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FUNDAMENTALS OF ASTRODYNAMICS
Roger R. Bate Donald D. Mueller Jerry E. White
When the United States Air Force Academy began teaching astro· dynamics to undergraduates majoring in astronautics or aerospace was well over 100 years old. An entirely new text had to be evolved, geared to the use of high speed digital computers and actual current practice in industry. Over the years the new approach was proven in the classrooms of the Academy; its students entering graduate engineering schools were found to possess a better understanding of astrodynamics than others. So pressing is the need for superior training in the aerospace sciences that the professor·authors of this text decided to publish it for other institutions' use. This new Dover publication is the result. The text is structured for teaching. discussed. Central emphasis is on use of the universal variable formulation, although classical methods are Several original unpublished derivations are included. A foundation for all that follows is the development of the basic twobody and nobody equations of motion; orbit determination is then treated, and the classical orbital elements, coordinate trans formations, and differential correction. Orbital transfer maneuvers are developed, followed by timeofflight with emphasis on the uni versal variable solution. The Kepler and Gauss problems are treated in detail. Twobody mechanics are applied to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Some further specialized applications are made to lunar and interplanetary flight, followed by an introduction to perturbation, special perturbations, integration schemes and errors, and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. Example problems are used frequently, while exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems. The authors suggest how to use the text for a first course in astrodynamics or for a two course sequence. This new major instructional tool effectively communicates the sub ject to engineering students in a manner found in no other textbook. Its efficiency has been thoroughly demonstrated. text matter available to other faculties. A new work, first published by Dover in 1971. Profusely illustrated with photographs, diagrams, line drawings, etc. Four appendices: Index. xii + "Astrodynamic Constants," "Miscellaneous Constants and Conver sions," "Vector Revie,·,," and "Suggested Projects:' 455pp. 5% x 8y:!. Paperbound. The publishers feel privileged in joining with the authors to make its concepts and engineering, it found that the traditional approach to the subject
ISBN 0486600610
$6.00 in U.S.A.
Fundamentals of
ASTRODYNAMICS
DONALD D. MUELLER
Professor and Head
ROGER R. BATE
Assistant Professor of Astronautics
Associate Professor of Astronautics
JERRY E. WHITE
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF ASTRONAUTICS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
DOVER PUBLICATIONS, INC. NEW YORK
Copyright © 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc. All rights reserved under Pan American and In· ternational Copyright Conventions. pany, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Ontario. Published in Canada by General Publishing Com Published in the United Kingdom by Constable and Company, Ltd., 10 Orange Street, London WC 2.
Fundalllellials of Astrodynamics is a new work,
first published in 1971 by Dover Publications, Inc.
LibTary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 73157430
International Standard Book Nttmber: 0486600610
Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications, Inc. 180 Varick Street New York, N. Y. 10014
This textb ook is dedicated to the memb ers of the United States Air F orce who have died in combat , are missing in action, or are prisoners of war .
PREFACE
The study of astrodynamics is becoming a common prerequisite for any engineer or scientist who expects to be involved in the aero space sciences and their many applications. While manned travel in EarthMoon space is becoming more common, we are also concentrating on sophisticated applications of Earth and interplanetary satellites in the fields of communications, navigation, and basic research. Even the use of satellites simply as transport vehicles or platforihs for experiments requires a fundamental understanding of astrodynamics. We also recognize that for some time to come the ballistic missile, whose mechanics of flight has its foundation in astrodynamics, will be a frontline weapon in the arsenals of many countries. Beginning with the first graduating class of 1 95 9 the United States Air Force Academy has been in the forefront of astrodynamics education . Much has been learned from this experience concerning both the structure of the courses and what theoretical approaches are best for teaching the subject . Consequently, this text is particularly structured for teaching, rather than as an exhaustive treatment of astrodynamics. The astrodynamic theory is presented with brief historical digressions. Although many classical methods are discussed, the central emphasis is on the use of the universal variable formulation. The theoretical development is rigorous but yet readable and usable . Several unpublished original derivations are included in the text . Example problems are used frequently to show the student how the theory can be applied. Exercises at the end of each chapter include derivations and quantitative and qualitative problems . Their difficulty ranges from straightforward to difficult . Difficult problems are marked with an v
vi asterisk ( * ) . In addition to exercises at the end of each chapter, Appendix D includes several projects which are appropriate for a second course. Chapter 1 develop s the foundation for the rest of the book in the development of the basic twobody and nb ody equations of motion. Chapter 2 treat s orbit determination from various types of observations. It also introduces the classical orbital elements, coordinate transformations, the nonspherical earth, and differential correction. Chapter 3 then develops orbital transfer maneuvers such as the Hohmann t ransfer. Chapters 4 and 5 introduce time offlight with emphasis on the universal variable solution. These chapters treat the classical Kepler and Gauss problems in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the application of twobody mechanics to the ballistic missile problem, including launch error analysis and targeting on a rotating earth. Chapters 7 and 8 are further specialized applications to lunar and interplanetary flight. Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to perturb ation analysis emphasizing special perturb ations. It also includes a discussion of integration scheme s and errors and analytic formulations of several common perturbations. If the text is used for a first course in astrodynamics, the following sequence is suggested : Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 (sections 2. 1 through 2.7, 2. 1 3 through 2. 1 5), Chapter 3, Chapter 4 (sections 4.1 throu gh 4.5), Chapter 6 , and Chapter 7 or 8 . A first course could include Project SITE/TRACK or Proj ect PREDICT in Appendix D. A second course could be structured as follows : Chapter 2 (sections 2 . 8 through 2 . 1 2), review the Kepler problem of Chapter 4 and do Project KEPLER, Chapter 5 including projects GAUSS and INTERCEPT, and Chapter 9. Contributions to the ideas and methods of this text have been made by many present and former members of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science. Special mention should be made of the computer applications developed by Colonel Richard G. Rumney and Lieutenant Colonel Delbert Jacobs . The authors wish to acknowledge significant contributions by fellow faculty members: Maj ors Roger C . Brandt , Gilbert F . Kelley, and John C. Swonson, Jr . and Captains Gordon D. Bredvik , Harvey T. Brock, Thomas J. Eller, Kenneth D. Kopke , and Leonard R. Kruczynski for composing and checking example problems and student exercises and for proofreading portions of the manuscript ; and Maj ors Edward J. Bauman and Walter J. Rabe for proofreading portions of the manuscript. Special
United States Air F orce Academy Colorado January 1 971 R. Dorothy Fryar .W.B. Special thanks are also due several members of the Graphics Division of Instructional Technology at the USAF Academy for their excellent work in the composition of the text and the mathematical equations: Aline Rankin. Wittry for his encouragement and suggestions while serving as Deputy Head for Astronautics of the Department of Astronautics and Computer Science.E. J .D. Ronald Chaney ( artist) .M. . The typing of the draft manuscript by Virginia L ambrecht and Marilyn Reed is also gratefully acknowledged.vii acknowledgment is due Lieutenant Colonel John P . D. Jan Irvine .R. and Edward Colosimo (Grap hics Chie f) .
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. .3 The TwoBody Problem . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background and Basic Laws 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . 14 . . . . . .4 Constants of the Motion . . . . . . . .2 Coordinate Systems . . 1 0 The Hyperbolic Orbit . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . 1 .8 The Circular Orb it . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . 1 0 Orbit Determination from Three Position Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Preface Chap ter 1 TWOBODY ORB ITAL MECHANICS . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . 51 5L 53 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 09 . . . .7 The Elliptical Orbit . . . . . 83 . 2 . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . 1 . . 1 . . . .. . . . . . 1 . . 19 26 30 33 34 38 40 4 9 44 . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . .5 The Trajector y Equation . . . . .3 Classical Orbital Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Historical Background . 2 . . 2. . . . 5 . . . . . _ 1 . . .7 Orbit Determination from a Single Radar Observation . . . . . . 2 . . 1 01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 . . . . . Chapter 2 ORBIT DETERMINATION F ROM OBSERVATIONS . . . 1 . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . .6 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 17 ix . . . . . . . . .6 Relating [1 and h to the Ge ometry of an Orbit . . . 61 . . . .9 The Parabolic Orbit . . . . . . . 2. . . . .8 SEZ to I JK Transformation Using an Ellipsoid Earth Model . . . . . . . . .4 Determining the Orbital Elements from r and v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 Canonical Units . . .2 The NBody Problem . . . 1 . . . . . . . 2 . 71 . . . . . . . . .9 The Measurement of Time . .5 Determining r and v from the Orbital Elements . . . . . 1 1 Orbit Determination from Optical Sightings . . . . . List of References . 2 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 77 1 77 181 191 1 93 203 212 222 225 . . .x Improving a Preliminary Orbit by Differential Correction . . . .5 Implementing the Universal Variable F ormulation 4 . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . 227 227 228 23 1 24 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 . .3 TimeofFlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 152 1 60 1 62 1 69 1 74 1 76 Chapter 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME Historical Background 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 High Altitude Earth Orbits InPlane Orbit Changes 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS Low Altitude Earth Orbits 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 ORBIT DETERMI NATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 . . . . . . . .4 OutofPlane Orbit Change s Exercises List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 of Solution 5 . . . . . . .1 Historical Background The Gauss Pro blem . 122 13 1 1 32 1 40 1 44 . . . 1 49 . . 13 Space Surveillance 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Prediction Problem 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises List of References . . . .General Methods 5 . .6 Classical Formulations of the Kepler Pro blem Exercises List of References . . . . . . .4 The pIteration Method . . . . . . . . . 1 4 Type and Location o f Sensors 2 . . . . . . .2 TimeofFlight as a Function of Eccentric Anomaly A Universal Formulation for 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . 5 . . 1 5 Ground Track o f a Satellite . . .12 . . . .3 Solution of the Gauss Problem via Universal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The E ffect of Earth Rotat ion . .7 Pract ical Applicat ions o f the Gauss Pro blem . . 26 5 . . . . 8 . . 390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Original Gauss Method . 3 14 List o f References . . . . . . .3 E ffect o f Launching Errors on Range . . 3 85 9. . . 380 . List of References . . . 3 87 9. . 277 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Intercept and Rendezvous 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 358 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 . . . . . . . . . 3 84 . .1 Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Gauss Pro blem Using the f and 9 Series . . . . . . . . . . . 333 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1 . . . . . .5 . . . 27 1 . . . List o f Re ferences . .3 Encke ' s Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exerc ises . . . . 8 . 7. . . xi 5 . . . . . . Chapter 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRAJECTORIES . . . Simple EarthMoon Trajectories 7. . . . .2 The EarthMoon System . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . 344 352 355 . .1 9. . . . . . . . 357 . . . . Chapter 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 85 Introduction and Historical Background . . . . . . . 279 6 . . . . . . . . . . .4 NonCoplanar Interplanetary Trajectories Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . .1 Historical Background . 3 06 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . .2 The General B allistic M issile Pro blem . . . . . . . . . Histor ical Background . . . .2 Cowell ' s Method . .5 NonCoplanar Lunar Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 20 . . . . . . .2 The Solar System . . List of Reference s . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation 7. . 273 . . . Exercises . . 5 . . .3 The PatchedConic Approximation . . . . . . . Chapter 8 I NTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . 297 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 9 PERTURBATIO NS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 . . . . . . . . . . . 321 321 3 22 . 277 6.8 Determination o f Or bit from Sighting D irections at Station . .4 7. . . . 3 27 . . . . . . . . 258 . 359 . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 9 .xii Variation of Parame ters o r Elements 396 Comments on Integration Schemes and Erro rs . . . . . . .7 Analytic Formulation of Pe rtu rb ative Accele rations . . . . . . . . . 430 Appendix C Appendix D Index . . . . . . . . . . Vecto r Review . . . . 4 1 9 Exe rcises . Appendix A Appendix B Astrodynamic Constants . . . . . 412 Numerical Integration Methods . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . . . 440 449 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Miscellaneous Constants and Conve rsions . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . Suggested Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
It would be difficult to imagine a greater contrast b etween two men working in the same field of science than existed between Tycho Brahe and Kepler. yet this child was to alter the thought and habit of the world.' There is no record that the wise men honored the occasion. He was utterly devoid of the gift of theo retical speculation and mathematical power. Tycho. the poor and sickly mathematician. Newman! . laid the groundwork for Newton's greatest discoveries some 5 0 years later.1 mSTORICAL BACKGROUND AND BASIC LAWS If Christmas Day 1 642 ushered in the age of reason it was only because two men. was exceptional in mechanical ingenuity and meticulous in the collection and recording of accurate data on the positions of the planets. Kepler. 1 642 . the year Galileo died. as his mother told him in later years.BODY ORBITAL MECHANICS 1. there was born in the Manor House ofWoolsthorpebyColsterworth a male infant so tiny that. and so frail that he had to wear a bolster around his neck to support his head. he might have been put into a quart mug. the noble and aristocratic Dane. unfitted by nature for accurate observations. Tycho Brahe and Johann Kepler. JarnesR. who chanced to meet only 1 8 months before the former's death. was gifted with the patience and innate 1 On �hristmas Day. This unfortunate creature was entered in the parish register as 'Isaac sonne of Isaac and Hanna Newton.CHAPTER 1 TWO.
with the sun at a focus . the planets were assumed to revolve in circular paths or combinations of smaller circles moving on larger ones . the laws of motion and developed the fundamental concepts of the differential calculus during the long v acation of 1 666. Third LawThe square of the period o f a planet i s propor tional to the cube of its mean distance from the sun.1. The world was not to learn of his momentous discoveries until some 20 years later ! To Edmund Halley. In 1 665 Newton was a student at the University of Cambridge when an outbreak of the plague forced the university to close down for 2 years. necessarily moved in circles. It remained for the genius of Isaac Newton to unravel the mystery of "why? " . 3 These laws which mark an epoch in the history of mathematical science are as follows : KEPLER'S LAWS First LawThe orbit of each planet is an ellipse. who taught that circular motion was the only perfect and natural mot io n and that the heavenly bodies. Kepler's laws were only a description.1 Kepler's Laws. The orbit was found and in 1 609 Kepler pub lished his first two laws of planetary motion. therefore . not an explanation of planetary motion . The third law followed in 1 6 1 9 .BODY O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch. Kepler hit upon the ellip se as a possible solu tion.2 mathematical perception needed to unlock the sec rets hidden in Tycho' s data. after struggling for almost a year to remove a discrepancy of only 8 minutes of arc (which a le ss honest man m ight have chosen to ignore!). Finally . Second LawThe line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times . 2 1. Since the time of Aris totle . The 23yearold genius conceived the law of gravitation. discoverer of Halley's comet. Those 2 years were to be the most ·creative period in Newton's life . But now that Kepler had the accurate observations of Tycho to refer to he found immense difficulty in recon ciling any such theory with the observed facts. TWO. One day in 1 685 . It fit.1 Still. is due the credit for bringing Newton's discoverie s before the world. but owing to some small discrepancies in his explanation of the moon's motion he tossed his papers aside . From 1 601 until 1 606 he tried fitting various geometrical curves to Tycho 's data on the posi tions of Mars.
when he recovered from his shock. were discussing the theo ry of Desca rtes which explained the motion of the planets by means of whirlpools and eddies which swept the planets around the sun. In Book I of the Principia Newton introduces his three laws of motion : NEWTON'S LAWS First LawEvery body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a strai ght line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. Christopher Wren and Robert H ooke . t he Principia. Second LawThe rate of change of momentum is propor tional to the force impressed and is in the same direction as that force . 4 1. The result took 2 years in preparation and appeared in 1 687 as The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. advised his reticent friend to develop completely and to publish his explanation of planeta ry motion.2 Newton's Laws of Motion. in ellipses. undoubtedly one of the supreme achievements of the human mind. Third LawTo every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. casually posed the question. or . 1 H I STO R I CA L BACKG R O U N D A N D B AS I C LAWS 3 Halley and two of his contemporaries . 1 . in what paths ought they to go? " To Halley's utter and complete astonishment Newton replied without hesitation. "If the su n pulled the planets with a force inversely proportional to the square of their distances. Hooke thought that this should be easy to prove whereupon Wren o ffered Hooke 40 shillings if he could produce the proof with in 2 we eks. Several months later Halley was visiting Newton at Cambridge and. they speculated whether a force . The 2 weeks passed and nothing more was heard from Hooke . "Why.Sec. The second law can be expressed mathematical ly as follows : . of course ." Newton was referring to the work he had done some 20 years earlier and only in t his casual way was his greatest discovery made known to the world ! Halley.1. Dissatisfied with this explanation. without mentioning the b et. "similar to magnetism " and falling off inve rsely with the square of distance might not require the planets to move in precisely elliptical paths. I have already calcu lated it and have the proof among my papers somewhere. Give me a few days and I shall find it for you. more simply.
