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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
Dorothy Fryar .W. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) . D.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P .M. Ronald Chaney ( artist) . The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged.D. Jan Irvine . J .B. .R. United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R.E. Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . _ 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The TwoBody Problem . . 1 . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . . . 1 . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . 1 09 . . . 93 . . . . 1 . . . 1 . List of References . 2 . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . . .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . 2. . . 83 . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . . 2 . 2 . . . . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . 1 . 2 . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . . 1 17 ix . . . .2 The NBody Problem . . . . .. . .2 Coordinate Systems . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . 74 . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises . 1 01 . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 2. . . . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . . . . . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 . . . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . .General Methods 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. 1 49 . . . . .
Histor ical Background . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 14 List o f References . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . 26 5 . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. List o f Re ferences . . .5 . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . Exerc ises . . . . . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. List of Reference s . . 359 . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . 277 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1 . 3 06 Exercises . . xi 5 . . . . . . . 273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . 7. . . . . . . 258 . . . . . . . . 3 85 9. 379 . Exercises . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . . . . . . . . . 3 20 . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 6. . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . . . . 333 . . . . . . . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . . 357 . . . . 275 . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . . . . . . . . . . List of References . . 344 352 355 . 321 321 3 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7.2 The Solar System . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . 277 6. 25 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 . . . . 279 6 . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . . . . . . . . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 27 . . . . 3 87 9. . . . . . . . . . . 3 84 . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . .3 Encke ' s Method . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . .4 9. . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 . . . . .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . 440 449 . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . . .
CHAPTER 1 TWO. Newman! . laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later. he might have been put into a quart mug. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. the year Galileo died. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. Kepler.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. JarnesR. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world. Tycho. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. 1 642 . as his mother told him in later years. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. the noble and aristocratic Dane. the poor and sickly mathematician.
therefore . but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside .2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. One day in 1 685 . The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. Since the time of Aris totle . Finally . 2 1.BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. Kepler's laws were only a description. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. with the sun at a focus . It fit.1 Still. the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars.1. The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 . the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . not an explanation of planetary motion . Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion. discoverer of Halley's comet.1 Kepler's Laws. TWO. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun. necessarily moved in circles.
they speculated whether a force . "Why. more simply. when he recovered from his shock.1. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion. 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun.Sec. or . casually posed the question. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . without mentioning the b et. of course . Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force ." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . 4 1. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. 1 . "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. in ellipses.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. t he Principia. Dissatisfied with this explanation.
• .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system.1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites.67Ox 1 0. . " Figure 1 . .1 ) (1 . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.1 . 1 . has the value 6. We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll. 1 . . Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them.1 .G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m. .1.12) t o equat i. 1 2) Fg = . 1. / ..1 . The universal gravitational constant.11 Newton's Law of Motion . Note that equation ( 1 .n ( 1 . . .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .'�V . G.4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch.
a lunar or interplanetary probe. I " '. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present.Sec 1. .II I I I " I I I I :. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i. j.. At any given time in its j ourney. . X I . the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies. The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies .2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. thrust and solar radiation pressure . To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation.. All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. 1.e. An important force. I I I Figure 1.. etc. . .e. .12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ . not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . or a planet).. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body.. In addition..2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. propellants) to pro duce thrust. m2 • m3 m m.�I '. an earth satellite ..
2. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. Although small.6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. are discussed in Chapter 3 . rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 ..1 .. Thus. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. 1 equator. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2. • • • z FOTHER .���Y � X n 1. These effects. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells.2' The NBody Problem Figure .. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides. Y.
Fg. (1. The v ector sum.5 ) The other external force . equation ( 1 .2.2 ·1 is T composed of drag. . .2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation .I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. m'J JI 3 (rj j) .3) Obviously . II 3 (1. thrust. The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where .2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself. Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 . the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . solar radiation pr essure. of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . F gn where =  Gm .2. perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes.Se c 1. etc .. .
I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x .28 would not be zero . z coordinate system.F I dt TOTAL dt (1. y . In other words. it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma..1 + F OTHER ' (l . is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ.. Thus..27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'.. ..I) and all other external forces . r·I = F TOTAL mj 0..2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion. Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time .8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL. (1.. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 ...
10) ( .G And for i = 0 . The only remaining forces then are gravitational.29) is a second order . expelling mass or relativistic effects. differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form. Y. ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system .29) reduces to = r· 1 n . F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . mn may be the moon.2. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions.2. 1 2 The remaining masses m3 . r JI.G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth.Sec 1 . vector.. Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present.11) 2.1 0) for i = 1. nonlinear.1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. Equation (1 . m· J (�i) .. unpowered flight.2. equation ( 1 . sun and planets . m .2. we get j = j � *i 1 3 . mi 0).2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X .. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. ( 1.1 2) . Then writin g equation 1 .2. Equation ( 1 .
G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth . 2.r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence.2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1. n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1.21 1 ) and ( 1 . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 . . .2.1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1..2 1 6) each bracket. 2 1 7 ) .1 From equation ( 1 .10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.1 2) into equation ( 1 .2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.2. Since r 1 2 = .1 4) gives.
9x l O 8 7 . the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 .Sec. 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3. 1. There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 . Table 1 .3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3.3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth.3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 . s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. 1 x l 0 10 3.2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n . 1 .89 6x l 0 4 2.6x l O lO 1 .2x l O 8 2. mi orbit about the earth. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies. The bodies are spherically symmetric . Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison. To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. Howe ver . to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion . . This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers.1 Simplifying Assump tions. sun and planets on a near earth satellite .21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite .3.
he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. without relation to anything external. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies. Y.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . 1 2. Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates.12 TWO. let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_.1 . " s However. Y'. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1. Y'.3. 3 2 ) . which "in its own nature.3.2 The Equation of Relative Motion. Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'.3.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively .. Y'.1 ) (1 . remains always similar and irrnovable. Let (X. 1 . . Let (X'. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies. Y' . Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. For the time being.
31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1. Note that this is the same as equation (1. Z'). Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. GIM+ml r Equation (1.32) from equation (1. and acceleration in a nonrotating. Y.33) .Sec.33). Y'.31) we have = _ r . Note that since the coordinate set (X.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem.217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r. Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1.y X' Figure 1 . (1 . ballistic missiles. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'. 1. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites. velocity. Y. the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. Z'). noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. Z) with its origin in the central body. Y'. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. Y..
the mass of the orbiting body . Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. 1 some planet or the sun. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . It is convenient to define a parameter. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. If you think ab out the model we have created.14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. If m is not much less than M. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. "kinetic ." for another form called "potential energy . M. then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors).3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . Then equation 1 . 1. an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. m.3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. will be much less than that of the central body .4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion. 3 ·4 ) ." That is. you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . called the gravitational GM. Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 .
3 4) by r ' ro�r= O . I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. which appears in . dt 1:L = O. 1.!!. 1 .lL\I r dt JJ.41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. v =r and v= f. C. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa .1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 .Sec. r 2. To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O . 5. Therefore. ( 1 . The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . But what about the arbitrary co nstant . that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. then 1 .r ) = � r �(r . To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .4 frame (the large mass) does not change . Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 .4. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. N 0 tlcmg that .
�. 3 4) by r 2 . dt .g. Since in general a x a= 0. the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O.iL (rxv) = O.fL 3 . at what distance . The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . that the specific mechanical energy. This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy.iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . In other words. r. e .2 Conservation of angular momentum. We conclude . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive. If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass. why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity . Cross multiply equation ( 1 . the earth.42) 1 .  ( 1 . O. as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth. In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy . do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary.4. therefore .16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. Noticing that .1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy. The expression for � is �. neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. rX .
called specific angular momen tum. By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1. </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. h. (1 . of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. Therefore .The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h.41 Flightpath angle . Therefore . But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane . 1 . We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . I Figure 1 .43) v I h = r x v. we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space .4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h." "Up" simply means away . we have shown that the specific angular momentum.
18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS .4. The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). Ch. Also find the flight·path angle.8143 r • v > 0 . Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. r = 12.4274I+2. " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. J and K are unit vectors. v. c o s ¢=Jl. h. however. • ( 1 . the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are .7 1 37J+O.8143 = 35.463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I.2778 J + 1 0 .4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector. respectively. and the specific angular momentum. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. Determine the specific mechanical energy .0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢. I h = rv c o s ¢. V =5. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma).5936 1 + 5 . the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle .420 . In an inertial coordinate system.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. = 0. 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth. 1 85 2 1 + 6. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r. the zeni th angle . ¢. ¢.899 X 107 ft. (4.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle . &.
You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.( r) r..3 3 r r r since r • i = f .5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body.. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ. Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain. err.· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4. �t (B· . r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ. we see that J!:.1!y r .1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. While this equation (1.& .51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .. Also note that J. (1. . (h xr) =.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 . JJ.5..33) is simple.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ. its complete solution is not. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1. 1 .Sec. 1 .51) The left side of equation (1..I.
. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation.53) 1 . p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. . +(81J.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation. Equation (1. c and a . + r o Since. 5. in general. (1. we obtain = 1 h2 /g .1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B. V. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r.52) Where B is the vector constant of integration.54) . v.54) .. h2 where vector r.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle. I r 1 + e cos V p (1. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B .9 cos V (1. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1.
4 .44) 1 . Although Figure 1. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections.Sec. As r and v change along the orbit.5. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . 2. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. There is.41 and equation (1 . Before discussing the factors . The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. must change so as to keep h constant. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. 1. the flightpath angle. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space. potential and kinetic. 5 . not just ellipses.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path.51 illustrates an ellipse. an exchange of energy between the two forms. (See Figure 1 . hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. 3. however. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body.53) and the equation of a conic section (1.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. cp. parabola. remains constant. ellipse.
the section is an ellipse. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks.52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. 1 Figure 1 . If. The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . the section is a parabola. Figure 1.5 2 illustrates this definition . If the plane cuts both nappes. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines . or a single point.
The secondary or vacant focus.53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion . F and F'. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. F'.Sec 1 . The prime focus. Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci.53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit. Figure 1 . F. While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) .
Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse "). In the parabola. for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative . which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 .e2). the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium.55) p = a (1 . ( 1 ." etc. a. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . The dimension.5 3 .24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee. Thus." "perihelion" or "aphelion. The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c.54)). is c�lled the semimaj or axis.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative .
e = BltL. By comparing equations ( 1 . In the derivation of equation ( 1 .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 .52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. .Sec . we encountered the vector constant of integration.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . which points toward periapsis. 1 ( 1 .53) and ( 1 .4 The Eccentricity Vector. 53). . Quite obviously. 1.59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . tL r ( 1 . B. ( 1 .= a( 1 +e) . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe. 1e ( 1 .. since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis.1 0) .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). the trajectory equation. 5. 5.58) 1 .
6. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. r r p. Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. 1 . of the satellite. 1. e .61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag). Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth.p. is equivalent to increasing h. r  r . e = ( v v ) r .1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2. /or any orbit. v ) v . By comparing equation ( 1 . h. we get • p. progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. and that as h is .. ( 1 .(r . equation ( 1 .26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. x v. p. is zero.. v. _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . ( 1 . th .p.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle.53) and equation ( 1 . Figure 1 . v)v. By inspection. e = V x (r x v) .54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum.6 RELATING &. Therefore.5. If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired.1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased.
of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 . 1 01) .1 ) predicts . is zero. R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. (1 . = �. v.. We can then write. . I '.e ) ... . . 57) p rp = a(1 .F �.44).62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 .6.62) we obtain &.�= � . .42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 .  . p. Figure 1 . �' " .61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle. . . r I .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 . as a corollary to equation ( 1 .increased the parameter. .
or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy .6.e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f . the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit). 1 and from equation ( l .5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive . while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit).28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch .a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive. Thus.63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis.56) and equation (1 . Many students find equation ( 1 .63) misleading.1 ) therefore p. This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative .1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &. a.6. You should study it together with Figure 1 . Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. zero. &. the energy of a satellite (negative . Figure 1 .
e is exactly 1 (a parabola). m i . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0.Jf5P. 6 . r p = rES + 200 = 3643.  a=  '!:. & = 2 .897  e2 ) = 3. For a given satellite . 2& = 3 . specific mechanical energy.Sec 1 . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008. m i . 64) Notice again that if & is negative. if & is zero . and semimaj or axis. 9 n . e is greater than I (a hyperbola).1 and perigee altitude 200 n . if & is positive . Namely. . m i . But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather. semilatus rectum..5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = . = 6. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic.0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. mi.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. and specific angular momentum. 0 . Determine its altitude at apogee. the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . The student should be aware of this pitfall. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM..7 n .. ra = 1 � e = 4453. 3 n .
an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . the distance between the foci is ( 1 .7 . ( 1 . the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant.6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses. 1 . The method is illustrated in Figure 1 . specifically r + 1 .= 2.r Ell = 1 009. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. Since an ellipse is a closed curve.7· 1 ) B y inspection.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.m i .861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a . 2a = r a + r = 8097. 1 n.JpjJ. 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa.7· 1 . When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that.7·2) . = 5. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. I ( 1 .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .855 = 6 . An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread. h =.mi. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant.
44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . equation ( 1 .1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 .7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 . 1 .7. when rearranged . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.1 .72.76) . you will see that the . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 .Sec. Using equation ( 1 . Since r + r' = 2a.71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. becomes r dt = 11 dll. 2 ( 1 .73) ( 1 .72) and ( 1 .7. e is defined as combine to yield da.7 . If you refer to Figure 1 . Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis.75) which. in general. 2 b.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.
d v.76) as ( 1 . 1 Figure 1 . is given by the expression So.73 Differential element of area . Figure 1 .32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .77) dt 2 = 11 dA. d A. we can rewrite equation ( 1 . swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle.72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area.
the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. so equation ( 1 . Naturally. From equations ( 1 . being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. Integrating equation ( 1 .e2 ) = JaP and. During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse .78) b =) a 2 . ( 1 .Sec. The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed. since h = /JlP.8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 .8.79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 .8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit.75). is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . 1 Circular Satellite Speed.1 ) 1 . a. 1 .8 .79). proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. 55) and ( 1 .77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. 1 . Thus. incidentally. the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius.77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . Equation ( 1 . Of course.c2 =) a 2 ( 1 .79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 .
1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a.1 Geometry of the Parabola. Another is that.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits.1 ) . An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again.9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 . The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know. the periapsis radius is just r 1 .1 .9.9. rCS' from the energy equation. circular speed is about 26 .34 TWO . The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola.000 ft/sec.9.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit . 1 . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 . F or a low altitude earth orbit.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 . since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.
its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back.E. We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory. Theoretically. first at a general point a distance . r.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   .9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity.2 Escape Speed. there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse. from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � . A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed." 1 .Sec.92) .57). Of course. 1 .9.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero .Jf2il ' r  ( 1 .
a. 5 7). of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. the semimajor axis. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 . Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude . 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic.407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 .92) =21 . (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets.400 nm above the surface it is only 26. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth.1/2a. a.Since the specific mechanical energy.1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. 36 TWO .1 57. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J. Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 .B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . 8.700 ft/sec while from a point 3 . Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . = j. b .000 ft/sec. 53374 106 ft = = 36. As you would expect.) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit..
rb i t P 7087. 06748 106 ft 7087. 8n. 1 . where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 .8 n.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem .amr iO.53374 106 ft 2 43.Sec. m i . m i . + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21.
1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. (L l O. b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field .1 ) . If we consider the lefthand focus. If. The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches. 1 . then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 . 1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. The parameters a. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . 1 1 . we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles).38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch .1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). 1 0. instead. Obviously. 1 0. F . then the righthand branch represents the orbit. The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes).
If. 1 . 0.1 ." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. the smaller will b e the turning angle . V 00' . we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . on the other hand. which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth. 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 . 1 02) becomes ( 1 . 1 0. The turning angle . is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . 1 . 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity. This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed.0. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 . The angle between the asymptotes. 1 0..2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed.but since Sec. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola.for the hyperbola. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 .
we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch ." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. 1 0. the concept is convenient and is widely used. In other words.3 Sphere of Influence. the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit. Astronomers call thi� ' . absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. for all practical purposes it has escaped. 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 . Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. 1 . of course . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. however. It is. 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. 1 . a million miles) from earth. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . It is a fact. it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. 1 (1 .40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit.
For other problems where the earth. e. 1 . This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun.l.x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. Using canonical units determine & . Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . earth. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . then the value of the gravitational parameter. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\. h.Sec. 1 1 .1 . will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 . 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. or other planet. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 1 The Reference Orbit. moon. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 ." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations.046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . 1 1 . 5 9362 5 . J. p. 1 . or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. r a' r p' . We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit.
� = . 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. 5 D U e �2 _ /J. 1 67 D U �/T U � = . 5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1.42). 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . Alt = .1 . [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 .
5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8.58) Find r p from equation (1. = 2.44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 . 1 . 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.61) Find h from equation (1.= 4 .5 7)  r a = 1 e p. = 3.64) Find ra from equation (1.4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 .. 5 D U = 9.Sec.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t. 25D U EB = 4.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft . 5 D U ". 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .
1 . 1 . 1 EXERCISES 1 . + (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI .44 TW O. respectively.2. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system. c.1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . a.000 n mi. 6 J 1 .3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi.. 2J AK IJK h = AI . Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite. b . . The orbit eccentricity is 0. 1 . in general. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. Find the specific energy of the trajectory. Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth. 5 81) 1 . Find the period of the orbit.B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch .2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 .4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem.000 ft/sec and 4 . &= . 2K DU 2 /TU . Find the eccentricity of the orbit. 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. Why. Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. (Answer : e = 1 .
1 . &.8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. 4K r r v = . (Ans.9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. 91 J space. p b. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n.123K = 1 .6 18 = 59° 58') .5 DU DU DU d. 0 1K v = l + l . 354 10" r 1 . 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . 7 Prove that d.Ch . 1. p 1. mi during descent? (Ans. Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0. D U 2 /T U 2 = + .6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. ¢ =3 = 1 . D U /T U DU e. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. r v c.000 ft) with a velocity of 25. r x ft ) = 3. 2K + .5 rpe r i gee = 1 .000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. hyperbolic. V ft/sec. elliptical. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ). a a.
p = 2.000 ft. d . It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0.) 1 . p = 6. 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = .6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . Determine the maximum altitude attained. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points. 1 2 Given that e = �. c. e. p = 6. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically.2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . e=O e = . ellipses and a hyperbolas.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00.2 e = . 1 . 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. derive values for e for circles.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . p = 3. P 1 . p = 2. b . sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. (Neglect atmo spheric drag.
c. 207 1 . Show that : b. What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB.Ch . 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v.1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory.V O U EB /TU EB ) . rc = at +b = 0. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. 1 . * 1 . What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans .6. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system.Xw UK vectors. One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart .4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. you may use the same Figure 2. Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond . their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. Q and W respectively. Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section . When describing a heliocentric orbit . Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. 2 .Sec. 2 . 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars.2. Yw '+.
The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. Instead of argument of periapsis. 6. Another system. between the ascending node and the periapsis point.the angle . p. if you know a and e you can compute p. w. i. 5 . a. 2 . 2. A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . T. 3 . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis. eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . e.3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . K I I . shape and orientation of an orbit . semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit .the time when the satellite was at periapsis. time of periapsis passage . The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . is substituted for a in the above list. 4 . Obviously . measured in the direction of the satellite's motion.58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector.the angle from to periapsis measured h. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. Frequently the semilatus rectum. the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section.1 as follows : 1 . argumen t of periapsisthe angle . The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . Similarly. in the fundamental plane . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. Q longitude of the ascending node.3. It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different.
Sec. 2 .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.31 Orbital elements .
then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . From Figure 2. Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time .3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . w and va are all defined. earth.60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. n=n+w. then both w and Uo are undefined. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 . then b oth W and n are undefined. (2 .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun.1 ) .31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. 1 £0 £0 + . then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) ." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle .3. 2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. in the plane of the orbit. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde ." Direct means easterly. This is the dire ction in which the sun. to ' called the "epoch. both of which are always defined .
42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. vI vJ v K J (2 . t o .Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time .4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 .4. n. n and e. The node vector. Therefore . 2 .41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK . 2. n would have to lie in the orbital plane. n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes.4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. n must be perpendicular to both K and h. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . n an d e. h. h. n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . 2. To be perpendicular to h. 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. To be perpendicular to K. is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 .
The parameter.46) Of course . You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 .1 1 )). All three vectors. p. n and e are illustrated in Figure 2.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements.1 . Study this figure carefully .2 Solving for the Orbital Elements.4. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A . 2. The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. B cos a AB (see Figure (2 . The vector. If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved . An understanding of it is essential to what follows . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes.S . h. Now that we have h. In general. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . e. We are only interested in its direction. n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node.4. is obtained from (2 .3. The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit.1 ) (2 . the cosine of the angle .4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . ex." Specifically . 2 nodes. being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle .
2 .) .) c o S Po = � er (2 .1 0) 7 . Since i is the angle between K and h.) e. Since w is the angle between n and (2.47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .49) 6.) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° . Since n is the angle between I and n. 2. (2 .Sec. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4. (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° . Since Uo is the angle between n and f .L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° .4. Since Vo is the angle between e and f. � � h.' (2.. c o s U o = !!.1 1) . (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.4.:.4 3 ..48) 5 .
1 and study it until they do . The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2. 3 . look at the geometry of Figure 2 . . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative).4.64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . If they don't make sense to you. With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v. 2 z x 8 .1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense .
42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations. 5 DU e == . 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 .Sec. Figure 2.
4 DU p == .\ . 2 3 Figure 2 .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch .5 e == .2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .
4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 . 2.44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1.Sec.5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .
Using equation (2. 7 75 . From equation (2. .45 ) Since h =.i:. A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system)..4.1 ) p = .I:!:. [ ( f. Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . e..(r . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node . ml .. Find inclination.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 .= 4D U = 13.48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth.6. Find eccentricity.l h2 . i.1. EEl . n..47) = . ) r . Find p using equation (2 . using equation (2 . f.7 4n .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .
