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. Blasingame . When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. 6 . by mid· 1 95 9 . In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts.
such terms as "height at burnout. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . It will not be discussed in this text.2.2. =. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory." "height of apogee. Q . (6 . Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics. need not be redefined. We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. Since Va:. 6 from launch to burnout. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations." "flightpath angle at burnout." etc.. 6 .. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. however..2 The Nondimensional Parameter. 6 .22) . 1 defines these new quantities. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system.2.2.ji1Tr. Figure 6. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . There are. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory . We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere .280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point.
21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory . 6.Sec .2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .
3 The FreeFlight Range Equation .2.23) or IQ=2�·1 p . and substitute for V. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 . the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit. When Q is equal to 1 . If Q is greater than 2 .2.O/r from equation (6. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6.1 ) . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 . (6. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed. the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit.25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . 24) 6 .282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch .26) .the expression p.
and co s � = . therefore. half the freeflight range angle .f6.co s v b o . 2 Equation. be written as (6. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 . 'l'.22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) .Sec.26) above can. 6 .27) . lies on each side of the major axis.
also becomes known./. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. = r Q C O S2 cp .28) p. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 .284 . be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. . can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. ¢ro. (6. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile.T.29) and (6.e2 ). 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target. the required freeflight range angle. h = rv cos cp.2. .1 1) into equation (6. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2.2. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. . since p = a( 1 . we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6. the total range angle. A. e. what should the flightpath angle.2.29) Now.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6.
4 The FlightPath Angle Equation.23 Ellipse geometry 6 . The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . with a little algebra. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus.2. Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. Sec 6 . Now. is called r bo . F'. Instead . 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . ¢bo.In other words. we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . In Figure 6 . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. We could . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo .
2.Qb o sin � . shown in Figure 6. in fact.I n 2 and also as rb (6. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 ." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F.2.2.1 3) (6. It means. F' and the burnout point. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . � + 'lr) = .2. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror .24.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 .x) = sin (6.1 6) . that.1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x. for example. d. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a .000 ) from equation (6. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse . Qb o 2 2 (6. light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal. This is. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . the basis for the so called "whispering gallery.
1 6) gives us .2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 . the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = . 6. sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals . .Sec.9.2. 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .866.
" it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . If Q bo is greater than 1 . there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. Because a = . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. Provided that 'l' is attainable.1 6) does not exceed 1 . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . Figure 6 .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. .288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 .P/2&. Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . Table 6.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . If Q bo is exactly 1 . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. Nevertheless. equation (6 . 2. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . This would not be a very practical missile trajectory. 2. the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory.
Sec. 6 . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories .
range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. cos ¢ b o == 0.625 .290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . skims earth high only .low traj . Assuming a symmetrical trajectory.11 5 18 1 . 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :. ha p og ee 0. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1.5 DU. hits earth 000 > 1 high only . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. vbo = 2/3 DU/TU. hits earth Table 6 . 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max.low traj . During the test firing of a ballistic missile.21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'.
We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . 'IT. 60 0W . Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. c os � = + N . Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT. <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 .4Deg. 08 1 7 ( 1 . 6 2 1 .1 .2. Notice or <P b o = :. 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. 2<P b o + 64°20. 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. :.08 1 7 DU/TU and .. 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 .5 The Maximum Range Traject ory . Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle .025 DU respectively.1 2) . 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation.Sec.025) = 1 . 6. 36° . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36. 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2. 6 . 600 E. ) (60 n m i ) =2. 26. As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again .2. Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 . versus the flightpath angle .
A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .. be the maximum range condition.2.� 90 Figure 6.'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6. � 80 . :. s 0> Q) 0 � c . .. There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory. (2<P bO � ) 2 . en EO I .1 8) L__________________� ...Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 .2.:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .1 6) equals exactly 1 . 2. If the right side of equation (6. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero... 0> <1> <1> � IJ. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target.1 7) I (6.s. then..pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 .292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell .7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight .
1 9) for maximum range conditions.Sec:. We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6. 220) for maximum range conditions.Qbo Qb o (6 . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6. 6 .e cos 2 (6. 2.222) .8) .cos 2 . the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . From the symmetry of Figure 6. The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. 6 . noting that l . If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o . 2.6 Time of FreeFlight. By inspection. VI 1 800 .1 7 ). due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified.22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. sin �= 2 2 . 'JI ./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. but ..'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .2.2. 2 .7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2).
Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. a. 23) and (6. In fact . since five variables have been plotted on the figure. 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 .27 Time of freeflight (6.300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. 6 The semimajor axis. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . and the eccentricity. can be obtained from equ ations (6.1 1). 2.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . e. Figure 6 . 28. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile .
It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM.25 D U == 7 .000 nm.075) == 0. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.750 n m .Sec. 6 .95 From Figure 6. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6.884) ( 1 . What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0. The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.8 period vs.
. : ' . :: : J: : : .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. : : . .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . hi..� '" �� :. .CI�rie� v X I . ' . . : : . . : :/ . :: :"/ N .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C. . .9h Ir. : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: .I ' : ' : : : : : : .aje. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free ..
For a fixed burnout altitude . position. and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. . and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point.1 � 0. impacting at B. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point.3 .2. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth .1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. 957 Hsi 66. The arc length .6X and .3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A.  Vbo 6.933 D Urr U � 24.3 ° From equation (6.32 r ads = 1 33. 6 . perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north.220) . 6 . For brevity . .77 0 = 0 .OOO nm max = 3. In Figure 6 . 3 .6C may be / 9 57 1. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. 2 00 ft/sec . F or purposes of this example.6C. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first.6C represents the cro ssrange error.6X. 'l' From equation (6. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . the crossrange error. 8.Sec.444 n m = 2. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. .
Equation (6. 3.31 Lateral displacement of burnout point .thought of as angles.32) 2 X Figure 6. if they are in degrees. Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6. if the intended target had been the north pole . X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch . If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth.1 . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. I 1 .3.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . .1 ) to (6.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation. for example. we get (6.3 . cos ."2 to simplify equation (6 . In Figure 6 .
a crossrange error.32 Azimuth error 6 . Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. 6(3. The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown .32 is the crossrange error .2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. will result. �C. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C. before .'l1. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 . If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. 299 Figure 6. 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. 'l1.Sec. Figure 6 .33) . 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . 6 .3 . the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. P. are as planned.
300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . \]I.. 6 If we assume that both 43 and . are shown by a solid line in the figure .34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.3.oo a "'00 Fl ight .33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . This .33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .path angle . If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount . In other words.D. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn .3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point.33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.\]I.y I  : : i. If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended. <Pbo' In Figure 6.21 about the center of the Earth. it will hit the target anyway . it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it .\]I will represent a downrange . if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth. cos X � 1 .� I a q.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. 6.0.C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation.. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact.x ' to simplify equation (6. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 .0.3 ... (6.0. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.
3 . we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o .39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.1 2) of this chapter .2.1 0) Qbo I i . 6 .cot <P b o (6.Sec. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .3.6. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 . We could get an approximate value for .8) (6.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 . If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation. The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.36) (6.
2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo .1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants. 3.1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) . a'l1 .3. 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6. Vb Substituting from equation (6.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .3. acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .3.3. _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6. Let us first express equation (6.1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .
33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. when used in the manner described above. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way .1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. A plot of range versus burnout radius. angle errors. particular burnout error . a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot).1 3) This partial derivative .3 . Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative .000 nm range. equation . 3 . For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 .Sec. Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory .600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . Figure 6. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories.3.33. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . 6 . While we need equation (6. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. the actual range error on a 3 . If this seems strange. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. In fact.
2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.3. The magnitude of the error is (6. Again.1 4) for small values of . differentiating the range equation (6 .1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6.1 1) implicitly.3. 6. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . the missile falls short of the target in every case .6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout . 6 however.1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 . if burnout occurs too low. Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . too slow and the missile falls short. b o 'fJ ' (6 .3.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3.000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .3. the missile overshoots .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6..3. is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = . .
like the other two influence coefficients. 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 . 1 ) 2 .3.6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. 649 r ad U D U/T .4 D U .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . We will need Q bo (. There is no crossrange error. Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better. A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = .6¢ b o = . 6 .735 = 6 .Sec.1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range . 1 D U .6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .9 0 5 D U !TU .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . LW b o = .905) 2 ( 1 .6V b o + a 'lr . 735 rad DU r b o ( . Total downrange error : . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error .4 rad ians.6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . 3. . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. An analysis of equation (6 .5 x 1 05 D U/TU . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 .1 8) would reveal that. ub o = 5 x 1 0 . r bo = 1 .1 0.