1 2) Fg = .1 ) applies only for a fixed mass system. • .'�V .12) t o equat i.4 TWOBODY O R BITAL M E C H A N ICS Ch.1. . / . . Note that equation ( 1 .8 dyne cm 2 I g m 2 r In the next sections we will apply equation ( 1 .n ( 1 .11 Newton's Law of Motion .3 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. Newton fo nnulated the law of gravity by stating that any two bodies attract one another with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inver sely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The universal gravitational constant.1 ) (1 .1 . Besides enunciating his three laws of motion in the Principia. . We can express this law mathematically in v ector notation as : LF=m r ( Ll. " Figure 1 . G. has the value 6. / I I I I I y where LF i s the vector sum o f all the forces acting o n the mass m and r is the vector acceleration of the mass measured relative to an inerti al referenc e frame shown as )0(Z in Figure 1 . .G Mm r r2 where F9 is the force on mass m due to mass M and r is the vector from M to m.67Ox 1 0. 1 .1 .. 1. 1 . . .1 .1 ) and develop the equation of motion for planets and satellites.
X I .. an earth satellite . etc. In addition. At any given time in its j ourney. a lunar or interplanetary probe.e. . The vector sum o f all gravita tional forces and other external forces acting on I will be used to determine the equation of motion. m2 • m3 m m. 1. solar radiation may impart some pressure on the body. the b ody is being acted upon by several gravitational masses and may even be experiencing other forces such as drag.e. the motion may be in an atmo sphere where drag effects are present.. thrust and solar radiation pressure . I I I Figure 1. An important force.2 T H E NBO D Y PRO B L E M 5 z Fg =   GMm r r2 r I /t : M(. the jth body may be a rocket expelling mass (i.II I I I " I I I I :..Sec 1. To determine the gravitational forces we shall apply Newton's law of universal gravitation.2 THE NBODY PROBLEM In this section we shall examine in some detail the motion of a body (i.. ..�I '. I " '. not yet mentioned is due to the nonspherical shape of the planets. j.. or a planet). f'T"h) one of which is the body whose motion we wish to studycall it the jth body . For this examination we shall assume a "system" of nob odies .12 Newton's Law of Gravity ____ .. . propellants) to pro duce thrust. The earth is flattened at the poles and bulged at the (m}. . . All of these effects must be considered in the general equation of motion. y We will begin with the general Nbody problem and then specialize to the problem of two bodies.
. regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the line of apsides... Thus. Y.���Y � X n 1. The magnitude of this force for a nearearth satellite is on the order of 1 03 g's. The first step in our analysis will b e t o choose a "suitable" coordi nate system in which to express the motion.1 . 2. This is not a simple task since any coordinate system we choose has a fair degree of uncertainty as to its inertial qualities. Newton's law of universal gravitation applies only if the bodies are spherical and if the mass is evenly distributed in spherical shells. are discussed in Chapter 3 .6 lWOBO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . variations are introduced to the gravitational forces due primarily to the shape of the bodies. • • • z FOTHER . Although small. this force is re sponsible for several important effects not predictable from the studies of Kepler and Newton. the moon is elliptical about the poles and about the equator. 1 equator. Without losing generality let us assume a "suitable" coordinate system ( X. Z) in which the positions of the n masses are known r1 r2.2' The NBody Problem Figure . These effects. rn' This system is illustrated in Figure 1 .
.3) Obviously . perturbations due to nonspherica1 s hapes. (1. F gn where =  Gm . m'J JI 3 (rj j) . of all such gravitational forces acting on the body may be written jth (1.I m n r nj 3 ( r nj ) (1 2 1 ) (1 2 2) . equation ( 1 .5 ) The other external force . .2.2 4)  since the body cannot exert a force on itself.2 TH E N·BODY PRO BL E M 7 Applying Newton's law of universal gravitation . The v ector sum. thrust. Fg. solar radiation pr essure. II 3 (1. .Se c 1. the force exerted on m by mn is j Fgn . etc .2 · does not contain the term 3) Gm·m·I I r. The combined fo rce acting on the jth body we will call F TOTA L ' where . .2.2 ·1 is T composed of drag. We may simplify this equation by usin g the summation notation so that n F g=Gm j j '* j L j= 1 r . Fa HER ' illustrated in Figure 1 .
Certain relativistic effects would also give rise to changes in the mass mj as a function of time .2 9 ) ________ mj is the mass of the FTOTAL 9 jth b ody.8 F TOTAL = F 9 TWOBODY ORB I TAL M ECH A N I CS Ch. . it is not always trueespecially in space dynamicsthat F = ma. r·I = F TOTAL mj 0.1 + F OTHER ' (l . (1.28) It was previously mentioned that the b ody may be expelling some mass to produce thrust in which case the second term of equation 1 ...I fj is the vector acceleration of the jth b ody relative to the x ..28 would not be zero .. Thus. In other words.27) The time derivative may be expanded to dmj_ dVj m·I+V'. d � (mjvj) = FTOTAL..I) and all other external forces .F I dt TOTAL dt (1... z coordinate system.26) We are now ready to apply Newton's second law of motion. is the vector sum of all gravitational forces F =  Gmj 2: j = j =1= 1 n j (rJ. Dividing throu by the mass mj gives the most general equation of motion for the it body r whereL. y ...
1 2 The remaining masses m3 .10) ( . m .2. nonlinear.1 2) . Equation ( 1 . differential equation of motion which has defied solution in its present form. Y..2.. Equation (1 .29) reduces to = r· 1 n .1 0) become s j = 1 j * 2_ n r 3 j 2 m J ' ( 1. equation ( 1 .2.2. mn may be the moon. mi 0). Also assume that drag a nd other external forces are not present. Assume that the mass of the i th body remains constant (Le. ni i is the time rate of change of mass of the i th bo dy (due to Z coordinate system . F OTHER = F TH E NBODY PROBLEM DRA G + F SO L AR PRESSURE + F 9 THRUST + PERTURB + e tc . ( 1. r JI.2 F Ii is the velocity vector of the i th body relative to the X ..1 0) for i = 1.G Let us ass ume also that m is an earth satellite and that m i s the earth. It is here therefore that we depart from the realities of nature to make some simplifying assumptions. expelling mass or relativistic effects. unpowered flight.2. m· J (�i) .G And for i = 0 .11) 2. The only remaining forces then are gravitational.Sec 1 . sun and planets . Then writin g equation 1 . vector. we get j = j � *i 1 3 .29) is a second order .
2 15) or expanding r 12=  [ in ( 1.G(m 1 + m2) r 12 (r 12) r 12 j The reason for writing the equation in this form will become clear when we recall that we are studying the motion of a near earth satellite where � is the mass of the satellite and m1 is the mass of the earth .r 21 we may combine the first terms Hence. 2 1 7 ) . Since r 1 2 = . 2. n f12=G =1 j *' 2 L j r j2 m' J 3 n (r j 2) + G L2 j = r j1 m' J 3 (r j 1 ) ( 1. .1 4) gives.1 2) into equation ( 1 .1 4) Substituting equations ( 1 .2 1 3) ti2 = ti ( 1.2.22) we see that rI2 = r2 so that  r1 ti ( 1. .10 TWOBODY O R B ITAL M EC H A N I CS Ch.2.1 From equation ( 1 . Then t� 2 3 =3 L n Gm· J ( 3 rj 2 r J'2 ( 1 .21 1 ) and ( 1 ..2 1 6) each bracket.
To further simplify this equation it is n ece ssary to de termine the m agnitude of. the perturbing effects compared to the force between earth and satellite .6x l O lO 1 . COMPARISON OF RELATIVE ACCELERATION (IN G's) FOR A 200 NM EARTH SATELLITE Earth Sun Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Moon Earth Oblateness TABLE 1 . This enables us to treat the bodies as though their masses were concentrated at their centers.3.21 Acceleration in G's on 200 nm Earth Satellite . Table 1 . Howe ver . sun and planets on a near earth satellite . The bodies are spherically symmetric . 6 xl O 11 1 0 1 2 3.9x l O 8 7 . There are t wo assum pt ions we will make with regard to our model : 1 .89 6x l 0 4 2. 1 . Notice also that the effect of the nonspherical earth (oblateness) is included for comparison.2x l O 8 2.3x l O 9 8xl O 11 3.3 mE TWOBODY PROBLEM Now that we have a general expression for the relative motion of two bodies perturbed by other bodies it would be a simpl f' matter to reduce it to an equation for only two bodies.2 �1 lists the relati ve accelerations (not the perturbative accelerations) for a satellite in a 200 n .3 T H E TWOBO D Y P R O B L EM 11 is the accele ration of the satellite relative to e arth. .1 Simplifying Assump tions. 1 x l 0 10 3. to further clarify the derivation of the equation of relative mo tion . 1. s ome of the w ork of the previous section will be repeated considering just two bodies. mi orbit about the earth.3x l O 6 1 0 3 1 .2 1 7) is to account for the perturbing effects of the moon .Sec. The effect of the last term of e quation ( 1 .
Y.BO D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . r r 2 L r The ab ove equations may be written : fm =_. we must find an inertial (unaccelerated and nonrotating) reference fr ame for the purpose of measuring the motion or the lack of it. without relation to anything external. he failed to indicate how one found this frame n which was absolutely at rest. Y'. Let (X. Z') and having an origin coincident with the body of ma ss M. remains always similar and irrnovable. 1 2. Z') are rM a nd rm respectively . Z') be an inertial set of rectangular cartesian coordinates. Y'.3.3. " s However. . let us carry on with our investigation of the relative motion by assuming that we have found such an inertial reference frame and then later return to a discussion of the consequences of the fact that in reality all we can ever find is an "almost" inertial reference frame . For the time being.2 The Equation of Relative Motion.12 TWO. 3 2 ) . which "in its own nature.3.1 ) (1 . The position vectors of the b odies M and m with respect to the set (X'. Z') and obtain and  mfm = MfM rM• = GMm GMm r2 1.1 .. There are no external nor internal forces acting on the system other than the gravitational forces which act along the line joining the centers of the two bodies.GMr 3 and tM= �r r r ( 1 . N ote that we have defined r = rm  Now we can apply Newton's laws in the inertial frame (X'. Newton desc ribed this inertial reference frame b y saying that it was fixed in absolute space. Let (X'. Z) be a set of nonrotating coordinates parallel to (X'. 1 . Y' . Consider the system of two bodies of mass M and m illustrated in Fi gure 1 . Y'. Before we may apply Newton's second law to deter mine the equation of relative motion of these two bodies.
Since our efforts in this text will be devoted to studying the motion of artificial satellites.33) is the vector differential equation of the relative motion for the twobody problem. Y'. 1. Y. velocity. Note that this is the same as equation (1.33).217) without perturbing effects and with r 12 replaced by r.31 Relative Motion of Two Bodies Subtracting equation (1.y X' Figure 1 . Y. ballistic missiles.33) . Y. Z) will be equal respectively to their magnitudes and directions as measured in the inertial set (X'.. we may now discard it and measure the relative po sition. noninertial coordinate system such as the set (X. or space probes orbiting about 3 r . the magnitudes and directions of r and f as measured in the set (X. Z) with its origin in the central body. Z'). Thus having postulated the existence of an inertial reference frame in order to derive equation (1.Sec. Z'). (1 . and acceleration in a nonrotating.3 TH E TWOBO DY P R O B L EM z 13 m Jr. Z) is nonrotating with respect to the coordinate set eX'.31) we have = _ r . GIM+ml r Equation (1.32) from equation (1. Note that since the coordinate set (X. Y'.
Il will have a different value for each major attracting body. then G(M + m ) must be used in place of Il (so de fined by some authors). you would probably arrive intuitively at the conclusions we will shortly confirm by rigorous mathematical proofs. an object moving under the influence of gravity alone does not lose or gain mechanical energy but only exchanges one form of energy. will be much less than that of the central body . parame ter as Il == Il ( m u ) . If you think ab out the model we have created.4 CONSTANTS OF THE MOTION Before attempting to solve the equation of motion to obtain the trajectory of a satellite we shall derive some useful information about the nature of orbital motion." You also know that it takes a tangential component of force to change the angular momentum of a system in rotational motion about some center of rotation . namely a small mass moving in a gravitational field whose force is always directed toward the center of a larger mass. It is convenient to define a parameter. From your previous knowledge of physics and mechanics you know that a gravitational field is "conservative . Since the gravitational force is always directed radially toward the center of the large mass we would expect that the angular momentum of the satellite ab out the center of our reference I t"+ * r= 0·1 ( 1 . M.14 TWO·BO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch. called the gravitational GM. 3 4) will be only as accurate as the assumptions ( 1 ) and (2) and the assumption that M � m. 3 ·4 ) .3 4) is the two·body equation of motion that w e will use for the remainder of the text. m. Hence we see that G(M+ m) :::::: GM. 1.3·3 becomes Equation ( 1 . Values for the earth and sun are listed in the appendix and values for other planets are included in Chapter 8 . If m is not much less than M. Remember that the results obtained from equation ( 1 . the mass of the orbiting body ." for another form called "potential energy . 1 some planet or the sun. Then equation 1 . "kinetic ." That is.