II.41 0) v a c os. va. . 2 . Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again . Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .. In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis.Sec..n. can be determined in this case. From equation (2. From equation (2 .n = COS . is undefined.1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis. II.1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 .1 (. Find true anomaily .:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . for this case . Find argument of periapsis.!!. = cos .49) W n · e W.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis. since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore . since there is no ascending node w is also undefined .  Find longitude of periapsis. 4 .
m i .85 n .. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .E)r(r .1 ) Find e. EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .  then from equation ( 1 . First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 1 [6 \ h=rxv=.5 .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .. v)v] =. 2 Find true longitude o f epoch. From equation (2. = From equation (2.25 EB EB D U EB 7748.\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2.6.3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = ..
4. va : From equation (2. I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 .11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .5 Find the inclination.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n .Sec.1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2.43) n Find the longitude of ascending node . From equation (2 .49) w: 0 W = cos.I Find the true anomaly .5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch. Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r . . 2. From equation (2.
w and v.ffe si n V (2. lV. i . n. w and va . In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly.72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . that occurs in a given time . Of the se six elements.5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =. The method.5 2) . v.5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 . t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. 8. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p.24): ro to. . Let ' s assume that we know p. 8.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . 2 elements are given. shown below. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set.72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 . the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. consists of two steps.5. i. n. 2.to. changes with time .
25 45{) (2. 2. Before equation (2.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 . v �[.5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2.54) from equation r (2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = .5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .5 i= p 2.Sec. 5P DU E9 (2.51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .54) r = J � [. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).
and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . east . say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does." 2. A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. suppose you know the south. vector represents. Certain vectors. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient . For example . Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. direction . have a definite starting point . A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . suppose you know the south. namely. 2 2. the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. or what it represents. In other words. For example. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude ." The phrase in quotes describes what the . A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . east a!1d up. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. east. The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. its fundamental (xy) plane . A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick .6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south.6. and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. such as position vectors. and it still represents the same thing. A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin .74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch .
61) . expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame . V and W along the x ' ." A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite. y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . y' and z ' axes. 2. y ����. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods.y Y 75 .6.61 illustrates the two frames. ���________� • . : r Y I ex a . We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. and extending along the x.2 Change of Basis Using Matrices.Sec. 2. Figure 2. Figure 2. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis. Let us imagine three unit vectors I." In other words.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S .
6. (2.1 ) yields I.63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch .64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 . J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2. 2 From Figure 2. We will use subscripts to identify the basis.62) above and equating it with (2. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ). V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2. 65) .64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.61 we can see that the unit vectors U.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2.
2 . 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2.67) yields the set of equations (2 .69) '" axis. derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis. (2 .3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . Rotation about the xaxis.6. .67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2. 68) B '" (2.Sec.66) (2. These are summarized belox:: .64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex . The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.64) above .
78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes. We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) .si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L .7 .61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame . Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector. 1 ). Figure 2. The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation.4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes. a.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames.6. 2 (2.
Equation (2. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order).e. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 . all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate. Now.61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. The transpose of the matrix D . denoted by D .61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. 2. Hence . if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0. (i. The inverse of any orth.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2.Sec. We can write equation (2. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors.1 .6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . Fortunately. .Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e . AB =1= SA ).
tluee b . d wi th . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 . axes in to CO ham ... P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc. oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am . 6. 2 (2. th." a ny mp licat e d . m1 " fo. 62. sh ow n in F ig u " Th .1 2) Figure 2 . "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th .". th' O ugh w hi ch on ..80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. mu " in cid 'n ce b . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce .6 . basis no ma t . to p' ter ho w co no. a bl . d th yo u will b . O c M ma t. Perifo ca l to th e G Th .ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es . n t rizing th .sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . gl " n i lly . anglo . 'o ta t. 5 Tmn . 6. By me mo C.". a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [.2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK . an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 . d w .Eq to th e IJ K in at ..n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a .".
63. R.. Figure 2. it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I ... 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit . then Sec .. 2 . For example .. . To . aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems. Thus if a i ' aJ .. aQ.63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry.. from Figure 2.The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix.. a K and ap .
The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. Q I ' W J · W K . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. J and K Thus R = J .63 . I • p I · Q J .1 3) i. the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w . Now a. P K · P In Figure 2.cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 . Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another. 2 from their dot product .6.1 4) R23 = . Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . Similarly.6. B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides.sin n sin w cos i .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R . a �. the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. ! • P. since I and P are unit vectors.82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .cos n sin w . R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w .
Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired. . In this case either n or w or both are undefined. 2 . V. 2.Sec . Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity.5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s .7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements.5 . In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements.1 ) and (2.
2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth. 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System.1 .7 . the elevation angle . is measured clockwise from north . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . 7 . The azimuth angle .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system. AZ . the rate at which range is changing.7. The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . Az. 2.7 . can also be measured. The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. EI. p. E and Z shown in Figure 2 .84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight .( N o rt h ) 2. The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . The unit vectors S. The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � . The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted .
= Ps PE = P cos Pz.and EO/. From Figure 2. p. E1 sin Az cos Az (2 . We will express the po sition vector as (2 .72 we see that r (2 .7 . There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El.75) .72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z.7. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 .7 4) = + P (2 . 2. /l!L.1 ) where . Az. Thus. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. Sec. we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. E I .72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2.73) E l (B I ).3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.7 .1 . as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky. from the geometry of Figure 2.
things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth. A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v.86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 2 J topo centric frame .76) . The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 .72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2. For the moment we will assume that equation (2 . Unfortunately.
It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v. movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame . v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed. (2 . the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f.73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 . Figure 2.77) . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. Therefore .Sec. EB x f. the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) . 2 . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite .
is 2 S E + .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .707 . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . 5Z (Given) [).1 = [. The angle to Greenwich is 3040 . 3535 .6 1 2 . 5 Z (units are DU).612 . Figure 2.707 o .866 .5 J . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates. 300 N Lat .612) r = R + P = 2S . The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 .3535 .E + 1 .
. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems.7.78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2. We will denote this quantity by w. y.Sec. rotating with respect to the (x. (2.7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . I =J =K=O.9 1 81 + 2. z) system (Figure 2 . It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2.982K .. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame .78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. however. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero .75 ) . 332J  . The unit vectors D.79) J. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . (2. w) .4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . 2. K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. z). then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x. y. v. .
V = w x V and W = w x W . Similarly. Hence .1 0) reduces further to . equation (2 .71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) . The remaining terms of equation (2. . .1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. Hence .79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . equation (2 .7. 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame . You should prove to yourself that U = w x U.90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . .7. dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame .
.. y. W) Figure 2.1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q. v v....1 2) .. .75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA..y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ . �:..LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 . z) '..... 2 ... 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u . � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u... .7.. .... . ....... ..... dt R I (2 .7. Equation (2... " F i xed " System ( x. .Sec.71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector. .
(2 .7.7 .1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .) .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch . 2 iLl F = .7 .7.7.JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 .9!. The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .7.1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.7.1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.7 .7.1 2) to the po sition vector r.where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame . Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth. We will now apply the operator equation (2 ." Ioox. Equation (2 .1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .1 3) into equation (2 . (2 .
however . latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. If the earth were perfectly spherical. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations.8. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. In the model which has been adopted. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. of course .) 2. We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. ae . circles. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. 2.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . It is known . Sections parallel to the equator are . ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . 2 . "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame . Therefore .Sec. is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere.
94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1 .8. When you are given the latitude of a place . Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field ." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. it does complicate the concept of latitude.785 0. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter ." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude .8. 2. Consider Figure 2. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level.2 The Measurement of Latitude. 1 45 6356. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. the difference between L and is usually negligible . The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid .8. It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) . 2.08182 == km km L La L . The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use .3 Station Coordinates. While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude .
8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 .1 ) .!! o .. the "reduced latitude . c.Sec. It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal. It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. / (2. The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e . 4 km Figure 2. L ..82.82 .8 . 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . Thus. 2 . O .. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude ." which is illustrated in Figure 2.. 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 .
2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 .96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But . I C.. Ch . 0 O D. Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. z . c:  0) x Figure 2. b e =a e V� = b2 + d. a2 . / .1:  (2 ..82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz.82) . for any ellipse .and e = da.
Sec:. d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L . 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .85) .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L . Thus. (2 . 2 . (2. dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2.
(2 . From Figure 2. The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2. 2 ( 2 . The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame .8 8) . {1. elevation above mean sea level.98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K. If the Greenwich sidereal time .4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components.86) L.8. {1 ' is known . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below. it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .8 7) 2.
" The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame . Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t. 2 .84 shows a spherical earth. the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time .89) . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2.8. L. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 ." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site .3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site .Sec . Although Figure 2.
For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction . From (2 .84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth . 2 j i Figure 2 .8 .1 0) . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .
9 equation (2 . it will help to understand exactly how each is defined . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .1 2) and a s ' a E .1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science .9 .8.6. Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . This should be made clear by F igure 2.1 2) . a Z If a l . so . it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. 1 Solar and Sidereal Time .Sec. When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours. A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars. 2 . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time . 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. This is the time kept by ordinary clocks.cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n .9. 2. The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval.1 . (2 . It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day .
In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day . Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure . a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane .91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical.1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . In early January. 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2.09054 mean solar seconds . So far. when the earth is near perihelion.
The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time .9. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) .is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . For example . 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year . The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . Universal Time (UT). Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . 2 . Thus. (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s. . 2.3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known . A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours. What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day.0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis.9.2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . This relationship is illustrated on page 99. The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 . if it . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa.Sec. or Zulu (Z) time. 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation .
9. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. m i n . 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. Ephemeris and 2. we express time in decimal fractions of a day. in addition.4 Precession of the Equinoxes. 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 .sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. ° 229421 1. we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane . . To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent . 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 . 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100.104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch . 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . 8 9=8 9 0 1 .
000 year s . Due to the asphericity of the earth.6 years. The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation .. The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge.. the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year .6 year s . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top . the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 ." with a perio d of 1 8 . the equatorial plane is not . As the earth' s axis precesses.. 6 yrs I Figure 2. However .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . The period of the precession is about 2 6. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic. so the lunarcaused precession has this same period..9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 .. 0 0 0 y rs " . .Sec .92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars. on the slow westward precession caused by the sun.. the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. 2 .
1 . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. 6 24 5 . 25 8=8 g + A = .378km = 0 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Day  = Long o 57 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown .74933340 = 1 . x= [ z= � ae + � . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs.1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 . Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . 5 7 . 00 1 From section 2 .296 degrees west longitude .378 km above mean sea level on the equator.296° H = 6 .8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl .00 1 + L= 0 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. at 0600 GMT.6245 rad ians o 9 .
74) .346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.72) PE p Pz Ps = . Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = . 00 1 (S.2D UES = (0. 0.346E + O.From equation (2.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 .4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O. 2 .6245 )1 + 1 .7 1 SJ + OK Sec.4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 . At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.(0. 00 1 c o s(S.6971 + .2Z ( D UES) From equation (2. Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .6245) = .
0 1 .77) v = [� ] [ J 0.84J . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) . 46 = 0.04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .73 p + (O.1 .1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.7·5 ) From equation (2 .346E + l .3.232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU . 3.346J + 1 .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.8 .4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.1 .610.73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.0E + 1 .73Z D U (T U r = 0.46 P =D1 . 1 08 Ch .0.46 D U /T U (0. 0.4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.25 0.(0.1 .46S .�� lO.(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .Ps = .433 .0588K) From equation (2 .866 0.2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.5 1 .8 .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .061 .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .
may be lacking. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . 2. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 . p . it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. k.0. As Baker S points out . Ai.8J . of course . Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method . Ei. Figure 2. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 .232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . W.Sec. Gibbs is. and the orb it is uniquely determined.3. It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar). EI . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J.081 . 2 .
is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. 1 08) . 1 0. Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . 1 04) . 1 0.1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . f2 and f3 to obtain (2 . Dotting (2 . 1 02) gives (2 . 1 05) (2 . (2 . then u sing (2 . The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . 2 fine scholar . 1 03) Cross (2. Notice that C2 may now be divided out.11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . (2 . we can show that : e ' f = p . (2 .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. Q and W. who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree .1 ) by (2 . and the definition of a dot product . 1 06) Multiply (2 . 1 04) (2 . 1 05 ) and (2 . Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 .1 ) successively by fl . 1 0. 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p.5 4).r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p.r 3 ) = 0 . 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 03) by f3 X r l . equation ( 1 .r.
(2. then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec.(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . 1 0.Let the right side of (2 . Therefore . 2 . Since P.1 4) (2 . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. 1 0. (2 . 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . 1 0. 1 0.1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e. 1 0.e . .1 5) . N and D have the same dire ction. equation (2 . provided N . 1 09) D.1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . 1 0. D = N P = O' N (2 .1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . 1 0 pD = N . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h. i. (2 .1 3) : (2 . Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P.
check N * O and D . Before solving the problem. D and S ve ctors. N and S vectors. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 .1 9) to find W. since NeQ = pS.1 6) . 1 020) to find P.52) we can write i X h = p. Therefore. 1 0.1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2. it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D.1 7) W Q = S S N (2 . (2 . P = Q X W. However . N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 .1 8) N (2 . (2. 1 0. to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. 1 020) Thus. 1 02 1 ) . Q and W are orthogonal.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . (2 . 1 0. 2 Again using the relationship (2 .r t ) f2 + ( rt . The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2. (2 . and (2 .r 3 ) f t + ( r3 .1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 0. (2 .1 9) Since P. 1 0.1 7) to find e. N > o. ( f  r + e) . From equation ( 1 . 1 0. 1 01 0) to find p.5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. Then use (2 .1 8) to find Q. 1 0. 1 0.
h = P. v) h and h . h X (h h ) v .(h . v = eP. 1 025) . = p. 1 024) (2 .E. (h xr r = + (a .2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . e) We can write h v v = . Using the identity . so c) b . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP. ON (2 . 2 . D X r + JJ{. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . 1 0./O S eW X P ) ( 2 . 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb..( a . b) c O .Sec . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) .
using the stated tests. but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . find v2 : 2. possible two body orbit . v2 � + L S r2 • . N=FO. Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size . 2 L + LS (2 . 4 . Form L = = 6. 1 02 6) Thus. Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. 1 . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . This method . Finally . proceed as follows : For example . = 0 for coplanar vectors. This is not exactly true. By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . Test: 0 10 . N and S vectors. There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. to find any of the three velocities directly . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases.
0774J 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Since 010. Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . and the timeofflight between these po sitions. period and the velocity vector at position two .8000K = 0. Form the D . and S vectors: D= N S 1 . 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar.0471 O U = 0 .039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 ." Thus. the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth.000K = 0_700J . P = 0= N  2.0. This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). 9701 = 2.97 .047 1 = . r1 r2 r3 = 1 . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors.9000J + 0. N .5000K Find : P.Sec. the semilatus rectum. r 1 and r2 . eccentricity. If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. 2 . NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem.
. 2 S .576J .657K D U /T U 2 0.963J . = .270K W= N.1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .0804 e = = = 0 .1 . 700J .963K N 1 .379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .97 o lP = a = 1 . 1r/{: 6. Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.67 TU (89. 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type.960 DU/T U (4.4 to solve for the elements.270J + 0.0.0. 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 .0.497 9.7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0. 0408 1 1 .
If we let L .Sec. optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. 1 1 2) r . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit .7 2). topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. (2 . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . As a result . = OJ + R j . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors.:S :J: JS L K . we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . In either case . 2. then ' .1 ) (2 . Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite . 1 1 . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. 2 . L.g . [:i:n :: :. is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780.z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch. 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. ° 2 . (X1 ' < \ � . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit .6 2 : 1 1 . 3. r = pL [�. and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . j = 1. Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only .
R and R are known at time t2 . 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = .J V I .[. . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. L. p.1  R ) r3 . 2 We may differentiate equation (2 .. \ . 1 1 3) (2 . . I . p and r. \ Figure 2. ./  L . r u.' ' " ': . however .. .. 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . ':. L. p.. (2 . � . The vectors L. say the middle ob servatio n .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . �J 1  .1 . �� I 1 " _ . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P.r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . • ' I . 0 (2 . ' ' :. \ •.. 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . . • 00 . \ [L. : '< ' . f f. are not known . \' P2 i �� G ".
t } .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L. Since we have the value of L at.t 3 ( t 1 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t.t 1 ) ( t2 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 .three t�es.t3 ( t 2 .t2 ) (t.t 2 . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t 1 ) (t 3 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =. 1 1 .t3 ) (2 .t 3 ) (t.t 1 ) ( t3 .t2 ) . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t 1 ) ( t. t2 and t3 .t 1 .t 1 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t . provided the three observations are not too far apart in time .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .Sec.t 3 ) L2 (2. 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector . 2 .t2 ) ( t} .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t 3 ) ( t } . 1 1 6) + 2t .t2 L3 ( t 3 .t2 ) ( t 1 . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t2 ) ( t 1 . t2 .t } ) (t 3 .
u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . p. p' and r. however. a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or .u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce . better yet .u R Ir3 J + . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . 2 .L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + .. L L L K K K J .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. p.u L 1 / r 3 L J + ..ons (2 . D reduces to L D =2 L I L .. making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. 4 Equation (2 . For the time being. I L . 1 1 5 ) . it is evident that L Dp = . L K + . This.u L /r 3 .u R Ir3 I + . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns. It should be noted. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible . that if more than three observations are available . . LI . L J I (2 . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati.1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f. + . . let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . 1 1 6) and (2 . in fact . L J .
1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. R R ..1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration. we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section..1 0) into (2. 2 . 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . Substituting equation (2 . . Then _ __ K I L J L L K I .1 0) and (2 . 1 1 5). 1 1 2). 1 1 . 1 1 .1 1) Op = . Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2. Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. L K .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 . 2 . L K L J L I K (2. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . .1 2) . O O. If we do this we find that .L L L J K I p .1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . 1 1 .Sec . is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. R . J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. 0. R J . .4 Solving for Velocity . 1 1 . 1 1 . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. 1 1 . p and r. R R I . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . L J L I K J!.
at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 1 . As a matter of fact . D.1 3) for p. a . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. 1 1 . a3 . Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . k. This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . Laplace ' s method fails . 1 1 . E l . P.2). (2 . El.For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . 1 1 . 1 1 . such as P. 2 (2 .1 4) p 2.5 Vanishing of the Detenninant . then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . To obtain the velocity vector . This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. ° 3 .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. 2 . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. ° .
we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. Assuming that the residuals are small. Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. 1 21) . Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals.::"P 3 . t4 . t3 . 2 The Differential Correction equations. 1 2. the observational data collected by a downrange station (e . based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . . a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only .::"P .Sec." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements. of course. \ ' t2 . 1 2. v Kl at t = to are correct. 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. p) will differ from the computed data.::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. ts and t6 ' These predictions are . 2.g. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. 2. however . A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. 1 Computing Residuals. .::"P 2 ' . The question then arises. r K ' v " vJ . "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes. The six residuals are �1 ' . Doppler rangerate. It may happen . The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. For example .
VK . The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation. 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. Nj. D. New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations.1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. . The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method.1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives. by trial and error. D.e. however.) Then. In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. equations (2 . 1 2. NK. r K " ' arl D.. 2. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. reduce the residuals to zero .VI . The inversion of equations (2 . (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient. to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically.:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . rj . 1 2 . . . With the aid of a digital computer.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc.Vj' D. 1 2. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. i. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times.r l " v K )p1 ( r l . V K ) . . usually 6 for orbit problems) n . ap1 . NI . for example . The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's.
use 0. 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2.tb each of the elements measured. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement .8 1 ) . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . minimum as described above .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e .. I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. for the exactly determined case (p or b. Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. 2 . If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution . In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense . Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). called the root me an square (RMS) . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). for 90% confidence . Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a.g . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. a and (3 are the elements (two here . = = n) . 2 . A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points. 3 . . 4. 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . Solve equation (2 . zero .. 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. since p 2 below) .
21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations. 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x.2.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2). Choo se ex and for the first estimates.:. lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . ex VI. 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch .Assume equal confidence in all data. To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. the partial derivatives are : . Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and .
1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 . Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . 1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. 2.Sec. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 . Thus. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = .
This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.474 and f3 = 3. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence . To illustrate the method involved. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals.1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution. we will use a simple . This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. In practice.360 = . let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4.474 Xi 3 . 6 orbit elements) would be used. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . yet still overspecified number of measurements.
000 50. 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l ..1 26 0.934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .866 4 x .Vi 2.007 0.500 8.Sec.1 05 9. 3 .828 0 0.) 2 n .y. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2. ( V i Yi ) 2 4. 474 x 3 . 969 ____  Vi . .865 49.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /. 934 = 1 . E ( V 1. aa . 0 35 3..1._1. 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .0 01 1 3.000 1 9. 2 .474 4 0 07 19.000 n = Vi 0.
.031 8.062 .733..304 0. = 3. {3 = {3 new .039 £::.474 + .056 ""' T . Thus (X new = .021 070 20.001 07 33 b = 0. 105.3. which is larger than what we started with. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.0.(X 26 3. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .l Now using (2 .380708 A = 40.4 1 69. so we iterate.z 10. 1 22) we have £::.304 = . 1 75 ] 5."""'" �T�� . 81 30 8. 1 96 = 3.1. The second iteration yields: £::.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .2.027 12.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .. 0 18 0.670 3.360. 0. 1 961 0.36 .I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2. 27 A WA = [12.
7 35 x 3 .5 8 2 . 038 [3 = 3 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . This i s not yet the case so we iterate again .000 . If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 . during orbital decay. The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight . The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . however. and finally. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 .5 8 1 . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations.4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. In practice . the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. 2. 2 . Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit . 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry. W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. 2 .Sec . which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s.00 1 . 1 2. in theory. However.735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . . 038 .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth. Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally .
At present. the White Sands Missile Range . Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System. 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. 1 The Spacetrack System. 1 4 . The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . 1 3. The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. In addition. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). spacecraft failure diagnosis. antisatellite targeting. the precomputed 2. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network .500 miles make about 1 2 . These detection radars with a range of 2. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . 2 . the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. 1 Radar Sensors. manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. forming "clouds" of space debris." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). and midcourse ICBM inter ception. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. 2 2. it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere.5 003.000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects.
Greenland. One of the earlier detection radars. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. the FPS43.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island. One FPS49 . and is on active spacetrack alert.s The prototype is located at Moorestown.Sec. 2. Turkey. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir. while three are located at Clear. Figure 2. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. is now on active Spacetrack alert. Alaska. New Jersey.
An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. Alaska.142. In addition. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. This BMEWS station at Clear. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. Alaska. 2 Figure 2. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . Florida. uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. United Kingdom. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. under the 140ft radome at the left. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long.
Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere.14. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. 2. 2.143.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground.2 Radio Interferometers. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry.Sec. When two or . The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site.
and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 .3 Optical Sensors. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . the semimajor axis. After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. is well established. two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. 2 . SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. Alberta. and therefore . 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. Considering the type of observational data received. Canada . SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. 1 4 . In addition to these . the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system.1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch .
it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object. Alberta. and the lighting correct.400 miles. on the same strip of Cinemascope film. As a result. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable.Sec. it is . From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. A separate optical system superimposes.145. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. seeing conditions must be good. 1 0 Under favorable conditions.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. 2.
for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. 4 Typical Sensor Errors. Doppler rangerat e info rmation. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. Further . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . is relatively accurat e . Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge . 1 4 . Massachusett s . Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft .1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . . Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. on the other hand . 2 . In any case . The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. in any case . For detection radars.) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. takes time. precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . New Mexico site.000 meters. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error .
14. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. 2. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects.7 seconds in time would remain. lunar attraction.5 Future Developments. nonuniform gravitational fields. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) . persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects.146. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag.Sec 2. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated.
providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . but it also record s target tracks for later playback . While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . of the target . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. a continuousw ave . Now. howeve r . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. Many improvements . p. 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . Theoretically .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . In t he system under development . Operating in the SHF b and . the t argetrefle cted laser b eam.
For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . 1 5 . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . The arc CB which forms the • . i. The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance . 1 5 . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ.1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . F igure 2 .. We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . o f the orbit . respectively with a launch a zimuth . 1 5 .1 Ground trace sat ellite is.Sec. Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination . 18cP  2 . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . 1 5 2 . 1 5 . 2 . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An.. One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime .
For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . 0 i. f3 ' be easterly . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . 2. f3 ' should 0 be 90° . this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . therefore . 1 5 .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track.1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch . L o?" If i is to be minimized . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . The result is illustrated in Figure 2 . A direct orbit require s . 1 5 ·3 . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . that the launch azimuth. I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . .e . i : c os i = . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . For a due east launch equat ion (2 . 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . betwe en 00 and 1 80° .
Sec. 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . Figure 2 . 2 .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n . 1 5 . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 . su r face .
J . 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2. Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU.7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. = (partial answers : 2. Englan d .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. e = .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c.1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d. a solar day or sidereal day? b . = u nd ef i ned ) = . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e . 885. Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. i = 90° .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a .7071 + . 9 7 0 . Colorado ( 1 04. Which takes longer . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich. 2 EXERCISES 2 .
23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = .Ch.2K DU . (partial answer s : p = 8/9 . Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. 3<. . OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . 82 u a . 1.8 2075 . c .7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 .) Determine p. Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU. 2 + b .8 I J P = . Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. (Answer [partial] e = . 2. u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. Determine the orbital e lements. 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . i . e. W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2.
C alifornia . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . Q. the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . PST .3 5 35 3995 0 1 . 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW.8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . Units are earth canonical units.8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . 6464495 a. the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. a. makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. 1 0 January 1 9 70.060668 8 3 1 . 2. r3 r l I J K 1 . 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . (Answer : r = 1 . b ut not nece ssary. 2 . Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem. W. b .4 1 4225 1 1 1 .4 1 4202 0.7 6) .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . 1 7 1 . circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU .system along the unit ve ctor s P. U se of a computer is sugge sted . b . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 . 2. 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . r2 1 .5 0 West . Site longitude is 1 2 1 .3 1 065 1 5 0. What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans. the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . equatorial . LST = 63 . p = 1 . 1 0 2. Explain why you would expe ct this to be so .
6 0.0 2 .9 1 420062 4 . fl f2 f3 0 . . fl f2 f3 3 .207 1 25 5 1 .6 0.0 7 . fl f2 f3 d. fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.89497724 0 0 0 1 .565 6808 1 0 0 .2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.2K with a velo city o f AI .0 0 .94974 1 7 6 .707 1 1 25 5 0.5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .97 2 .97 0 1 .Ch. 1 4  DU/TU.1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q . B . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .89497 879 0. A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1. C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2.0 2 .62 1 34384 c.7 0 0 e.5 65 6808 1 0. DU * 2.0 0 2 . 3 6 395 5 26 1 .094964 1 8 0.0 7 .0 1 .707 1 0 1 0 1 0.0 0 2 .62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .1 .8 0 .09497879 1 .20709623 0 .0 0 .9 1 42 3467 2 .8 0 0 .0 1 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .
Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. v = 0. Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. Obj ect b . has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane . * 2 . vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e.0078 J 0. A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . ( A ns. Obj ect c.1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. b. d . Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 . Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion .1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0.17 p 0. 9 7 . Express the coordinates.620 1 I 0. 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. 2 a . east and zenith (up) component s? c. . Obj ect vernal equinox direction. ___ e. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type .75 K D U /T U )  .
NY. S . Robert M . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . Sons Ltd . Henize . 1 965 . . pp 1 08 . Inc. and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . Thoma s." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . Inc. Pierre Simo n . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . NY . Newman . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H.1 1 1 . Pedro Ramon . Angus. Jame s R . Paul G . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. Navy Space Surveillance System. New York . Gauss. 1 95 6 . New York . L. "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. Space/A ero na utics . E . 1 9 67 . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . C . Telescope . Mass. 7 . 4. 5 . Jr . Second Revised Edition . Carl Friedrich. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 2 . The M acmillan Company. 1 96 3 .Ch. 8 . No 6 . November 1 9 67 . C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . G . New York . London . U. "Space Traffic Surveillance . John Wiley & Sons. New York . Sky Publishing Corp . E scobal. C leeto n . Dover Publications . New York and London . C ambridge . Edmond Halley . Baker . 1 95 7 ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . Laplace ." in The World of Math ematics . 1 0 . Thomas Nelson and 3. Forest Ray . 1 9 1 4. K. 6. Academic Pre ss. 1 9 66. 9 . "The A erospace Vehicle s . D avis . NY . Simo n and S chuster . NY . Armitage . 1 962. A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics ." Vol 48 . Moulton . Vol 3 .
" Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. USAF Academy. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Thomas J. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. 1 6. p 39 . and Eller. Gerald C. "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. R.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch ." Satellite Control Facility. "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. NY. New York. 17. the A stronautical Sciences." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. Davies. "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination." The Vol 1 4. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. NY. 1 970. Robert D . Carson. 1 9 66. Sunnyvale. No 20 . Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . New York. Roger R. NY. 1 962. 1 4. Inc. New York. 1 3 . Electronic . Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Bate. Briskman. NY . No 5 . S. Colorado. P. 1 5 . 2 1 1 . R. 1 2 . Cheetham. Vo1 40. Journal of Oct 2. 1 966. "Future Radar Developments. 1 967 . California. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. McGrawHill. Air Force Systems Command. . 1 966. 1 962. New York . SepOct 1 967." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles.
those bodies. and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. or variously eccentric. Goddard. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 .000 or more miles. and the different force of gravity in different heights.CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. 1 . It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. the idea seems to have been forgotten. for the next 250 years. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. as of 5 . according to their different velocity. ) 00 . It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. After that . 1 0. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 .
The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter. Manned spaceflight . Project Orbiter. 1 . 3 . the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. since it contemplated the use of military hardware . was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved. still in its infancy . After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. On 4 October 1 95 7 . Rather . 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere ." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. particularly if it is manned . 3 . However. the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 .research. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top .
EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr. I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N ...' � S' (1) 0 .. . .. c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ .. 20K (...///11// . .... YEAR a YEARS .. .V'h WillI e: � .J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E . VI/II � V � . ... (I) CD � ..J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl . 71. 11 L ..+ :=.rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION .n w .50K �.. � ee.J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION ... mJ77/1/...rrrj. AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 . c.::: 0(I) "" 20 10 .H O URS WEEK .. � '" .(/} � � (I) E � � ..: fiD It: 0 It: <t . � .25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" .. . I MONTH I .
m . 1 .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit. 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . 1 . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 .1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . Figure 3 . 3 . 1 ·2 . m . stated.03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth. The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . Figure 3 . a p ogee 1 00 n . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . radiation and meteorite damage considerations. p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. m .
!f? <I • _ Figure 3 .or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit. 3 . Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . The vehicle is not allowed to coast . The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point.. 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. 1 3 . 1 2 . since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . as you can see from Figure 3 .Sec. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad.
The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). Figure 3 . 1 . therefore. successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. You . 1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge . but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . 3 .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . 1 5 . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits. As a result. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day .
1 > .:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�.5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t..�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+."� ill Q rn o I � fS ..���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS . 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " .J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*.9 r�=r�rr. 3 ...2 .Sec. "::> Figure 3 .D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .
3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0.. I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: . 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 .J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 .J 5 "' C iii 0.. "' "' .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch .
40 or greater than 1 1 6. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .6 0 . and oppo.Sec. a.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 .40 and 1 1 6. What is the inclination of the orbit? b. The ascending node moves to the west .6. With this perturbation .67 0 /day From Figure 3 . It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days. which also is due to oblateness. 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes.Q 360 ° per 90 days :. 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . completing one revolution every 90 days. Figure 3 . Therefore = . 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2.60 . 3 . Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63.
6 earth radii above the surface . ground trace of a synchronous satellite. 3 Figure 3 . As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. Figure 3. Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned. 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time .inches from the surface. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame . If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. for example . 2 . Of course.000 nm altitude . This is. If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min). The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . unfortunately. 1 . not the case ." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important.2. If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. of course.2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. 1 The Synchronous Satellite. The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator. 1 2 this would be 2*. On the scale of Figure 3 . however. The first stage booster climbs 3 .21 shows why. There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the .1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. This. 3 .1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 3 .300 nm or about 5 . Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase .
.Sec.. curve is \ " " .. This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit. intervals .2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s. . At apogee of the ascent ellipse. Dot ted grou nd trace . This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . .. 3.21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically.� � Figure 3 . burn """ " " . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr... the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit.. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 .22 Ascent ellipse .
This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . speed.1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch . for some other reason.3 . it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. Usually this is not serious. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 .34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. a? v. 2vdv . = _ r 2a . 3 .da a2 = fJ.32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . as they are called . What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis. fJ. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. and flightpath angle. dv. /:. In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . (3 . and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size.31) If we solve for '. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:.33) or = da 2a2 vdv .v (3. but . 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. at appropriate points in the orbit. we get (3 . at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. (3. a very precise orbit is required. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved.  fJ.. we get a change in . 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude .
of the orbit given by equation (3 . 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height. therefore . a2 6. a 6. For example . The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse.semimajor axis. 4 Jl. 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3.34) for small but finite 6. Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. along the transfer ellipse.v) .h a �  da." 3 . whose radius is r2 . Since the major axis is 2a. 2 The Hohmann Transfer.1 .3. whose radius is rl . to the large orbit. called Hohmann transfer orbits. we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits.V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. Similarly.35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory. In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are .v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. 3 . Since we know r l . It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . 3 .V v P P (3. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec . We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee.34).
36) = r i + r2 =  and.37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3.31 &.31 (3. since p. &. its speed is . 2at Figure 3 . (3.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch ./2 a .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3. 3 the transfer orbit.
& t = � = . Find the minimum /::.V implies a Hohmann transfer . The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit .3. For the transfer traj ectory. Although.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section .3. The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . Minimum rp = 2 DU.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 . The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . . A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. to VI ' So . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits. I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3. i n our example .Sec.V required to double the altitude of the satellite . 3 . the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction. EXAMPLE PROBLEM .39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs.1 0) (3 . 3 I N. ra = 3 DU. Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it.� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::.
577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.3.068 D U/TU V cs =. I::.VTOT == .1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .V1 = . 3 V cs 1 = (il = .061 DU/TU I::.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits. 1 29 DU/TU = 3.� r 1 1 +e p p (3. I t is obvious from Figure 3 .313) . We can express this condition mathematically as r = .346 ft/sec 3 . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits. Figure 3.32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .V2 = .3.707 DU /TU vi r.1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch .JfF"= .
Knowing and e.3. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area. �. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 .Sec. in the transfer orbit.1 5) . To satisfy both conditions.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. we can compute the energy. I &.33) and interpret them graphically.I' l l  e ' )l2 p. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. respectively . and the angular momentum. ht. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above. p p (p.3. 3 . We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. / 2a .1 4) (3. p p p  = . (3.
v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer. __ Figure 3. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 .34 /::. its speed is (3 . we get (3.1 is just the flightpath angle . Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit .33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r . p r2. </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. ..1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch .39) The angle between v1 and va.
Or. If.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ".1 7) reduces to equation (3.Sec.V using the law of cosines. more simply. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . then only the plane of the orbit has been altered .41 . This is called a simple plane change. ¢l ' is zero. we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the . 1 Simple Plane Change .310) when the flightpath angle . We can solve for the magnitude of b. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. as shown at the right of Figure 3 . b. or it can rotate the line of apsides. A velocity change .41) 3. e. the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3.V. we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side . 3 . An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. 3.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. after applying a finite b.34. (3 .1 'I' . The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle .3.V. 4 . form an isosceles vector triangle. Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above .V. b.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.1 . together with the b.3.V required.4. b. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b. (3. the b.1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. assuming that we know v and e. and obtain directly for circular orbits.31 6) Now.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. it is not surprising that equation (3 .
b . Therefore . Determine the total b. . for example . A plane change of 60 0 . Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 . The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit . it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . makes b. Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. a.V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized. It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. DU circular orbit. 3 Figure 3 .1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit.vrequired to accomplish the mission.41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). calculate the additional b.V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites.
DU 2 1 Hence .Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit. .V l 1 .__ = .Sec. The given information is: h I = 0.1 = \1'1 .Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . 3. & t = = �= .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a.. v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .270.618 = 1 . I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis. 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 . 1 +� 1 .0.953 DU/TU L.1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .Vl = V l . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0. Therefore at = r2 .
3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :. 3 and we must use equation (3.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .253 ft/sec .626) = 0 . + v�s2.387 DU/TU = 1 0. 447)(.V2 = y'l'5= 0. 31 7 + .042 ft/sec Therefore v = .317) to determine 6. 2 + 0. 3 87 .(0.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .2 .626 vcs2 = V't.2(.= 0 .4) (. 6. 4 . 1 5 DU/TU 6.V22 v.V2 .447) 0.447) (. 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 . v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.447 DU/TU 2 1 .626) = 0.704 DU/TU 18.
078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( .4.447 ) ( .1 ) t:::.Sec. F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 .4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b . 3.0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .
V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r.V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans. a = 2. 3. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3.21 . a.e. r p = 1 DU e = 0. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. What is the minimum 6. 3 . 3 EXERCISES 3 . What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time . Ch .449 DU/TU) 3. i.. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of .76. 0 .2 DU and 4 DU respectively.5 b. 1 1 DU and e = 0. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 .4 Refer to Figure 3 . c. e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. 0.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination.5 DU/TU.5 DU . (Ans.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a.1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S .6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 .2 Calculate the total 6. a plane change or an orbit transfer. i changedall other parameters remained the same.
1 DU 8 1 = 0. * 3 .v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU. 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. P = 1. The .3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = . = 0. . 8 Compute the minimum I::. 9 Calculate the total l::. (Ans.7 3 . 95 DU 8 = 0. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer. 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. C ompare this with the I::.Ch . 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 .9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned.56 c. At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. 3 .V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day . 34DU2 (fU d. beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . 0 .412 5 3 . using Hohmann transfers. 5 & Design a satellite .
New York . 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 . New York . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Rockets. 1 962. 1 July 1 965 . V2 .1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . The Viking Press. DC . Vol 2. NY . NY.. Baker. and Maud W. 5 . Dornberger. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Headquarters. University of California Press. Makemson. and Space Travel. Sir Isaac. 1 96 1 . 2nd revised ed. 1 9 60. Space Planners Guide. Berkeley and Los Angeles. Missiles. Washington . 1 95 5 . Walter . Air Force Systems Command . 1 . Willy. The Viking Press. 3 . Ley. . A cademic Pre'ss. New York and London . Principia. 4 . Robert M . Newton . L.
presupposed the solution of the first. or lack of circumspection. . by taking the observations under my care . For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event.2 1 77 . . Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. of the heirs. was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II.CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . This was Kepler 's first great problem.. The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. the determination of the true movement of the planets. . Albert Einstein ! 4 . . . the solution of the second problem. I quickly took advantage of the absence. who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. including the earth . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. . . or perhaps usurping them .
whole grand entertainment would be lost. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . 1 . and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. detour. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . When Christopher Columbus. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle. . (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. "What matters to me. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. but above all to convey to him the reasons. we not only forgive them. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . subterfuges. Thus. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered." Kepler points out in his Preface.1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. . I + .
yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. almost with masochistic delight. again incorrectly . Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. His results. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. Moreover. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. however. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . since speed was inversely proportional to distance . What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. But then without a word of transition. with the warning: "Ye physicists. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. . At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. prick your ears. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. perihelion and aphelion. were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. never noticing his error. without benefit of any preconceived notions. as it were. that. . It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy.Sec 4. for now we are going to invade your territory. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance.
. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. " Finally.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch .2 Finally. He had . As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before. he settled on the oval. 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity.. . a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. 4 Figure 4 . as I shall prove further down . 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . .
. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. ..and chased away. .2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . . return e d by stealth through the backdoor.e . but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation. came when. I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. . hypothesis. an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. in a moment of despair. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end. de rive the . are one and the same . The climax to this comedy of errors.: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. have persisted to this day. Ah. mine] . That is to say.' " . Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler.2 T I M EO F . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits. In this chapter we will.. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits . . . 4. and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. until I went nearly mad.y it should move in an orbit at all. time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. and velocity and the timeofflight. believing that this was a quite different . made a mistake in geometry. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. You: are .. which I had rejected .!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. . disguising itself to be accepted.F L I G HT . he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to . .Sec 4. but he did not know how. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. I thought and searched. whereas the two . Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. : .
the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area.2 .22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 . the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. 4.A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch . say from periapsis to some general point.. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . ''"'''"'. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4. using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use . In going part way around an orbit..e . 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit .1 ) . 7T a b . It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically. A ' in Figure 4..2.21 Area swept out by r ... but more motivated. i.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY . (4. We will pursue a lengthier. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4.2.2. 4 existed . I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period. P.l .'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''. where the true anomaly is v .1 ) i s the area � . We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse.
22 Eccentric anomaly. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle .Z x2 + . perpendicular to the major axis. A dotted line .F L I G HT . 2 T i M EO F .l. The angle is called the eccentric anomaly.Sec 4 . the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 . E E Circle : . \/2 a2 _ . has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q. From analytical geometry.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse.
Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . . From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse .22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae .�rea PSV minus the dotted area. Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V .a E) . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) . oos E and whose (4.From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . It Tollows directly from equation (4. we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . 4 Hence . A2 .
27) reduces to (4. E." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E .2 . Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally.e si n Ai yields E) . minus the triangle . whose base is (a CDS E). Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) . From Figure 4. in order to use equation (4. to its corresponding true anomaly. and whose altitude is (a si n E ). v.1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' .27) (4.e sin E (4. substituting into equation (4.24).we get � ( E .Sec 4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .e si n E (4. Obviously . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV . Kepler introduced the definition M = It . cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4.2 T I M EO F . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.T = 4 ( E .e si n E ) I (4. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians).22.F L I G H T .24) E .28) ." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion.25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.
T) .28). we can say that t . In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.e Sin .29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v.T ) . when v is between o and n. In general we can say that t  to = 4. + t . The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane .to = ( t .24 right.T o ) .(to . E Figure 4 .24 left). so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .( t o . At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically.( Eo  E) (4.24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis. 4 E E.to = lP (t .[ 2kn + (E . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then . from Figure 4.Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4.T) .
2.1 3) (4.2 T I M EO F.2.82 f: ( 1 .+ COS (4.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .21 2).8 si n E ) V r .F L I G H T .8 E ) dE (4.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .2.E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration.21 6) V 1 .82 ( E .Sec 4.1 2) (4.2. . From equation (4.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4.1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.2.7 .1 1 ) easily integrable . Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .2.1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4. From equations in section 1 .  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .2.2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.J1=82 d E (4.
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn .4 4.4. the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa. Therefore . Fortunately . From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis.1 2) is transcendental in x.1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. 4.4. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign .Sec 4. a.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4. If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . since equation (4.2 Solving for x When Time is Known .42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e . Equation (4 .1 3) ro va v t" .4. ( 1 . But now we have a problem. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known . va' a and the trial value of x. Figure 4. (4 .47) has been used to eliminate z. a trialanderror solution is indicated. In one sense .
it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r. the iteration may be terminated. xn .1 5) where t is the given timeofflight. To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .32).1 = x 2 C + x . Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 .1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . Substituting for r in equation (4.41 6) dx x . With x known.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4. and A and B are not colinear. 4 .4. 1 dt r (4. Thus A.4. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . (4. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .42.z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) . it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. we must then calculate the corresponding and v.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q.3 The f and 9 Expressions. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. B and C are coplanar vectors.41 9) . An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. the four vectors fO ' (4.4. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.