That is. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar. v.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . 0. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 .649 (5x 1 O .5 24 ft/sec. its flightpath angle. for example).2sin 1 60 o 2 = . In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. both the launch point and the target are in motion. m i . it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . 6. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives.1 . then all three .S ) .1 0.735 ( 5x 1. The rotation is from west to east. and its azimuth angle. The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character.1 . 56x 1 0 . We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation. That is.56x 1 0.4. {3. 6 =2. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . ove rshoot 6.4 ) (3444) � 4 n .4 )+6. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 .4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating.2 1 (. <p.4 ) TOT =1 1 .
5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 .000 ft/sec. Hereafter. an azimuth. A simple example should clarify this point.Sec. we will refer to measurements of burnout ." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system.1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 .. .4. say 1 .4. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it.000 ft/sec. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . of 45 0 . an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. (6. we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . Like the observer on the moving train. 6 .I ·=<� • . �. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 .1 ) . An observer at rest would not agree . 1>. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) . of train l \\�. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . and a speed of. of 900 (east).
One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth.42) The true speed. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 .43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. Once you have the components of ve. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. of course. We can obtain the south. v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. break up V into its components. this will not be difficult. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site .308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . east . ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . v.44) �. (6 . flightpath angle . The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. Vs (6 .45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. �. first. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. and up components of the true velocity. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . lies. Thus. It is.
then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. when the missile arrives at point B. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . Rather .2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. 6. Hopefully. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . The term. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . In Figure 6 .Sec. z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. the target will be there also.43 is just 90 0 L o.4. so the arc length OA in Figure 6. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch.
N.0. then a value of .47) Solving for cos {3. Once we know the total range angle. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . tA .N + w ffitA ) .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . we get c o s {3 = sin L t . (6 . If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. A.N + wffitA' where . If you are firing the missile the "long way" around.0.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3. {3. . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6. Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.0. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . (6 .0. this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 .triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth.0.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . {3. . (6 . and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. we can solve for the required launch azimuth.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A .48) Again. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions. The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point.0. The longitude difference. and if. A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target.
6 . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range .Sec. and launch azimuth. tA But . (3.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . A. By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. Needless to say. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate .
8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . . 87 9 30. 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . 339 ) 2 + ( . 45 ) 2 = .3 ° W burns out at 30o N.9 DU/TU. using Q bo = .. 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ ..( .42) through (6 .j( . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 .. 9cos3 00cos 3300= .. 8° v n /3 = v = . what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 29 .4 5) : v= .5022 ta . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .. 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed.312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . v = .0 58 8cos290 = .. 33° ¢bo = v E = .675 s (J=333 . 1 DU. 1 ) 1 . 339 ) =. 6 . 5 1 1 95 v .. 79 . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 9 s i n 300= . 85 From Figure 6 . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = .
334 TU boN = 135° .85 and ¢bo = 3 0. 6. 77° = .4 . w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = . . 334TU ) =123. 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = .123 . 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1.7 8 0 .203.13 = 7. 770 N re = 156.80° .3. 334)=135° . 3709 �GG (3. using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � .we(3.Sec. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. tff=3. 29 . 2 5 TU :. 6 70) =.
Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude. 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N. = .926 D U /TU . m i .6 ft/sec) 6 .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. and a spherical Earth. 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing. what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n . v = 1 6 . r b o = 1 . R = 6 0 n .5 D U!TU 1 . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse .05 D U = 1 0° . .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal .1 9)? Why? 6 . 6 EXERCISES 6 .840. m i .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 .040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .2.6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 .' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .
an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . . 6 .02.06 DU.6. 7 I n general.83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 .x and L¥3 be? . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point. Using the equations si n iL.98 to 1 .'lr ). how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 . Rtf = 5 . A lateral displacement . Do not use charts. . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8.02.400 n mi. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of . (Ans.)(. 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 .6.0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .000 run) 6 . 1 0 During a test flight. 6 EXER CISES 315 6 .2 1 2 run) 6. how large can . In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . Rtf = 4 .Ch.j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans.
642 DU/TU) . ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . vbo = 0..V = 25 . or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 .r = 0.. 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal.800 nautical miles? (Ans. low. 6 6 . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .0 DU for a ballistic missile. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . 7 . c . (Ans.31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .346 n mi long) b. b . How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 .936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . 6 . 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. Is this a high. Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. a.6888 n mi L:.
2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 . determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. Q bo + . i. 5 DU and whose perigee is . using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). tff 40. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. 6 .6 . If the velocity at burnout was 28.700 n mi using a high trajectory. What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans.where e is the 6 .530 ft/sec. 5 DU. R t of 4. �bo and analyze the result . What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 .20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. at an altitude of 2.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'.QL. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth .ri.. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. Ch .23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . 3 0 0 E. Do not use charts..4 min) = 6.. 1 5 00 E.'I' = � b. 1 2 00 W. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . 6. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 .. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. b. 6 . using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . at the same altitude .e .22 The range error equation could be written as: b. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of .
500 ft/sec=O. or maximum range trajectory? 6 . Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. (Ans. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20. 1 200W .02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. c.1 045 . low. b.2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44.318 V bo =23.1 0 .905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of . elevation . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N.3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 .48966 = 3 1 5 .0057 ° = . v bo = . 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 .5 0 . 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 . How far will the missile miss the target? 4. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O.4 rad ian s a. 92S1 0608.66E+20784. It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 .25 An ICBM is to be flight tested.6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed .
In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . 1 20 OW . 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. 43e . What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d .6 1 8 . What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. 1. == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6.28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. and r bo � r(fl.649 n mi .1 2 ' .73 n mi. 0 (Ans. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory .Ch . downrange displacement of burnout point . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . Assuming a symmetric orbit. == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. rotating. L t 54 0 3 1 '. What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . 5 7 min) == * 6 . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . (Ans. tff 3 2 .400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . What was the freeflight range. site located 319 During the actual firing. 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . atmosphereless Earth. ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.
The Viking Press.1 2) . NY. Eric. How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o .29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . altitude at bo ::: . 1 95 5 ." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. 1958. Walter. NY. 5 . R ff ::: 1 0.4) . The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. Praeger. Publishers. V2 . 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. NY.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . 1 960. Dornberger . Vol 2. Frederick A. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. 1 962. Lt Col Kenneth. The MacMillan Company.2.1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . ed . Space Technology Laboratories.800 n mi. Ernest G . Doubleday & Company. 2.6Vb o . (Hin t : See section 6. Schwiebert. 1 965 . New York. Inc. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . * 6.3 . A History of the U. Albert D.S. "Free Flight .2. . A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. New York .3 1 The approximation : * 6. 3 .02 DU. Inc. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. Wheelon . Calif. New York. NY. 4. Burgess. 6 * 6. Los Angeles. Gantz . Garden City.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .
of all which. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . since it gives us light during the night. have been discovered.. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. .CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. and moving round it. The Moon is the more useful. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . the Sun or the Moon? . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. the 32 1 .the Moon. when it is dark. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. does. Proctor. though principally attracted by the Earth. . and is. move round the Sun once a year. together with the Earth. about which she moves. when it is light anyway.
in this case the Sun. Lagrange and Laplace . . this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. has given a full account. W. 7 Author in this book. D'Alembert. W. 7. Even interplanetary trajectories. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . Clairaut . A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. but because it comes close to being a double planet. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . which are the subj ect of the next chapter. with no less subtility than industry. Brown .
H. As a result . . . .: =j Figure 7. The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing.67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface .400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 04 of the mass of the Earth. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. According to one theory advanced by G. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. :.3 days. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 .. . These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. .:. . . This puts the center of the system 4. .. 7 . ��===c==Q.Sec. . The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . in fact. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). .3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. Darwin. . the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962.21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge .
2.22 Lunar orbital elements 7. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements. In the case of the Moon's orbit . 7 Figure 7. the orbital elements are constantly .
8 days. c. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours. The line of nodes. This effect . The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27.000 years ago by Hipparchus. their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. 7 . 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . called "evection." was discovered more than 2 .Sec.3 1 66 1 days. The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes .054900489 .400 km. The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . b. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 .
e .6 years.9 years. 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. for only then can Sun. When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . but more than a century later . Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . is the descending node . d .2 Lunar Librations. If the Moon's orbit were = . its mean value is 5 0 S ' . When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. rotates westward. the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. in l S72. where the Moon crosses from north to south. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum.000 years. making one complete revolution in l S .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . the other . From Figure 7. so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory .6 years. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. Thus.5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 .2. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . 23 ° 27' . The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis.
and 7. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. monthbymonth basis. As a result. solar perturbations. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . solar pressure . taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. daybyday. we would see exactly half of its surface . Actually we see . 7 ." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. the computer time required could become prohibitive .Sec. This permits us to see about 7 .3 . The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely.75 0 around each limb of the moon. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. among other things. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. at one time or another. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure.