3 4) by r ' ro�r= O .41 ) = a co n st a n t c alle d "specific m e c a n ical e nergy" h The first term of & is obviously the kinetic energy per unit mass of the satellite. 1. ror v 0 V + 1r i= 0. The energy constant of motion can be derived 'as follows : tion ( 1 . 2 where c can be any arbitrary co nstant since the time derivative of any constant is zero. dt 1:L = O.r ) = � r �(r . ( 1 . r 3 dt dt v ·· 3 . C. then 1 . r 2.!!.' so = + q� dt "I r3 0 vv + Lrr=O .lL\I r dt JJ. Since in ge neral a 0 it aa . But what about the arbitrary co nstant .4. 1 . Dot multiply e o 0 CO N STAN T S O F TH E M OT I O N 15 . v =r and v= f. that expression must be a co nstant which we will call &. N 0 tlcmg that . To make step 3 perfectly ge neral we should say that . Therefore. which appears in .1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy. To co nvince yourself that the second term is the potential e nergy per unit mass you need o nly equate it with the work do ne in moving a satellite from o ne point in space to a nother against the force of gravity.SLL 2 _ 2 A (�) + iL (lL)= 0 r / \2 ) VV 0 and or 4.4 frame (the large mass) does not change . I n the next two sections we will prove these statements. 5. If the time rate of change of an expression is zero .Sec. v 2 + cL\=o dt \ 2 r J sL(.
3 4) by r 2 . why not se t it equal to zero ? Setting c equal to zero is equivalent to choo sing our zero reference for potential energy at infinity .iL (r X r) = 0 dt dt ( rxf) = f Xf + rxr the equation above becomes or ' . the earth. We conclude . do you want to say the potential energy is zero ? This is obviously arbitrary. The angular momentum constant of the motion is obtained as follows : 1 . neither increasing nor decreasing as a result of its motion. e . at what distance . r. �. The expression for � is �. If we wish to retain the surface of the large mass.g. Since in general a x a= 0. dt . In other words. in which case an obj e ct lying at the bottom of a deep well was found to have a negative potential energy. rX . as our zero reference we would choose c = where rEB is the radius of the earth.42) 1 .iL (rxv) = O. O. Cross multiply equation ( 1 .4.1 the potential energy term? The value of this constant will depend on the zero reference of potential energy.  ( 1 . that the specific mechanical energy. of a satellite which is the sum of its kinetic energy per unit mass and its potential energy per unit mass remains constant along its orbit . This would be perfectly legitimate but since c is arbitrary . therefore . the second term vanishes and rx f+ rx�r = r f = O.16 TWOBODY O R BITA L M E C H A N ICS Ch. Noticing that . The price we pay for this simp lification is that the potential energy of a satellite (now simply ¥> will always b e nega tive.fL 3 . In your elementary physics courses it was convenient to ' choose ground level or the surface of the earth as the zero datum for potential energy .2 Conservation of angular momentum.
We shall refer to this as the orbital plane . </J No matter where a satellite is located in space it is always po ssible to define "up and down" and "horizontal. Therefore . I Figure 1 . 1 ." "Up" simply means away . But h is a constant vector so r and v must always"remain in the same plane .43) v I h = r x v. we conclude that the satellite's motion must be confined to a plane which is fixed in space . h.4 C ON STA N T S O F TH E M OT I O N 17 Since h is the vector cross product of r and v it must always be perpendicular to the plane containing r and v.41 Flightpath angle . By looking at the vectors r and v in the orbital plane and the angle between them (see Figure 1.The expression r x v which must be a constant of the motion is simply the vector h.41) we can derive another u seful expression for the magnitude of the vector h. called specific angular momen tum. we have shown that the specific angular momentum. of a satellite remains constant along its orbit and that the expression for his Sec. Therefore . (1 .
The angle between the velocit y vector and the local horizontal plane is called ¢ (phi). EXAMPLE PROBLEM. and the specific angular momentum.7 1 37J+O. respectively. In an inertial coordinate system.899 X 107 ft. therefore : rv ¢ = arcc o s 0. ¢. The local horizontal plane must then be perpendicular to the local vertical. So the local vertical at the location of the satellite coincides with the direction of the vector r.18 TWO·BODY O R B I TAL M E C H A N I CS .4) The sign of ¢ wil l be the same as the sign of r v. the zeni th angle . by specifying the angle it makes with the local vertical as 'Y (gamma). 1 from the center of the earth and "down" means toward the center of the earth.0922 X 1012 ft2/sec h = rv c o s ¢.2778 J + 1 0 . (4. r = 12. to express h in terms of the flight·path angle .8143 = 35. Also find the flight·path angle. Determine the specific mechanical energy . Ch. • ( 1 . " From the de finition of the cross product the magnitude of h is h =N We will find it more convenient. c o s ¢=Jl. We can now define the direction of the velocity vector. h.54273K)l012ft2 Isec h = 6. v.7995 X 104 ft/sec 2 &=�L= 1. ¢. V =5. J and K are unit vectors. the flight·path elevation ang le or simply " flight·path angle .4. &.5936 1 + 5 .420 . I h = rv c o s ¢.573x 109 r ft2/sec2 h = r X v= (5. however. = 0. Since 'Y and ¢ are obviously complementary angles sin 'Y. 1 85 2 1 + 6. the position and velocity vectors of a satellite are .4274I+2.8143 r • v > 0 .463 K) 1 07 ft and (2. 1 872 1) 1 04 ft/sec where I.
. r d r  r r2 We can rewrite equation (1.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQUAT I O N 19 1 . �t (B· . You recall that the equation of motion for the twobody problem is r=.3 3 r r r since r • i = f . 1 .· The more difficult question of how the satellite moves around this orbit as a function of time will be postponed to Chapter 4.33) is simple. (h xr) =.1 Integration of the Equation of Motion. JJ. h leads toward a form which can be r3 h)JJ. Also note that J.5 THE TRAJECTORY EQUATION Earlier we wrote the equation of motion for a small mass orbiting a large central body..( r) r.51) as d � (i X h) = JJ.5. .& .. A partial solution which will tell us the size and shape of the orbit is easy to obtain..Sec. we see that J!:. r Crossing this equation into integrated: fX h= JJ.51) The left side of equation (1.51) is c1earlyd/dt (i X try it and see. While this equation (1. 1 .1!y r . Looking for the right side to also be the time rate of change of some vector quantity. its complete solution is not.. err. times the derivative of the unit vector is also II _� v .I. (1.
.20 TWO·BODY ORB I T AL M ECHAN I CS Ch. h2 where vector r.. (1.. r V =W + r8 cos v a 0 bXc r o = a Xb B . If we now dot multiply this equation by r we get a scalar equation: r i Xh 0 = r M !. which is mathematically identical in form to the trajectory equation. in general.53) 1 . To determine what kind of a curve it represents we need only compare it to the general equation of a conic section written in polar coordinates with the origin located at a focus and where the polar angle." The constant e is called the "eccentricity" and it determines the type of conic section represented by equation (1. 5. is the angle between r and the point on the conic nearest the focus: In this equation. a = a2 (nu) is the angle between the constant vector B and the radius Solving for r. + r o Since. I r 1 + e cos V p (1. Equation (1.53) is the trajectory equation expressed in polar coordinates where the polar angle.1 Integrating both sides i Xh = M � + B.54) . v.9 cos V (1. is measured from the ftxed vector B to r. p is a geometrical constant of the conic called the "parameter" or "semilatus rectum. c and a .54) .52) Where B is the vector constant of integration. +(81J. V.2 The PolarEquation of a Conic Section. we obtain = 1 h2 /g .
the flightpath angle. cp.3 Geometrical Properties Common to All Conic Sections. potential and kinetic. The focus of the conic orbit must be located at the center of the central body. The specific angular momentum of a satellite about the central attracting body remains constant. The family of curves called "conic sections" (circle. Before discussing the factors .51 illustrates an ellipse.44) 1 . 5 . hyperbola) represent the only possible paths for an orbiting object in the twobody problem. not just ellipses. 1. There is.5. We can summarize our knowledge concerning orbital motion up to this point as follows: 1 . however. an exchange of energy between the two forms. 4 . must change so as to keep h constant. Although Figure 1.41 and equation (1 . ellipse.5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU AT I O N 1 � p 0 [ r e = e ( e ) ' e = 0 I I I Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola + e p 21 cos tI Figure 1 . (See Figure 1 .53) and the equation of a conic section (1.51 General equation of any conic section in polar coordinates The similarity in form between the trajectory equation (1. which means that the satellite must slowdown as it gains altitude (as r increases) and speedup as r decreases in such a manner that 8. As r and v change along the orbit. the ellipse is only one of the family of curves called conic sections. 2. parabola. remains constant. The mechanical energy of a satellite (which is the sum of kinetic and potential energy) does not change as the satellite moves along its conic orbit. 54) not only verifies Kepler's first law but allows us to extend the law to include orbital motion along any conic section path. 3. The orbital rriotion takes place in a plane which is fixed in inertial space.Sec.
If the plane cuts both nappes.22 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . There are also degenerate conics consisting of one or two straight lines . in addition to cutting just one nappe of the cone. these are produced by planes passing throu ih the apex of the cone. the section is a hyperbola having two branches. Many of their most interesting properties were discovered by the early Greeks. There is an alternate definition of a conic which is mathematically equivalent to the geometrical definition ab ove : A conic is a circle or the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its absolute distance from a given point (a focus) to . The name derives from the fact that a conic section may be defined as the curve of intersection of a plane and a right circular cone. The conic sections have been known and studied for centuries. the section is a parabola. the plane is parallel to a line in the surface of the cone.5 2 illustrates this definition . If. If the plane cuts across one nappe (halfcone). or a single point.52 The conic sections which determine which of these conic curves a satellite will follow. 1 Figure 1 . we need to know a few facts about conic sections in general. Figure 1. A circle is just a special case of the ellipse where the plane is parallel to the base of the cone . the section is an ellipse.
53 below illustrates certain other geometrical dimensions and relationships which are common to all conic sections. F and F'. has little significance in Circle Ellipse 2p t Parabola t Hyperbola Figure 1. F'. the focus and eccentricity are indispensable concepts in the understanding of orbital motion .53 Geometrical dimensions common to all conic sections . F. The secondary or vacant focus.Sec 1 . marks the location of the central attracting body in an orbit.5 T H E T R AJ ECTO R Y EQU AT I O N 23 its absolute distance from a given line (a directrix) i s a positive constant e (the eccentricity ) . Because of their symmetry all conic sections have two foci. The prime focus. Figure 1 . While the directrix has no physical significance as far as orbits are concerned.
The distance from the prime focus to either periapsis or apoap sis 0 (where it exists) can be expressed by simply inserting V = 0 or V = lf3CP in the general polar equation of a conic section (equation (2. for the parabola 2 c is infinite and for the hyperbola 2 C is taken as a negative . The distance between the foci is given the symbol 2 c.24 TWO BODY O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch_ 1 orbital mechanics. Thus. a. For the circle the foci are considered coincident and 2 c is zero . It follows directly from the definition of a conic section given above that for any conic except a parabola c e = a and ( 1 .5 3 .54)). Depending on what is the central attracting body in an orbital situation these points may also be called "perigee" or "apogee.5 6) The extreme endpoints of the major axis of an orbit are referred to as "apses". In the parabola.55) p = a (1 . for any conic r mi n = rp er iap s is  1 + p e c os 00 . the secondary focus is assumed to lie an infinite distance to the left of F . The point nearest the prime focus is called "periapsis" (meaning the "near apse") and the point farthest from the prime focus is called "apoapsis" (meaning the "far apse ")." etc. is c�lled the semimaj or axis. ( 1 . Notice that for the circle these points are not uniquely defined and for the op�n curves (parab olas and hyperbolas) the apoapsis has no physical meaning. The width of each curve at the focus is a positive dimension called the latus rectum and is labeled 2 p in Figure 1 . for the parabola 2 a is infmite and for the hyperbola 2 a is taken as negative ." "perise lenium" or "aposelenium. The length of the chord passing through the foci is called the maj or axis of the conic and i� labeled 2 a. which represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits." "perihelion" or "aphelion. Note that for the circle 2 a is simply the diameter. The dimension.e2).
53) and ( 1 . tL r ( 1 .52) Solving for B and noting that r B = v xhtLr Hence e= vxh !. 53). B.58) 1 . 1 ( 1 . . Quite obviously. 5.57) p r max = rap oapsis = 1 + e c os 1800 and p ra = . 1. the trajectory equation. ( 1 . we encountered the vector constant of integration.= a( 1 +e) .59) By integrating the twobody equation of motion we obtained the following result r tx h = tL+ B r ( 1 . 5 4) we conclude that B = tLe.. 5.Sec . In the derivation of equation ( 1 .56) gives Similarly I rp = � = a( 1 e). .5 T H E T R AJ E CTO R Y EQU A T I O N 25 Combining this with equation ( 1 .4 The Eccentricity Vector. By comparing equations ( 1 . e = BltL. which points toward periapsis. 1e ( 1 .1 0) . since eis also a constant vector pointing toward periap sis.
e = ( v v ) r . e . 1. of the satellite.26 TWOBO D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS We can eliminate h from this expression by substituting h = r p. v. and that as h is .54) we see immediately that the parameter or semilatus rectum. 1 so Expanding the vector triple product. Figure 1 . _ = ( v2 E) r r  (r . is equivalent to increasing h. r r p. th . progressively increasing the muzzle velocity. By comparing equation ( 1 . By inspection. If the muzzle of the cannon is aimed horizontally and the cannon is fired. p. h. v ) v . r  r .6. AND h TO THE GEOMETRY OF AN ORBIT p = h2/p. is zero. Therefore.44) tells us that h=rv since the flightpath angle. ( 1 . Noting that (v ·v) = v2 and collecting terms. equation ( 1 ..5.61 ) In order to see intuitively why an increase in h should result in a larger value for p consider the following argument: Suppose that a cannon were set up on the top of a high mountain whose summit extends above the sensible atmosphere (so that we may neglect atmospheric drag).(r . v)v.. ( 1 .p.53) and equation ( 1 . /or any orbit.1 shows the family of curves which represent the trajectory or orbit of the cannonball as the angular momentum of the "cannonball satellite" is progressively increased.6 RELATING &. x v. of the orbit depends only on the specific angular momentum. we get • p. e = V x (r x v) . 1 .1 1 ) The eccentricity vector will be used in orbit determination i n Chapter 2.p. Notice that each trajectory is a conic section with the focus located at the center of the earth.