= fg... if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity. x. in equation (4.1 9) gives Sec 4 . We can isolate the scalar . the left side of the O .4.. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h .tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w . g ... g. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 . First. however. f. f and g. we will derive an interesting relationship between f. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates.420) This equation shows that f . f and 9 are not independent.1 8) into equation (4...where f. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q.. g . Crossing equation (4.4.4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4..4.
yw x . we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x.X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch . ) .426) .425).E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f . .4.34) and (4. From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 .42 1 ) We can isolate (4.1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4.4. o .1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw . x + Co cos v = .425) Combining equations (4.a l e + Sln Y.423) (4.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x. (4. Xw . (4. 4 h (4. x wYw .w o Yw h (4.e2 )  r .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ . .4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.
4.42 1 ) c /Ii....a Va 2 = 1 9. \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin . ro ro . r.. x + co h = . x =� cos x + c r .Sec 4 .. x = 0 at t = o .a  mitions of z.1 ) .43 0) 0 1 f C a = .43 1 ) .426) through (4 .32)..427) and using the definition of the universal variable ... 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.429) Substituting equations (4..43 0) f (4.428) yw . Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4.... e quation (4.(e sin � + cos � ).. Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4.429) into equation (4.426) and (4. e quation (4..a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum. ro .Va • W .42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4.sin r  � (4. (4. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C .
4.A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.4.435) (4.4·3) � r o . r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .32) (4. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.] � a .436) .1 ) and (4 .1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4.202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .4. 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a . vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 .433) (4....
34) (4. Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4. to 4. Va x (4.x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 . then compute v from equation (4. its definition.1 8). 5 . solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme . Obviously . From and determine r and a.5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation.420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions.434) . The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter.e E). the expression (t would replace 4 . 5 .1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit .43 1 ) and (4.1 9) .4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. x + Co cos [ � . but we have not said what and z represent.43 6) . if we are going to use equation (4. Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . 2 . 3 . can be used. la . Note also that if were not zero . then compute r and r from equation (4 .43 5) and (4.4.[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . note that equation (4.Sec 4. Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. 1 The Physical Significance of and z. in any of the equations where z appears.4. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero). Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4.5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation.1 ) Va = _ E . Si n va = Va =  c o s .4 .4. rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. 4 . 1 . 4 . Also.
66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4.56) la. we can conclude that = V'ii I F .4.Do . (4 .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).53) Subtracting equation (4. therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12. Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x .52) whenever is negative .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 .204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 . 1 (4. 5 ·1) at time x = 0. (4 .7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.F 0 1  Va I E .5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE.1 3) .3 4) and (4. since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4. we get x= D .53) from (4 .5 4) (4.57) . Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f. a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . (4 . so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s .E o l .
In computing the semimaj or axis.when z is positive .5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . so Sec 4. either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4.to 4 . 5 . Therefore .5. from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer. the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4. A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem.5 9) .1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t .8) Figure 4 . I z = I F . 5 . If imaginary. 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem. a.F a ) '· z is zero.
if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. convergence will be extremely rapid. Furthermore . .e . C = 1 .5..v y� ( . can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result. / ( . and .. since X = foE.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. ( t a to) .P)/ 2. then Z will be a large negative number . with £X.ji11. In the case of elliptical orbits..6F. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n.5 . When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 . I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number. a = ± x 3 . is large.. so s i n h fi .a � eFz ± 2x 3 . The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly.. wherever it occu rs.All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a.a vG ) .. we get for elliptical orbits.cosh .. so S � V0r eFz 2 . Use this for a first guess . X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period.fZi3 = q .:z.z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .
so Sec 4 . 5 .a eFz sign ( t . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4. for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence .t o ) � ( 1 .. we get � S . Therefore. Anytime t . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t . X will be positive and .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4.t o ) sign (t .sign (t . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.tJ is positive . recognizing that X will be positive when (t .t o ) 2x 3 � + t . vice versa . .t o ) Fa . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.L ( t .5. if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the .a .r:z .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.£. 5 .t o ) x ::::: sign (t . where appropriate .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .1 1 ) .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before.r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J. 4 . Thu s .t o ) #a ( 1 ] .tohATci ( l .Q) eV La 2J.sign in the above expression .to is positive.
1 3). The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.1 0) as C where = i C = .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 .4.y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 .5.Ji .B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.4.1 1 ) We can write equation (4.1 0) (4. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .1 1 ) ..1 1 ) as But i v:z . if z is negative .s i n i V} = i si n i B ..5.7! + . so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .cosh .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive. use equations (4. z cos i � .4.1 2) and (4 . . w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 . .4. we can write equation (4. s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 . the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S. = Similarly. If z is near zero .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz.".(1  . (4.1 3) COS .0 6 + .s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch . 4 (4 .4.4.5. use equations (4.1 0) and (4. 1 .5.
1 4) ·· 1 .1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity .Sec 4. (611)2 etc.Ji! + Ji!.. 0 .52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z . . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .. ..5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z . 0 'j (4. The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 . Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 ..5..+ . (4Ir) 2 .� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4.5. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity .. .
12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. and v at = t=2 T U .)] P (4.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 .zS .3S ) . we get I � = fz. dC /d z and dS /d z . 4 functions .5. Given ra = I D U va = 1 . Find r.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s .c o s y!? 3 ( VZ.2C ) .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . Differentiating the definition of C. I dS = _ ( C . 1 .( 1 . it is not surprising that the derivatives. va = Therefore & = 1. 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x. can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves.266  .s i n z dz 2z [ 0. t=2 T U9 ra = I. 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . r a . va > � a= :l = 1 . 39 5 .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 2& .[i) z ] (4 .5 . 1 K .
973 a Using equation (4.t.222 Repeating the process. tn toward t = ZTU. 2 2 x 3 ' etc.12.222 1 ...277 dXn 1 . 58+ .58 1 . solving for t . 705 .000 1 .8 1 6 1 .279 1 . xn tn fit After three iterations.1 .266 ( 1 . 1 . 24 1 = 1 .t o x_ 21Tya lP :.t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.821 1 .58 1 .4. we can make a 2 __ = 1 .007 2. using a slide rule .8 2 1 1 . 58+.705 2 .58) 2 1 .4. Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places..6E first approximation for x: Sec 4. X l Zl y"""a6E or x .222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.1 .222 = 1 .. y'ii"(t . we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .8 1 6 1 .Since x = and .1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 ..8 1 6 x n+1 .1 4) and (4.82 1 1 ..
since e = 1 . v. yw and r in terms of D.0.2. 4. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. f. r = _. Finally. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola.1 7). In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. 1 24.. we will derive expressions for xw . for the parabola. 4 4. E and F. 880 1 1 . 236K g.6 . we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. f = 0. But . and 9 = 0.32 1 1 + 1 .JPt::.2) .1 we can see that X w = r cos v .8801 Ch . g = 1 . g. as D = v'P tan � 2 . we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly .6. D. (4. But first some useful identities will be presented. E or F.1 ) From Figure 4. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v.6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4.321 . Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. f = 0. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D.0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY .Then from the definitions of f.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0..6. E and F.. 1 Some Useful Identities Involving D..6.
1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system.Sec 4 .61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4.6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 . yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .65) . (4. 2 If we substitute from equation (4.6. the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r.1 ) .
4 rr. in Figure 4 .62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown.J7!.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product. r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4. Using r • r = and equation (2.62 Perifocal components of r . (4.6.s i n p v = ffp ta n v .1 ) . For the eccentric anomaly . r • v. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .66) v .
8) and simplifying.69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4. we can say that I yw = Q. 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .6. 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) .6. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae.62. yw Just as we did for the parabola. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4. I Substituting from equations (4. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E .24) . M  (4.Sec 4 . e illS E we get another useful  �. we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .67) and (4 . (4.67) (a si n E ) a But .1 0) e sin E also. (4.
1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation. The .. e cos E from equation (4..22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words.. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.. when F is a real number .6.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4. when E is a real number.1 0) . relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E. we obtain E = .28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.6. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E .e Si n r E Finally .1 3) .6.:. is given by e si n rr = r = $a .. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4. solving this equation for • v . E is imaginary . v. F is imaginary.!.6.
Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF.  But i si n iF = si n h F.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system.67) we can write Sec 4 .6 . Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.6. The rectangular components of a general position vector.1 8) .range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. 4.1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v .6.1 4) Xw = a(rosh F . = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':. may be written as (4.1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4.e) .1). Similarly. But l cos i F = cosh F . so Yw = a � sinh F.el = a (cos i F .61 6) r e cosh F = 1.a r  (4. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning.Il a •v (4. 6. 6. r. From equation (4. 6. In Figure 4 . 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .e ) . so (4.
tan p /:.ji! sin v p (4.A F U N CT I O N O F T. the rectangular components of the velocity vector . we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = . 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:..63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y .: o s /:.x". and note that h = . Figure 4.. (4.V.. so 1 � L (I .JiLP. 4 +.6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4.c o s tv ) (4.V _ 2 1 .p . are yw = r sin v (4.1 . 626) ._ c��V P IW (4..:....624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) ..I M E Ch .vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf .42 1 ) . ( .P ( 1 ..... r0 · = 1 . 623) .c os I 9 ' = v'f. V. 62 1) (4. where tv = v .. . .625) (4.
the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation.e 2 ) cos E .e2 ) v. Thus Xw Sec 4.6.cos L'!.68) .67) and (4. o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4.a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l . we get f = a( cos E .E ) .63 0) (4. using equation (4. E rr .6.!Ji8 sin L'!. yw 9 and (t .1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .63 2) .3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly . (4. = . (4.1 0).Ji!.4.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .( L'!.E ) f = .6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = .(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .1 (4.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 . 627) But. Similarly.to ) .sin L'!.E .628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.6.a E sin E . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 . From equations (4.E) 9 r _ 0 j.I Jlla sin E.e) v! fJa( l .cos L'!. 629) f = 1 ..e cos E o ) .e2 ). r (4.e2 ) = 1.� ( 1 .63 1 ) (4.a ( 1 .
and Sma1l4 tells us: " But.26) Even though equation (4." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign . A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .  E.63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E.2 6) is one equation in one unknown . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .2k7T + M o .6. � V a3 ( t . (4. 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4.j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F . (4.t o ) .63 6) 4.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) . .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch . M can be obtained from = (4.to) .6F ) .(1 E . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly . In classical terms. Kepler himself realized this. and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it..4 Kepler Problem Algorithm. ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .634) (4. cosh 6F ) . of course . with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true.
638) n dM/d E I E=E n . that results from this trial value . E It would. 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. compute the mean anomaly. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . of course .64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. E n+ l E + M . � Figure 4.Sec 4 . We will resort again to the Newton iteration method.63 7) Now. M n . ' (4. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4. select a new trial value. 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem. but this is not very accurate.64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M.Mn En+ 1 ' from (4.
t . Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . e. From fa and va determine r 0' a. dE Therefore.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . the true anomaly may be found from equation (4. however.4.when e is nearly 1 . It can be used for LW or�E .2. The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r. 5. Determine f and V from equations (4. 1 . 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating.t ' are given. o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. Solve for V if needed. even when e is nearly 1 . Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4.5 + . Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(.4. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. 3 .1 8) and (4. 4 .5 cos V DU . d M = 1 e cos E .1 9). Once E i s determined by any method.  . equation (4.6. va and the timeofflight. e.e cos En (4. 2. p and va· 2 .1 2) .636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M .1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. where d M / d E l E = En En. we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F).4 0) EXERCISES 4. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a.
it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. V = 3481 .2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. corresponding to l:J) of 600• .348J +  1 . find the universal variable. Explain why this must be so .Ch . Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4. Find the values of f. f = 4 . one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P. i. 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 .5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. (partial Ans.4 If. x. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead.. 4.85 TU) 4. how should the area of search for x be limited. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans.6 For the data given in problem 4. glven fO' vO' and t. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse. TOF = 5.3. find r and v for . 625) . (Ans.e.3 Given l:J) = ffP.
e = ..22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. Va and t . 1 0.5 DU. Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. if X == x (t ) . 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. 5.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch.9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa. Le. 4 . an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. == 1 . 4 . 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value.to and solve for f and v. 7 The text. e = . in equations (4.73 TV) 4. 9 At burnout. what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. 4 4 . (Ans.1 1). Va and w and will solve for f. Develop. f and g. then . with a perigee above the north pole. 4 .51 0) and (4. gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. 1 1 For problem 4.99). 2. 5 DU. 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. ra == 2. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . TOF = 2. g.10 rp 4 .5 . fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 . Do the same for problem 4. and give your analytic reasoning behind.
Albert. o 4 .E. 1 95 9 .6 TU) . Small. Wise. 63 2). 2.16 * 4.. A New York. . 1 963 . Philosophical Library.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch . Koestler.0 + . NY. f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly. f and 9 in terms of (t . 4 .. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. New York. LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . 4.I:!:.. 1 95 1 .43 6). Guidance . r3 fJ. The Sleepwalkers. 1 7 Derive the expression for g . Kepler.43 5) and (4. 4. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company. g. Battin.to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � . Arthur. The Macmillan 3 . = ..tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. 2. r.1 8). Stahlman. Einstein. NY. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f.( t . Robert.. The University of Wisconsin Press.r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. 1 964. New York. Madison. Richard H.630) through (4.2 . equation (4.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . L'. NY. Company. Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. See equations (4.
Brooks. Bate." A str.1 79. . "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. to Celestial Mechanics.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . Sperling. pp 66066 1 . A n Introduction York. 4 5 . 1 9 1 2 . New 6. Goodyear. S. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. Forest Ray. "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. W. W . 1 965 . 1 0. Herrick. 1 2. and 1. Vol 3 1 . . Stumpff. 1 965. 9. E. pp 1 05 . Redondo Beach. H. Sundrnan. pp 1 89. Lemmon. Vol 275 . K. K. pp 3093 1 5. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. pp 1 08. W. 1 96 1 . H .1 28 . Roger R. N. The MacMillan Company. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. Moulton. "Universal Variables." A stron." A stron. Vol 70. Unpublished notes. 1 1 . California. J. 8.1 92. Mathmatica. 1 947. H. F . United States Air Force Academy . J. 1 965. Vol 70. 1 9 1 4. 7.ach." A cta Vol 36." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems." ARS 1.
But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . 227 5. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. in the first year of the 1 9th century. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. in 1 7 8 1 . CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. Uranus.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. a 24yearold German mathematician. But.. astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name. exactly 1 year later. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. The object turned out to be Ceres. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. and the direction of . l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. Hegel asserted. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. no more . The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. 5. but for a different reason. The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before ." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres. no less. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo . observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. If they paid some attention to philosophy . Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter."the Gauss problem.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. Because of its importance. and for convenience in referring to it later. Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban.
. that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. appears in the denominator of any expression." through an angular change greater than 7r.. the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. p. If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r). . If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). 5 ... We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 .". particularly if the parameter. . 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . / .motion. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used. It is not surprising. The relationship between the four vectors f l . f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. the orbit is a degenerate conic. .." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians. but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way. / I I I I I Figure 5 . Obviously . therefore. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion. 2.. Sec ... or the "long way.21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 .SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ .1 .
a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p.. Use equations (5. 23) and (5 . bv .cos �E ) f = 1 . (5 . g. (5 . 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight ..( 1 . a 9 = 1 . Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. f.27) and (5 . p.25). 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . 3.y'ii8 . From equation (5 .1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f.23).. There are seven variablesf1 .( 1 .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si.sin �E ) � JJ. the solut �on to . 2.23) Actually. f and g..cos �V .( 1 . this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent. what we have is three equations in three unknowns. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns. but the first four are known.cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 .24) Si n �E (5 . (5 . g. n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . Consider equations (5 .1 ) (5 .24) arid (5 .25 ) (5 . r2 P p rI . a and �E.22) r2 a ( 1 .cos �v) = 1 . 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . so 2 .26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 . 27) . 2.230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . p. Test the result by solving equation (5 .2. (5 . t. r .cos �E ) .22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f. We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 . a or �E.
n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . g .3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f .( 1 . Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. r1 (5 .1 ) (5 . A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work.c x2 y. In each case . suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. introduced in Chapter 4. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I. What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem.Sec. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. = 1 . however. 3 . Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. This last step is perhaps the most important of all. let's write the expressions for f. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. x and z..3 2) .:t x3 S. If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. 5 . This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . a and L'£ or 6F. p. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss. and would enable us to use the universal variables.
. as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant. P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b.v) (5 .38) y.( c o s b.v y. we obtain A..39) . ( 1 . yields X C.jE: .1I 1 � ..33)  (5. p r1 j . 5 X2 (5 .35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .( 1 c o s b.j A equation (5 . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable.v) • 9 = = IE.36) may be written (5 . rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b.232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .viI x ( 1 zS) \ .i n b...A .v (5 . A y= .31 ).33) and cancelling vwp from both sides.V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch . ( 1 c o s b. we get r 1 r 2 (1 .v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 .37) I y = r 1 + r2 . 1 ...v ) 1 c o s b..c o s b.34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.
we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.37 ) and (5 .420). and the auxiliary variable . 3. 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .3. to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: .1 ).1 6) (5 .1 4) 1 The velocity. the last term of this expression may be simplified.31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant . 5 . 3. 32).35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 . A.=1' Ig =r2 =.qr::oo .31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I .31 5) (5 .1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .Sec. rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 . (5 .34). .31 3) (5 .1 0) (5 . From equations (5 .". y. so that (5 .ff.r I (5 . by using equations (5 .: r I ..3. I" � \ ·1 fr .on simplllw. can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves.38). v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 . thi 't "p. +. 9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 .32) and (5 .LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 .31 7) .3.
234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .39).31 5). When the method has converged to a solution. The derivative. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation. necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 .= 3 x 2 . may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point.31 7). dt / dz.31 6) and (5 . this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly .E2 and z = .31 3).37). then compute VI and v2 from equations (5.1 1). Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . 7 .3.31 9) .31 8) ( ) (5 . 2 . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. 5. 4.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 . Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5. 9 and 9 from equations (5 .0. y. (5 . Although any iterative scheme .31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i . using equation (5 . From f ' f and the "direction of motion.1 0) and (4. adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained. 3. 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . from equation (5 .dz dz dz 2yy dz . Pick a trial value for z. 6. 5. 3.4. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.1 2) (5 . 5 1 . evaluate t. If it is not nearly the same . A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. Since z = .1 0) .0.3 .P .3. a Newton iteration. A." evaluate the I 2 constant.S + X 3 _ + .31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. Determine the auxiliary variable.1 4) and (5 .4. may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 . Determine x from equation (5 . which converges more rapidly.
3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS . 5 .__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 .32 1 )  . i n section 4 . 5 .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .Sec. Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 . 3 .39) for dy = dz  But.320) (5 . we showed that y.z S) dS _ . we get ( 1 .=  dS (C . .
5 so. Using universal variables. we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .318). 51 r2 = 1. There is only one path for a given direction of motion.320) and (5 . These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 . we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.41 1 ).v) .322) into equation (5 . "direction of motion": rl =0. At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0.01 + + O." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements.7K DU.319) and (5 . Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.1 0) and (4.236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = .4.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit). I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S. ill rl . To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 .6J + 0.326) .322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero. the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z.+ 5! 7 ! _ _ .OK DU.  (5 . D M � si g n (1T L'>. Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period.324) _  (5 . equations (4. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0.+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 . determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .
0488008482 OU r2 = 1 . 0488088482 + 1 . OM = +1 we have "short way " (.327).1 5) .Sec.28406 ( __ ) = 0 . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 . Now following the algorithm of section 5 .6V > 1T). A A l ong way =1 . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 . from equations (4.321 radians Using (5 . 5 .962 radians LW long way = 21T .37) does when .28406 = 1 . 0488088482 + 1 . 5 . 327) r1 = 1 . 86474323 = 1 .0. 28406 ( __ = 3 ..6V is small.3 : Step 1 : LW (5 .39).1 . 0000 + 1 .5.28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = . 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T). Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 .6V short way = 5.1 4) and (4. 0000 1 . For ease of numerical solutions.CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = . a convenient form of equation (5 . 23287446 yT12 vm .
.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration..489482706 (6") .. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative..23287446 0.05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0. 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way. 1 3 min = 0445 z ..28406 y'3.28406 y'0.1 0).23287446 t l o ng = 0. Step 5: Using equation (5 . (The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 .. 0432z = 1 3.672625 1 6 TU + through 6.444689 m 0.. Y l o ng = 3.86474323 = 1 . so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 .3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 .. X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : .9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off. from the given data.86474323 2. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 .780 1 9540 1 /2 0.0 we do not normalize. 1 . the desired time o f flight is : ...3.238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch .
58 1 43981 VI = 0. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.1 3).Sec.63049 1 80961 1 .94746230 A = 1 .31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .8826885334K v2 = 0. (5 .6 1 856634 = 0. 7499473 9 t = 0.02234 1 8 1 1 .0.t .3. (5. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>. 1 7866539741 + 1 .76973587J .5544 1 39777J 0.0.60 1 874421 .t solved .3 .250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0.50634848K v2 = 0.662242 1 3 A = · 1 .9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.96670788 z = x 0.554824 D U /T U f = 3.314).79852734 v2 = 1 . W e have : � 104 (within 0.83236253 Using equations (5 . 5 .989794 D U/TU 0.5288 97 1 4 = 2. 74994739 VI = 0.36 1 677491 + 0. 1 1 39209665J  0. (5 .1 6) and (5 .3.842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.28406 Y = 4.28406 Y = 0.5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .6009 1 852 .035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0.0.1 5).83073807 v 2 = 1 .
the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell .9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative.52). and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position). 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive. The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .39). there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. In other words. where f::1) is less than 7T.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T.0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 . 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. For "short way" trajectories. Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 . the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths.39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number.1 O} VC .2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 .38) and (5 . From equation (5 .076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. yet equation (5 .31 . This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4.= 0.