Q. It is not important that the analytical method be precise. With this thought in mind. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. a = :l:!:. 7.3. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384.. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem.3 . We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ.400 km. 2& e = y'1  pia . 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = .2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . this will not introduce significant errors..328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 .0549 .6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories.. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. semimaj or axis.
.. 60 \ \ I njection .M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 .9 I njection 1 1.:. k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10.c " 0 .31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .i.Sec.r1 1.. 7 . We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4. .  I.c C/) . 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH . we get c o s V = 2. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit. In Figure 7. II.2 10. j 80 . 1 r1 1 .0 S pe e d ...g' .. we can solve for va .3 . we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.... E i= . e r Figure 7.
We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed ... It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours. As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \.J! . 7 . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 .. For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.: / :1 .. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP.. to parabolic.')'. the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection. .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 . .. : ..330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .. . 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . 7 an injection altitude of . In Figure 7. . \ 0 �� ' earth " . to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' ...3 .. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero. Actually..32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds.
The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. as the injection speed is decreased. Moon from our assumed inj ection point . we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. if we try to take longer by going slower. Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case .Sec. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . 1 8 8 km/sec. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. if we keep reducing the injection speed .32 we see that. the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. 7 . . In general the sweep angle . this minimum injection speed is 1 0.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. 3 . 7 . an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. is a function of . due to errors in guidance or other factors. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind.966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. From Figure 7 . Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. Assuming no lunar gravity . The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 .32. Assuming an inj ection altitude of . which we can call 1/1. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . In such a case . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. 82 km/sec. Eventually .we will never reach the Moon at all. In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point.
so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. But. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. If.33 .. This may be seen from Figure 7 . 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. the initial velocity is too high. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . for example . Neglecting lunar gravity. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . that is.33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. . and wrrft.
The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 . It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations. There is. In effect. however. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance .It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . 7. 7 . 5 However.4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . . only are interested in determining ap. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . for all practical purposes. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation.arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace .1 ) . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. R s' given by the expression Sec. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis.0 km/sec. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 .3 00 km. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius.4.
4.4." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent . 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure .) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . 7 .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit. a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .4. A full derivation of equation (7 .1 ) yields the value Rs = 66.) Then.300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth. 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon.1 ) can be found in Battin . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7. Figure 7 . 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.4 .
1 .46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 .45) COS <P I .Sec.42) (7 .r h V 1 I (7 . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables. 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 .43) From the law of cosines. at lunar arrival is (7 . Finally. from geometry . r 1 . r 1 . A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. the radius.44) . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions.
to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.48) (7 . a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 p ia  a = :l!. p=� (7 .49) (7 . JJ. Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p.1 0) . 7 Figure 7. t l .47) 2& e = ".4.
4.649 2. 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .1 3) (7 . we can determine the eccentric anomalies. the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 . Eo and E1 from Finally.1 5) 2. 1 37 X X 1 0. Wm = = t 1 .4. 7 .4.1 6) The phase angle at departure.Sec.1 1 ) (7 . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .4.e 1 r1 __ (7 .4.6 rad/sec 1 0 . timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ . .3 rad/TUEIl (7 .1 2) Next.4. 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .
Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 . r2 . The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO .which we chose arbitrarily . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft .2 Conditions at the Patch Point . The geocentric radius. We will do this in the sections that follow.4.48) through (7 .1 9) .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . (7 . then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is.4.42 : V m = 1 .4. In Figure 7 . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . r 1 . then the selena centric radius.0 1 8 k m/sec. Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body.1 6) above .1 8) (7 . result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon .45).42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail. 7 . The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . at arrival is completely determined by \ .4. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. 7 . is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch .4. It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so.1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. (7 .
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .40 . «>  0.50 � � c 0 i e 1.30 .20 . 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .
t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 .5 0 and 28 . It should be obvious from equation (7 . 5 4 worth noticing. b oth of which are undesirable. If lighting conditions are important. As a result . If lunar declination at intercept is specified. Figure 7 .si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7. sir! 0 1 . Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . 7 .5.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent .Sec.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . However.5 3) . if we add a coasting arc. 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions.5 0 . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit.5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth.52) and Figure 7 .52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . 54. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . From Figure 7 . There are several interesting features of Figure 7 .
342 1 7 40 3 5 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .56 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .76 28 3 1 09 . .46 1 1 67 .85 1 1 66 .07 47.00 28 28 1 5 .90 28 33 5 3 .38 + 9 . 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .95 7 1 7 37 48. 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .44 28 2 1 1 8 .254 1 67 .4 1 3 1 66 . 624 1 7 3 5 00.63 1 1 1 .308 1 8 22 22.385 1 67 .766 1 7 43 23 . 1 9 173. 267 1 67 . 24 28 23 34 . 1 969 .89 28 24 29 .34 28 32 1 7 .35 28 1 6 08 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 . 078 1 66 .9 8 9 8 .97 28 3 1 47 .998 17 5 7 20. 5 8 67.97 29.88 28 33 3 5 .3 1 9 3 . 86 28 26 29 .05 8 1 65 . 973 FIgure 1 65 .85 4 1 . 1 0 28 27 29 .374 1 8 00 07 .3 1 28 29 48 .020 1 8 1 6 49.3 3 3 1 67 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . 7 .97 28 34 3 9 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.460 1 67 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40. 1 7 2 1 67 .449 1 67 .87 28 34 22.1 44. 8 1 28 32 47 . 1 3 . 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .203 28 1 8 49 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.3 1 8 5 .45 8 0.883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 . 1 5 28 34 1 0. . 2 1 28 34 42 .84 60.695 1 8 02 54 .242 1 66 .44 22. 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .445 1 67 . 1 0 1 6. 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.58 73. 24 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .970 1 66 . 1 4 1 06.3 1 + 1 48 .05 28 33 1 1 .39 28 3 0 34.424 1 67 . 8 0 1 36.41 7 1 67 .963 1 8 27 5 5 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 . 5 7 1 1 66 .949 1 8 05 42.23 1 23 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON .3 .08 28 29 08 .78 1 3 1 .72 1 1 8 25 08.376 1 67 .47 28 25 3 8 .27 3 5 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 . 1 90 1 67 .435 1 65 .32 1 1 67 . 5 9 28 34 33 .862 1 65 .97 1 1 9. 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.7 1 54. 7 1 7 1 66 .737 18 1 9 36 .
5 3 . !::lX . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . it is possible to adjustt l . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. 84). The launch time. I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . we get cos 6a. slightly (7 . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . The difference i n right ascension . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . tt ' is (7 . which may be computed from the injection conditions. c o s 1/1 t .89) : (7 56) . at the launch point (see Figure 2. 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . ao' at this launch time ." 8. To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept .53 .5 .9 . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . 5 4). �.3 .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . the total time .Sec. 1/1 c ' Thus. The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. is the same as the "local sidereal time . 7 .54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . and may be obtained from equation (2.55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 .
2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . 7. 000 k m 33 . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth.t I ES Ch .4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = . and the exact We now know the injection conditions. 7 .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0.426 k m 2 /sec2 6.54) agree.3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact.3 224 . These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods. � . . 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . 7.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl . What additional 6.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7. r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier. determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I.
a . S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c. The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384..v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn.9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit. . Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 .I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° .6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. Determine the /:. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b .400 k m : a . Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth. Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. b. 7 . At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec .Ch .
354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Use h bo l OO n mi . A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. requirement. Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. select ro ' vo ' to meet this . given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . 7 7 . One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem. vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit. . Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice.) * 7 . Specifically. <1>0 = = = * 7 . 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters.
an d Maud W. New York. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Baker. Clyde . 2. Makemson. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. University of California Press. November 1 95 9 . Abelard Schuman. Robert M. 1 964. London and New York. McGrawHill Book Company. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1 967. The Moon .1 6. 6. Battin. 1 943 . Doubleday. Inc. NY. L. 3 . Academic Press. The Story of the Moon . New York. Fisher. Doran and Company. NY. . A stronautical Guidance. 1 962. Isaac . Principia . George . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Newton. Richard H .Ch. Garden City. NY." ARMA Document DR 220. 4. 1 9 5 9 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. 5. Gamow. Second Edition.
.
. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. two nostrils. But the tide of opinion ebbed. etc. indeed. two unpropitious. By 1 507 he was 357 . which it were tedious to enumerate . two luminaries. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. At first it was not understood . so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. such as the seven metals. Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . two eyes. two ears. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . C opernicus. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. and a mouth .CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head.
Neptune. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. Uranus. comets. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. and Pluto . 8. diameter. . The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772.2. Earth. The "law. Saturn. 1 Bode's Law. . . the members of the solar system. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . If we write down the series 0." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. nevertheless. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 3.1 . Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. indeed.2. Jupiter . Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false ." as may be seen in Table 8 . 1 2 . during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. at the age of 70. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. are spread much more widely throughout the system. 8. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. Venus. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept .2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. 6. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . some of which pass near the Sun. In addition. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture. Mars. With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion. . Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury.
8.Sec. 1 7 39.65 5.6 3 8 .23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets. Only for brief periods. compared with the total mission duration. Except for Mercury and Pluto . is its path .20 9.52 1 9.22.2 1 0.21 Actual Distance 0.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. 0 is presented in Table 8 .6 2. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune . which defines the position of the planet in its orbit. 8. Table 8 . the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic. The sixth orbital element. 8. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .8 5 .0 1 9 .8 77. changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.7 1 .00 1 . The size.39 0.0 1.2. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 .28 3 0.72 1 .76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered. shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.52 2.2 Table 8.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants.4 0. Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .
306 2 ° .870 L.. 0482 .322 1 00 ° ..7233 1 . 05 1 4 .828 1 7 1 °.684 93 ° . 0068 .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 5 1 3 5 2 ° .441 73 ° . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (. 76 ° . 0 1 67 . 1 3 6 47 ° .394 0° .497 1 3 ° .2583 7 ° . 1 7 3 9 . 7 73 1 ° .275 222 ° .773 1 7° . 0934 . 074 1 83 ° .423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.405 undefined 49 ° .225 237 ° .970 7 6 ° .004 3 ° . 5 73 1 75 ° .28 3 0.9 1 6 1 3 1 ° . 2056 .. 1 1 7 265 ° . 8 94 341 ° .5 1 9 1 9 . 5 68 3 1 ° .489 0° . 1 1 1 326 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 38 7 1 .76 .850 1 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .5 24 5 . 1 39 1 1 3 ° . 1 42 1 02 ° .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .400 276 ° . 000 1 °.005 0 .203 9..0539 .000 1 .096 1 88 ° ..) 00 .
6 1 7 .9? 1 ." .6 1 5 1 .9 1 08 .3 .46 84.PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.. 00 3 3 3 43 2 .820x 1 0 6 6 .79 24.24 1 . 1 4 1 3 . 1 08 3 1 8 . 0 1 1 64. 1 1 49 .232x l 0 4 3 .06 9 .8 247 .000 1 .0 95.74 2 .8 8 1 1 1 .000 . 5 227.04 29.8 1 7 1 .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .49 4.986x l O s 4.87 3 5 .8 6 29.l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury .268x 1 0 B 3 ..896x 1 0 6 3 .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .7 5 7 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .80 5 .65 6.257x l O s 3 .2 1 4.3 05x 1 04 1 .05 6 .795x 1 0 7 5 .
The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. however. 8. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered.3 . we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. this consideration is important. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. if continued past the destination planet .362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 .v required. Just as in lunar trajectories. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. from the standpoint of /:. was the Hohmann transfer. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible .3l . S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . For transfers to mo st of the planets. we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. The Hohmann transfer. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth.
.v required for an interplanetary mission.' . The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::. \ _.V.Sec.." .d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit.. either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip. Nevertheless. 8.u o_____+.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / . Therefore .
1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. • . From Table 8. B (8 .where f. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity.l 0 (8 .3. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 . If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time. VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun.78 kIn/sec. the difference between the heliocentric speed. In any case . then.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . for the Hohmann transfer.33) In Table 8 .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion.3 .3 and should be reviewed . and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity. 3 . The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29. The heliocentric speed.
397 22.748 .3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .73 38.22 the radius to Mars from the Sun.Sec. From Table 8 . VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . 1 6 30.05 4 1 .28 32. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.78 46.524 A U From equation (8 . r d = 1 .07 4 1 .04 1 6. Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence. Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.099 1 .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . 8.3 9 1 1 .42 4 1 . rE9> are respectively : .379 1 .57 . 1 2 5 8 . In other words .9  2 .295 1 .9 1 6 1 . t2 .345 1 . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth. 40.31 1 05 .74 6.28 27. Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .5 1 46 .60 Table 8.
34) __ (8 . 8 From equation (8 .3. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .35) wt (t2 . and is illustrated in Figure 8 . the phase angle at departure . where is the angular velocity of the target planet.4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 . From equation (8 .32 for a Mars trajectory.3.VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . v .9 d ays 8. vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .099A U/TU 0 = 32. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.t 1 = 1T = 4.73Km/sec . The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . Thus.7088 years = 258.32) the heliocentric speed .t1 ) wt . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.2 Phase Angle at Departure. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.
The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun..36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . . If we miss a particular launch opportunity. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct.32 Phase angle at departure. . 8. . 367 . pp 1 60. Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet.1 76 .. ..Sec.. 'Yl (8 ... . The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. . . Figure 8...3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . .
1 3 1 .w t I (8 .03 8 .09 1 .00 Table 8. we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again. 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.3. yrs 0.v 1 determined. rad/yr 26 .0 1 1 .37) (8. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ . 3 ·2. so W EfJ7 s . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth. Thus. 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. 340 .2 1 7 3 . if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.04 1 .07 1 1 0.3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence.W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. Mars and Venus.32 1 .32 In a time .38) . the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.07 5 . Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. 8. Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.01 1 .60 2.530 .213 .025 Synodic Period.368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .
.. .310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . . .39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 .:V.Sec. . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. ". .r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. '?. . 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� . . . � _ i t_ r b_ .33 / . �. . . . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo. ... 8 . .. (8 . '\ .. � Figure 8. . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 ...
This may be seen by solving equation (8 . is given by cos fI =  §.39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .33 .34 we see that the angie .1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars.2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. C but since e = da for any conic. For transfer to one of the outer planets. the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.3. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola. km/sec.98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . fI. we may write . From Figure 8. so equation (8 .1 1 ) becomes = 2 .6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 .the injection speed . fI. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. 3. the angle .
is obtained directly from the injection (8 .1 2) e. conditions : = (8 .1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8.1 e where the eccentricity . 8 .Sec.3.34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola . 3 T H E PATC H E D.3. 3.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .
the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. At arrival.3. Generally. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur.4 Arrival at the Target Planet. cfJ as shown in Figure 8. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. however.35 Interplanetary launch (8 . then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle .72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 8.3.36. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 .3. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector .
1 6) (8.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :. 3 . 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 . 8 .3. sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 .1 8) .Sec. 3.1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 . (8 .
32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. in Figure 8.s i n if> 2 v (8 . resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. 3. will be directed toward the center of the planet. e.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there. It also means that the relative velocity vector.320) y = x si n e (8. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence .38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola. . 3 7 we see that  (8 . S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure.36). 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. 8 .1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet.The angle . If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . 3 7 . the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. From Figure 8 . where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance .3 . In Figure 8.
(8 .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f.Sec. 8 .lt/ 2 X _ . 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .322) . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.
327) for y Yields (8 .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 . 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance. 324) (8. 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 .326) Because angular momentum is conserved. we obtain .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 .(8. y. Solving equation (8 . the speed at periapsis is simply . W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence.
328) we 'get (8 .launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission. The. " since any offset less than this will result in a collision . then a much smaller target must be considered.t 3  rt (8 . The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 .39. The given information is .Sec. " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. rt This particular offset distance is called b .329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun .05 DU. only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . 8. In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . V2 + 2fJ. the "inwact parameter.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. b.329).
373 DUjTU and we can write the 0. 3 .099 A U/TU 0. 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .099 A U/TU = :.099 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.1 :: 0. 6V 1 = 1 . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .05 D U 1 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil .1 VI = 1 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .
v = 2v si n L 2 /::.044 8 .4.4. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.Sec. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept. From Table 8 . departure Figure 8 . t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::. the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude. 1 39 + 1 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.1 .43 DU/TU . 8 . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic.07 6 ft/sec 2 .1 ) . {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept.v (8 .905 = = 379 37 .