.. We can then write.e ) . . (1 .1 ) predicts . I '.44).61 "Cannonball satellite " As a byproduct o f this example w e note that a t periapsis o r apoap sis of any conic orbit the velocity vector (which is always tangent to the orbit) is directed horizontally and the flightpath angle.62) we obtain &. of the orbit also increases just as equation ( 1 . . as a corollary to equation ( 1 . 1 01) . v.increased the parameter.6. . is zero. p.. = �.42) for the periapsis point and substitute from equation ( 1 .�= � .62) If we write the energy equation ( 1 . �' " . .. 57) p rp = a(1 .F �. R e lAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B IT 27 Sec. r I . . Figure 1 . .  .� 2 r 2 rp r But from equation ( 1 .
a. while & for a satellite in a parabolic orbit is zero and on a hyperbolic orbit the energy is positive. the two together determine e (which specifies the exact shape of conic orbit).5 3 which shows that for the circle and ellipse a is positive .28 TWO B O D Y O R B I TA L M E C H AN I CS Ch . or positive) alone determines the type of conic orbit the satellite is in. the energy of a satellite (negative . &.1 serves as well to illustrate the intuitive explanation of this fundamental relationship since progressively increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannon also progressively increases &.56) and equation (1 . This can be shown as follows : p = a ( 1 . You should study it together with Figure 1 . zero.63) misleading. while for the parab ola a is infinite and for the hyperbola a is negative . of an orbit depends only on the specific mechanical energy .63) This simple relationship which is valid for all conic orbits tells us that the semimaj or axis. Figure 1 .a ( 1 e2 ) 2a 2 ( 1 e) 2 which reduces to a( 1 e) & = _ lL 2a ( l . This implies that the specific mechanical energy of a satellite in a closed orbit (circle or ellipse) is negative . Many students find equation ( 1 . Since h alone determines p and since & alone determines a. 1 and from equation ( l .6.6. of the satellite (which in turn depends only on r and V at any point along the orbit). Thus.e2 ) therefore e = 1 J f .1 ) therefore p.
m i . For a given satellite .Jf5P. and semimaj or axis. if & is positive . semilatus rectum. The student should be aware of this pitfall. 2& = 3 . 3 n . r p = rES + 200 = 3643. 9 n . the orbit will be a degenerate conic (a point or straight line) . Namely. . p = r p ( 1 + e) = 4008.. and specific angular momentum. e is exactly 1 (a parabola).. R E LAT I N G TO G EO M E T R Y O F AN O R B I T 29 so tor any conic orbit. Determine its altitude at apogee. 6 . e is positive and less than 1 (an ellipse) . 64) Notice again that if & is negative.Sec 1 .7 n .  a=  '!:. ra = 1 � e = 4453. & = 2 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.897  e2 ) = 3.2 Determine its specific angular momentum. m i . e is greater than I (a hyperbola). = 6. mi. specific mechanical energy.. all parabolas have an eccentricity of 1 but an orbit whose eccentricity is 1 need not be a parabolait could be a degenerate conic. if & is zero .0x10 8 ft 2 /sec 2 and e = 0. But what if h is zero regardless of what value & has? The eccentricity will be exactly 1 but the orbit will not be a parabola! Rather.1 and perigee altitude 200 n . A radar tracking station tells us that a certain decaying weather satellite has e = 0. 3790 x X ft 10 1 1 tt2 /sec = EXAMPLE PROBLEM. m i . 0 .5 1 98 x 1 07 ft 107 p = a( 1 h = .
the radius o f periapsis and the radius o f apoapsis are related to the maj or axis of an ellipse as Also by inspection. 1 35 x 1 06 ft n. Each pin marks the location of a focus and since the length of the thread is constant.JpjJ. An ellipse can b e constructed using two pins and a loop of thread.861 x 1 08 ft2 /sec 2 r ' = 2a .855 = 6 . 1 .6 p &=  x 11 tt2 /s ec 10 The orbits of all the planets in the solar system as well as the orbits of all earth satellites are ellipses.7 . h =.7·3) I r p + r a = 2a. 2a = r a + r = 8097.8 TWO·B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 Geometry of the Ellipse.= 2. = 5. Since an ellipse is a closed curve. The method is illustrated in Figure 1 .7·2) . I ( 1 .7· 1 ) B y inspection.mi.7 THE ELLIPTICAL ORBIT fa. We will first look at some geometrical results which apply only to the ellipse and then derive an expression for the period of an elliptical orbit. the sum of the distances from any point on an ellipse to each focus (r + r ') is a constant. 1 n. the distance between the foci is ( 1 . an obj ect in an elliptical orbit travels the same path over and over . specifically r + 1 .30 altitu d e at ap o g e e = r a . When the pencil is at either end·point of the ellipse it is easy to see that. ( 1 .m i . The time for the satellite to go once around its orbit is called the period.r Ell = 1 009.7· 1 .
7 .72) and ( 1 . e is defined as combine to yield da.1 . 2 ( 1 .horizontal component of velocity of a satellite is simply V c o s cjJ which can also be expressed as r v.76) .72.1 ) we can form a right triangle from which we conclude that 1 . becomes r dt = 11 dll.44) we can express the specific angular momentum of the satellite as ( 1 . Dropping a perpendicular to the maj or axis (dotted line in Figure 1 . Since r + r' = 2a.75) which.73) ( 1 . 1 . Using equation ( 1 .74) The width of an ellipse at the center is called the minor axis. 2 b. when rearranged . equation ( 1 . in general.7. If you refer to Figure 1 . At the end of the minor axis r and r' are equal as illustrated at the right of Figure 1 . r and r' must both be equal to a at this point.2 Period of an Elliptical Orbit.7 T H E E L L I PT I C A L O R B I T 31 �I Figure 1 .Sec.7.71 Simple way to construct an ellipse Since. you will see that the .
1 Figure 1 . is given by the expression So. d A. d v.77) dt 2 = 11 dA.72 Horizontal component of v But from elementary calculus we know that the differential element of area. swept out by the radius vector as it moves through an angle.73 Differential element of area . we can rewrite equation ( 1 .32 TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch .76) as ( 1 . Figure 1 .
77) for one period gives us where a b is the total area of an ellipse and lP is the period. since h = /JlP. 1 . 55) and ( 1 .c2 =) a 2 ( 1 .e2 ) = JaP and. a. Naturally.78) b =) a 2 . 5 6) lP = 21Thab 1T ( 1 . the satellite must be launched in the horizontal direction at the desired . Integrating equation ( 1 . is the "mean distance" of a satellite from the prime focus . Of course.79) = 21T 4Il r es 3 / 2 ( 1 .77) proves Kepler's second law that "equal areas are swept out by the radius vector in equal time intervals" since h is a constant for an orbit. being the average of the periapsis and apoapsis radii. 1 .Sec. Equation ( 1 . ( 1 .75).8 THE CIRCULAR ORBIT The circle is just a special case of an ellipse so all the relationships we just derived for the elliptical orbit including the period are also valid for the circular orbit. During one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out the entire area of the ellipse .8.79) is simply lP c:s I lP = � a' / 2 ( 1 . proves Kepler's third law that "the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the mean distance" since a. incidentally.8 . Thus. the semimajor axis of a circular orbit is just its radius. 1 Circular Satellite Speed.1 ) 1 .8 T H E C I R CU LA R O R B I T 33 Equation ( 1 . the period of an elliptical orbit depends only on the size of the semimajor axis. The speed necessary t o place a satellite in a circular orbit is called circular speed.79). so equation ( 1 . From equations ( 1 .
The parabola is interesting because it represents the borderline case between the open and closed orbits. since the eccentricity of a parab ola is exactly 1 . 1 . rCS' from the energy equation. The latter condition is called circular velocity and implies both the correct speed and direction. An object traveling a parabolic path is on a oneway trip to inf mity and will never retrace the same path again. the periapsis radius is just r 1 . we obtain _ 2a Il _L=_ _ which reduces to ( 1 . There are only a few geometrical properties peculiar to the parabola which you should know. 1 altitude to achieve a circular orbit.34 TWO . One is that the two arms of a parabola become more and more nearly parallel as one extends them further and further to the left of the focus in Figure 1 .9.B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H AN I CS Ch . The parabolic orbit is rarely found in nature although the orbits of some comets approximate a parabola. F or a low altitude earth orbit.000 ft/sec while the speed required to keep the moon in its orbit around the earth is only about 3 .9.000 ft/sec. Another is that.82) Notice that the greater the radius of the circular orbit the less speed is required to keep the satellite in this orbit .1 ) .9 THE PARABOLIC ORBIT P =� 2 ( 1 .9. We can calculate the speed required for a circular orbit of radius.1 .1 Geometry of the Parabola. 2 &=L _L=_L 2 r If we remember that V2 es 2 rCS = a. circular speed is about 26 .
Jf2il ' r  ( 1 ." The speed which is just sufficient to do this is called escape speed.2 Escape Speed. r." 1 . Of course. A space probe which is given escape speed in any direction will travel on a parab olic escape trajectory.9.57).Sec.= 5!! _ V V from which e sc 2 2 r /2 2 0 J! co =0   . Even though the gravitational field of the sun or a planet theoretically extends to infinity.91 Geometry of the parabola which follows from equation ( l. its strength decreases so rapidly with distance that only a finite amount of kinetic energy is needed to overcome the effects of gravity and allow an object to coast to an infinite distance without "falling back. Theoretically. 1 .E. first at a general point a distance . from the center where the "local escape speed" is ve sco and then at infinity where the speed will be zero : & = � . there is no apoapsis for a parabola and it may be thought of as an "infinitely long ellipse.9 T H E P A R ABO L I C O R B I T 35    Figure 1 . as its distance from the central body approaches infinity its speed approaches zero . We can calculate the speed necessary to escape by writing the energy equation for two points along the escape trajectory.92) .
1 X Radius of circular orbit is X r = r eart h + A lt i t ude C i rcu lar O r b i t Vesc J[2ji rr = 1. Escape Speed: Earth gravitational parameter is J..700 ft/sec while from a point 3 .400 nm above the surface it is only 26.1 57. A space probe is to be launched on an escape traj ectory from a circular parking orbit which is at an altitude of 1 00 n mi above the earth. a. The parameter p is determined by equation ( 1 .000 ft/sec.92) =21 . a. must be zero if the probe is to have zero speed at infinity and since 8.Since the specific mechanical energy. the farther away you are from the central body (larger value of r) the less speed it takes to escape the remainder of the gravitational field. = j. 5 7). 53374 106 ft = = 36. Sketch of escape trajectory and circular parking orbit : . 9 ft/sec From the definition of escape speed the energy constant is zero on the escape trajectory which is therefore parab olic. 8. b .B O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS  ell . (Ignore the gravita tional forces of the sun and other planets. 1 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. the semimajor axis. As you would expect. 36 TWO .) Sketch the escape traj e ctory and the circular parking orbit. of the escape trajectory must be infinite which confirms that it is a parabola. Calculate the minimum escape speed re quired to escape from the parking orbit altitude .407654 101 6 ft3 /sec 2 From equation ( 1 . Escape speed from the surface of the earth is about 3 6 .1/2a.
Sec.9 TH E PARABO L I C O R B I T 37 p = p = = = r (1 e) 21. 1 . 8n.8 n. where to r 0 v"" = = "" Figure 1 . 06748 106 ft 7087.92 Escape traj e ctory for example problem . + x x x Peri gee Trajectory of Escape ir C100culn.amr iO. m i . m i .53374 106 ft 2 43. rb i t P 7087.
1 0 THE HYPERBOLIC ORBIT Meteors which strike the earth and interplanetary probes sent from the earth travel hyperbolic paths relative to the earth. The parameters a. 1 .1 ) . 1 0. If we consider the lefthand focus. If. 1 1 .1 Geometry of the hyperbola our gravitating body is located). then the righthand branch represents the orbit. A hyperbolic orbit is necessary if we want the probe to have some speed left over after it escapes the earth's gravitational field . The hyperbola is an unusual and interesting conic section because it has two branches.38 TWOBO DY O R B I T A L M E C H A N I CS Ch . instead. 1 Geometry of the Hyperbola. Obviously. Its geometry is worth a few moments of study . (L l O. we assume a force of repulsion between our satellite and the b ody located at F (such as the force between two likecharged electrical particles). F . b and C are labeled in Figure Ll 01 . The arms of a hyperbola are asymptotic to two intersecting straight lines (the asymptotes). 1 0. then only the left branch of the hyperbola represents the possible orbit. as the prime focus (where the center of Figure 1 .
which represents the angle through which the path of a space probe is turned by its encounter with a planet. 1 0.for the hyperbola. it will just barely escape the gravitational field which Figure 1 .but since Sec. is related to the geometry of the hyperb ola as follows : sin . 1 02 Hyperbolic excess speed means that its speed will be approaching zero as its distance from the force center approaches inf mity.. This residual speed which the probe would have left over even at infmity is called "hyperb olic excess speed. 1 02) The greater the eccentricity of the hyperbola. the smaller will b e the turning angle . we would expect the speed at a great distance from the earth to be approaching some finite constant value . 0. The turning angle . If you give a space probe exactly escape speed. 1 0.1 . 1 .0. 1 03) 2 ° a c (1 . 1 0 T H E H YP E R BO L I C O R B I T 39 e = cia equation ( 1 ." We can calculate this speed from the energy equation written for two points on the hyperbolic escape traj e ctorya point near the earth called the "burnout point" and a point an infinite distance from the earth where the speed will be the hyperbolic excess speed. The angle between the asymptotes. 1 02) becomes ( 1 . on the other hand. 1 . If. V 00' . is lab eled ° (delta) in Figure 1 . we give our probe more than escape speed at a point near the earth.2 Hyperbolic Excess Speed.
the mass and mean distance of the moon and the mass of the sun are not accurately known. 1 . it has already slowed down to very nearly its hyperbolic excess speed.40 Since specific mechanical energy does not change along an orbit. absurd to talk about a space probe "reaching infinity" and in this sense it is meaningless to talk about escaping a gravitational field completely. Such fundamental quantities as the mean distance from the earth to the sun. that once a space probe is a great distance (say . a million miles) from earth. 1 0. Astronomers call thi� ' . e specially in lunar and interplanetary trajectories. It is. 1 05) Note that if Voa is zero (as it is on a parab olic trajectory) v b o becomes simply the escape speed. In other words. It is a fact. the concept is convenient and is widely used. 1 . This dilemma is avoided in mathematical calculations if we assume the mass of the sun to be 1 "mass unit" and the mean distance from the earth to the sun to be our unit of distance which is called an "astronomical unit.3 Sphere of Influence.B O D Y O R B I TA L M EC H A N I CS Ch . 1 1 CANONICAL UNITS Astronomers are as yet unable to determine the precise distance and mass of objects in space. Although it is difficult to get even two people to agree on exactly where the sphere of influence should be drawn. however. 1 (1 . It is convenient to define a sphere around every gravitational b ody and say that when a probe crosses the edge of this "sphere of influence " it has escaped. we may equate & at the burnout point and & at infinity : TWO. of course . 1 04) from which we conclude that ( 1 ." All other masses and distances can then b e given in terms of these assumed units even though we do not know precisely the absolute value of the sun's mass and distance in pounds or miles. for all practical purposes it has escaped.
r a' r p' . 1 1 C A N O N I C A L U N I TS 41 normalized system o f units "canonical units. p. h. Values for the commonly used astrodynamic constants and their relationship to canonical units are listed in the appendices. The most commonly used symb ols are : « � � E9 if 0 The Sun The Moon Mercury Venus The Earth Mars '2\.Sec. J. Using canonical units determine & . 1 . 1 1 .1 .l. or some other planet is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a minimum altitude circular orbit just grazing the surface of the planet. will turn out to be 1 DU 3 /TU2 .046284 x 1 07 ft above the earth traveling at 2 . 5 9362 5 . 1 The Reference Orbit. e. We will use a system of units based on a hypothetical circular reference orbit . If we now define our time unit (TU) such that the speed of a satellite in the hypothetical reference orbit is 1 DU/TU. 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. In a twob ody problem where the sun is the central b ody the reference orbit will be a circular orbit whose radius is one astronomical unit (AU) . We will define our distance unit (DU) to be the radius of the reference orbit." We will adopt a similar system of normalized units in this text primarily for the purpose of simplifying the arithmetic of our orbit calculations. 1 1 . then the value of the gravitational parameter. Unless it is perfectly clear which reference orbit the units in your problem are based on you will have to indicate this by means of a subscript on the symbol DU and TU. or other planet. This is most easily done by annexing as a subscript the astronomer 's symbol for the sun. moon. A space object is sighted at an altitude of 1 . For other problems where the earth.x 1 04 ft/sec and a flight path angle of 0 0 at the time of sighting. Jupiter a 11 Saturn Uranus tV Neptune E Pluto The concept of the reference orbit is illustrated in Figure 1 . earth.