Sec.4.4. we can solve for a and get 1 .6V V 1 . and 2 solving for p. for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity.1 ) and si n  COS .25).23). (sin xl i .6V p � . r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . we get  .6V COS . The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.c o s x =./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity .cos ""V ( 1 .c o s ""E si n ""E . This check is only necessary when is positive. hence. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity. 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.4.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique. we obtain 5.v.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x. 5. The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns..V ) a (5 . 5.4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5.4 TH E p. a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p . F or "long way" trajectories y is positive . From equation (5 .cos !:::.?S.)2 cos .j1 ..va si . a and ""E.42) into equation (5.cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .. if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::.
43) as Ll.4. (5 .45) and simplify.E Q ± y'2ni C O S . a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions.47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.43) 5.E CO � = ± p= k = . E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 . (5 .45) ± Using these same definitions.46) Ll. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .Q p ) 2 (5 .E) •  k = k Ll.2 Expressing a as a Function of p. 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.E Solving for cos2..v ) we can rewrite equation (5 . we get Ll. 2 Ll.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 .Qp y'2ni p .2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch . we obtain m p a= (5 .E ( k .E .J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll. The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.c o s bJ)) (5 .48) k . and noting that � c os '2 .
5. 2.4 . Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). First . however. 5 .. Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic. am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight . Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . we need to determine � (or .where k.. .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . 5.!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . a may not be smaller than some minimum value . The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 .3 Checking the Trial Value of p.6. Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined.4 T H E p.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 . The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . Sec.F in case a is negative). Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048).4.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr. The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero.
vi.4 The t vs P Curve .. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .1 0) = = 1 . F .6. let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way. If a is positive.Tar (si n h . To get a feeling for the problem.6.42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.6. we see that the limiting case of . we can determine . the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .6. we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like . F ) .23) and (5 .4. If (. let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .1 3) .E from equations (5 . As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that. there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.41 1) c o sh . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .F: (5 ..F is positive.25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . although t approaches infInity for this orbit.4.a r1 (1  f) (5 .6. F 1 . 5 c o s .E .24) or the corresponding equation involving .4.23).24) and (5 . (5 . Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p. we can compute f. This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero.F (5 .25).E a If yield is negative. In Figure 5." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 . The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First.6. 9 and f from equations (5 .41 2) (5 .6.49) Since we always assume . If we look at "long way" trajectories.E ) (5 .From the trial value of P and the known information.6.( 1 .6.s i n .6.
For l'J) less than IT.. Since it is important thar the first trial value. P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case . Sec. for t:sv greater than IT..4 T H E p.. lie within the prescribed limits. we should first compute P j or P j j .. as well as all subsequent guesses for p. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 .. As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight. P must lie between o and P j j ..... parabola hyperbola Figure 5 .zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero.42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 .. 5 .43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. In Figure 5 . From the discussion above.... P must lie between P j and infinity. t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j .I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse .
• . � " . by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two .4. 5 1 :co .. from equation (5 .4. b .yLri1 (5 . I . In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p.246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . 0 Q + y2in k  (5 .5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p. . The solution is then bracketed and. Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5.1 4) Q . one that gives too small a value for t. .. The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution. Several simple methods may be used successfully.. we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi).46). ell . p )0 p" . .43 k p a rameter . and one that gives too large a value.� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain.4. .1 5) 5 . '" E 0> '" .
... then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t .... ..... .. ... . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p. ... .1 ) (t n . .44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration . 4 T H E p. . .... . . . then a better estimate of p may be obtained from .. It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer.t n . If tn.. tn t ..I Figure 5 ..t n ) ( P n . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5. . .. . . .Sec..4.. .1 ) (5. If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. . . . ..P n . O��_4o P n... .... .1 6).I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn. . . ..1 6) This scheme can be repeated. .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p. 5 .4. .1 and Pn ...
we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 41 9) .iri equati �n (S.41 8) (S . We must now obtain an expression for the derivative . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point. From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  . fl3  fJ.r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .41 7). ( � . � ( S .1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p.si n L'> E l . (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .4.4.1 7) I t =9 viIZ.
3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .420) From equation (5 .2mk2 Qp 2kQp .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .( k .47).Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m .4 T H E p.E / dp and noting.Qp ) Q. 5 .2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) . we obtain .Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .4 8) .Sec.2 dp k ( k .47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .k2 ] 2 [ (2m .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb. from equation (5 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m . bE d�E . that ( k .
.Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F .423) .1 9).4.= . p(k h JJ. 5 (5 ..6E JJ.420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 . By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch . (5 . and (5 .1 8) from (5 .� (6E .Qp) si n 6E JJ.COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .4. (5 . which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve.6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9. _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2..42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 .
a. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. Evaluate the constants k. Solve for t from equation (5 . The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a.4.4. Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions.1 5).4. 3 .49) and (5 .F obtained from the trial value. 5 251 . as appropriate . (5 .6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 . 9 . Solve for Ll. 5 . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained. using equations (5 .1 2) or (5 .4. should be used in equation (5 . of p. the values of g. equations (5 . r and Ll. Sec. Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola. Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . 5 .4. As stated earlier .24) and (5 . We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 .1 1 ) . 2. G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem. 25). 5 .1 4) and (5 . If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo .422) or (5 .1 0) or equation (5 .To evaluate the slope at Pn . 4 . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. solve for a from equation (5 4 . Solve for f. Pn . Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits. 6. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter.27) and (5 .22). 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES .423). 8 .E or Ll.2·3). 7 . we will develop and use the f and 9 series.44). 9 and f from equations (5 .II using 2 .8). 2 .4. Using the trial value. Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 .F.6E or Ll. t and .1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. Q and m from r] .
Therefore. 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion. (5 . (5 . 5 9) . 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 5) r r (5 .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v.57) (5 .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 . 5 . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 . 5 2) (5 .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .54) we have the following recursion (5 . 5 4) for n = O. 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. we write equation (5 .
v are known . These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. q. 5 .51 6) (5 . (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 .515) =  ur. this can be (5 . Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .and the equation of motion f  (5 .5. 1 Development of the Series Coefficients . as we shall u .5 11 ) (5 . 5 .1 7) .5.5W)  (r . From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. p and q which will be useful later . We define them as follows : O. p. 5 . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u.51 3) rr and the definition of p.1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr .51 2) u . u L. v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .
r) (v) 2 .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 .3u p (5 . 522) q = . r r (5 .p (u + 2q ) . 5.U . 5. 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . _ [1 1  2 (v . ) . .r .(v) 2 . Summarizing: (5 . d q = d t .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = .1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = .1 8) Using the definition of P. = .57) and (5 .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 . 5 . . v) _ 1 u. ) _ 24 (r .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly. 5 20) (5 . 1 1 1 1 .23 r· (V) r   u. q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . . (5 .
u G = .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) . = .u r = . Writing equation (5 .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u . Fs = F4 . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .54) for n = 1 .t!:.6 u 2 p = . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .6 u 2 p = .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .3 u p ( u .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue. p and q. 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . = r 0. 5.Sec. F3 = F .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing.1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u .. = .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .1 5u p ( u .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \.5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense . = F 1 r + G 1 .u G 4 = u ( u .30p p + 3 q ) .3p ( u + 2q ) .1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P .
tao Comparing with equation (5 . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 .Gn n.t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t . Vo (5 .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.523) .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 .u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o . .526) .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t .1 . Referring to equations (5 . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious. therefore. .524) (5 .256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t. 5 = U (u .52) and (5 .51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 . ) .5.1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .
F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 .1 5p 2 + 3q + U). G = 30up(1 4p2 . 5 .2 1 q .51 .94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .Sec.u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (. F = 3up 3 F = u(.7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) . G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u).3q .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O. F 2 = 'U.30q .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .90q . G = O.1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .28q .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 . G 1 = 1 .6q . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 . G = u. F 1 = 0.
24) and (5 . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . From equation (5 . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large .258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v.5·27) + ' (5 .6. f I . This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large. The f and 9 series may be used . In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . p.2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. (5 . 5 . 7) (5 .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse.2·3).5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy. the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. 5. 7) r I g (r I . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . 5.0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 .5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . 2·5). Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions.5·29) .f (r I . r I .51) + 9= 7  1 .
77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6. . This .Sec. h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. 5.6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA. As. so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y. L£ . The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude .61 Sector and triangle area (5 . becomes dt (1 . thus Figure 5 . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ .
260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.62) (5 . This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one. x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. 4 � c o s b. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 .' l'2 2 2 (5 .2E ) 2 . let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information.6." + l( 1 . 5. The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 .V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 . . If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio.64) = 2 (2� co s � )3.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.2 The First Equation of Gauss.2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b. E ) .6.43) and using the identity. but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 .63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss.c o s b.
.L .£Q. From the first of these equations.68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J.67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 .1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E . L ( l:>E . 3 The Second Equation of G auss. si n l:v cos � .s i n l:>E ) .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression.24) and (5 . ( .(5 . Using the identity. we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .2 ( 1 r1 r .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J. t/y.67) 1 cos l:>v =.= .s i n l:>E ) . equation .61)..jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J. 5 . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 .65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 . Si.65). n l:> E ) . (5 .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  .61 ) becomes si n l:v ..6 ...L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 .2 2 L (5 . ..Sec. so .6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 .
69) cos f = 1 . recall that we started with three equations. (5 . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. a good first guess is y � 1 . We then added another independent equation. 6. (5 ." 5 .64) and (5 . we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = .2(� . The first step is to evaluate the constants. which is known as "the second equation of Gauss. there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . a and LE.25). y and LE . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations.s) . and one more unknown. equations (5 .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) . This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . Next. more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y. y 2 ( y . y.from (5 .43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated. (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary. The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . s and w. We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 .6. and so on. To review what we have done so far. from r I ' r2 .1 ) . (5 .6.1 ) = W (LE .1 0) . until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical. 22) completes the solution.si n LE ) we may write. 24) and (5 . in three unknowns. S + 1 . 27) and (5 . 23).4 Solution of the Equations .Si. When convergence has occurred. pick a trial value for y.69) are transcendental. the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 . Unfortunately. we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns.262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . n = 2 si n 3 LE . p. We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E.64) and solving for y. !:JJ and t.6.
6. S.F whenever the right side is greater than one . F.E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.S ) y (5 . For this reason. they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical. F s i n h 3 "2 . x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 ..1 0) may also b e written as Sec. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section.1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 .c:.c:.c:. equation (5 .c:.F is real. . Using the identity.E s i n 3 . 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y .c:. F = si nh .c:.F . we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs. E or .6. the righthand side of equation (5 .s i n . 5 .E and . Since we already know that when .F 2 ) · (5 .c:.F and COS i . then .F = rush . )� s + 1 .c:.cE. If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic. i sin i. 6.c:. E = i . Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.c:.Since the equations above involve .cosh 2 .c:.0.1 0) may become greater than one.c:.E is imaginary. equation (5 . Noting that .c:.c:. If the given timeofflight is short. 6.69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 .c:.F .6.69) and to determine y.E .F .F will be zero and both equations (5 .1 1 ) s i n h .6.69) and · (5 .c:. as y2 = W S + x .c:.E is imaginary.c:. indicating that�. difficulties may be anticipated any time .F are close to zero.c:.c:.1 2) become indeterminate.1 2) = X = .
(s + x ) · 1 (5 . 7 .E or 6. 2. and then expressing 6. ) . problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 .43). parabola.61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . . This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . Determine X from equation (5 .63). 6 .6. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 .264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . r2 . replacing CDs 6. zero. 4. 3 .1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 .1 4). 5 . which is developed by Moulton.27) and (5 . from rl .1 (5 . it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x.]) and t using equations (5 . Compute the constants. The result.6.. Evaluate f. Depending on the type of conic. E as a power series in x. /:. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. ( 1 + §.1 0) or (5 . . and 9 from equations (5 .6.6.26). is . ... Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . 2 6.62) and (5 . Determine p from equation (5 . or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 .6. 1� = 2 3 1. the orbit being an ellipse.1 3).6 . or negative. The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. (5 .22).1 1). E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit.6.1 4) Now.24). s and w. 2 .25) and (5 .Y:i.23). (5 .2 Ch .1 5) 1 . f. g . the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point. Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. . determine 6.F from equation (5 .
We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time . 72. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . 5 . and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission." In all but the simplest cases. The £:. Usually.INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . ballistic missile targeting. To make the problem even more specific. To avoid generalities. �atellite intercept and rendezvous.Sec. We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. and ballistic missile interception. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed.
.".. ".1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem . 5 i nterceptor . r. �/ �/ ". I n .266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . .....1 .\. ��y V \" _ . I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 . e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.�: :. ) / ot t.� ." \ t a rg e t / \ ..' ':. \ •• • • • • • . fI }/ \ \ .. 7 ... at t.� ' ....7. .f... "..
We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . which is when the intercept will occur. The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 . Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 .Sec. 5 . Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island.7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 . The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200.
.268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . . . launch vel. the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. " . �v? �v . \ \ \ Figure 5 . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. . But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. . . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 . 5 them. . . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point.238 km/sec.
The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself. we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . 5 . 5 . 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and .5 . the better . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot . The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. In summary .7 . A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. From Figure 5 . This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . Because of earth rotation.7 .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . In Figure 5 . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur. the launch site will have moved eastward . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor.
5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .) z :J « ...4 /':.7.J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .O F .V plot for example intercept problem .270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.
Sec.1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L. the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 .84) (5 . v2 • P I ' P2 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2. t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5.V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . P3 . Although we have examined a very specific example . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6. another method will be develope d .e. t2 . P3 · . the three components of r2 . 5 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. now that we have develope d the f and 9 series.85) (5 . (5 .8 .86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 . 82) t2 so (5 . i.8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 .
R1 . the components of f2 and V2 .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . ' r2 .8. 8. 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d . � into equations (5 . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . in fact only six of the equations are independent.L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . L2 . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . y. b .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . the components of Vz be X. y and Z . Estimate the magnitude of f2 . i. L3 . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . Rz . y and z .8) (5 .8.1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. 526) and (5 . and eliminating the K components.1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x.e.8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns.8·7) (5 . 5 to (5 . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 .
The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer. f. but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times.3 Verify equations (5 . b.31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . (5. Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a. and (5.6 Derive equation (5 . Usirlg specific numbers.4 Verify the development of equation (5 048).1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l.39). Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 . Limitations. e . EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter.31 ).2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6. 5.31 3) through (5 .V required for intercept? 5.526) and (5 . Y.522). Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 . What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. c. =: =: 5 . using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy. 5 Z. which are the components of f2 and v2 . 5. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . 5 .423) for hyperbolic orbits. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04. . I I I I  x. verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . Accuracy. Z.41 . f2 I + J DU).Ch . Ease of computation.527).t2 and t2 t } are not too large.\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location.32).1 5.
d. rl r2 p. r2 'and the distance between them. although a few iterations can be made by hand. The original Gauss method. 5.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 .00256 (J + K» . 5 . which will contain both position vectors. 1 1 For the following data sets for r I .8 using the universal variable. d. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. as a function of rI r2 .274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch . b. Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. r2 . (Ans. c.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . 5 Given two position vectors rI . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . t2 . Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use.tl = 1 .t l determine v2 using a.06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 .0922 TU. Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse.7 . h = 1 . vI = 0. The universal variable method .009 (. (Ans. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. The piteration technique.9 Repeat problem 5 . p 1 + J + K DU DU 5. 5 .J + K).
2J Use "long way" traj ectory. 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . NY. r 1 = I t 2 . "The Prince of Mathematicians. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . r 1 = 2I t2 .6J + 0. Moulton. 51 + 0.t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. . Inc. f 1 = 1 . A stronautical Guidance. Battin. the MacMillan Company.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . Bell. and A.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. Liu.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . Methods of Orbit Determination.t 1 = 0." in The World of 1 . McGrawHill Book Company. Simon and Schuster. NY. Carl Friedrich.Ch . 2 . Vol 5 .4804847 1 1 2 +0.7K D U t 2 .66986 9921+0 . John Wiley & Sons. New York. Davis.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b . r 1 = 41 t 2 . Appendix A. New York. New York. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. 1 965. f l = 0 . (Answer : v = 0. 1 956. Mathematics. Inc. 1 964. New 6. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight.0. Escobal. Forest Ray. 4. Gauss. 1 963. (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. NY. a. 1 9 59. New York. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. to Celestial Mechanics. c . d . A n Introduction York. S. NY. Pedro Ramon. 2I D U t2 . 1 . Herrick. Dover Publications. 1 9 1 4. 3. Richard H. Eric Temple .
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The result is well known. 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. ironically . culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. . 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in .000 V2's had been fired in anger . World War II as "too late . which concern us in this chapter. begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . longrange ballistic missiles. 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. Napoleon I 6. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . Efforts. During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . have a very short history . It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was.
these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany . In July 1 95 4. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . No German was permitted to enter this separate building. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. Brigadier General 3 .278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 4 Accordingly. They met in a vacant church in Inglewood.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . Trevor Gardner . California. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . According to Dr. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program.000 pounds thrust. After all. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. in June 1 9 53 . 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers.
it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. Blasingame . When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth. a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. Atlas was a reality. After three unsuccessful attempts.000 people participating directly. Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . Progress was rapid. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory. 6. 6 . by mid· 1 95 9 . In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . From 2 main contractors at the beginning.Sec. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts. Otherwise. later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. the program had. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact.
We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude. Since Va:. (6 .. It will not be discussed in this text.. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 .2.2. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. =. need not be redefined.2.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . There are. such terms as "height at burnout." etc. Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . 6 . Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics.ji1Tr. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory .2. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . 6 from launch to burnout. 1 defines these new quantities. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. Q .22) .2 The Nondimensional Parameter." "height of apogee.. Figure 6. however. 6 . This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions." "flightpath angle at burnout. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system. a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point.
2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 . 6.21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .Sec .
the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit.26) . 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit. It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2.2. (6.3 The FreeFlight Range Equation . Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6. If Q is greater than 2 .282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch .25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . When Q is equal to 1 . 24) 6 . the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 .1 ) .23) or IQ=2�·1 p . and substitute for V.2.the expression p. the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed. If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .O/r from equation (6.
27) .f6.22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) . lies on each side of the major axis. 6 . and co s � = . be written as (6.26) above can. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 . therefore. 'l'. half the freeflight range angle . 2 Equation.co s v b o .Sec.
since p = a( 1 . and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target. .1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6.2. A. (6. the total range angle. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. what should the flightpath angle.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6.28) p. also becomes known.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter.1 1) into equation (6. h = rv cos cp.284 .29) and (6.2. . = r Q C O S2 cp .2. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6. the required freeflight range angle. ¢ro. e. we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q.T.29) Now.e2 ). ./.
In Figure 6 . the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 .2. We could .4 The FlightPath Angle Equation.23 Ellipse geometry 6 . ¢bo. Now. 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . Instead . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus. Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal. choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . F'. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. Sec 6 .In other words. and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . with a little algebra. it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . is called r bo .
F' and the burnout point. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse .24.Qb o sin � . light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror .000 ) from equation (6.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line . the basis for the so called "whispering gallery. we can express d as 'i' d = o S . for example.2.2. It means. si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. This is. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 . d. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal. in fact. � + 'lr) = .2.1 3) (6. shown in Figure 6. that. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. Qb o 2 2 (6.1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x.x) = sin (6.1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 ." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a .I n 2 and also as rb (6.2.1 6) .
6.24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .Sec. the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .1 6) gives us . sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals . so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .866.2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 .2. 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory . .9.
the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 . Because a = . Figure 6 . If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. Table 6. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy.P/2&. A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose .21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 . The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . If Q bo is exactly 1 . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. Provided that 'l' is attainable. 2. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. . 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . If Q bo is greater than 1 . equation (6 . This would not be a very practical missile trajectory.1 6) does not exceed 1 . The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable .25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . 2. the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. Nevertheless. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable.
Sec. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6. 6 .25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories .
21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'. skims earth high only . ha p og ee 0. cos ¢ b o == 0. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. vbo = 2/3 DU/TU. what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1.11 5 18 1 . 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :.5 DU.625 .low traj . hits earth Table 6 . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU. hits earth 000 > 1 high only .290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj .low traj . we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. During the test firing of a ballistic missile.
4Deg.08 1 7 DU/TU and . Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S . 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.025) = 1 . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry.2. 2<P b o + 64°20.5 The Maximum Range Traject ory .1 2) . 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. 08 1 7 ( 1 . 6. 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT.2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . 6 2 1 . c os � = + N .2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation.1 . Notice or <P b o = :. 60 0W . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N. ) (60 n m i ) =2. versus the flightpath angle .Sec. We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 .2. 6 . As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again . 36° . 26. :.. Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 .025 DU respectively. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . 600 E. 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . 'IT. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° . 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2.
.. :.pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 .2.2.s. One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.1 7) I (6. ...292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell .7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight . � 80 . en EO I .� 90 Figure 6.. There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition ..26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory. 2.:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' .1 8) L__________________� . we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must.1 6) equals exactly 1 . s 0> Q) 0 � c . (2<P bO � ) 2 . be the maximum range condition.Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 .'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6.. If the right side of equation (6.. 0> <1> <1> � IJ. A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution . A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target. then.
7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). but . If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o .2. the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 . noting that l . 220) for maximum range conditions.222) . 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only.2.1 7 ). 2./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6.1 9) for maximum range conditions.cos 2 . This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle . due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified.Qbo Qb o (6 . sin �= 2 2 .8) .. The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6.Sec:. By inspection.6 Time of FreeFlight. VI 1 800 . 6 . 2 . 6 . The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6. 2. 'JI . From the symmetry of Figure 6.e cos 2 (6.
A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. 6 The semimajor axis. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . can be obtained from equ ations (6. 28. In fact . and the eccentricity. most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. e. The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . since five variables have been plotted on the figure.1 1).300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 . 2.27 Time of freeflight (6. Figure 6 . Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . a. 23) and (6.
What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.750 n m .000 nm.075) == 0. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6.Sec.28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.8 period vs. 6 .25 D U == 7 .884) ( 1 . The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm.95 From Figure 6.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.