1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8. _  /' .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun . " .. 7.3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 .62 DUJTU� 8.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units. 8 as derived in equation (3 . 8. (Ans. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .3 .1 ) ..8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer.7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years.5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 .. EXERCISES 8 . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 8.32. 5 for the planet Jupiter.4. 8.. 8 .. 8. 8.1 )) .3.
h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. . M = 5. 1 DUE[) radius.l:. r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the . 1 00 ft/sec) c.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans.Ch.900 ft/sec. The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . where 8.l:.V = 0. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit .V required? (Ans. lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj . a.000 ft/sec. If c = 9 . v = 39 . Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i.V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =. It can be shown that .394 DUe/TU� b . What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the . vesc = 1 .l:.v ? (Ans.l:.348 DUe/TUE9> .35) ITbo no .v = 1 5 . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence .l:. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 ..
0. v= 0.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d..V of .046 DU� /TU � b . 09 DUe/TU$) = . = 0. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 . What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans..73 1 DU8TU� b .V at apogee or perigee? 8. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . What is the 6. 6..0. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. 1 DUe/TUEl1. a. The mission will begin in a 1 .which results if the same 6. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6. a. 0. 0.458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0. What is the 6.5 DUEI1 circular orbit. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 . What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans. 3 ..382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . (Ans. What is the 6. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long. Find the hyperbolic excess speed. Find the 6.5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. 8 8 . � = 0.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. so work carefully and follow any suggestions.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b .9 00 ft/sec) 8 . v=' (Ans... The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. 0.28 AU2 /TU2 .0. (Ans.? (Ans.V is applied at perigee.. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c.254 AU/TU� .. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units. 8. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 .
For a given planet. Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars.2 AU/TU� d. Vrrw = 0. 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 .What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines.87 TU� b . show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . (Ans.5 AU? (Ans. 1 . What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans.3 9 DU oITU& 2 . 0.5 AU. 3 .2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. 0. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 . 1 4 a.050 ft/sec) 8 . c. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. 8 .Ch. <P2 and vll1II in that order.) (Ans. 1 . 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity.373 AU/TU � f. O o) 8. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion. for the above transfer. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. then find h. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . Compute the phase angle at departure. called the turning angle . (Ans. P. 'Y1 .867 AU/TU� e . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0.
Vol 1 . "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. Fimple .where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. No 2 . Vol 2. 4 . R. 1 . 1 96 1 . 1 969. The World of Mathematics. London. LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . Newman. 8 8. NY. Simon and Schuster. Washington. New York. 1 967. U S Government Printing Office . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. pp 430434. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney .V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . D C . 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. and the angular rates of the planets. coplanar planet orbits. * Ch . What would be an estimate of the return b. 3 . W . James R.V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. transfer time. 1 95 6 . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b." AIAA Journal. 1 963. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. Assume circular. . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office.
CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . " Webster 9 . After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. and at times unexplainable . Macroscopically . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. it is found that there seem to be distinct. There is always some variation 385 . but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth)." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion . Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies.
Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. Fortunately. magnetic. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. E. Brown 's papers of 1 897. etc. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. M. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. atmo spheric drag and lift. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. Then. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. 9 . The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. except the motion of the perigee. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . about a century later. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . meteoroid collisions. solar radiation effects. The wind gust was a perturbation.from the norm. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. In fact. and relativistic effects. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. 6 . which had not been treated by Newton . An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust.
In particular. 9. See section 1 . These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations.Sec. 9 . Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. H. a section discussing methods and errors is included . the Cowell. It was developed by P.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . Encke. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. With the capability for orbital flight . It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems .
22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . y = vy (9. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. For the twobody problem with perturb ations.22) would be further broken down into the vector components.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. Sun and planets.2. including all the perturbations. the equation would be (9 . and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. r=Y �r (9 . 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . the equations would be .1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. F or numerical integration equation (9 .
Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9. There are some disadvantages of the method . The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation.Sec.23). Intuitively. 9 . When motion is near a large attracting body . the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff.25) .'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 . roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. 8 .22).24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . Even in double precision computer arithmetic. satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. Classically. Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2.  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . In spherical coordinates (r. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. and he would be correct .Il m ( 3 .
3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. and . 9. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. reference or b i t Figure 9.'l. The term connotes the sense of contact. 9 (9 .31 The osculatil. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . Presumably . In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. in our case . "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. In the Encke method . one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method.390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch . contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known .25) As a reminder.
3 2) into (9 .3..  (9 .e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method.3. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path.1 ) . Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors. Now w e will consider th. Note that at the epoch. r + � r3 r = a t . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. = p ( tb ) p p to = 0.1 ) and for the osculating orbit.1 ) and (9 .Sec.32)  Sr.to ) ' p (9 . and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 . Let r and p be the radius vectors to . the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.33) Sub stituting equations (9 . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. 9. be defined as (see Figure and . At that time .1 ) . or epoch. The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 ..32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit . 3 . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 .33) we obtain . 9 .3 . respectively . Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration.
6r.was to obtain more accuracy. we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object . However.3 6) Equation (9 . p is a known function of time . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation .6r ) .3 / 2 (9 . 6r (to + ..t) can be calculated numerically.6.lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch .392 6r == a ) p + IlL p . So . so r can be obtained from 6r and p.34) then becomes (9..6r] r3 r (9 . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:.lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r .37) . but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .. 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .35) 3 3 r _ (9 . theoretically. one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method. For a given set of initial conditions.
o y . Expanding. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit .Sec. Now some ways of calculating q must be found./  Our problem is not yet solved . we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] .32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. however. In terms of its components Figure 9. OZ are the cartesian components o f or. 9 . R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved.
2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .( 1 .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task .37) becomes (9 .2q So q =  Now.38)  1 . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9.38) and (9 . 3.37). .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .(1 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. . /) y2 . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9. (9 . 9 From equation (9 .3. There are two methods of solution at this point .31 2) .1 0) (9 .
rectify and go to step a . f(to + t:. Vol 2. g. The method using equation (9 .> a specified constant. p(to + t:.1 0).3. r (to ) . although the use of equation (9 . If. Otherwise (jr p .01 ). The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary.3 8) 3. q (to ) O.t to get (jr{ to + kt:.t) .is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used.t ) from equation (9 . Go to step c with t:. Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid.t).Sec.nowing p (to ) .3. Rectification should be initiated when . Calculate r = p + (jr.t) calculate 1 . e .1 2) may be slightly faster. a. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . Integrate another t:. In (jr p v as described earlier. 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . b. Knowing 5r(to + t:. p 229). It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. so larger step sizes can be taken.t) from equation (9 . Then the tables could be u sed to find f . q( to + t:. but of the order of magnitude of 0. = = = = = p continue. (jr 0. c. k. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .does not remain quite small.t . d . For an integration step. t:.t where k is the step number. calculate (jr (to + t:. 9 .39) is recommended for use with the computer.1 2) is used. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . and 5r 0 at this point.t replaced by kt:. v = p + (jr. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . f. If equation (9 . The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r.3.t) 2 .
one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces .r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . they would remain constant. etc . In the absence of perturbations. Then e � . Similarly.23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit./l m {m s . 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. a . See equation (9 . In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously.3. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs.t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . Thus.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. = . A similar check could be made on i . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. Though.1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. e eccentricity.6. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known.6. For instance. this method may seem more difficult to implement. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time .cSr ) (9 . A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. at the outset. from the Encke method 9.
. i. � . n. Eventually . 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . Therefore .4 . The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. The axis S is . 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. e.I OOS .tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . Vol 2 . 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements..g. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. .and dM ?. 9 . In this section two sets of parameters will be treated.. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method.n (t . These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time .To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. 9 . This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. w and.variations (e. r. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. along the instantaneous radius vector. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. p 246. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily.T (or M) will be used. The standard orbital elements a.Sec. for a table of parameter sets). where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . R (unit vector R).
9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.4.43) .1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. The third axis.41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly . is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 . W. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt .
48) we find da dt = (9.1 0) . Differentiating the conic equation Qr.44).Sec.4.44) (9. so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .45) To express this in known terms.!I=8!" nr from (9 .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed. dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 . (9 .46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.43). expressions for found.48) Substituting in equation (9. 9. This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.1:!:.� 2& ' = 399 (9 .46) and F S (9 . V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a ..4 and . (9 .
r hW + h da S dt (9 .400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .. 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.lae dt h $) a dt .4.) Since h = hW.1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .la _ (9 04.�) % J.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0). so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.2 )% a = (1 .1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.