5 DU e The gravitational parameter and earth radius are : The radius of the object from the center of the e arth is : Find [1 from equation (1.42). 1 11 Reference circular orbits Convert altitude and speed to earth canonical units. 5 D U e �2 _ /J. [1 = r = r e + A1t = 1 . 1 2 33 9 x 1 08 f t2 /sec 2 . 1 67 D U �/T U � = . 1 Sun t b I AU Figure 1 . Alt = .1 .I 42 AU/TU TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M EC H A N I CS Ch . � = .
4 1 6 5 53 EB 1 . 5D U 2 /T U EB EB = 8. 5 D U ". = 3. 1 388 5 1 '" x 1 07 ft r p = .58) Find r p from equation (1.Sec. 1 .5 7)  r a = 1 e p.64) Find ra from equation (1.7082763 Jl EB 1 07 ft Find e from equation (1.61) Find h from equation (1. 25D U EB = 4. = 2. 1 1 C AN O N I CA L U N I TS 43 x Find p from equation (1.= P 1 +e x 7 1 0 ft .44) h = rv cos ¢ = 1 .. 1 4 1 x 1 0 1 1 ft2 /sec p = J:t.= 4 . 5 D U = 9.
+ (Answer : = 21 2J 2K = AI . 5 81) 1 .000 ft/sec and 4 . 1 . 2J AK IJK h = AI . b . &= .1 . 5 For a certain earth satellite it is known that the semimaj or axis. Why. is 30 x 1 0 6 ft. 2K DU 2 /TU . 6 J 1 .B O D Y ORB I T A L M E CH A N I CS Ch . 1 . Find the specific energy of the trajectory. 6 orbital elements) are required for a complete solution to the twobody problem.000 n mi. Find its perigee and apogee distances from the center of the earth.3 An earth satellite is ob served to have a height of perigee of 1 00 n mi and a height of apogee of 600 n mi. Find the specific angular momentum and total specific mechanical energy of the satellite.44 TW O. a. Find the eccentricity of the orbit. respectively.. in general. 1 EXERCISES 1 .1087 DU 2 /TU2 ) + + (Distance Units) + + (Distance Units per Time Unit) 1 . c. . (Answer : e = 1 . Find the semilatus rectum or parameter (p) of the orbit. 1 The position and velocity of a satellite at a given instant are described by r v where is a nonrotating geocentric coordinate system.2 For a certain satellite the observed velocity and radius at v = 900 is observed to be 45 . is a completely determined closed solution of the Nbody problem an impossibility if N � 37 a.2.4 Six constants of integration (or effectively. Find the period of the orbit. The orbit eccentricity is 0.
D U /T U DU e. mi during descent? (Ans. 2K + .8 Identify each of the following trajectories as either circular. 91 J space.5 rpe r i gee = 1 . Find the length of the position vector at a true anomaly of 1 35 0.123K = 1 .6 Find an equation for the velocity of a satellite as a function of total specific mechanical energy and distance from the center of the earth. r v c.6 18 = 59° 58') .000 ft/sec at a flightpath angle of _600. 4K r r v = .5 DU DU DU d. or parabolic : apoapsi s = (1 + e ).000 ft) with a velocity of 25. 7 Prove that d. 0 1K v = l + l .9 A space vehicle enters the sensible atmosphere of the earth (300. elliptical. D U 2 /T U 2 = + . p 1. r x ft ) = 3. 5 =3 = 1/3 = 1 . &. p b. hyperbolic. a a. 1 . (Ans. 1 0 Show that twobody motion is confined to a plane fIxed in  = 24. What was its velocity and flightpath angle at an altitude of l OO n.Ch . 1 EX E R C I S E S 45 1 . 1. ¢ =3 = 1 . V ft/sec. 354 10" r 1 .
6 e= l e=2 (HINT : Polar graph paper would be of help here ! ) 1 . b .) 1 . 1 2 Given that e = �. It achieves a burnout speed of 1 0. p = 2. derive values for e for circles. 1 3 Show by means of the differential calculus that the position vector is an extremum (maximum or minimum) at the apses of the orbit. ellipses and a hyperbolas.46 TWOBODY O R B I T A L M E CH AN I CS Ch _ 1 1 . 1 5 Starting with: m k fk = .2:: where fj is the vector from the origin of an inertial frame to any jth j *k J = 1 m . p = 2. (Neglect atmo spheric drag. e. 1 1 A sounding rocket is fired vertically. c. e=O e = . 1 . p = 6. P 1 . p = 3.000 ft.2 e = . d . Determine the maximum altitude attained. sketch and identify the locus and label the major dimensions for the following conic sections : a. p = 6.000 ft/sec at an altitude of 1 00. 14 Given the equation r 1 +e cos lJ plot at least four points.
Show that : b. 2 m k i' k = O = 1 Using the defmition of a system's mass center show: where r c is the vector from the inertial origin to the system mass center and a and b are constant vectors. * 1 . 1 7 Show that the speed of a satellite on an elliptical orbit at either end of the minor axis is the same as local circular satellite speed at that point. What was the magnitude of the velocity change? (Ans . 207 1 . 1 6 A satellite is injected into an elliptical orbit with a semimaj or axis equal to 40 U EB. What is the significance of the equation derived in part b above? 1 .Ch .1 9 BMEWS (Ballistic Missile Early Warning System) detects an unidentified object with the following parameters: . rc = at +b = 0. 1 EX E R C I S E S body and rj l< is the scalar distance between the ( rj k = rkj ) k m jt h and kt h b odies 47 a. 1 8 Show that when an obj ect is located at the intersection of the semiminor axis of an elliptical orbit the eccentricity of the orbit can be expressed as e = cos v.6.V O U EB /TU EB ) . When it is precisely at the end of the semiminor axis it receives an impulsive velocity change just sufficient to place it into an escape trajectory. 1 . c.
48
TWOB O D Y O R B I T A L M E CH A N I CS
Ch . 1
speed = J 2/3 DU /TU altitude = .5 DU flightpath angle = 30 0 Is it possible that this object is a space probe intended to escape the earth, an earth satellite or a ballistic missile? 1 .20 Prove that the flightpath angle is equal to 45 0 when v = 900 on all parabolic trajectories.
*
1 .2 1 Given two spherically symmetric bodies of considerable mass, assume that the only force that acts is a repulsive force, proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the masses that acts along the line connecting the centers of the b odies. Assume that Newton's second law holds ( �F=ma ) and derive a differential equation of motion for these bodies.
* 1 .22 A space vehicle destined for Mars was first launched into a 100 n mi circular parking orbit.
*
a. What was speed of vehicle at injection into parking orbit? The vehicle coasted in orbit for a period of time to allow system checks to be made and then was restarted to increase its velocity 37,600 ft/sec which placed it on an interplanetary trajectory toward Mars. b. Find e, h and & relative to the earth · for the escape orbit. What kind of orbit is it?
c. Compare the velocity at 1,000,000 n mi from the earth with the hyperbolic excess velocity, v""' Why are the two so nearly alike?
Ch . 1
49
LIST OF REFERENCES
1 . Newman, James R. "Commentary on Isaac Newton," in The World ofMathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and Schuster, 1 9 56. 2. Lodge, Sir Oliver. "Johann Kepler," in The World of Mathematics. Vol 1 . New York, NY, Simon and S chuster, 1 95 6 . 3 . Koestler, Arthur. The Watershed. Garden City, NY , Anchor Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1 960. 4. Turnbull, Herbert Westren. The Great Mathematicians. 4th ed. London, Methuen & Co, Ltd , 1 95 1 . 5 . Newton, Sir Isaac. Principia. Motte 's translation revised by Caj ori. Vol 1 . Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1 962.
CHAPTER 2
ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATIONS
Finally, as all our observations, on account of the imperfection of the instruments and of the senses, are only approximations to the truth , an orbit based only on the six absolutely necessary data may be still liable to considerable errors. In order to diminish these as much as possible , and thus to reach the greatest precision attainable, no other method will be given except to, accumulate the greatest number of the most perfect observations, and to adjust the elements, not so as to satisfy this or that set of observations with absolute exactness, but so as to agree with all in the best possible manner. Carl Friedrich Gauss l 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first method of finding the orbit of a b ody from three observations was devised by Newton and is given in the Principia . The most publicized result of applying Newton's method of orbit determination belongs to our old friend Sir Edmond Halley. In 1 70 5 , shortly after the publication of the Principia ( 1 687), Halley set to work calculating the orbits of 24 comets which had been sighted between 1 3 37 and 1 69 8 , using the method which Newton had described. Newton's arguments, presented in a condensed form, were so difficult to understand that of all his contemporaries only Halley was able to master his technique and apply it to the calculation of the orbits of those comets for which there was a sufficient number of 51
52
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
observations. In a report on his findings published in 1 705 he states : "Many considerations incline me to believe the comet of 1 5 3 1 observed by Apianus to have been the same as that described by Kepler and Longomontanus in 1 607 and which I again observed when it returned in 1 682. All the elements agree ; . . . . whence I would venture confidently to predict its return, namely in the year 1 7 5 8 . " 2 . In a later edition of the same work published in 1 7 5 2 , Halley confidently identified his comet with those that had appeared in 1 305, 1 380 and 1 45 6 and remarked, "wherefore if according to what we have already said it should return again about the year 1 7 5 8 , candid posterity will not refuse to acknowledge that this was first discovered ,, by an Englishman. 2 No one could be certain he was right, much less that it might not succumb to a churlish whim and bump into the earth. The realization that the stability of the earth's orbit depends "on a nice balance between the velocity with which the earth is falling toward the sun and its tangential velocity at right angles to that fall" did not unduly disturb the handful of mathematicians and astronomers who understood what that equilibrium meant. But there were many others, of weaker faith in arithmetic and geometry, who would have preferred a less precarious arrangement. 3 On Christmas day , 1 75 8 , Halley's comet reappeared , just as he said it would. Recent investigations have revealed , in ancient Chinese chronicles, an entire series of earlier appearances of Halley's cometthe earliest in 467 BC. The comet has appeared since in 1 835 and 1 9 1 0; its next visit is expected in 1 986. Newton's method of determining a parabolic orbit from observations depended on a graphical construction which, by successive approxima tions, led to the elements. The first completely analytical method for solving the same problem was given by Euler in 1 744 in his Theory of the Mo tion of Planets and Comets. To Euler b elongs the discovery of the equation connecting two radius vectors and the subtended chord of the parabola with the interval of time during which the comet describes the corresponding arc. Lambert, in his works of 1 7 6 1 to 1 77 1 , gave a generalized formulation of the theorem of Euler for the case of elliptical and hyperbolic orbits. But Lambert was a geometrician at heart and was not inclined to analytical development of his method . Nevertheless, he had
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
53
an unusual grasp of the physics of the problem and actually anticipated many of the ideas that were ultimately carried out by his successors in better and more convenient ways. Lagrange , who at age 16 was made Professor of Mathematics at Turin , published three memoirs on the theory of orbits, two in 1 7 78 and one in 1 78 3 . It is interestirig to note that the mathematical spark was kindled in the young Lagrange by reading a memoir of Halley. From the very first his writings were elegance itself; he would set to mathematics all the problems which his friends brought him, much as Schubert would set to music any stray rhyme that took his fancy. As one would expect , Lagrange brought to the incomplete theories of Euler and Lambert generality , precision, and mathematical elegance. In 1 780 Laplace published an entirely new method of orbit determination. The basic ideas of his method are given later in this chapter and are still of fundamental importance . The theory of orbit determination was really brought to fruition through the efforts of the brilliant young German mathematician, Gauss, whose work led to the rediscovery of the asteroid Ceres in 1 8 0 1 after i t had become "lo st." Gauss also invented the "method o f least squares" to deal with the problem of fitting the best possible orbit to a large number of ob servations. Today , with the availability of radar , the problem of orbit determination is much simpler. Before showing you how it is done , however, we must digress a moment to explain how the size , shape and orientation of an orbit in three dimensional space can be described by six quantities called "orbital elements." 2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS Our first requirement for describing an orbit is a suitable inertial reference frame . In the case of orbits around the sun such as planets, asteroids, comets and some deepspace probes de scribe, the heliocentricecliptic coordinate system is convenient . For satellites of the earth we will want to use the geocentricequatorial system. In order to describe these coordinate systems we will give the position of the origin, the orientation of the fundamental plane (i.e . the XY plane) , the principal direction (i.e . the direction of the Xaxis), and the direction of the Zaxis. Since the Zaxis must be perpendicular to the fundamental plane it is only necessary to specify which direction is positive. The Yaxis is always chosen so as to form a righthanded set of
54
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S
Ch . 2
v e rn a equinox d i re c t i o n
"Y"
I
Xe
( S ea s o n s
are
f or
Nort h e r n
Hemi sphere )
Figure 2.21 Heliocentricecliptic coordinate system
coordinate axes. 2.2. 1 The HeliocentricEcliptic Coordinate System. As the name implies, the heliocentricecliptic system has its origin at the center of the sun . The Xe Ye or fundamental plane coincides with the "ecliptic" which is the plane of the earth's revolution around the sun . The lineofintersection of the ecliptic plane and the earth's equatorial plane defines the direction of the X axis as shown in Figure 2.2 1 . On the e first day of Spring a line joining the center of the earth and the center of the sun points in the direction of the positive X axis . This is called e the vernal equinox direction and is given the symbol T b y astronomers because it used to point in the direction of the constellation Aries (the ram). As you know, the earth wobbles slightly and its axis of rotation shifts in direction slowly over the centuries. This effect is known as precession and causes the lineofintersection of the earth's equator and the ecliptic to shift slowly. As a result the heliocentricecliptic system is
Sec. 2 . 2
COO R D I N A T E SYST E M S
55
v e r n a l e q u i no x d i r e c t i on
y
Figure 2.22 Geocentricequatorial coordinatfl system
not really an inertial reference frame and where extreme precision is required it would be necessary to specify that the )0(Z€ coordinates of an obj ect were based on the vernal equinox direction of a particular ,, year or "epoch. 4 2.2.2 The GeocentricEquatorial Coordinate System. The geo centricequatorial system has its origin at the earth' s center. The fundamental plane is the equator and the po sitive Xaxis points in the vernal equinox direction. The Zaxis points in the direction of the north pole . It is important to keep in mind when looking at Figure 2 .2  2 that the )0(Z system is not fixed to the earth and turning with it ; rather, the geocentricequatorial frame is nonrotating with respect to the stars (except for precession of the equinoxes) and the earth turns relative to it. Unit vectors, J, and K, shown in Figure 2 . 22 , lie along the X, Y and Z axes respectively and will be useful in describing vectors in the geocentricequatorial system. Note that vectors in this figure and in many others are designated by a bar over the letter, whereas they are
J
56
O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O NS
K
Ch . 2
Figure 2.23
Right ascensiondeclination coordinate system
boldface in the text material.