. .9h Ir. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free . . : : . ' .. hi.I ' : ' : : : : : : .� '" �� :.. . . . :: : J: : : .aje..f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 . : :/ . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C.CI�rie� v X I . : ' .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. : : . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: .!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . :: :"/ N .
1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories.6X. payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . 6 . 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point.  Vbo 6.3 ° From equation (6.2. and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.6C represents the cro ssrange error. . impacting at B. 2 00 ft/sec . The arc length . For brevity .1 � 0.32 r ads = 1 33. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.444 n m = 2. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point.6C. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal. These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. F or purposes of this example.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north. In Figure 6 .OOO nm max = 3. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry.6C may be / 9 57 1.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed. suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors.77 0 = 0 . For a fixed burnout altitude .933 D Urr U � 24. .1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. the crossrange error. 957 Hsi 66.6X and . 8. . The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance . and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. 6 . 3 .220) . position.Sec. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. 'l' From equation (6.3 .
cos . if the intended target had been the north pole . you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center. for example. In Figure 6 .3.3 . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6.thought of as angles. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch .1 . Equation (6. if they are in degrees. 3.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth."2 to simplify equation (6 .31 Lateral displacement of burnout point .1 ) to (6.32) 2 X Figure 6. 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation. I 1 . we get (6.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane .31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X.
Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. are as planned. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . Figure 6 . this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. will result. P. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . 299 Figure 6.32 Azimuth error 6 . a crossrange error. �C.33) . 6(3. we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth.32 is the crossrange error . 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6.Sec. 'l1. If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. 6 .3 . before .'l1. The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 .2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C.
33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 . If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount .3 .33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range.. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it . The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn .oo a "'00 Fl ight .33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 .\]I. 6.x ' to simplify equation (6. 6 If we assume that both 43 and .300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch .. are shown by a solid line in the figure . if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.0.21 about the center of the Earth.. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 .y I  : : i. (6. <Pbo' In Figure 6.D.3.0.� I a q..0. If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. it will hit the target anyway .\]I will represent a downrange . In other words.3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point. This . \]I.34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. cos X � 1 .path angle .
The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation.36) (6.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory. The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .Sec. If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3. We could get an approximate value for .3.1 0) Qbo I i . 33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6. The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .3 .1 2) of this chapter . 6 .2.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.6. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation. we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o . then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .cot <P b o (6.8) (6.
_ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6.1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3.1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.3.3.sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .3. 3.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo . a'l1 . 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 .1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = . Let us first express equation (6. Vb Substituting from equation (6.
particular burnout error .600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 . is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a.33. 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. While we need equation (6.1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 . We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section. In fact. 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. 6 . the actual range error on a 3 . If this seems strange. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . A plot of range versus burnout radius.3.3 .000 nm range. The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 .Sec. Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . 3 . equation . Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot). an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . Figure 6.1 3) This partial derivative . when used in the manner described above. angle errors.33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors.
3. .3. if burnout occurs too low.3.1 1) implicitly. 6.3.304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout . the missile falls short of the target in every case . 6 however.31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.1 4) for small values of .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory . Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 . The magnitude of the error is (6..1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = .1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 .6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler .3.3. too slow and the missile falls short. b o 'fJ ' (6 . differentiating the range equation (6 . the missile overshoots .1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6. Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots . Again.
An analysis of equation (6 . LW b o = . ub o = 5 x 1 0 .1 0.6¢ b o = . 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 .4 D U . 3. There is no crossrange error.5 x 1 05 D U/TU . like the other two influence coefficients.9 0 5 D U !TU .Sec.1 8) would reveal that.6V b o + a 'lr .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 . a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high.6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] . Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better.4 rad ians. 1 D U . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = . r bo = 1 .905) 2 ( 1 . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error . Total downrange error : .3. 735 rad DU r b o ( .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range . . 6 . We will need Q bo (.735 = 6 . 649 r ad U D U/T . 1 ) 2 .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) .6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.
1 0. for example).649 (5x 1 O .4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating.4 ) TOT =1 1 . We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. ove rshoot 6. If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar. That is. 0.1 .S ) . Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . both the launch point and the target are in motion. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives. The rotation is from west to east. <p.56x 1 0.4 ) (3444) � 4 n . The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. its flightpath angle. In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 .1 . and its azimuth angle. m i .4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr .735 ( 5x 1.5 24 ft/sec.2 1 (.2sin 1 60 o 2 = . it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it. then all three . We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly.4 )+6. 6.306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . 6 =2. If we know the timeofflight of the missile .4. {3. That is. We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation. v. 56x 1 0 . we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target.
Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. and a speed of. A simple example should clarify this point.4.1 ) . �. Hereafter. an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle.I ·=<� • .000 ft/sec.. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . 6 . An observer at rest would not agree . we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) .5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction. of 45 0 . and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . say 1 . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel.Sec.1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 ." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6.000 ft/sec. Like the observer on the moving train. the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 . we will refer to measurements of burnout . Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 .:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 . If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it. of 900 (east). an azimuth. (6.4. direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. of train l \\�. 1>. .
this will not be difficult.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. east . then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . We can obtain the south. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. flightpath angle . v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . Once you have the components of ve. If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 .308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . and up components of the true velocity. by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. v.42) The true speed. break up V into its components. It is. first. lies. �.44) �. of course. Vs (6 . Thus.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. (6 . ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner .
then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate .42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 . The term. the target will be there also. it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B.4.4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively . when the missile arrives at point B.Sec. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . 6. In Figure 6 . z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . Rather . t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . so the arc length OA in Figure 6.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch.43 is just 90 0 L o. If the coordinates of the target are ( 4. Hopefully. Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4.2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation.
Once we know the total range angle. If you are firing the missile the "long way" around. and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . The longitude difference. we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 . If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. (6 . It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . (6 . and if. (6 .N + w ffitA ) .43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (.0. by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 . should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target.0.N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3.0. then a value of .0.N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.48) Again. tA . A.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A . {3.0. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. . The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point. . we can solve for the required launch azimuth.0. {3.N. we get c o s {3 = sin L t . A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target.47) Solving for cos {3.N + wffitA' where .triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth. Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.
how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate .Sec. In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. tA But . 6 . A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . A. and launch azimuth. (3. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. Needless to say. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range .
.0 58 8cos290 = . 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . 339 ) 2 + ( ..9 DU/TU.. 85 From Figure 6 . 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . 9 s i n 300= . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 45 ) 2 = . 1 DU. v = . 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . 29 . 5 1 1 95 v .( . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( .42) through (6 . 33° ¢bo = v E = . 339 ) =.312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .. A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N. Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of . 8° v n /3 = v = .3 ° W burns out at 30o N.675 s (J=333 . 87 9 30. 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 .5022 ta .j( .... . 79 . 1 ) 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 6 . 9cos3 00cos 3300= . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . using Q bo = .4 5) : v= . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 .
7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = .123 .3. 3709 �GG (3. 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = . 29 . 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1.203. 334)=135° . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. 6. 77° = .7 8 0 . . 6 70) =.13 = 7. 770 N re = 156.4 .we(3.Sec. 2 5 TU :.80° . 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 . 334 TU boN = 135° .7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � .85 and ¢bo = 3 0. 334TU ) =123. tff=3. w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 .
040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . m i .05 D U = 1 0° .926 D U /TU . 6 EXERCISES 6 . 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse . and a spherical Earth.' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 . r b o = 1 .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. R = 6 0 n . .840. 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N. what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6.1 9)? Why? 6 . 4> b o p Vb o = 6 . 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . = . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. m i . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude. Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing.000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . v = 1 6 .5 D U!TU 1 .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 .6 ft/sec) 6 .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 .2.
02.x and L¥3 be? . Rtf = 5 . 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. how large can . 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 .0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 .Ch. What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . Using the equations si n iL. (Ans. A lateral displacement . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o . Rtf = 4 .98 to 1 .000 run) 6 . Do not use charts.2 1 2 run) 6. 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0. he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 .6. 6 .6.'lr ). 1 0 During a test flight. 7 I n general.83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 .)(. in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point.06 DU.400 n mi. 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . . 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. .02. an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .
7 . vbo = 0.936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. a.346 n mi long) b. low. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:. 6 .. c . 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .0 DU for a ballistic missile. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range .V = 25 . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 . Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 .642 DU/TU) . or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 . 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . b .31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . (Ans.6888 n mi L:.r = 0.. Is this a high.800 nautical miles? (Ans. 6 6 .
e . 6 . using a minimum timeofflight trajectory .'I' = � b.. 5 DU and whose perigee is .700 n mi using a high trajectory. If the velocity at burnout was 28.20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N.¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'.ri. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 .where e is the 6 . 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 . 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 . Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth . at the same altitude .22 The range error equation could be written as: b. what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.530 ft/sec. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of .. Do not use charts. at an altitude of 2. 1 2 00 W. Q bo + .QL. 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 . 1 5 00 E. i.. 6.23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). b. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N.6 .. determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means. 3 0 0 E. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. R t of 4. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity. 5 DU.4 min) = 6.092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N. �bo and analyze the result . Ch . 6 . What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans. tff 40.
48966 = 3 1 5 .1 0 . b.5 0 .500 ft/sec=O.6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . 1 200W .2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 . elevation . 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . v bo = .905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 .3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 .66E+20784. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O. (Ans. low. Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . c.318 V bo =23. It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 . How far will the missile miss the target? 4.02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N.0057 ° = . 92S1 0608.25 An ICBM is to be flight tested. 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .4 rad ian s a. or maximum range trajectory? 6 . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of .1 045 . 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.
== == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. L t 54 0 3 1 '. == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . Assuming a symmetric orbit. 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory.649 n mi . 1 20 OW . ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 . (Ans. atmosphereless Earth. What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 . What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. and r bo � r(fl. What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d . 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N.73 n mi.6 1 8 . site located 319 During the actual firing.Ch .1 2 ' . What was the freeflight range. downrange displacement of burnout point . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . 1. rotating. In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . 5 7 min) == * 6 . 0 (Ans. the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . . 43e .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . tff 3 2 .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 .
2. Eric. 1958. Doubleday & Company. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). New York. 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. Vol 2.30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 .29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 .1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 . The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. Wheelon . "Free Flight . Calif. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1.3 1 The approximation : * 6." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. V2 . NY. NY. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts. 5 . Garden City. 1 960. 2.4) . ed . Burgess. Inc. 1 962. Ernest G . . New York . 3 . Los Angeles. A History of the U. 6 * 6. (Hin t : See section 6.3 . New York. Lt Col Kenneth. 1 965 . altitude at bo ::: . Albert D.1 2) . Space Technology Laboratories. Gantz . LongRange Ballistic Missiles .S. Frederick A.320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . Praeger. NY.800 n mi. A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. * 6. 4. Publishers. Dornberger . Schwiebert. Inc. 1 95 5 . NY.2. Walter. R ff ::: 1 0.02 DU.6Vb o . The Viking Press. The MacMillan Company.
since it gives us light during the night. whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. The Moon is the more useful. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . when it is dark.. and moving round it. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. move round the Sun once a year. does. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. . Proctor. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. about which she moves. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. and is. have been discovered. together with the Earth.CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. of all which. the Sun or the Moon? . . when it is light anyway. the 32 1 .the Moon. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. though principally attracted by the Earth.
What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. with no less subtility than industry. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more .322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. has given a full account. which are the subj ect of the next chapter.2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. 7. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . W. Clairaut . Even interplanetary trajectories. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. W. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . Lagrange and Laplace . 7 Author in this book. Brown . Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon.in this case the Sun. D'Alembert. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. but because it comes close to being a double planet. . Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction.
400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . Darwin. .67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface . the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. This puts the center of the system 4.Sec. H. .21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . . 7 . The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. . . . . The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 .3 04 of the mass of the Earth. 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. According to one theory advanced by G. :.:.: =j Figure 7. . ��===c==Q.. . As a result . These periodic fluctuations in longitude were. son of the great biologist Charles Darwin.3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward . .3 days. in fact.. The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition). the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 . .
In the case of the Moon's orbit . In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. 7 Figure 7. due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun. the orbital elements are constantly .2. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements.22 Lunar orbital elements 7.324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .
" was discovered more than 2 . 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes . The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.3 1 66 1 days.8 days. We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a.400 km. b. The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. This effect . The line of nodes.000 years ago by Hipparchus. 7 . called "evection. c.054900489 .Sec. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours.
23 ° 27' .2.000 years. The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . for only then can Sun. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node ." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . the other . where the Moon crosses from north to south. The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. From Figure 7. so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . d . The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum.9 years.6 years.5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' . In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory . The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction.326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch .2 Lunar Librations. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' .23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. its mean value is 5 0 S ' . in l S72. rotates westward. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . is the descending node . If the Moon's orbit were = . e . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. but more than a century later . Thus.6 years. making one complete revolution in l S . 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic. the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7.
" The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. we would see exactly half of its surface . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . As a result. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. 7 .M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit. which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time.3 . The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . among other things. The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . Actually we see . Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. Because of the complex motions of the Moon. and 7. at one time or another. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth.Sec. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . and the terminal attraction of the Moon. If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions. This permits us to see about 7 .Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure. monthbymonth basis. solar perturbations. the computer time required could become prohibitive . SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. daybyday.75 0 around each limb of the moon. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions. solar pressure .
We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit.0549 . a = :l:!:. 7.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .. semimaj or axis. Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. With this thought in mind. but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem..3. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter.3 .6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. It is not important that the analytical method be precise. 2& e = y'1  pia .. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed.Q. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . this will not introduce significant errors.400 km. 7 . In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the . we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384.
Sec.. We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4. k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression.. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10..9 I njection 1 1.. 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH .0 S pe e d . .31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed .r1 1.. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit.... e r Figure 7. II. E i= . j 80 .c C/) .2 10. 1 r1 1 .. if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit..i. In Figure 7. 7 .3 .g' .  I.c " 0 .:.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 . we can solve for va . we get c o s V = 2.31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly. 60 \ \ I njection .
. then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit.330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .')'.. For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' . We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed . the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection. .. \ 0 �� ' earth " . For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite ... .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 ..... 7 . : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 . 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . : .32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . .. . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \. 7 an injection altitude of . Actually. to parabolic.: / :1 . It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero.3 ..J! . As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic . In Figure 7.. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP.
We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. 7 . we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. .we will never reach the Moon at all. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. is a function of . Assuming an inj ection altitude of . 7 . If we are trying to minimize injection speed. if we keep reducing the injection speed . the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case . due to errors in guidance or other factors. This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours. this minimum injection speed is 1 0. Assuming no lunar gravity . an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. 1 8 8 km/sec. we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon.966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. In general the sweep angle . The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . 82 km/sec. In such a case . Moon from our assumed inj ection point . Eventually . we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 . if we try to take longer by going slower.Sec. the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. 3 . Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity .32. both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . which we can call 1/1. From Figure 7 . as the injection speed is decreased.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors.32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon .32 we see that. Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle .
. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj.33 .33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted. If.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. for example . In the case of a direct (eastward) launch.. Neglecting lunar gravity. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted . the initial velocity is too high. This may be seen from Figure 7 . that is. so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t. and wrrft. But. the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel.
the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. however. the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. 7. The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite .1 ) . 5 However. for all practical purposes.3 00 km.arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis.0 km/sec. This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius. In effect. R s' given by the expression Sec. only are interested in determining ap. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace . the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . There is.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 . 7 . we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations.4.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact. We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon. it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly .encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence. .4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance .
4.300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth.1 ) yields the value Rs = 66. Figure 7 . A full derivation of equation (7 . 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon. 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin.) Then.4 .4. 7 . a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h . 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure .) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n .1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.4." The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent . the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.1 ) can be found in Battin . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.
4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration.46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 .Sec.43) From the law of cosines. VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit. r 1 . from geometry . A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence. 1 . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions. the radius. Finally.45) COS <P I . at lunar arrival is (7 .42) (7 . r 1 . This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables.r h V 1 I (7 .44) .
1 p ia  a = :l!.1 0) .4. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . p=� (7 .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.49) (7 .47) 2& e = ".to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined. Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. t l .48) (7 . 7 Figure 7. JJ.
3 rad/TUEIl (7 .4.1 5) 2.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 .e 1 r1 __ (7 .1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 .4. Eo and E1 from Finally. 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.649 2.1 1 ) (7 .Sec. the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 . 7 .1 3) (7 .1 6) The phase angle at departure.1 2) Next. Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.4. 1 37 X X 1 0.6 rad/sec 1 0 . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.4. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .4. we can determine the eccentric anomalies. Wm = = t 1 . . 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = .to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence .4.
42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail.which we chose arbitrarily .1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth. If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition. the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . at arrival is completely determined by \ . In Figure 7 .1 8) (7 . is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch .1 6) above .0 1 8 k m/sec.45).2 Conditions at the Patch Point . then the selena centric radius. We will do this in the sections that follow.4. If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center. (7 . The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact . r 1 .48) through (7 .4. 7 . It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so. a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . (7 .1 9) . 7 . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body.4. Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 .45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails.4. v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO .42 : V m = 1 .4. The geocentric radius. then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is. r2 . it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft .
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .50 � � c 0 i e 1. Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch . «>  0.30 .40 .20 .54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 .
There are several interesting features of Figure 7 .54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent .5. For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon.5 3) . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination .5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles. 54. once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely.52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct .3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. Figure 7 .5 0 . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7.5 0 and 28 . 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . 7 .Sec. If lunar declination at intercept is specified. However.5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. if we add a coasting arc. b oth of which are undesirable. 5 4 worth noticing.52) and Figure 7 . As a result .si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. From Figure 7 . 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7. If lighting conditions are important. It should be obvious from equation (7 . we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. sir! 0 1 .
1 0 28 27 29 .2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.254 1 67 .41 7 1 67 .970 1 66 .449 1 67 . 2 1 28 34 42 .39 28 3 0 34. 5 7 1 1 66 .97 28 3 1 47 . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens .97 29.56 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .58 73. 1 67 1 7 29 26 .3 .695 1 8 02 54 .203 28 1 8 49 .766 1 7 43 23 .385 1 67 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.47 28 25 3 8 .3 1 9 3 .05 8 1 65 . 973 FIgure 1 65 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch .95 7 1 7 37 48.23 1 23 .376 1 67 .46 1 1 67 .85 4 1 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 . 8 1 28 32 47 . 267 1 67 .85 1 1 66 . 7 . 1 4 1 06.07 47.00 28 28 1 5 .63 1 1 1 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 . 1 6 +1 6 1 . 078 1 66 . 1 5 28 34 1 0.45 8 0.445 1 67 .88 28 33 3 5 .374 1 8 00 07 .998 17 5 7 20. .34 28 32 1 7 .424 1 67 .90 28 33 5 3 .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 . 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.35 28 1 6 08 .72 1 1 8 25 08.949 1 8 05 42. 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 .4 1 3 1 66 .435 1 65 .3 3 3 1 67 .3 1 + 1 48 .3 1 8 5 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26. 7 1 7 1 66 .342 1 7 40 3 5 .97 28 34 3 9 . 1 90 1 67 . 1 969 .78 1 3 1 .76 28 3 1 09 . 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .97 1 1 9. . 624 1 7 3 5 00.44 22.84 60. 24 28 23 34 . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40. 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 .27 3 5 .7 1 54.6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 . 1 7 2 1 67 .242 1 66 . 86 28 26 29 . 1 3 .08 28 29 08 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 .3 1 28 29 48 . 1 0 1 6.9 8 9 8 . 5 9 28 34 33 .020 1 8 1 6 49. 24 .44 28 2 1 1 8 .05 28 33 1 1 .1 44.87 28 34 22.308 1 8 22 22. 1 9 173. 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .32 1 1 67 .460 1 67 .862 1 65 .89 28 24 29 .737 18 1 9 36 .963 1 8 27 5 5 . 5 8 67.38 + 9 .350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON . 8 0 1 36.
c o s 1/1 t . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 .9 . 5 3 . ao' at this launch time . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 . the total time . plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc.54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 . at the launch point (see Figure 2. 84). I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 .5 .53 . and may be obtained from equation (2. 7 .Sec.si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 ." 8. between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . to' and the right ascension of the launch site . tt ' is (7 . 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . we get cos 6a. 5 4). is the same as the "local sidereal time .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 .57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. The launch time. = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. it is possible to adjustt l . slightly (7 .89) : (7 56) . to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . �. which may be computed from the injection conditions. 1/1 c ' Thus.3 . The difference i n right ascension . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. !::lX .
352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune . 7.V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts. What additional 6.54) agree.426 k m 2 /sec2 6.and recompute to and Qb until (Xl .t I ES Ch . 7 . These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods.3 224 . � . determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon. 7.2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth. 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer. 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . and the exact We now know the injection conditions. The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. 000 k m 33 . . 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth.(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 .300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .
v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec . 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth. Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. . Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby.400 k m : a . What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit.9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit.6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 . 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. b. a . Determine the /:. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . 7 ..Ch .
vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. . requirement. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. <1>0 = = = * 7 . Use h bo l OO n mi . 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit.) * 7 . Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. select ro ' vo ' to meet this .354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 . Specifically. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). 7 7 . CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry.
1 962. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. Richard H . Isaac . George . NY. 1 943 . . 1 9 5 9 . 1 967. 4." ARMA Document DR 220. The Story of the Moon . New York. Battin. Baker. London and New York. Clyde . Robert M. 6. Academic Press. "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. Fisher. Principia . Abelard Schuman. Inc. November 1 95 9 . Newton. NY. Makemson. 5. The Moon . 2. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. NY. New York. Doubleday. L.Ch. McGrawHill Book Company. Gamow. University of California Press. Second Edition.1 6. Doran and Company. Garden City. A stronautical Guidance. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 3 . 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . an d Maud W. 1 964.