4. but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .Sec.1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).4. 9 .4.1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 . K ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .4.sin QL = dt . K) � (9 .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'..1 8) .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h . 4 . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.4.n di dt (9 .1 6) we obtain . 1 e2 (9 .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .h cos i rF s h2 .4.1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . . and V are small. . ] (9 .4. . 9 .45 0) should be small. For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence . • .v = .5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v. allowing c to vary with time .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. . Since p..4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P.vat a+v a .vt 2p.v 2p.454) + 2p.. but more practically we would consider � = v .450) and solving for e we find (9 . 4 where c will be the parameter.2 p. C.45 1 ).4.2p. c = ve 2 p. .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 . From equation (9 .2 (at + C)2  .J. {at + c) + 3p.v which can be easily solved for c.v {at + c ) c (9 . is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.e . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.vt .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 . The constant of integration.2p.4.Sec.vc .45 1 ) .2p.5 1 ) correct to first order in J.
e. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. not expediency. Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. 9 in detail. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. allow as large a stepsize as possible.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . such as the disturbing function. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. or has not carefully selected. storage and complexity. In theory. his integration method. the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. economical in computing time. . d. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a.. Unfortunately. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. b . should be the criteria. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. accuracy. 5 . such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. highly questionable. efficiency. 9 . variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. at best. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. c. 9 .
In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. The larger the . The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. and f.388.476.388. Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. 9 .864. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . Obviously . 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the .28 + 3.5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors.51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree.accumulated roundoff error . 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method .57 = 7 . 9 . For instance . 2 Integration Errors. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.567 = 7. They are roundoff and truncation errors.5 (9. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors.Sec. Baker (v 2. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation.843.476. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. 4. 5 .276 + 3 . In fact.
any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared).62) (9. 9. Thus. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . EulerCauchy and Bowie . Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. 9 stepsize. we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems.= f(t. h.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch .6. In general. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. Of course . Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories.63) dx dt (9. the larger the truncation error. Gill.1 ) . There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. We will treat the first order equation . 1 RungeKutta Method. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes . 6 . Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. 9 . Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . AdamsMoulton. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize.
x n . Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated. x n + k 3 ) (9. have a relatively small truncation error.__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .yry. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + . This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure.( 1 + y.6. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . 9 . One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error. easy to implement . It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.. 9 .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .) k2 6 3 l2 (9. and stepsize is easily changed .63) and n is the increment number. they are faster than the singlestep methods. This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .Sec. X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9.2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .k +.] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h . One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step .yV:. x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . They are relatively simple .64) 1 1 + .65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% .( 1 . In general.% ] + k 2 [ 1 .h ) k3 +.
67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas.\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 3 /8 . 25 1 /720.\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. .beginning and after each stepsize change.66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 .6. 5 / 1 2 . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0.\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . 1 /2 . 3 9.1 f . .
9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. .69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. In equation (9.x n+1I I (P 270 (9.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +.1 + 37 f n2 . The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .Sec. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.59 f n . so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l . 9 .x n + (5 5 f ri . It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).6. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula. for instance.h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. the error terms are not generally known. This method.69). The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here.1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first.
The GaussJackson method is one of the best. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. "x.1 f(t n h) 2 2   . The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k.h ) . more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. x. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect.8 k .1 ' etc. . and most used. n + 1 2 n i \.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . n + � 84 "x.1 f(t n + h).2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n. though it also includes a corrector.6 . requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n . The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ".6.° n 60480 (9.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. 9. It is.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x.° n + .1 . 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. 9 like other multistep methods. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods. though.
is known.72) .Bashforth) methods are preferred.1 ) One such potential function.1 The Nonspherical Earth . Table 9. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods. the accelerations can be found from (9. p/r. Some of them become quite complex.7. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. 2 and NASA C R. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth.6. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. ¢.e presented in this section.l 005).6. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. 9.I n=2 r (9. 9. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. is ¢ = � [1 . 2 . V. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. However.7. If the potential function. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. 9 . but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works. 9 . is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. but only the simpler forms will be treated. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic.5 Numerical Integration Summary . including some which were not discussed in this chapter. according to Vinti.
it could be very fast.COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. 9 CI) . very difficult to determine proper size. Vol t .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .
( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 . = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .] (9 .�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> .74) .  I.L = gravitational parameter Sec..e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) . r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  ..J s � ( � ) (35� .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.where J. if> = I!:..� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L ..7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .2.945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S . 9.
p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . . l )x 1 0.5)x 1 0.44 ± O.6 J = (0. I )x 1 0.6 6 (0.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity . There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 . 1 5 ± O.422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .6 .. Vol 1 . Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J . which are slightly in variance . These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75). .57 ± O. l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 .l ( �) 3 ( 3 .64 ± O. The first term in x.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 . 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.3003 ""6 ) + .6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2.5 ± O. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.03)x 1 0. y.6 ± O. l )x 1 0.6 J4 = (1 .1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J . 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr.
. 7 Drag. There are a few ctmtiol). by definition.. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant).7. s 9. The equations are formulated in the geocentric . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. equatorial coordinate system. p 147). A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. but will not be presented here. the drag coefficient.s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . Thus. term) to the RSW sy stem.Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point .77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . However. 9 . To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w.Sec. 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . Vol 1 . will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . simply use r3 r= where . The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 .2 Atmospheric Drag.. To do this. and other parameters. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. Therefore .
Equation (9 . 9 m p C O A . x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. In the geocentric.78) z . . etc.7 .n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y .424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. 9 .ilc coffc.t b ae ==ic.7 . Radiation pressure. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. but the reader can find this in other documents.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. altitude above an oblate Earth.ie.lli. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. equatorial coordinate system. y . though small. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. z refer to the geocentric. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).3 Radiation Pressure.
Prove this assertion . y. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. 1 Verify the development of equation (9 .79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. 9 where A = cross section f = 4. m (9. See equation (9. z directions.Ch.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm). m = mass of vehicle (grams) . the variation of eccentricity. Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x .2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} . 9 . 9 .25). . 7 . EXERCISES 9. . but a major force .3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. 9.4 Thrust. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 .4. Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming.4349 0 x . 9 .1 5) . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation.4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates.
* 9 . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. Washington. 1 9 1 4. Feb 1 968. DC." NASA CR. M.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 6. 1 960. D. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. Moulton . LIST OF REFERENCES 2. . 5 . C . 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. G. Years 1 9601 980. M. Robert M . and Clemence. Guidance. L. and Wilf. Jr . * 9 .ittouck. Planetary Coordinates for the. Academic Press. . L.9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . New York. * 9. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. M.000 n mi. Baker. Ralston . Mendez. 9 9 . A. Brouwer. 1 967. 3 . A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Academic Press. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.. J . 1 . S . New York. M. Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Allione . 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon.l 005 . Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. R. and Wl). "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. . Blackford. John Wiley and Sons. F . Inc. New York. New York. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . 1 96 1 . 4. London . A. The Macmillan Co . Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. 9 . Vol VI.445).
Published privately by the Author. Smart. Ann Arbor. Vol 1 . 1 4 . New York. Dynamical A stronomy . Celestial Mechanics. 1 95 6 . The Macmillan Co. Baker. Michigan. 1 948 . L. Dubyago . 8 . New Yark. New York. D. E . Inc. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . New York. H. Hildebrand. R. R. John Wiley and Sons. . Townsend. F . Jr and Makemson. . M.Ch . 1 968 . New York. 1 95 3 . McGrawHill. New York. A . 1 967. Jr. 2nd ed. Escobal. C. New York. Escobal. Methods of Orbit Determination. Orbital Flight Handbook. B . Part 1 . NASA SP33 . Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. Battin. 1 2. 1 3 . DC . Paul.. 1 1 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Inc. 1 6. Methods of A strodynamics. John Wiley and Sons. Herget. A stronautical Guidance . McGrawHill. Cambridge University Press. New York. 1 96 1 . M . Th e Determination of Orbits. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Longmans. 1 0. P. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). W . R . Academic Press. 1 96 5 . Washington. 1 963. The Computation of Orbits. Plumber. 9 . 1 964. 1 5 . G. P . Maud W. Robert M.
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1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4.0226757 x 1 06 sec 29.. . 2506844773 deg min 7. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 . 1 328 2 1 days 9.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius.05883 36565 � TV.. Ile Angular Rotation.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter..4959965 x 1 0' km 5 . 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . 2593 6.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 . we 0. Speed Unit I� TU. 1 . r.9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec ..092567257 x 107 ft 3963 .77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .922786 NM 1 3 .24764 11sec 806 .68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 . 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter.9053682 8 km' . Each of the two sets is consistent within itself. r. I DU� TUi. Canonical Units I DU. 'Derived from those values of Il . 3. 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. English Units Metric Units 2.407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. 44686457 min 6378. 1 97 5 .292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance..908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .. 1 Center.