2.2.3 The Right AscensionDeclination System . A coordinate system closely related to the geocentricequatorial frame is the right ascensiondeclination system. The fundamental plane is the "celestial equator" the extension of the earth' s equatorial plane to a fictitious sphere of infinite radius called the "celestial sphere ." The po sition of an obj ect proj ected against the celestial sphere is describ ed by two angles called right ascension and declination. As shown in Figure 2 .23 , the right ascension, 01., is measured eastward in the plane of the cele stial equator from the vernal equinox direction. The declination , 0, is measured northward from the celestial equator to the lineofsight. The origin of the system may be at the center of the earth (geocenter) or a point on the surface of the earth (topocenter) or anywhere else . For all intents and purpose s any point may be considered the center of the infinite celestial sphere . Astronomers use the right ascensiondeclination system to catalog star po sitions accurately. Because of the enormous distances to the
Orbit determination from such optical sightings of a satellite will be discussed in a later section .Xw UK vectors. the yw axis is rotated 90 0 in the direction of orbital motion and lies in the orbital plane . Because star positions are known accurately to fractions of an arcsecond .2.4 The Perifocal Coo{(linate System. Here the fundamental plane is the plane of the satellite' s orbit . One of the mo st convenient coordinate frames for describing the motion of a satellite is the perifocal coordinate system. The coordinate axes are named xW' yw and zW. When describing a heliocentric orbit . Yw '+. 2 . Unit vectors in the direction of xw ' yw and zw are called P. a photograph of an earth satellite against a star background can be used to determine the · topocentric right ascension and declination of the satellite at the time of ob servation. The Xw axis points toward the periapsis. 2 COO R D I N AT E SYST E M S 57 stars.24 Perifocal coordinate system In the next section we will define orbital elements in relation to the . the zw axis along h completes the righthanded perifocal system. you may use the same Figure 2. Q and W respectively.Sec. their coordinates remain essentially unchanged even when viewed from opposite sides of the earth' s orbit around the sun. Only a few stars are close enough to show a measurable parallax between observations made 6 months apart . 2 .
It is common when referring to earth satellites to use the term "argument of perigee" for w. 2 definitions applied to the >0tZ€ axes. 2 .58 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . the following is sometimes used: n longitude of periap sis.the angle . Instead of argument of periapsis. time of periapsis passage . the term "argument of perihelion" is used for suncentered orbits. Q longitude of the ascending node. Frequently the semilatus rectum. in the plane of the satellite's orbit. The classical set of six orbital elements are defined with the help of Figure 2 . is substituted for a in the above list. Another system. if you know a and e you can compute p. T. between the unit vector and the point where the satellite crosses through the fundamental plane in a northerly direction (ascending node) measured counterclockwise when viewed from the north side of the fundamental plane . 6. In the remainder of this chapter we shall tacitly assume that we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geocentricequatorial system using IJK unit vectors. Similarly. 3 . w.1 as follows : 1 .the angle from to periapsis measured h. i. 2. The above definitions are valid whether we are describing the orbit of an earth satellite in the geo centricequatorial system or the orbit of a planet in the heliocentricecliptic system. 4 . the topocentrichorizon coordinate system will be introduced in a later section. inclinationthe angle between the unit vector and the angular momentum vector. Only the definition of the unit vectors and the fundamental plane would b e different. in the fundamental plane . a. p. argumen t of periapsisthe angle . 5 . A sixth element is required to pinpoint the position of the satellite along the orbit at a particular time . measured in the direction of the satellite's motion. between the ascending node and the periapsis point. shape and orientation of an orbit .3 CLASSICAL ORBITAL ELEMENTS Five independent quantities called "orbital elements" are sufficient to completely describe the size . K I I .3. The list of six orbital elements defined above is by no means exhaustive . Obviously . eccentricitya constant defining the shape of the conic orbit . e.the time when the satellite was at periapsis. semimajor axisa constant defining the size of the conic orbit .
Sec. 2 .31 Orbital elements .3 C LASS I C A L O R B ITA L E L E M E N TS 59 h vernal peri psis a d rection i _ \ Figure 2.
2 eastward to the ascending node (if it eXists) and then in the orbital plane to periapsis. n=n+w.3 3) [ £ 0 = n + w + Vo = n + V o = n + U o . '  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit) . Any of the following may be substituted for time of periapsis passage and would suffice to locate the satellite at to : va true anomaly at epoch the angle . then both w and Uo are undefined.31 you can see that inclinations between 00 and 900 imply direct orb its and inclinations between 90 0 and 1 8 0 0 are retrograde. earth. Two other terms frequently used to describe orbital motion are "direct" and "retrograde . both of which are always defined . in the plane of the orbit. then b oth W and n are undefined. between the ascending node (if it exists) and the radius vector to the satellite at time to ' If w and V0 are both defined then (2 ." Direct means easterly. w and va are all defined. then £ I U o = w + Vo"  (2 . If both n and W are defined then If there is no periapsis (circular orbit) .32)  If there is no ascending node (equatorial orbit). a true longitude at epoch the angle between I and ro (the radius vector to the satellite at tJ measured eastward to the ascending node (if it exists) and then in the orbital plane to ro o If n. then £0 = n + vo ' If = n u o ' If the orbit is there is no periapsis (circular orbit) . Retrograde is the oppo site of direct. 1 £0 £0 + .3.1 ) ." u a argumen t of latitude at epoch the angle . (2 . in the plane of the satellite's orbit. between periapsis and the position of the satellite at a particular time . then is simply the true angle from I to ro ' both circular and equatorial. to ' called the "epoch.60 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . This is the dire ction in which the sun. and most of the planets and their moons rotate on their axes and the direction in which all of the planets revolve around the sun. From Figure 2.
4 DETERMINING THE ORBITAL E LEMENTS FROM Sec. 2.4. vI vJ v K J (2 . 2. n would have to lie in the orbital plane. h. or in their intersection which is called the "line of . To be perpendicular to K. 2 . The node vector. n must be perpendicular to both K and h. n.Let us assume that a radar site on the earth is able to provide us with the vectors r and v representing the po sition and velo city of a satellite relative to the geocentricequatorial reference frame at a particular time . n must lie in b oth the equatorial and orbital planes.43) From the definition of a vector cro ss product . is defined as Thus n=:K x h · 1 (2 . 1 Three Fundamental Vectorsh. t o . How do we find the six orbital elements which describe the motion of the satellite? The first step is to form the three vectors. n and e. Therefore . n would have to lie in the equatorial plane . To be perpendicular to h.41 ) I K r l rJ rK = h I I + hl + h KK .42) An important thing to remember is that h is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. We have already encountered the angular momentum vector. h. n an d e.4 D ET E R M I N I N G O R B IT A L E l E M E NT S r AND 61 v Thus h=rxv h= (2 .
4·5 ) and is derived in Chapter 1 (equation ( l . The vector e points from the center of the earth (focus of the orbit) toward perigee with a magnitude exactly equal to the eccentricity of the orbit. All three vectors. is obtained from (2 . e. An understanding of it is essential to what follows . between two vectors A and B is found by dotting the two vectors together and dividing by the product of their magnitudes. Since A • then cos a = B = AB A .1 .1 1 )). The magnitude of n is of no consequence to us. ex.4." Specifically . Study this figure carefully . the cosine of the angle . n is a vector pointing along the line of nodes in the direction of the ascending node. We are only interested in its direction. We can outline the method of finding the orbital elements as follows: . If we know how to find the angle between two vectors the problem is solved .46) Of course . Now that we have h. n and e we can proceed rather easily to obtain the orbital elements. n and e are illustrated in Figure 2. 2 nodes.2 Solving for the Orbital Elements. p. The answer to this quadrant resolution problem must come from other information in the problem as we shall see . You still have to decide whether the angle is smaller or greater than 1 80 0 . h.S . and eccentricity follow directly from h and e while all the remaining orbital elements are simply angles between two vectors who se components are now known . The parameter.3. In general. 2.4.62 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . B cos a AB (see Figure (2 .1 ) (2 . The vector. being able to evaluate the cosine of an angle does not mean that you know the angle .
) e.1 1) .:.) (If n J > 0 then n is less than 1 80° .Sec.) c o S Po = � er (2 . Since Vo is the angle between e and f. 2..47 ) (Inclination is always less than 1 8 0° .' (2. Since Uo is the angle between n and f .4. Since n is the angle between I and n.4. (If r� O then U is less than 1 80 � ) (2.4 3 . (If e K > O then w is less than 1 80° .49) 6. e = I el D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I TA L E L E M E N TS 63 4.) . (2 .1 0) 7 .L nr (If f • v > O then Po is less than 1 8 0° . � � h. 2 . Since i is the angle between K and h.48) 5 .. c o s U o = !!. Since w is the angle between n and (2.
. Qo = n + w + V0 = n + u 0 Figure 2.1 and study it until they do . The quadrant check for Vo is nothing more than a method of determining whether the satellite is between periapsis and apoapsis (where flightpath angle is always positive) or between apoapsis and periap sis (where ¢ is always negative). 3 . 2 z x 8 . With this hint see if you can fathom the logic of checking r • v.4. The three orbits illustrated in the following example problem should help you visualize what we have b een talking about up to now. If they don't make sense to you.64 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch .1 Angle between vectors All of the quadrant checks in parentheses make physical sense . look at the geometry of Figure 2 .
Sec. VI D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E l E M E NTS 65 Find the orbital elements of the three orbits in the following illustrations.42 Orb it 1 p= ORBIT 1 (retrograde equatorial) Uo n= 1. Figure 2. 5 DU e == . 2 undef i ned Qo vo = 2700 = undef i n ed = 315 0 .
2 ORBIT 2 (p O rb it 2 olar) w == '\ 800 .5 e == .4 DU p == .\ .66 ET O RB IT D SE RV R OM O B AT I O N f E RM IN AT I O N S Ch . 2 3 Figure 2 .
4 D E T E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NTS 67 Figure 2 .5 DU w :::: Q v 0 :::: undef i ned undef i ned u o 2700 0 o 420 :::: :::: .44 Orbit 3 ORBIT 3 (direct circular) e :::: O p :::: 1. 2.Sec.
48) = COS 1 (�) h = 0° Therefore the meteoroid is traveling in the equatorial plane . f.i:. Find eccentricity.1. 7 75 .7 4n . ) r .. using equation (2 . Using equation (2. [ ( f.. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.I:!:.= 4D U = 13.1 ) p = .6.4. Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed meteroid.l e = l el = 1 0 e v 2 . A radar track s a meteoroid and from the tracking data the following inertial position and velocity vectors are found (expressed in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system).. r v)v1 = 1 1 i Find longitude of ascending node . Find p using equation (2 .45 ) Since h =. From equation (2.. . and e = 1 the path of the meteoroid is parabolic with respect to the earth.l h2 .68 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N S Ch . Find inclination.(r . ml . e. i. n.1 ) = DU v = 1J DU (TU r EEl 21 EEl EEl Then from equation ( 1 . EEl .47) = .
:L ) n D ET E R M I N I N G O R B I T A L E L E M E NT S 69 However . . II. can be determined in this case. Since the orbital plane is coincident with the equatorial plane (fJ) II is measured from the Iaxis to periapsis which is colocated with the e vector .1 (.41 0) v a c os. for this case . In lieu of the w the longitude of periapsis. va. 2 .. From equation (2.  Find longitude of periapsis. Therefore from the definition of the dot product II Again .1 ( e · r ) er  =0 0 and it is found that the meteoroid is presently at periapsis.. 4 . Find true anomaily . is undefined.n.49) W n · e W. since there is no ascending node w is also undefined . From equation (2 . Find argument of periapsis. = cos . since the meteoroid is located in the equatorial plane there is no ascending node because its trajectory does not cross the equatorial plane and therefore .Sec.n = COS . II.!!.= 0 ) == ( e • e I 0 it is determined that perigee is located along the I axis.1 ( ne ) (i = = cos 1 .
33) IT Qo ' EXAMPLE PROBLEM .85 n .\8 1_ 68:V3J+RK/ DU2 /TU 8 vI2 = �2 = Jl p 2. The following inertial position and velocity vectors are expressed in a geo centric equatorial coordinate system for an observed space object : Qo = + 0 = 0° v r = 3 v'3 I + L J D U 4 4 Find p .45 ) and the magnitude of the 1 1 e = _[(� .3 1+ 4_ J 4 r e vector is: e = . EB Determine the 6 orbital elements for the observed obj e ct .25 EB EB D U EB 7748. = From equation (2.E)r(r . 2 Find true longitude o f epoch. From equation (2. First find h b y equation (2 4 1 ) .5 .m i .70 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 1 [6 \ h=rxv=...1 ) Find e..  then from equation ( 1 .6. v)v] =.
4.48 ) h 4V2 ('V3I + J) Find the argument of periapsis.47) First we must determine the node ve ctor n . I: D E TE R M I N I N G r AND V 71 From equation (2 . From equation (2.1 0) (  n·e ne ) r = 0 2. 2.11 : 3 = k x = __ From equation (2 .Sec. From equation (2 .I Find the true anomaly . Now we will look at the inverse problem of determining r and V when the six classical r .43) n Find the longitude of ascending node . . va : From equation (2.49) w: 0 W = cos.5 Find the inclination.5 DETERMINING AND V FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS In the last section we saw how to determine a set of classical orbital elements from the vectors and V at some epoch.
ffe si n V (2. first we must express and v in perifocal coordinates and then transform and V to geocentricequatorial components. 2 elements are given. w and v. 8.5.24): ro to. 2. In Chapter 4 you will learn how to determine the change in true anomaly.5 4) This expression for V can b e Simplified b y recognizing that h = r2 v (see Figure 1 . Of the se six elements. w and va . We can immediately write an expression for r in terms of the perifocal system (see Figure 2. This will enable you to construct a new set of orbital element s and the only step remaining is to determine the new r and v from this "updated" set. 1 Expressing and v in the Perifocal System. shown below. i . Let ' s assume that we know p. t r r I r =r where the scalar magnitude equation of a conic: To obtain V we only need to differentiate r in equation (2. This is both an intere sting and a practical exercise since it represents one way of solving a basic problem of astrodynamicsthat of updating the po sition and velocity of a satellite to some future time . The method. i. . v. changes with time . the first five are constant (if we accept the assumptions of the restricted two body problem) and only the true anomaly . n.5 1) keeping i n mind that the perifocal coordinate frame is "inertial" and so p = Q = O and V= r = _'P 1 + "i cos v P+ r r si n v Q I (2. 8. consists of two steps.to. Suppo se you know and va at some time Using the techniques presented in the last section you could determine the elements p. n. that occurs in a given time . lV.5 1) r can be determined from the polar 8 COS V _ _ (1 .5 4) above to obtain =(rcos V  rv si n v ) P+ ( r si n v + rv cos v ) Q r =.5 2) .72 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .72)" p = h2 III and differentiating equation (1 .