.
compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . By 1 507 he was 357 . Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . C opernicus. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . etc. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. two luminaries.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head.. two eyes. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . such as the seven metals. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. But the tide of opinion ebbed. indeed. two nostrils. At first it was not understood . and a mouth . two ears. two unpropitious." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations. which it were tedious to enumerate . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars.
diameter. 3. nevertheless. Uranus. 8. The "law. . some of which pass near the Sun. Jupiter . .1 .2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. comets. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609." as may be seen in Table 8 .2. and Pluto .358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 6. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. If we write down the series 0. ." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture.2. the members of the solar system. Venus. indeed. . at the age of 70. Earth. Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. are spread much more widely throughout the system. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. Neptune. It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. 8. Mars. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. In addition. 1 Bode's Law. 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . 1 2 . Saturn. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets.
8 77.2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants. which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.6 3 8 .0 1 9 .0 1. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic.2 Table 8. The size.00 1 .Sec. 8. is its path .52 2. 0 is presented in Table 8 .72 1 .7 1 . shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.21 Actual Distance 0.4 0.22.39 0. this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune .20 9.6 2.65 5. 8.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets. compared with the total mission duration. The sixth orbital element. Table 8 . Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun.52 1 9.2 1 0. Only for brief periods.8 5 .28 3 0. 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . Except for Mercury and Pluto .76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 . changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 8. 1 7 39.2.
225 237 ° . 2056 .096 1 88 ° .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .275 222 ° .5 24 5 .441 73 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° .203 9. 7 73 1 ° . 8 94 341 ° . 0068 .2583 7 ° .004 3 ° .405 undefined 49 ° .773 1 7° . 38 7 1 .76 . 5 68 3 1 ° .684 93 ° .. 1 1 7 265 ° . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 5 73 1 75 ° .306 2 ° .489 0° .9 1 6 1 3 1 ° .870 L. 5 1 3 5 2 ° . 074 1 83 ° .497 1 3 ° . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.000 1 .) 00 . 05 1 4 .828 1 7 1 °.850 1 ° . 1 39 1 1 3 ° . 0934 . 000 1 °..ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 1 1 1 326 ° ..0539 .970 7 6 ° .322 1 00 ° . 1 3 6 47 ° .7233 1 .28 3 0.0 Planet Semimaj or axis a . 1 7 3 9 .400 276 ° ..423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c. 0482 . 76 ° . 0 1 67 ..005 0 .394 0° .5 1 9 1 9 . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 . 1 42 1 02 ° .
795x 1 0 7 5 .257x l O s 3 .6 1 5 1 . 0 1 1 64.49 4." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .268x 1 0 B 3 .232x l 0 4 3 .79 24.6 1 7 .65 6.05 6 ..3 .74 2 . 1 4 1 3 . 5 227.06 9 .000 1 .3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto . 1 1 49 .986x l O s 4..8 6 29.000 .24 1 ." .896x 1 0 6 3 .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .8 1 7 1 .9 1 08 .8 8 1 1 1 .7 5 7 . 1 08 3 1 8 .820x 1 0 6 6 .80 5 .PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.0 95.2 1 4.9? 1 .3 05x 1 04 1 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 .87 3 5 .46 84.l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .04 29.8 247 .
If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference . the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . 8. we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. however. from the standpoint of /:. The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth.v required.3 . we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .3l . would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. if continued past the destination planet . this consideration is important. At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. For transfers to mo st of the planets. the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. Just as in lunar trajectories. S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. was the Hohmann transfer. The Hohmann transfer.
\ _.. 8. .V.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit.' . Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / . either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip.u o_____+." .v required for an interplanetary mission. Nevertheless.. Therefore .Sec.d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by .
From Table 8. If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. • .78 kIn/sec. r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit. The heliocentric speed.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 .32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f.1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .3. for the Hohmann transfer.3 and should be reviewed . The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29.l 0 (8 . then.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity. the difference between the heliocentric speed. transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity.where f.3 . B (8 . In any case .33) In Table 8 . 3 .
From Table 8 . Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits.07 4 1 . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.04 1 6.345 1 .05 4 1 .295 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.Sec. 1 6 30. r d = 1 . In other words .524 A U From equation (8 .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .57 .\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .42 4 1 .28 32.379 1 . 1 2 5 8 .3 9 1 1 .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence. Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer .60 Table 8.28 27.5 1 46 .31 1 05 .397 22.22 the radius to Mars from the Sun.73 38.9  2 . VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight . rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.748 .78 46.9 1 6 1 . t2 . 40. rE9> are respectively : .099 1 .74 6. 8.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure . it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth.
The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. the phase angle at departure .366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . where is the angular velocity of the target planet.7088 years = 258. The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 .099A U/TU 0 = 32. If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected.t1 ) wt .32 for a Mars trajectory. 8 From equation (8 .3. v . vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .9 d ays 8. Thus.3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 . the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8.34) __ (8 . From equation (8 .t 1 = 1T = 4. and is illustrated in Figure 8 . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4.32) the heliocentric speed .35) wt (t2 .3.73Km/sec .4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 . The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.2 Phase Angle at Departure.
.3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . . ..36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . If we miss a particular launch opportunity. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet... 367 . The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun. . Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. 8..32 Phase angle at departure. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct. . pp 1 60. 'Yl (8 .1 76 . The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. .Sec.. Figure 8.. ... .
yrs 0. rad/yr 26 .01 1 .368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .60 2. 3 ·2. we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again.07 1 1 0. Mars and Venus. then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated. 1 3 1 . Thus.09 1 .3.38) . 8. the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long.3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence.213 .32 1 . we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed.530 .37) (8.0 1 1 .w t I (8 . Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth.32 In a time . 340 .03 8 .00 Table 8.07 5 .025 Synodic Period.2 1 7 3 . Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::.04 1 . 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period.v 1 determined. so W EfJ7 s .W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .
 '?. � _ i t_ r b_ . .310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in . .. '\ . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. . (8 . .Sec. � Figure 8.. . 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� ..r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<.33 / .. . ".39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 . . . . . . . � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 .. . .:V. 8 . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo... �. .
34 we see that the angie .2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. the angle . is given by cos fI =  §. we may write .3.1 1 ) becomes = 2 . the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8.6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 .33 . This may be seen by solving equation (8 .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars. C but since e = da for any conic. so equation (8 .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . fI. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. 3. km/sec.the injection speed . For transfer to one of the outer planets. From Figure 8. fI. between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola.
3.Sec.1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 . conditions : = (8 . is obtained directly from the injection (8 .1 2) e. 3 T H E PATC H E D. 3. 8 .1 e where the eccentricity .34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .3.1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8.CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = .
35 Interplanetary launch (8 . then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 .72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . Generally. 8 locus of injection points Figure 8 .3. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.4 Arrival at the Target Planet. At arrival.3. however. cfJ as shown in Figure 8. the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity. 8.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector .36.3. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle .
1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 . 3. sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 . 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 .1 8) .1 6) (8. (8 . 3 . 8 .3.Sec.
. e. 'Yl should be selected from equation (8. 3 7 we see that  (8 .36). In Figure 8. If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. 3. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there.s i n if> 2 v (8 .320) y = x si n e (8.3 .The angle . will be directed toward the center of the planet. in Figure 8.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet . where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known.36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory. From Figure 8 . S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. 8 . If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola.38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown. It also means that the relative velocity vector. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . 3 7 .
37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.322) . 8 .lt/ 2 X _ .38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f.Sec. 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit . (8 . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.
8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 .327) for y Yields (8 . 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance. 324) (8. we obtain .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet .)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 .(8. W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = . y. Solving equation (8 .326) Because angular momentum is conserved.328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. the speed at periapsis is simply .
05 DU. The. the "inwact parameter.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . then a much smaller target must be considered.329).329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0.328) we 'get (8 . " since any offset less than this will result in a collision .3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. The given information is . " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size. b. rt This particular offset distance is called b . The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission.t 3  rt (8 .Sec. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 8.39. V2 + 2fJ.
099 . 6V 1 = 1 .1 :: 0. 3 .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0. energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .099 A U/TU 0.378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .05 D U 1 .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 .099 A U/TU = :.373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.1 VI = 1 .39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .
22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept.044 8 .v (8 . 1 39 + 1 .Sec. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 . 8 .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept.1 .43 DU/TU .905 = = 379 37 . t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::. the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.07 6 ft/sec 2 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.v = 2v si n L 2 /::.4. From Table 8 . This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8. 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 . departure Figure 8 .4.1 ) .
8.3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 . Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer. 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8.62 DUJTU� 8. EXERCISES 8 . 8.1 ) .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun . (Ans. 8 as derived in equation (3 .380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . 4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel. 8. 8..32..6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units. 5 for the planet Jupiter.3.. " .3 . 8 ..1 )) . 7.7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years.5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 . 8. _  /' .4..
M = 5. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit .394 DUe/TU� b . lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.Ch. If c = 9 . .V required? (Ans.348 DUe/TUE9> .�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the .V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =.l:.900 ft/sec. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj .000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission.v ? (Ans.l:. Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 . v = 39 . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j . Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence .l:.v = 1 5 . vesc = 1 .000 ft/sec.l:.l:.. It can be shown that . P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.35) ITbo no . The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 . What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the . 1 DUE[) radius. where 8. Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. 1 00 ft/sec) c.V = 0. a.
5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit.. 1 3 (This problem is fairly long.V is applied at perigee.. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units. 0. � = 0. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans.0. 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 ...V of . 3 . a.. 0. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans.73 1 DU8TU� b . so work carefully and follow any suggestions.0. What is the 6. 09 DUe/TU$) = . (Ans. Find the 6. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. What is the 6. v= 0. 1 DUe/TUEl1.046 DU� /TU � b .458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0.28 AU2 /TU2 .382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .0. 0..9 00 ft/sec) 8 . a. What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans. 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .? (Ans. What is the 6. 8 8 . 6.Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. Find the hyperbolic excess speed. (Ans.V at apogee or perigee? 8.5 DUEI1 circular orbit. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c..V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e. The mission will begin in a 1 .254 AU/TU� . 8.9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b .. v=' (Ans. = 0.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 . Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6. 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 .V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d.which results if the same 6.
Vrrw = 0. for the above transfer.373 AU/TU � f. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . called the turning angle . 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . 3 . Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion.87 TU� b . What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 .867 AU/TU� e . <P2 and vll1II in that order.5 AU? (Ans. Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. then find h. 0. O o) 8. For a given planet.Ch. 1 . 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans. 1 4 a.050 ft/sec) 8 . (Ans.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 .5 AU. it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0. 1 . P. c. Compute the phase angle at departure.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans.2 AU/TU� d.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. 0.3 9 DU oITU& 2 . Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. 'Y1 . 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth. 8 .) (Ans. 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. (Ans.
Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . Vol 1 .V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. Assume circular. coplanar planet orbits. 8 8. 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. U S Government Printing Office . Vol 2. . LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . D C . NY. 4 . 1 969. transfer time. pp 430434. 1 95 6 . American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac." AIAA Journal. London. Fimple .V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. Simon and Schuster. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . Newman. New York. No 2 . The World of Mathematics. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. and the angular rates of the planets. James R. 1 963. Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. 1 967. 1 . * Ch . 1 96 1 . Washington. R. What would be an estimate of the return b. 3 . W .
but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind. 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. " Webster 9 . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. it is found that there seem to be distinct. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. Macroscopically . There is always some variation 385 . Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . and at times unexplainable . We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life.CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion .
etc. Fortunately. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time .1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example .) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. and relativistic effects. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. In fact. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . meteoroid collisions. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. about a century later. The wind gust was a perturbation. 9 . Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. magnetic. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. M. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. E. Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. Then. 6 . which had not been treated by Newton . atmo spheric drag and lift. for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. solar radiation effects. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. except the motion of the perigee.from the norm. Brown 's papers of 1 897.
It was developed by P. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. 2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. See section 1 . General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. a section discussing methods and errors is included . Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. With the capability for orbital flight . Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . H. 9 . In particular. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations. and variation of elements techniques are discussed.Sec. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common . The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter. knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. Encke. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. 9. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms .2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. the Cowell.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods.
ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. y = vy (9. Sun and planets. including all the perturbations. For the twobody problem with perturb ations.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration.2. F or numerical integration equation (9 . r=Y �r (9 . the equations would be .1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations.22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body . 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied. Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. the equation would be (9 . and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically.388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .22) would be further broken down into the vector components.
Even in double precision computer arithmetic. smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff. Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates.24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2. This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. and he would be correct .3 ) r m s r m Ea (9.25) .22).'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 .Sec. When motion is near a large attracting body . It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. 8 .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method. Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 .Il m ( 3 . 9 . There are some disadvantages of the method . Classically. Intuitively. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic . the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. In spherical coordinates (r.23). 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings.
390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch .g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. In the Encke method . The term connotes the sense of contact. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit.25) As a reminder.'l. 9 (9 . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere . 9.31 The osculatil. and . in our case .3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing. contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . reference or b i t Figure 9. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field . Presumably .
3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit. the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit . 3 . be defined as (see Figure and .1 ) .. respectively .32)  Sr. 9. 9 .  (9 . The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). At that time .1 ) and (9 .to ) ' p (9 .3 2) into (9 . r + � r3 r = a t . Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path.3 . Note that at the epoch. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 .33) Sub stituting equations (9 . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 . Now w e will consider th.3.. Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors.33) we obtain .3.1 ) .Sec.e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method.1 ) and for the osculating orbit. Let r and p be the radius vectors to . = p ( tb ) p p to = 0. Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration. or epoch. r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r . the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.
34) then becomes (9. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout . 6r. For a given set of initial conditions.. So .6r ) . A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:.392 6r == a ) p + IlL p .37) . However. p is a known function of time . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r . we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object ..t) can be calculated numerically.lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch .6.3 6) Equation (9 . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) . 6r (to + .3 / 2 (9 . theoretically..35) 3 3 r _ (9 .3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation .was to obtain more accuracy.lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r . one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method. so r can be obtained from 6r and p.6r] r3 r (9 .
In terms of its components Figure 9. Expanding.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. however./  Our problem is not yet solved . 9 . OZ are the cartesian components o f or. 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . Now some ways of calculating q must be found. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / .Sec. o y .
The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9.2q So q =  Now. 9 From equation (9 . (9 .( 1 .37) becomes (9 .38)  1 .31 2) . .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task . .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 .(1 . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ . <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9. 3.3.37). It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q.1 0) (9 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates. /) y2 . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9. There are two methods of solution at this point .38) and (9 .
t:. f(to + t:. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit . but of the order of magnitude of 0. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. The method using equation (9 . b.> a specified constant. q (to ) O. Vol 2. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary.does not remain quite small. Integrate another t:. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . Otherwise (jr p .t ) from equation (9 .3.1 2) is used.t to get (jr{ to + kt:.t). If equation (9 . Then the tables could be u sed to find f .1 2) may be slightly faster.t) 2 . v = p + (jr. f. k. g. Knowing 5r(to + t:. e . = = = = = p continue. and 5r 0 at this point.39) is recommended for use with the computer. 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated . 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows .3. Go to step c with t:. a. c. If. It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. q( to + t:. For an integration step. Calculate r = p + (jr.t . d . rectify and go to step a .nowing p (to ) . Rectification should be initiated when .1 0).Sec.3 8) 3. p 229). Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body.t) calculate 1 . r (to ) .t where k is the step number.t replaced by kt:. In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) .t) .is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used. although the use of equation (9 .t) from equation (9 . 9 . p(to + t:.01 ). In (jr p v as described earlier. so larger step sizes can be taken. calculate (jr (to + t:. (jr 0.3. The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r.
e eccentricity.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. See equation (9 . One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs.396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch.6. if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. they would remain constant. Similarly. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time .1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. at the outset. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. = .t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of . Thus. 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . In the absence of perturbations. For instance. a . so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time . The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small. Though. A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration .cSr ) (9 . this method may seem more difficult to implement. from the Encke method 9.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) . Then e � . A similar check could be made on i . etc .6./l m {m s .23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration .3.
i. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . w and. The axis S is . p 246. Vol 2 .I OOS .n (t . Eventually . reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. The standard orbital elements a. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M .T (or M) will be used. This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. ...tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for . for a table of parameter sets). the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. along the instantaneous radius vector. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method. It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity . . 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations.Sec. This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. n. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker.To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. � . These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time . Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations. e.variations (e. 9 . 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis.4 . 9 .and dM ?. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature .g. r. R (unit vector R). Therefore . The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement .
W. = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .43) .41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9.42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt . The third axis. 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.4.1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly . The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G.
� 2& ' = 399 (9 .48) Substituting in equation (9.o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a .45) To express this in known terms. dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 . Differentiating the conic equation Qr.46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:.4.1 0) . (9 .46) and F S (9 .43).. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed. so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system. V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 . expressions for found.Sec.48) we find da dt = (9. (9 .4 and .44) (9.1:!:.44).!I=8!" nr from (9 . 9.45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.
1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).2 )% a = (1 .1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .4.lae dt h $) a dt .1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.) Since h = hW. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.�) % J.1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .la _ (9 04.. Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04. r hW + h da S dt (9 .
4. 1 e2 (9 .1 8) .Sec. but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) .4.4.. K) � (9 .4.1 6) we obtain . 4 .sin QL = dt . 9 .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.4. K .1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 .h cos i rF s h2 .4. 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h.si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r).1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 .1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .n di dt (9 ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
.e . {at + c) + 3p. Since p. ] (9 .450) and solving for e we find (9 .4.2 p. . allowing c to vary with time .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . • . . Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion . the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 . C.2p.2p. (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.4. 4 where c will be the parameter.v {at + c ) c (9 .vt 2p.v 2p. For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence .45 1 ) .45 1 ). 9 .5 1 ) correct to first order in J.J. so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9.45 0) should be small. The constant of integration.4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p.2p. c = ve 2 p.vt .v = .5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.vat a+v a . .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 . .454) + 2p. and V are small.. but more practically we would consider � = v .4. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P. which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. .v which can be easily solved for c. is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.Sec.2 (at + C)2  . From equation (9 .vc .
. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method. efficiency. c. 9 .41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. highly questionable. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. not expediency. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. . 9 . his integration method. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. d. allow as large a stepsize as possible. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. 5 . In theory. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c. 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. economical in computing time. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. storage and complexity. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. 9 in detail. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. or has not carefully selected. Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. Unfortunately. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. at best. should be the criteria. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent. b . such as the disturbing function. accuracy.e.
57 = 7 .476. It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as .51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2. Obviously .5 (9. Baker (v 2.864. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree.5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations.86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic.843. 5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e . In fact. 9 . all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method . Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number. 9 . p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . and f. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. They are roundoff and truncation errors.28 + 3. 2 Integration Errors.Sec.476. For instance . 5 .accumulated roundoff error . Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2. suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4.388. Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved . The larger the . 4. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s .276 + 3 . it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error.567 = 7.388. In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation.
EulerCauchy and Bowie . any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth.414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. 9. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods.1 ) . so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes . Thus. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change . we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems. Gill.62) (9. AdamsMoulton. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize.= f(t. h. 9 . in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. We will treat the first order equation . A few of the more common methods will be discussed here.6. 6 . Of course . Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. the larger the truncation error. 1 RungeKutta Method.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. 9 stepsize.63) dx dt (9. The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation . GaussJ ackson (sumsquared). In general.
X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9. easy to implement . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .h ) k3 +. It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.) k2 6 3 l2 (9..64) 1 1 + . x n . In general.( 1 . One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula.65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + .2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method.6. 9 .% ] + k 2 [ 1 . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated.k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n . 9 . This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure.63) and n is the increment number.yry. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: . they are faster than the singlestep methods.yV:. and stepsize is easily changed . x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . They are relatively simple . This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .k +. x n + k 3 ) (9.__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 .( 1 + y. One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error.Sec. have a relatively small truncation error. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .
In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . 5 / 1 2 . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0. Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods.6. 3 9. .3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas. . 25 1 /720.\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + . Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 3 /8 .beginning and after each stepsize change.67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart.\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell . .\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 . 1 /2 .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 .1 f .
It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.59 f n . Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis).1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 . The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here.1 + 37 f n2 . . fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9.x n+1I I (P 270 (9.69).68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +.Sec. for instance. so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired.6. In equation (9. 9 .69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term. the error terms are not generally known.9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula. This method.x n + (5 5 f ri .h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l .
x. and most used. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. The GaussJackson method is one of the best.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n .° n + . numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type.2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. though it also includes a corrector. "x. n + � 84 "x. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods.1 .1 f(t n h) 2 2   .418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations. 9 like other multistep methods.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x.8 k . The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt.4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. .12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) . n + 1 2 n i \.° n 60480 (9.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n. It is.h ) .1 ' etc.6.6 . It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect.1 f(t n + h). x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". 9. more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods. The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. though.
Table 9.l 005).1 The Nonspherical Earth . Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec.Bashforth) methods are preferred. Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. V. ¢. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. according to Vinti. 9 .5 Numerical Integration Summary .6. including some which were not discussed in this chapter. Some of them become quite complex. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth.7. is ¢ = � [1 . However. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . p/r.1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods.1 ) One such potential function. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods.I n=2 r (9. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique. If the potential function. the accelerations can be found from (9.6. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. is known. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams. 9.e presented in this section.7. 9 . 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. 2 . 9. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works.72) . the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator. but only the simpler forms will be treated. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. 2 and NASA C R.
**GaussJ ackson is for second order equations.' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. very difficult to determine proper size. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. 9 CI) .COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 .z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. Vol t . it could be very fast. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .
9.L = gravitational parameter Sec..42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .] (9 .74) .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P. r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .where J..J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.. if> = I!:.945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L ..�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> . = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 .J s � ( � ) (35� .  I.2.