344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 . i. 1 2 64963205 0 .5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .8 9.e .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .239446309 x 1 0.3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown. there is no roundoff or truncation.3 14 .2342709 5 . _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 . .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 . foot = 0.07 1 0 1 50424 4 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .08 1 52366 0 . 1f = 3 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .4 3 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .
vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude .relationships involving vector quantities. length of a vector . A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. Examples are displacement. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . Unit Vector. time or any real signed number. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. Q. W). A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. I DEFINITIONS Vector. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . J. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. temperature . C. velocity . Scalar. not a null or zero vector. If A i s a vector . speed. 43 1 . K) and (p. force and acceleration. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. Thus. (Example : 3 or A). Examples are mass.
and A and B are not collinear. regardless of the position of their origins. .. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. Coplanar Vectors.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. B and C are coplanar vectors. If A. 1 Similarly. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a.
2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A . B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.C. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .2.. e I I l (C . From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : .B which is the same as A + (B). denoted by A • B. Scalar or Dot Product. l . C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors.1 ) I AI cos B .l ) C.
K are unit orthogonal vectors. then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + .J =K ..1=J . < 180° ) AxB =C .24) (C.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . A o A = Aft. if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible . That is. The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A.C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A . sma l lest ang le ( L e . B and C form a right handed system.22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product. J . The cross product of two vectors A and B.B + A . denoted by A x B .434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A .J = J o K=K o I = O where I .(B + C) = A . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them.8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C . . 23 ) (C.K= 1 I .
K are unit orthogonal vectors. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C. e < In fact A x B = . J. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C .2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where .C. then A X B = O. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le.
from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .29) Scalar Triple Product.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C.436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C . BI C1 . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.
(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below. denoted b y A x (B x C) .2.1 2) (C. The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 . The vector triple produce. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C. 2.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .B3 C) + A ( B3 C .3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.21 4) C.2.2.C.1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C . The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .l 3) (C.
........... dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ... ..438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o . . then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + .... . v C P K y .with itself...9. .. x J Then the velocity relative to the (I...... thus .... " .YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of . K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P..
from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T .= .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. VE LOCITY 439 which.3 b. In this special case then.= . dr v = .C. v = wT .
EI. Its geodetic latitude. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . Az. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). latitude of the launch site. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . elevation. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. The input to TRACK should be range. and altitude above mean sea level are specified .APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . From the 440 . range rate . The input to SITE should be latitude. EI. It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . azimuth. azimuth rate. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . longitude. The radar determines p. p. Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. and of the satellite (R and V). positive to the east) of the launch site. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). elevation rate . They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . D .
PI .74933340.05 1 37. E 7 2 . Following are five sample sets of data for site location.. LST) . . 6 .8 N 7 8 .75 1 003 9 1 . 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 . . BEGIN REAL D.48 201.5 3 4 ON 4 5. GST _ 1 . Input UT as a decimal (i.57 76. . 22 1 0.0027379093®2®PI®D .26347 1 9 8 .7 5. DAY. 8 0. .63745829) z = .5 90 . 6 8 2.5 3 0 .74933340. 040075. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). 2 2 29. . 007 N 1 04 .07 1 05 . .D. e . INTEGER DAY.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 .8 S 1 7 5.044 1 8440. = (. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. LST and LONG are in radians.7 .5 . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 .27907 599. 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. 5 7 5 for data set 3). 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 . PI. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . UT.62624920) = (. LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . If the above program is used. D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. y. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . REAL LONG. END OF LSTIME . 5.MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .3 . observation time and radar tracking data. 1 4923608. LST. .08 30. 9 W 0 1 9 05.775 1 80 1 9.2045 72 1 6 . 0) = (.05 1 9 5238) . 3 315 . .7 .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG.5 1 35 . UT.75 components are : (.01 2035 7 5 . GST. . GST. .
0) (.1 0 22. rectilinear.9 0 2 0 .293 . elliptical. 05 . 00001 .5 0 . c. 48 4 0 2. d. 1 0 0 2 .8 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach. .4 1 4 2.1 . 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (.85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 .001 1 0 . . 1 29579 1 9 . . Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 .4 1 4 0 0 65 .1 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system.703 . 49 0 0 2. From this information you are required to fmd : a.49 0 .4 1 722472 . For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK).9 1 ..6 0 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach.2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix.707 .01 .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29. 6 2 . The type of trajectory (circular. b . 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 .001 5 30 0 . 7 0 3 VK . 5 . 0 1 7 45 . 01 . hyperbolic). parabolic. Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth. It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity.2 VI .9 1 046 1 80.
The following data is given in e arth canonical units. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). If your iteration process is efficient.jiL d. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x.0. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods.5 . Also for an ellipse.7 . If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations.4 of the text for guidance . 61 (calculated) . 1 38878 .3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . c.8 . RJ 61 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.025 9 1 7 . you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations.5 0 0 . 1 5 0689 1 . b. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 . 61. x should never be greater than 2m. To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. a . Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. To determine when convergence has occurred. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x.3 D. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time .3 1 0 .5 . and dt/dx for each iteration. Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used.
0003 6 1 . For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points.1 . Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 .01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . For instance note that y can never be negative . . I�I :::.. 1 06 1 0. Given r l ' r2 . 1 65 08 . I t .. 00 1 074 . It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). bt.. 1 8 1 . find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine. 0.9 20 . 3. 1 362596) = (0.999 o 1 03 D...w). Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. 0 .5 1 ..00006057 .002 1 7 7 1 ..6 for 1 :::..70655823. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . For ellipses limit z to (211')2 .444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.. t :::..6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. One of the data sets tests this situation.4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives.t c l :::. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations. 1 0.. In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z. R2 V2 = (0. and sign (7T .1 . Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set..
time of radar observation.2 1 .4 . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. and the location of an interceptor launch site . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT. The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.1 specifies the long way. .2 .6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .2 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 .5 .2 . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration. The following data i s i n canonical units.5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . location of the tracking site .6 .9378 1 789) = 4. . so a check should be made for that condi tion. 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .6 . .4804847 1 .6 . x. 1 ..6 . Check for this case . 1 2298 1 44. If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program.4 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D. Also print t:J) and a for each data set .7 0 1 0 1 .S = (0. 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.66993 1 97 . y.4 .4 1 .201 .3 .0001 +1 .7 .1 .66986992.6 .7 0 1 0 20 1 . 7 for further discussion o f this project .1 . See section 5 . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .3 . The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .0 .8 5 +1 .3 .5 .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite. Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. print out a message and go to the next data set .
Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. This will aid you in verifying your solution . Times should be read in as minutes.3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . e . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . To make your program flexible . d. list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor. f. Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. b . the number of reaction times desired .446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . TRACK. read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out .45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. g. KEPLER and GAUSS. When you point out your arrays. Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. the desired increment size for reaction time . Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. c.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . Make some provision to print out all of your input data. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . and the number of timeofflight increments desired .05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . the starting value of timeofflight increment size.
of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .338 **** **** **** 10 8 .92 deg/sec 1 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs. 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.0.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .74.44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.6 1 3 km EI = 56. 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.5 p = 1 86. 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .1 . 844 **** **** **** 35 7 .038 .
LATL.448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .
INDEX .
.
102 Apoapsis. 20. 4043 Celestial equator. 1 8 8 . 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 1 22. 1 4. 84. 277320 computation chart. 5 3 . 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac.9 8 gravitational constant. 4 1 . 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 422 gravitational parameter. 374 Computer projects. 4 3 0 Conversions. 4 gravitational h armonics. 5 5 heliocentric. 423 Azimuth. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 57 perifocal.1 3 1 G auss problem. 60 and universal v ariables. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 246 Brahe. 3 5 8 . 54 orbit plane. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 94. 9498 transformations. 1 00. 1 8 5 true. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 297299 451 . 429 lunar distance. 203 Aphelion. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 1 8 3 mean. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 2427 Apogee. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 279 C anonical units. 74 geocentricequatorial. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 1 09 Angular momentum. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 60 Argument of periapsis. 54 fundamental plane. 9 3 . 1 09. B urnout. 5 8 Aristotle. 1 5 . 74 BMEWS.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 2 1 2 B asis. 429 Astronomical Unit. 3 4 Collision cross section. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 5358. 24 height adjustment. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. Tycho. 8 4 Copernicus. 28 1 B arker's equation. 2 3 4. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 56 Celestial sphere. 429 flattening. 6. 3 2 3 masses. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 2 1 . 7483 Coordinate systems. 24 Apparent solar time. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 84. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 3 9 0 station. 5 3 . 109 B akerNunn camera. 84 ecliptic. 3 8 9 . 296 geometry. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 3 2 5 . 349 Angle of elevation. 3 3 period of. 1 620. 5 7 principal direction.