5 3) Making these substitutions in the expression for v and simplifying yields (2. 5P DU E9 (2. A space object has the following orbital element s as determined by NORAD space track system : Express the r and v vectors for the space obj e ct in the perifocal coordinate system.25 45{) (2.5 4) EXAMPLE PROBLEM .51) can be applied the magnitude of the r vector must be determined first by equation ( 1 .54) from equation r (2.sin vp+(e +cosv) Q] = DU E9 e = . 2.si n vP + ( e + cos v)Q] = 1Q DU E9 /TU E9 . v �[. Before equation (2.5 i= p 2.42) from equation v = cos vP + r si n vQ = 1 .Sec.54) r = J � [.5 D E T E R M I N I N G r AND V 73 and rv =�(1 + e cos v).
A vector has only two propertie s that can be expressed mathematicallymagnitude and direction. east a!1d up. Any other vector can be expressed as a linear combination of these three unit vectors. It is common in astrodynamics to use rectangular coordinates although o ccasionally spherical polar coordinates are more convenient .74 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R VAT I O N S Ch . suppose you know the south. or what it represents." 2. A simple coordinate transformation will do the trick . namely. and the principal (x) direction in the fundamental plane . 1 What a Coordinate Transfonnation Does. the direction of the po sitive zaxis. This collection of unit vectors is commonly referred to as a "basis. The vector will still have the same magnitude and direction and will represent the same thing. suppose you know the south. Now suppo se you want to express this vector in terms of a different basis. Certain vectors. For example . Three unit vectors are then defined to indicate the directions of the three mutually perpendicular axes. and zenith components of "the vector from a radar . but this point of origin cannot be expressed mathematically and does not change in a coordinate transformation. The "basis" of the vector is obviously the set of unit vectors pointing south.6. say the I J K unit vectors of the geocentricequatorial frame (perhaps because you want to add another vector to it and this other vector is expressed in I J K components). the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame" even though you now express it in terms of geocentricequatorial coordinates. have a definite starting point . and it still represents the same thing. its fundamental (xy) plane . 2 2.6 COORDINATE TRANSFORMA nONS Before we discuss the transformation of r and v to the geocentricequatorial frame we will review coordinate transformations in general. A vector may be expressed in any coordinate frame . and zenith components of the "velocity of a satellite relative to the topocentrichorizon frame. In other words. changing the basis of a vector doe s not change its magnitude . The vector still has the same length and direction after the coordinate transformation. east . For example. A coordinate transformation merely changes the b asis of a vectornothing else . such as position vectors." The phrase in quotes describes what the . direction . A rectangular coordinate frame is usually defined by specifying its origin . east. vector represents.
" A simple change of basis will enable you to express this vector in terms of I J K components: The transformation did not change what the vector represents so it is still the vector "from the radar site to the satellite.61) ." In other words. Changing from one basis to another can be streamlined by using matrix methods. y ����.6 COO R D I N ATE T R A N S F O R M AT I O N S . expressing a vector in coordinates of a particular frame does not imply that the vector has its tail at the origin of that frame .2 Change of Basis Using Matrices. Suppose we have two coordinate frames xyz and x ' y' z ' related by a simple rotation through a positive angle ex about the Z axis.6. and extending along the x. : r Y I ex a .Sec. Now suppose we have a vector a which may be expressed in terms of the I J K basis as J K (2 .y Y 75 . y' and z ' axes. We will define a positive rotation about any axis by means of the "righthand rule" if the thumb of the right hand is extended in the direction of the positive coordinate axis. ���________� • . V and W along the x ' .61 Rotation about x z axis site on the surface of the earth to a satellite . y and z axes respectively and another set of unit vectors U. 2. Figure 2.61 illustrates the two frames. 2. the fingers curl in the sense of a positive rotation. Figure 2. Let us imagine three unit vectors I.
63) We can express this last set of equations very compactly if we use matrix notation and think of the vector a as a triplet of numbers representing a column matrix. (2.6.64) The coefficients of aj and in equations (2.62) Substituting these equations into equation (2.61 we can see that the unit vectors U. 65) .64) should be taken as the elements of a three by three "transformation matrix" which we can call A ai_ o aK si n a cos a (2 .62) above and equating it with (2. V and W are related to and by the following set of equations: U V W or in terms of the UVW basis as (2.76 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT i O NS Ch .1 ) yields I. We will use subscripts to identify the basis. thus a u = a l (cosa)+aj (si n a)+a K ( O) a V = a l (si n a)+aj (cosa)+a K (O) aW = a l (O) +aj(O) +a K (1 ). 2 From Figure 2. J K = I (cos a)+ J(si n a)+ K (0) = I(si n a)+J(cosa)+ K( O ) 1(0) +J(O) +K(1) = (2.
Rotation about the xaxis. 6 COO R D I N A T E T R A NS F O R M AT I O N S 77 The set of equations (2. (2 .69) '" axis. 2 . Arguments similar to those above may be used to A The transformation matrix corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive y axis through a positive angle is Ro tation about the y axis.64) can then be represented as aUVW which is really matrix shorthand for =A alJ K (2.Sec.6.67) yields the set of equations (2 .  The transformation matrix C corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive Z axis through a positive angle 'Y is Rotation about the z = [� Sic�n '" B= [siC0OSn �� 01 0 o  ex a SiCO�S J � s0i n �] cos� a ex .67) Applying the rules of matrix multiplication to equation (2.3 Summary of Transformation Matrices for Single Rotation of Coordinate Frame . . These are summarized belox:: . derive transformation matrices that will represent rotations of the coordinate frame about the X or y axes. 68) B '" (2. The transformation matrix A corresponding to a single rotation of the coordinate frame about the positive X axis through a positive angle ex is 2.66) (2.64) above .
The three components of a after the first rotation can be found from () sin () 0 0 0 0 1 ] Ch . We can now multiply this column matrix by the appropriate matrix corresponding to the second rotation and obtain aE _ a Since matrix multiplication is associative we can multiply the two simple rotation matrices together to form a single transformation matrix and write [' � [0 COS ] [COS () :: : � �J 0 in L  [ COS o SEZ  (K) . Let us now look at a more complicated transformation involving more than one rotation. Starting with the I J K frame we can first rotate it through a positive angle () about the Z axis and then rotate it through a positive angle (900 L) about the Y axis to bring it into angular alignment with the frame . Suppose we know the I J K components of some general vector.61 0) SEZ The above expression is actually a column matrix and represents the three components of a in the intermediate frame .4 Successive Rotations About Several Axes.84 shows the angular relationship between two frames.7 .6. 2 (2. in the geocentricequatorial frame and we wish to find its components in the topocentrichorizon frame (see section 2 . a. Figure 2.78 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S C= [  cos 'Y si n 'Y si n 'Y cos 'Y 2.si n () cos () 0 aZ cos L o o o si n () s sin L . 1 ). So far we have learned how to use matrices to perform a simple change of basis where the new set of unit vectors is related to the old by a simple rotation about one of the coordinate axes.
2. Hence .1 .61 1) more compactly as where D is the overall transformation matrix. Since matrix multiplication can represent rotation of an axis system we can infer from this that the order in which rotations are performed is not irrelevant. We can write equation (2.61 1) represents the transformation from geocentric equatorial to topocentric coordinates. Now. Fortunately. is the new matrix whose rows are the old columns and whose columns are the old rows (in the same order). all transformation matrices between rectangular frames have the unique property that they are orthogonal.Sin e cos L cos e sin L si n e cos e cos L s i n e . The inverse of any orth.Sec. denoted by D . AB =1= SA ).6 COO R D I N AT E T R A N S F O R M AT I O NS 19 as aE aZ sin L cos e . A threebythree matrix is called "orthogonal" if the rows and the columns are scalar components of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. Equation (2. In general the inverse of a matrix is difficult to calculate.e. .!2g onal matrix i �ual to its transpose . The transpose of the matrix D .61 1) Keep in mind that the order in which you multiply the two rotation matrices is important since matrix multiplication is not commutative. (i. if we want to perform the inverse transformation (from topocentric to geocentric) we need to find the inverse of matrix D which we will call 0.cos 0 L al aJ aK sin L (2. For example if you are in an airplane and you rotate in pitch 45 0 noseup and then roll 90 0 right you will be in a different attitude than if you first roll 900 right and then pitch up 45 0 .
". m1 " fo. th. an d g' O m ' t' ica 2 .. mu " in cid 'n ce b . O c M ma t. 62. "' '' ' ua fnunc tluo u m is " la t' gh th . 'o ta t. 2 (2. tluee b . a" h" A co mm o nly _ of tlu" [. 6.6 . d' m ' d ch ange of 2 .n e d to to bring an ee E ul" a .ix mu lt atio n ma tt ipli ca ti on ic es .". oth " to bring i" "E ul " ang ['am .Eq to th e IJ K in at .. d wi th . 5 Tmn . y two fram nglo ' Ot a ti es in to Coi on s � "' ffi n ci de nce . th' O ugh w hi ch on . n t rizing th .80 nna tion Iiom todal Frame. sh ow n in F ig u " Th . axes in to CO ham . d th yo u will b . a bl . anglo . gl " n i lly . basis no ma t . By me mo C.sfo  �J ::f· aK aJ OR B I T D E TE Si n i n l COs 8 L Si n 0 R M I N A TI ON  COS 0 0 si n 8 CO s l C OS CO S L Si n F R OM O BS E R VA TI e aZ aE c os l si n l 1 �1 O NS Ch . Perifo ca l to th e G Th .2 Re la tion sh ip be twe e n FQW an d DK .." a ny mp licat e d .. to p' ter ho w co no. d w . 6.1 2) Figure 2 . P'rifo cal CO onl eocentdc.".
it may be convenient to use those angles in a transformation to the I J K frame . Thus if a i ' aJ . from Figure 2. To . .. For example . R. 6 COO R D I N AT E T R AN S F O R M AT I O NS 81 Since we will often know the elements of the orbit . we see that the co sine of the angle between and P can be calculated I and P I ..The transformation o f coordinates between the P Q W�nd UK systems can be accomplished by means of the rotation matrix. aw are the components of a vector a in each of the two systems..63.. a K and ap . then Sec . aQ... 2 . Figure 2...63 Angle between do this we can use direction cosines which can be found using the cosine law of spherical trigonometry.
The included angle is 7f The law of cosines for spherical triangles is  cos = cos b COS c + sin b sin c cos A where A. the angle between I and P forms one side of a spherical triangle who se other two sides are n and w. since I and P are unit vectors. J and K Thus R = J . P can then be proj ected into the I J K frame by simply taking its dot product with I. 2 from their dot product .sin n sin w cos i R12 = R .sin n cos sin n sin i w cos i R1 3 = 22 = R2 1 = sin n cos w + cos n sin w cos i  sin n sin w + cos n cos w cos i (2 .6. R1 1 = P = cos n cos w + sin n sin w cos (1fi) = cos H cos w . the elements of R are R1 1 = cos n cos w .6.63 . Q K · W J = � 1 1 R 12 R 1 3 R 2 1 R 22 R 2 3 R 3 1 R 3 2 R 33 j (2 . a �. Now a. B and C are the three angles and b and c are the opposite sides.sin n sin w cos i .1 3) i. P K · P In Figure 2.1 4) R23 = .cos n sin w .82 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . I • p I · Q J . ! • P. Q I ' W J · W K .cos n sin i R 3 1 = sin W sin i . Similarly. Recall from vector theory that the dot product simply gives the proj ection of one vector upon another.
Before showing you how we can obtain r and V relative to the center of the earth from radar tracking data we must digress long enough to describe the coordinate system in which the radar site makes and expresses its measurements.7 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM A SINGLE RADAR OBSERVATION A radar installation located on the surface of the earth can measure the po sition and velocity of a satellite relative to the radar site . relative to the center of the I J K frame which we need to compute the orbital elements.Sec . In this case either n or w or both are undefined.5 . V. In the case of the circular orbit v is also undefined so it is nece ssary to measure true anomaly from some arbitrary reference such as the ascending node or (if the orbit is also equatorial) from the unit vector I. Special precautions must be taken when the orbit is equatorial or circular or both . . 2. Thus and This method is not recommended unle ss other transformations are not practical.1 ) and (2. it only remains to find r and V in terms of I J K components. But the radar site is not located at the center of the earth so the position vector measured is not the r we need . Often it is po ssible to go to the I J K frame using equations (2. Because of these and other difficulties the method of updating r and V via the classical orbital elements leaves much to be de sired.5 4) with P and Q known in I J K coordinate s . 2 . Other more general methods of updating r and V that do not suffer from these defe cts will be presented in Chapter 4. 7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 83 f\ 2 = cos w sin i cos i f\ 3 = Having determined the elements of the ro tation matrix. Also the earth is rotating so the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site is not the same as the velocity.
E and Z shown in Figure 2 . 7 . The origin of the topocentrichorizon system is the point on the surface of the earth (called the "topos") where the radar is located. (not to be confused with U) is measured from the horizontal to the radar lineofsight .1 will aid us in expressing vectors in this system.7 . EI. The azimuth angle .2 Expressing Position and Velocity Relative to the Topocentric Horizon Reference Frame . p. 2 Z Xh � ( S outh ) Yh ( E ast l / _ _ _ _ Figure 2. The Y h axis is east and the Zhaxis is up . The radar site measure s the range and direction to the satellite. The direction to the satellite is determined by two angles which can be picked off the gimbal axes on which the radar antenna is mounted . It seems hardly necessary to point out that the topocentrichorizon system is not an inertial reference frame since it rotate s with the earth.84 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N S Zh ( U p ) �satel i te �� I I I Ch . the elevation angle . 2. The unit vectors S. AZ . The sensors on the gimbal axes are capable of measuring the rateofchange of the azimuth and elevation angles.( N o rt h ) 2. can also be measured.1 . 1 The TopocentricHorizon Coordinate System. is measured clockwise from north .71 Topocentrichorizon coordinate system � � .7. The fundamental plane is the horizon and the X haxis point s south. If the radar is capable of detecting a shift in frequency in the returning echo (Doppler effect) . Az.7 . The range · is simply the magnitude of the vector p (rho) shown in F igure 2 . the rate at which range is changing.
E1 sin Az cos Az (2 .72 we see that r (2 . From Figure 2.1 . from the geometry of Figure 2.72) The velocity relative to the radar site is just p Differentiating equations (2.7 . = Ps PE = P cos Pz. There is an extremely simple relationship between the topocentric position vector p and the geocentric po sition vector r.75) .3 Position and Velocity Relative to the Geocentric Frame. Pz PE = Ps = = P sin  P cos P cos El El.and EO/. as the radar antenna follows the satellite acro ss the sky.7 .72) we get the three components of p: p = Ps S + P E E + PZ Z. /l!L.1 ) where . p.7 4) = + P (2 . Az. 2. Thus. E I . we have the raw material for expressing the position and velocity of the s�tellite relative to the radar in the six measureme nts:p. sin Az + where R is the vector from the center of the earth to the origin of the 2. Sec. = P sin EI R P cos P cos  p cos El cos Az t p sin EI(EI) cos Az + E I sin Az(Az) E I sin Az P sin E I (Bl) EI cos Az(Az) + P cos  (2 . We will express the po sition vector as (2 .73) E l (B I ).7.1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R AD A R O BS E R VAT I O N 85 EI.