These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0.6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity .6 .75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).5 ± O. .64 ± O. 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr.6 J4 = (1 .6 6 (0. 1 5 ± O. which are slightly in variance . p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.. l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 . Vol 1 . l )x 1 0. I )x 1 0. . Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 .76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 .57 ± O. but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker.44 ± O. There have been various determinations of the J coefficients.422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J .3003 ""6 ) + .1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J . l )x 1 0.l ( �) 3 ( 3 .6 ± O. The first term in x.5)x 1 0. y.(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 .2205 2" 6 16 r r (9.6 J = (0.03)x 1 0.
p 147). The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 . There are a few ctmtiol). 7 Drag.2 Atmospheric Drag. but will not be presented here. and other parameters. Therefore .7. A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . However.. Vol 1 . term) to the RSW sy stem. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) . The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations. Thus.s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation . if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. To do this. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2. the drag coefficient. simply use r3 r= where .Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 . The equations are formulated in the geocentric . 9 ..77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . by definition. s 9. equatorial coordinate system.Sec. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:..
though small.t b ae ==ic. In the geocentric. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude .lli. but the reader can find this in other documents. . 9 .78) z . equatorial coordinate system. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x.7 . altitude above an oblate Earth.ilc coffc. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. Equation (9 .n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . Radiation pressure. This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. etc.7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects.ie. 9 m p C O A . can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo). Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here.424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. y . z refer to the geocentric.7 .3 Radiation Pressure. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th.
4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates.2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} .4 Thrust. 7 . Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. . 9 . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 .Ch. 9 where A = cross section f = 4. 9 .3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. y. EXERCISES 9.4349 0 x . 9. See equation (9.79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters.1 5) . 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . Prove this assertion . 9 . z directions.4. m (9.25).5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm). m = mass of vehicle (grams) . Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . but a major force . the variation of eccentricity. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. .
000 n mi. A. and Wl). M. Vol VI. Feb 1 968. M. * 9. DC. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. New York. M. A." NASA CR. Jr . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. 1 9 1 4. Moulton . Ralston . London . Years 1 9601 980. Blackford. New York. Academic Press. J . 4. Inc.445). R. F . L. . 6. and Wilf.. 9 . 9 9 .9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . Brouwer. * 9 . 1 960. * 9 . Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. L.ittouck. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. Allione . New York. D. Mendez.426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . S . 1 96 1 . John Wiley and Sons. Robert M . Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. . and Clemence. G. 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. 1 967. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. Guidance. The Macmillan Co .l 005 . 1 . 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. Academic Press. Washington. . LIST OF REFERENCES 2. Methods of Celestial Mechanics. Baker. New York. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. M. C . Planetary Coordinates for the. 5 . 3 .
Paul. New York. Maud W. Inc. B . New York. NASA SP33 . New York. Vol 1 . 2nd ed. Washington. Orbital Flight Handbook. M. L. Michigan. DC . 1 95 3 . Inc. Celestial Mechanics. Smart. Dubyago . Ann Arbor. John Wiley and Sons. 1 3 . New York. Hildebrand. The Macmillan Co. 1 96 1 . 1 948 . 1 1 . P. Introduction to Numerical A nalysis.. Th e Determination of Orbits. McGrawHill. Herget. 1 95 6 . Part 1 . . 1 0. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Published privately by the Author. A . Battin. The Computation of Orbits. . McGrawHill. Jr and Makemson. Dynamical A stronomy . E . R. 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . 1 5 . W . Escobal. 1 4 . 1 964. Escobal. Methods of A strodynamics. C. D. Plumber. Robert M. New York. Academic Press. F . Townsend. A stronautical Guidance . 9 . P . R . Jr. R. 1 2. 1 6. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Methods of Orbit Determination. New York. 1 967. 1 968 . 1 963. Longmans. Baker. G. 8 . M .Ch . H. John Wiley and Sons. Cambridge University Press. New York. 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). 1 96 5 . New Yark.
.
908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .922786 NM 1 3 .4959965 x 1 0' km 5 .77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 . 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4.... 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 . English Units Metric Units 2. r.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. I DU� TUi. we 0. 1 . 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter. 1 Center. 2506844773 deg min 7. 'Derived from those values of Il . . 2593 6.APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius.. Speed Unit I� TU. 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU.68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 .05883 36565 � TV. 3. Ile Angular Rotation. Canonical Units I DU.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 . r.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance.092567257 x 107 ft 3963 . 1 328 2 1 days 9.. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.9053682 8 km' . and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 .407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7.9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec .24764 11sec 806 ..0226757 x 1 06 sec 29. 44686457 min 6378. 1 97 5 .
_ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.e .903665 5 64 x 1 0 .344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 .2342709 5 .APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii.3 14 .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 . .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 . 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.8 9. 1 2 64963205 0 . foot = 0.07 1 0 1 50424 4 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown.01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 . there is no roundoff or truncation.4 3 . 1f = 3 . i. 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 .08 1 52366 0 .8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .239446309 x 1 0.
length of a vector . C.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of . Thus.relationships involving vector quantities. 43 1 . Q. A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. If A i s a vector . In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. velocity . Scalar. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. K) and (p. not a null or zero vector. I DEFINITIONS Vector. time or any real signed number. Unit Vector. Examples are mass. (Example : 3 or A). J. The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. force and acceleration. Examples are displacement. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude . temperature . A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. speed. W).
and A and B are not collinear. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B . such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude . since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB.432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). 1 Similarly. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear. regardless of the position of their origins. B and C are coplanar vectors. If A. . Coplanar Vectors.. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA.
1 ) I AI cos B . denoted by A • B.. B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B. C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors. is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. l . Scalar or Dot Product.2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB . From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . e I I l (C . The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors.l ) C.B which is the same as A + (B). V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C .2. The "dot" product of two vectors A and B.C.
The cross product of two vectors A and B.434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A .B + A . 23 ) (C.C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A . J .J = J o K=K o I = O where I . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A.(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . A o A = Aft. if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible .. is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them.J =K . B and C form a right handed system. . then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + .1=J . denoted by A x B .8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C .(B + C) = A . K are unit orthogonal vectors.K= 1 I . That is. sma l lest ang le ( L e . < 180° ) AxB =C .22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.24) (C.
K are unit orthogonal vectors. Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C. then A X B = O.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. e < In fact A x B = . 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C .C.27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical.(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C. J.
436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 .29) Scalar Triple Product.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C. Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then.Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C . from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) . BI C1 .A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .
2. denoted b y A x (B x C) .1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 .1 2) (C.C. Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.2.21 4) C.(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B . The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity. is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C.B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 . 2.2. The vector triple produce.B3 C) + A ( B3 C .B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C .1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.C2 B3 C3 A3 (C . The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .l 3) (C.
.. ..9.. thus .. " .. . v C P K y ......YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of .... then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + . x J Then the velocity relative to the (I......with itself..... . dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 .. ...438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o ... K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P..
C.= . v = wT . the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path. In this special case then.3 b.. This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) . the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. VE LOCITY 439 which.= .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. dr v = . Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T . from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P.
Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. and altitude above mean sea level are specified . The input to SITE should be latitude. From the 440 . longitude. azimuth. range rate . azimuth rate. positive to the east) of the launch site. EI. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. Use standard unit conversions given in the text. I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . The radar determines p. latitude of the launch site. D . elevation rate . Az. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site . p. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). Its geodetic latitude. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. elevation. and of the satellite (R and V).APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . The input to TRACK should be range. EI.
Following are five sample sets of data for site location. : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 .63745829) z = .1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . 22 1 0. GST _ 1 . e . 007 N 1 04 . 5. GST.5 3 0 . An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG.044 1 8440.01 2035 7 5 . 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 .8 N 7 8 .57 76. E 7 2 .48 201. y. 6 8 2.5 3 4 ON 4 5. 9 W 0 1 9 05. .07 1 05 . 2 2 29. . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . Input UT as a decimal (i.. UT. = (. LST) .05 1 37. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI).0027379093®2®PI®D .7 5.05 1 9 5238) . 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 .5 1 35 .75 components are : (. a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST.2045 72 1 6 .08 30. . LST. 1 4923608.D. . If the above program is used. UT. BEGIN REAL D.775 1 80 1 9. LST and LONG are in radians.7 .27907 599. 8 0. INTEGER DAY. PI .62624920) = (. Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 . 040075.5 90 . .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . 0) = (. 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897.74933340. observation time and radar tracking data. 3 315 .5 . .8 S 1 7 5. GST. 6 .74933340. .75 1 003 9 1 .26347 1 9 8 . W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 . DAY. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . . END OF LSTIME . .3 . . REAL LONG.7 . 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. PI. 5 7 5 for data set 3). D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) .
49 0 . hyperbolic).1 .1 0 22.4 1 722472 .01 .. 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 . Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach. d. 05 . 1 0 0 2 .001 5 30 0 . 0 1 7 45 .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . 7 0 3 VK .5 0 . elliptical. 0) (. The type of trajectory (circular. rectilinear.8 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity.1 . .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. From this information you are required to fmd : a.2 VI .9 0 2 0 . 1 29579 1 9 .9 1 .2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 .4 1 4 0 0 65 . b . Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth.703 . parabolic. c. 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK). .6 0 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 00001 .001 1 0 . 49 0 0 2.9 1 046 1 80.85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29.293 . 01 . Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach.4 1 4 2. 5 .707 . . 48 4 0 2. 6 2 .
025 9 1 7 . 61 (calculated) . Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 . Also for an ellipse. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered.5 . b. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x.5 0 0 . When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. 1 38878 . 61.7 . If your iteration process is efficient. c.3 1 0 . you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . RJ 61 . Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used.8 . You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). and dt/dx for each iteration. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. To determine when convergence has occurred.jiL d. you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations.5 . Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. a . On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x.0. 1 5 0689 1 . x should never be greater than 2m.4 of the text for guidance . To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations.3 D. The following data is given in e arth canonical units.
6 for 1 :::... 3.. It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11').. 1 362596) = (0.t c l :::. t :::. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 . bt. 0003 6 1 . Given r l ' r2 .w)... Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. 1 65 08 .6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. and sign (7T . .5 1 . If there is no convergence in 50 iterations. I t .00006057 ..70655823. 0. Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. 1 0. Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . 0 ..002 1 7 7 1 ..999 o 1 03 D.1 . For instance note that y can never be negative .1 .. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points. One of the data sets tests this situation. For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . 1 06 1 0. find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine.9 20 . R2 V2 = (0. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set. 00 1 074 .4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later..01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 .. In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z. I�I :::. 1 8 1 .444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory.
8 5 +1 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D.3 . y.3 . .9378 1 789) = 4.5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . Check for this case .6 .4 1 .4 .0 . See section 5 .7 0 1 0 1 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 .6 . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.. The following data i s i n canonical units. time of radar observation.66986992. 1 .1 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. and the location of an interceptor launch site . The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the .2 .5 . Also print t:J) and a for each data set . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program.S = (0. print out a message and go to the next data set .0001 +1 . 7 for further discussion o f this project .5 . 1 2298 1 44. This i s not specifi cally required in this problem. . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM .66993 1 97 . 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.6 . a message printed and you should go to the next data set .2 . location of the tracking site .201 . .1 .4 .1 specifies the long way.6 .2 1 .7 . x.7 0 1 0 20 1 . The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT.4 .2 .4804847 1 . so a check should be made for that condi tion.6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite.3 .6 .
assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . g. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor.45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. This will aid you in verifying your solution . list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . d. b . Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs.45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6.446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. the number of reaction times desired .3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . TRACK. e . f. KEPLER and GAUSS. Times should be read in as minutes.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) . Make some provision to print out all of your input data. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target. and the number of timeofflight increments desired . all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . To make your program flexible . the desired increment size for reaction time . the starting value of timeofflight increment size. When you point out your arrays. Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER. c. Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out .
74.95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 . When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 . 844 **** **** **** 35 7 . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9.9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 .038 .6 1 3 km EI = 56. of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No. You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei .92 deg/sec 1 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.5 p = 1 86. 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 . of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 . 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.0.09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No .338 **** **** **** 10 8 .1 .
448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site . LATL.
INDEX .
.
3 2 3 masses. 246 Brahe. 8 4 Copernicus. 24 Apparent solar time. 102 Apoapsis. 5 7 principal direction. 2 1 . 1 00. 296 geometry. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 20. 1 4. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 60 and universal v ariables. 84. 84. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 429 Astronomical Unit. 3 9 0 station. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 5 3 . 5 6 topocentrichorizon.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 1 620. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 74 geocentricequatorial. 24 height adjustment. 9 3 . 3 5 8 . 6. 109 B akerNunn camera. 422 gravitational parameter. 5358. 297299 451 . 57 perifocal. 1 22. 423 Azimuth. 74 BMEWS. 28 Constants astrodynamic. 3 3 period of. 84 ecliptic. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration.9 8 gravitational constant. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 374 Computer projects. 4043 Celestial equator. 5 8 Aristotle. 3 4 Collision cross section. 1 09. 5 5 heliocentric. 9498 transformations. 54 fundamental plane. 277320 computation chart. 1 8 5 true. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 429 flattening. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 3 2 5 . 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 203 Aphelion. 279 C anonical units. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 2 3 4. 4 1 . Tycho. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 74 right ascensiondeclination.1 3 1 G auss problem. 94. 349 Angle of elevation. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 7483 Coordinate systems. 2 1 2 B asis. 1 5 . 28 1 B arker's equation. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 56 Celestial sphere. 1 62 Argument of latitude. 4 gravitational h armonics.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 60 Argument of periapsis. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. 2427 Apogee. 1 09 Angular momentum. 429 lunar distance. 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 5 3 . 1 8 8 . 3 8 9 . 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 54 orbit plane. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. B urnout. 1 8 3 mean. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors. 4 3 0 Conversions.
2 1 7 function o f universal variables.3 0 6 numerical integration. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory.3 3 pe. 3 5 0 Epoch. 1 8 8 .riod o f . zenith angle. 1 8 2. 54 Elements of orbit.2 1 2 parabolic. 9 3 98 effect of rotation. 84. 1 0 6 precession. 2 0 . 3 5 . 3 0 . 2 8 2 time. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 56. 2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 4 3 3 Drag.1 4 3 . 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 2 4 . 5 5 true anomaly a t . 4 G ravitational parameter. 25. 2 1 . 1 22. 25 1 258.3 9 6 Energy. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 94 G eometric properties of conic sections. 2 3 3 . 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. Elliptical orbits. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude. 20 1 202 f and g series. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 2 3 0 f and g series method. 3 89 nbody. 1 0 6 mean. 3 22 trajectories. 22827 1 . 94 . 62 vector. 3 5 . 1 54. 1 60 low altitude. 1 7 equations. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 1 0 twobody. 1 0 9 . 227 418 ( y ) . 2 8 5 Freeflight range. Carl Fredrich. 423 424 Earth oblate. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 25 1 . 2 9 7 . 7 G ravitational constant. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 4 1 9. 26. 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 444 algorithm.1 3 1 Direct ascent. 9. 2 1 ff. 62 Ecliptic. 40. 5 8 . 8 7 . 2 9 . 1 04 Escape speed. 3 1 . 1 0 3 G round track.93 . 6 1 Elevation angle.1 90. 60 Equations of motion nbody. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 60 true longitude at. 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 60 Dot product. 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. apparent. 3 00 launching. 4 Newton's law of. 58 from position a n d velocity.2 1 4 Eccentricity.452 Declination. 306 EarthMoon system. G auss problem. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 221 hyperbolic. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 1 8 1 . 8 0 f and g expressions. 9 4 Geoid. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle.1 1 6 Gravitation. 2 3 0 . 1 0 9 Ellipse. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 2 1 2. 1 42. 297299 I N DEX in plane. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 3 6 8 local. 1 8 8. 1 1 7. 1 4 0 . 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude. 3 6 6 Differential correction. function o f true anomaIles.1 5 5 Direct motion.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. 4 G alileo. 3 90 . 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 264 eccentric anomalies. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 2 1 2. G ibbsian orbit determination method. 26 ff. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants.
3 1 6 Injection. 3 5 8 Newton iteration. 60 Lunar trajectories. 2. numerical rotation of. 2 1 . 60 Latus rectum. 1 1 7 derivatives. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. gravitational parameter. 3 9 6 M otion. 1 56 vector.1 6 6. 2 Heliocentric constants. 3 5 0 free return. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 54 Heliocentric transfer. Edmund. 1 . 1 4 Multistep integration methods. 1 5 6. 2 7 7 . 9 9 . 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 3 24326.I N D EX H alley. 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 3 1 Manned flight. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory. 62 longitude of ascending. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile.8 9 derivatives i n . 1 02 Mean solar time. 3 24 . 3 8 1 Hohmann.1 8 1 first. 2. 1 8 5 Mean solar day.3 8 4 general coplanar. 3 69 . 1 0 1 . 2 8 8 . 247 Newton's laws. true at epoch.9 3 Mu ( � ) . Isaac. 1 52 Mass of planets. 4. 3 9 6 constraints. 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 3 80 Kepler. 1 03 Minor axis. 3 8 . 1 57 Line of nodes. 1 5 1 . 5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on. 1 Kepler's equation. 1 7 Local sidereal time. 20 Least squares solution.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. argument of at epoch. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 3 62 .3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 1 8 5 . 62 . 3 7 0 Integration. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on. Greenwich. 2. 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 1 0 twobody. 1 5 6. 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 3 7 9 .3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 2 H alley's comet. 1 0 2 Meridian. 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 2 6 5 27 1 . 3 27. 238. 7. 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 8 Node ascending. 1 80 third. 5 Newton. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 3 26 orbital elements of. 3 0 3 . 220 Mean motion. 3 1 Moon. 1 9 8 . 2. 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 234.3 05. 1 4 1 . 1 1 7 Latitude. 3 64. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 3 69. 94 reduced. 207 I nclination. 94 geodetic. 8 9 . 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 5 8 Longitude. 6 rotation of. 3 57 . 1 25 Librations of Moon. 1 4 1 . 58 regression. 22 1 . equations o f nbody. 1 7 7. 3 9. 1 3 Moving reference frame. 1 6 3 . 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws. J ohann. 6. 5 1 . 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 3 65 noncoplanar. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 3. limitations. 1 8 8 . 6 . 3 44 . 1 4 2 Inertial system. 3 89 trajectories. 22. 8 6 . 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric.3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. 2 second. 3 59374.
1 69 Orbit determination. 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 34. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 420 c riteria for choosing. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . two body. 4 1 4 sum squared. 1 62 O rbit.1 22 from position and velocity. 9 3 . 58 determination from position and velocity. 3 44 . 3 8 7 . 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit.3 44 Periapsis.9 8 Optical sensors. 1 1 7 . 220 classical formul ations. 2427 argument of.1 59 examples. 440448 Q parameter. 3 24 . 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 3 9 0 Relative motion.1 76 inplane changes. true anomaly. 1 9 3 . 5 1 . 3 4 1 Period. 2 4 . 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion. 1 0 9 Rectification. 1 6 Potential function. 1 5 1 . 6 1 o f moon. 203. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 56. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories.3 7 9 lunar. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 1 5 6 . 1 3 Rendezvous. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 20. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 2 0 . 22727 1 Orbit plane. Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 1 09 . 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 4 1 9 .3 9 0 Encke's method. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 3 8 6 general. 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 2 4 Periselenium.3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 2 1 2 computer solution. 3 60 physical characteristics. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 5 symbols. 1 1 7 . 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 4 1 2425 errors. 1 0 3 P rojects.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 3 90 . 443 algorithm. 2 1 Osculating orbit.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 3 59 . 3 3 Perturbations. 20 Polar radius. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 3 3 3 . 1 62 .3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 24 height adjustment. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 423 due to the moon. flightpath angle.1 50. 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 6 1 from sighting directions.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits. 2 1 . 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 3 1 . 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson.1 22. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 3 9 0 Parabola. 3 24 . 1 90 Numerical integration. 425 Phi ( � ) . 94 Potential energy reference.454 Nu (v ) . 83 from optical sightings. 60 Right ascension. 1 1 Retrograde motion. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 57 Perigee. 1 1 7. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 424 thrust. 2 1 . 26527 1 Residuals. 3 6 1 shape of. 58 Perifocal coordinate system.
1 0 1 Spacetrack. 20 Semimajor axis. canonical. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 1 3 5 ellipse. 3 6 1 Solar time. 1 0 3 universal. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. Universal gravitation.1 8 8 . 23. 9 9 . 60 Twobody orbit problem. 1 9 1 .1 9 0 if. 3 5 8 . 5 radio interferometers. 40. 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 3 60 physical characteristics. 1 0 1 . 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 4 3 7 . 2 1 at epoch. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 8 6 .1 0 4 Solar system. 425 Thrust perturbation. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 9 Sidereal time. 23. 4 3 4 derivative o f . 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 2062 1 0 use of. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 8 4 .8 9 derivatives in. definition of. 5 8 Time zones. 1 3 6 radar. 1 0 1 . 3 1 Sensors. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 99. 1 8 (see Nbody . 85 Traj ectory equation. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 1 52 Station coordinates. 1 3 8 optical.1 69 Hohmann.1 9 8 Time o f free flight. 1 6 6. 2 8 8 . 9 3 . 1 9 1 225. 1 6 3 .1 0 9 apparent solar. 58 Semi minor axis. 425 Time. 1 3 1 . 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 1 8 8 universal variables. 30.1 6 6 True anomaly. 4 3 1 Velocity. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 1 8 8 .1 4 assumptions. 1 6. 2 3 5 evaluations of. 9 9 . 1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 44 1 mean solar. 4 3 3 triple product. 1 9 high. 2 8 7 maximum range.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory. 1 5. 1 8 1 .I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 1 03 local sidereal. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 9. 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 3 1 . 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 7 Universal time. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 1 8 1 . 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 6. 4 3 7 unit. 1 02. 2 1 5 hyperbola.9 8 of planets. 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 1 1 Units. 1 0 1 S o l a r day.4 3 9 d o t product.1 40 errors. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 1 60 Synodic period. 2 1 7 parabola.3 59 orbital elements. 1 9 1 development of. 1 6 Sputnik. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 3 27. 1 3 2. 4 3 7 . 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 99. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 40 Unit vectors. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust. 1 1 . 4. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence.1 40 Selenocentric.4 3 9 Velocity components. 287 low. 20.
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