54 Elements of orbit. 60 true longitude at. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 2 0 . 3 5 .1 1 6 Gravitation. 2 1 ff. 2 4 . 297299 I N DEX in plane. 58 from position a n d velocity. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 62 Ecliptic. zenith angle. 3 22 trajectories. 2 1 2. 1 8 2. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time.452 Declination. 1 4 0 . 306 EarthMoon system. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 5 5 true anomaly a t . 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 2 1 . 26. 2 9 7 . 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 1 42. Carl Fredrich. 26 ff. 5 8 . 60 Dot product. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 3 1 . 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory.93 . 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 4 1 2 Euler angles.3 9 6 Energy.1 90. 1 0 twobody. 25 1 258.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations.1 4 3 .3 0 6 numerical integration. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. G auss problem. 1 7 equations. 8 7 . 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 2 8 2 time. 7 G ravitational constant. 1 0 6 precession. function o f true anomaIles. 2 9 . 8 0 f and g expressions. 9 4 Geoid. 1 60 low altitude. 4 G ravitational parameter. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 4 3 3 Drag.2 1 2 parabolic. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 444 algorithm. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 3 5 Escape trajectory.3 3 pe. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 1 0 3 G round track. 4 1 9. 62 vector. 423 424 Earth oblate. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 1 1 7. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 2 1 2. 2 3 3 . 20 1 202 f and g series. Elliptical orbits. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 3 89 nbody. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 1 0 9 . 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 3 0 . apparent. 25 1 . 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 264 eccentric anomalies. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 3 00 launching. 1 8 8. 4 Newton's law of. 3 5 . 40.1 3 1 Direct ascent. 84. 22827 1 . 3 90 . 221 hyperbolic. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 1 54. 25.1 5 5 Direct motion.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 3 6 8 local. 94 . 9. 1 04 Escape speed. 2 3 0 .riod o f . 1 8 1 . 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 6 1 Elevation angle. 227 418 ( y ) . 1 8 8 . 1 22. 56. 3 5 0 Epoch. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 4 G alileo. 1 0 6 mean. 2 8 5 Freeflight range.
1 9 8 . 238. 1 4 1 . 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 1 0 twobody. 1 5 1 . 8 9 . 2 H alley's comet. 3 62 . 3 24326. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 1 4 1 . 1 8 8 . 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 1 80 third. 3 1 Manned flight. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 3 7 0 Integration. 3 69. 1 Kepler's equation. 5 1 . 3 44 . 3 27. 58 regression. 3 1 6 Injection. 2 8 8 . Edmund. limitations. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 1 57 Line of nodes. 2 7 7 . 1 8 Influence coefficients. 2 1 . 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 3. 1 7 7. 3 0 3 .8 9 derivatives i n . 6 . 3 9. 234. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. numerical rotation of. 5 8 Longitude. 3 8 1 Hohmann. 22 1 . 3 4 5 ephemeris. 62 longitude of ascending. 2 Heliocentric constants. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile. 247 Newton's laws. 1 5 6. argument of at epoch. 1 56 vector. 1 0 1 . 1 4 2 Inertial system.1 6 6. 1 1 7 derivatives. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. 9 9 . J ohann. 3 1 Moon. 1 5 8 Lineofsight.3 05. 4. 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 3 80 Kepler. 2. 3 57 . 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. gravitational parameter. 1 1 7 Latitude. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 1 6 3 . 1 52 Mass of planets. 6 rotation of. 220 Mean motion. 1 8 5 . 94 reduced. 6. 62 . 3 65 noncoplanar. 3 89 trajectories. 3 8 . Isaac. 1 03 Minor axis. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 3 9 6 M otion. 2 second. 3 26 orbital elements of. 3 69 . 60 Latus rectum. equations o f nbody. 3 59374. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 22. 2. 207 I nclination.3 6 6 H ohmann transfer.3 8 4 general coplanar.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 1 0 2 Meridian. 5 Newton. 94 geodetic. 3 24 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. true at epoch. 3 7 9 . 2.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. Greenwich. 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 7. 3 5 0 free return. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 1 5 6. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 1 . 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on.I N D EX H alley. 20 Least squares solution. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous.1 8 1 first. 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 3 2 1 3 5 5 .3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 8 Node ascending. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 3 64. 2 6 5 27 1 . 60 Lunar trajectories. 1 02 Mean solar time. 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 2. 8 6 . 3 9 6 constraints.9 3 Mu ( � ) .
424 thrust. 425 Phi ( � ) . 34. 3 1 . 3 3 Perturbations. 1 1 7 .9 8 Optical sensors. 1 69 Orbit determination. 1 3 Rendezvous.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 94 Potential energy reference. 1 62 O rbit. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 1 1 7 . 1 5 6 . 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 1 0 3 P rojects. 4 1 4 sum squared. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories. 2 4 Periselenium. 443 algorithm. 1 62 . 420 c riteria for choosing. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section.1 50. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) .1 76 inplane changes. 2 4 . 56. 3 44 . 6 1 from sighting directions. 4 1 2425 errors. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 2 1 . 4 1 9 . 3 24 . 3 6 1 shape of. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. true anomaly. 423 due to the moon.3 44 Periapsis. 3 60 physical characteristics. 5 1 . 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 2 0 . flightpath angle. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 2427 argument of. 60 Right ascension. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 3 24 . 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 3 8 6 general. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 3 59 .1 22. 3 9 0 Relative motion. 3 3 3 . 3 8 7 . 220 classical formul ations. 1 9 3 . 26527 1 Residuals. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 1 0 9 Rectification.1 1 6 from two positions and time. two body. 58 determination from position and velocity. 1 1 7. 3 90 . 2 1 Osculating orbit. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 2 1 .3 9 0 Encke's method. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 22727 1 Orbit plane. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 1 90 Numerical integration. 20. 2 1 2 computer solution. 1 5 1 . 3 8 9 Earth potential. 24 height adjustment. 9 3 .1 22 from position and velocity. 3 9 0 Parabola.1 59 examples. 20 Polar radius.3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 3 4 1 Period. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation.454 Nu (v ) . 440448 Q parameter. 5 symbols. 1 09 . 6 1 o f moon. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 83 from optical sightings. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 1 6 Potential function. 203. 424 R ange and rangerate data.3 7 9 lunar. 57 Perigee. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits.
definition of. 8 6 . 1 3 1 . 1 8 1 . 6.1 9 0 if. 1 0 1 S o l a r day.1 4 assumptions. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 40. 1 3 6 radar. 3 6 1 Solar time. 425 Thrust perturbation. 58 Semi minor axis. 5 radio interferometers. 1 0 1 .1 9 8 Time o f free flight.4 3 9 d o t product.1 8 8 . 1 3 8 optical. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 1 03 local sidereal. 4. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 9 Sidereal time. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 99. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 1 1 . 9498 Sum square d numerical method.1 40 Selenocentric. 1 52 Station coordinates. 425 Time. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 9.8 9 derivatives in. 3 60 physical characteristics. 4 3 7 . 3 1 Sensors. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 1 8 (see Nbody . 3 27. 1 3 5 ellipse. 1 3 2.1 69 Hohmann. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 4 3 7 .4 3 9 Velocity components. 20 Semimajor axis. 30.1 40 errors. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 2 1 7 parabola. 1 9 1 development of. 287 low. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 1 60 Synodic period. 1 8 8 universal variables.9 8 of planets. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 2 1 at epoch. 9 9 . 1 5. 23. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 4 3 7 unit. 7 Universal time. 1 0 1 . 2 8 7 maximum range. 2 8 8 . 44 1 mean solar. 4 3 3 triple product. 2 1 5 hyperbola.1 6 6 True anomaly. 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 6. 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 4 3 1 Velocity. 1 6 Sputnik. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 1 6 3 . 5 8 Time zones. 9 3 . 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 40 Unit vectors. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 2062 1 0 use of. canonical. 99. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 1 0 3 universal. 1 3 1 . 2 3 5 evaluations of. 9 9 .1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 02. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 1 1 Units. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 1 8 1 .1 0 4 Solar system. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product.3 59 orbital elements. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 1 7 5 general coplanar.1 0 9 apparent solar. 23. 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 20. 1 9 1 225. 1 9 1 . 8 4 . 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 3 5 8 . 1 9 high. 1 6 6. 1 8 8 . 85 Traj ectory equation. Universal gravitation.