Unfortunately. For the moment we will assume that equation (2 .72 r =R+P where rEll is the radius of the earth . A complete discussion of determining R on an oblate earth is included later in this chapter . things are not that simple and to avoid errors of several miles in the position of the radar site relative to the geo center it is necessary to use a more accurate mo del for the shape of the earth.76) . 2 J topo centric frame .86 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch .7 6) is valid and proceed to the determination of v. The general method of determining velo city relative to a "fixed" frame (hereafter referred to as the "true" velo city) when you are given the velo city relative to a moving frame may be stated in words as follows : R = r Ell Z (2 . If the earth were perfectly spherical then the Z axis h which defines the local vertical at the radar site would pass through the center of the earth if extended downward and the vector R would be Figure 2.
the velocity of that point in the topocentric frame where the satellite is located is simply wEB X f. movrng frame where obj ect is located � 87 The sketches shown in Figure 2 . you will see that every point in this frame moves with a different velocity relative to the center of the earth. v = II + CO You may recognize this expression as a simple application of the Corio lis theorem which will be derived in the next section as the general problem of derivative s in moving coordinate systems is discussed.77) . If f is the position vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . where � is the angular velocity of the earth (hence". 2 . 7 ( D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R OM R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N Vel of obj ect reI to fixed frame )( = Vel of obj ect reI to moving frame )( + True vel of pt in .Sec. (2 . Therefore . EB x f. the angular velo city of the SEZ frame) .73 illustrate this general principle for both a translating and rotating frame .73 Relationship between relative and true velocity for translating and rotating reference frames If you visualize the threedimensional volume of space (Figure 2 .74) defined by the topocentrichorizon reference frame . Figure 2. It is this velocity that must be added vectorially to p to obtain the "true" velocity v.
74 v = P + <II X r  Convert r to I J K coordinates using (2 .3535 . 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM.E + 1 . Assume the site is at sea level on a spherical earth . Find the position vector of the satellite relative to fixed geocentric I J K coordinates. The position vector of a satellite relative to a radar site located at 169 0 W Long.6 1 2 . is 2 S E + .707 .866 .88 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT IO N F RO M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . 5 Z (units are DU). 300 N Lat . Figure 2.5 J . 3535 .612 .707 o . The angle to Greenwich is 3040 .612) r = R + P = 2S . 5Z (Given) [).1 = [.
78) with respect to time leads to : Now the unit vectors I. w) .7 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M R AD A R O B S E R V AT I O N 89 r = . The unit vectors D. if we specify the time derivative with respect to the ''fixed ' ' coordinate system . rotating with respect to the (x.. Let any vector A be defined as a function of time in a "fixed" coordinate frame (x.75 ) . z). 2. y. z) system (Figure 2 . K may b e moving with time if the "fixed" system is not inertial. 332J  . V and W will move relative to the fixed system so that in general their derivatives are not zero . I =J =K=O.4 Derivatives in a Moving Reference Frame . .9 1 81 + 2. then � = A II+A i +A K K +A I I +A i +A K K dA • • • . (2.982K .78) ROTATING FIXED Differentiating equation (2.7. At this point you should note that this analysis applies to the relative motion between any two coordinate systems. however.79) J. Then using the results of the unit vector analysis we know that the time . It is not necessary that one system be fixed in inertial space ! The vector A may be expressed in either of these coordinate systems as 2. Also let there be another coordinate system ( u. y.Sec. • = A U D+A V V+AWW+A U V +A V V +AW W . We will denote this quantity by w. v. (2. Assume that we know the angular velo city of the moving reference frame relative to the fixed frame ..
71 0) +A U (wxU ) +A V (wxV)+AW (wxW) .1 0) may be rewritten as F dA I F wx (A U U)+w x ( A V V)+wx (AWW) =wxA. . The remaining terms of equation (2.7. R means the time derivative of A with respect to the where rotating reference frame .90 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N S Ch . dA dt \ / where dt1 means the time derivative of A with respect to the fIxed reference frame . Hence .7. . V = w x V and W = w x W . . Hence .1 0) reduces further to . equation (2 . Similarly. You should prove to yourself that U = w x U.79) reduces to = A U U+A V V+AWW But (2 . 2 derivative of a unit vector is perpendicular to the unit vector and has magnitude equal to w . equation (2 .
y '\ J V' �W / / / A \ . Equation (2... . 2 ......75 Fixed and rotating coordinate system dA dt IF = dA +wxA. . .. ... .........7. " F i xed " System ( x. � R o tatl· ng \ System x " (u.... W) Figure 2.... v v..1 1 ) may be considered as a true operator Q..71 1 ) W e now have a very general equation in which A i s any vector.1 2) ....Sec. . y. .7..LJ dt I F = QLJ dtI R + wx ( ) (2 . . �:.. dt R I (2 .. 7 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M R A D A R O B S E R V AT I O N 91 z / / / I I W u . z) '.
(2 .7.1 5 ) for 1�� 1 � r ] I +200x aR� Let us now apply this result to a problem of practical interest.1 6) reduces to [�� I � '}2wx �: I = �� I R +.7. (2 . The angular velocity of our rotating platform is a constant W$' Then equation (2 .7.7 .7 .9!. Equation (2 .1 5) a R we get R 1) (2 .7. Suppo se we are standing on the surface of the earth.1 4) we get I  a F "a R If we now solve equation (2 .71 6) Inspection of this result indicates that the rotating ob server sees the acceleration in the fixed system plus two others: 2w �x V R coriolis acceleration .JI R +ClJxr dt dt or (2 ." Ioox.7. 2 iLl F = .) .1 3) Again applying the operator equation to vF we get .7 .1 2) is referred to as the Coriolis theorem.1 3) into equation (2 . 92 O R B I T D ETE R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E RVATION Ch .1 4) d (v F ) = d ( v F ) .F dt R +ClJx ( v F ) ' dt Sub stituting equation (2 . We will now apply the operator equation (2 .1 2) to the po sition vector r.7.where CIJ is the instantaneous angular velocity of the rotating frame with respect to the fixed reference frame .
is just the equatorial radius and who se semiminor axis. We will take as our approximate model an oblate spheroid. a cro ss section of the earth along a meridian is an ellipse who se semimaj or axis. (The interpretation of longitude is the same on an oblate earth as it is on a spherical earth. be' is just the polar radius of the earth. 2 . The second depends only on the po sition of the obj ect from the axis of rotation.8 SEZ TO I J K TRANSFORMAnON USING . that the earth is not a perfect geometric sphere. a model for the geometric shape of the earth must be adopted.) 2. The first Vanguard satellite showed the earth to be slightly pearshaped but this distortion is so small that the oblate spheroid is still an excellent representation . 2.8 and w ffi X ( w X r) = centrifugal acceleration . however . In the model which has been adopted. We will find it mo st convenient to express the station coordinate s of a point in terms of two rectangular coordinates and the longitude . We could simply use a spherical earth as a mo del and write the transformation matrix as discussed earlier. To be mo re accurate we will first discuss a nonspherical earth model. in order to increase the accuracy of our calculations.8. of course . ae . "Station coordinates" is the term used to denote the position of a tracking or launch site on the surface of the earth. We will discover that latitude can no longer be interpreted as a spherical coordinate and that the earth' s radius is a function of latitude. circles. If the earth were perfectly spherical. ffi T RA N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G AN E L L I PSO I D 93 To fully complete the orbit determination problem of the previous section we need to convert the vectors we have expressed in SEZ components to I J K components. It is known . Therefore . latitude and longitude could be considered as spherical coordinates with the radius b eing just the earth' s radius plus the elevation above sea level. 1 The Reference Ellipsoid. Sections parallel to the equator are . Recent determinations of the se radii and the consequent eccentricity of the elliptical cro ss se ction are as follows : AN ELLIPSOID EARTH MODEL The first is present only when there is relative motion between the obj e ct and the rotating frame .Sec.
It illustrates the two mo st commonly used definitions of latitude . The angle is called "geocentric latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the radius from the geocenter .94 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . The normal to the surface is the dire ction that a plumb bob would hang were it not for local anomalie s in the earth' s gravitational field . The angle L is called "geodetic latitude" and is defined as the angle between the equatorial plane and the normal to the surface of the ellipsoid .3 Station Coordinates. The angle between the equatorial plane and the actual "plumb bob vertical" uncorrected for these gravitational anomalie s is called La the "astronomical latitude. This is the basis for mo st of the maps and chart s we use .785 0. 1 45 6356.8. 2 Equatorial radius Polar radius ( be') Eccentricity ( e ) (a e ) == == The reference ellipsoid is a good approximation to that hypothetical surface commo nly referred to as "mean sea level. Consider Figure 2." The actual mean sea level surface is called the "geoid" and it deviates from the reference ellipsoid slightly be cause of the uneven distribution of mass in the earth' s interior. 2. 2.1 .8. The word "latitude" usually me ans geodetic latitude . it does complicate the concept of latitude. the difference between L and is usually negligible . What we need now is a method of calculating the station coordinates of a point on the surface of our reference ellipsoid when we know the geodetic latitude and longitude of the point and its height above mean sea level (which we will take t6 be the height above the reference ellipsoid) ." Since the difference between the true geoid and our reference ellipsoid is slight . When you are given the latitude of a place .08182 == km km L La L .2 The Measurement of Latitude. it is safe to assume that it is the geodetic latitude unless otherwise stated .8. The geoid is a true equipotential surface and a plumb bob would hang perpendicular to the surface of the geoid at every point. Consider an ellipse comprising a section of our adopted earth model 6378. While an oblate earth introduce s no unique problems in the definition or measurement of terrestrial longitude .
. It is convenient to introduce the angle (3. 2 . It will then be a simple matter to adjust the se coordinates for a point which is a known elevation above the surface of the ellip soid in the direction of the normal.82.. L . 8 T R AN S F O R MAT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D � . Thus. We will first determine the x and z coordinates of a point on the ellipse assuming that we know the geodetic latitude . the "reduced latitude . / (2.1 ) .." which is illustrated in Figure 2. 4 km Figure 2. c.Sec. O .82 . 95 e q u a to r i a l buloe 2 1 .8 ..8·1 Geocentric and geodetic latitude and a rectangular coordinate system as shown in Figure 2 .!! o . The x and z coordinates can immediately be written in terms of (3 if we note that the ratio of the z ordinate of a point on the ellipse to the corresponding z ordinate of a point on the circumscribed circle is just be a e .
96 O R B I T D E TE R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N But . c:  0) x Figure 2. 0 O D..82) .and e = da. / . for any ellipse .. b e =a e V� = b2 + d.82 Station coordinates We must now express sin {3 in terms of the geodetic latitude L and the constants a e and be ' From elementary calculus we know that the slope of the tangent to the ellipse is just dz dx and the slope of the normal is dx dz. a2 . Since the slope of the normal is just tan we can write  / L. 2 so and z=a e y'1 e 2 Si n (3 . z .1:  (2 . Ch . I C.
Thus. 2 .Sec:.85) . (2 . dz The differentials d X and d z can be obtained by differentiating the expressions for X and z above . (2. = =  A B = v'EB: sin2 L J1 e 2 sin L cos L (2. d x= a e sin {3 d t3 dz=a e J 1 e 2 cos {3 d{3 and tan or L = tan {3 = vr=er tan L = � si n cos L tan {3 tan {3 vr=er L .8 3) Suppo se we consider this last expression as the quotient where A = � sin L and B cos L .8 4) We can now write the X and z coordinates for a point on the ellipse . 8 T R A N S F O R M A T I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D 97 dx ta n L = .
(2 .85) For a point which is a height H above the ellip soid (which we take to be mean sea level) . sin x = b e 2 sin 2 1 ea L + H I cos L (2.8 7) 2. {1 ' is known .98 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .86) L.4 Transforming a Vector From SEZ To I J K Components.8. From Figure 2. 2 ( 2 . The third station coordinate is simply the east longitude of the point . it can be combined q with east longitude to find local sidereal time .83 it is obvious that the ve ctor R from the geocenter to the site on an oblate earth is simply R =X cos {1 I + X si n {1 J + z K.8 8) . The only remaining problem is how to convert the vectors which we have expressed in SEZ components into the I J K components of the geocentric frame . The x and Z coordinates plus the angle {1 completely locate the observer or launch site in the geocentricequatorial frame as shown below. elevation above mean sea level. If the Greenwich sidereal time . and earth equatorial radius and eccentricity: �Z = H H cos L (2 . {1. it is easy to show that the x and Z components of the elevation or height (H) normal to the adopted ellipsoid are �x = Adding the se quantities to the relations for x and z we get the following expressions for the two rectangular station coordinate s of a point in terms of geodetic latitude .
the n whe re 8 is called "local sidereal time . The angle between the unit vector I (vernal equinox direction) and the Greenwich meridian is called 8 the "greenwich sidereal time . is the angle between the equatorial plane and the extension of the local vertical at the radar site (on a spherical or oblate earth) . 8 T R A N S F O R M AT I O N U S I N G A N E L L I PSO I D K 99  J Figure 2. 2 .84 shows a spherical earth. L. Obviously we need a me thod of determining 8 at some general time t. If we knew 8 O at some part icular time to (say O h U niversal Time Q on I Jan) we cour determine 8 at time t from d I e :::: 8 g + AE I (2 .89) . the transformation matrix derived as follows is equally valid for an ellipsoid earth mo del where L is the geodetic latitude of the site .8." If g we let A E be the geographic longitude of the radar site measured eastward from Greenwich . Although Figure 2.3 Vector from geocenter to site Recall that the geodetic latitude of the radar site ." The angles L and 8 completely determine the relatio nship between the I J K frame and the SEZ frame .Sec .
1 0) . We now have all we need to determine the rotation matrix D1 that transforms a vector from SEZ t o I J K components.84 Angular relatio nship between frames where Wffi is the angular velocity of the earth . The A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac lists the value of e at Oh VT for every day of the year .1 00 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT I O N Ch . From (2 . For a more complete discussion o� sidereal time see the next se ction .8 . 2 j i Figure 2 .
2.1 1) are the components of a Time is used as a fundamental dimension in almo st every branch of science . The time between two successive upper transits of the sun acro ss our lo cal meridian is called an apparent solar day .Sec. aJ ' a K vector a in each of the two systems then = 51 [sisi nn sicosn () sicosn () co� L cosn ] cos si Si n . This is the time kept by ordinary clocks. 5 5 5 3 6 mean sidereal seconds 2. it is no wonder that ordinary time is reckoned by the sun . a Z If a l .9.9 equation (2 . A sidereal day consisting of 24 sidereal hours is defined as the time required for the earth to rotate once on its axis relative to the stars.9 .1 2) .1 2) and a s ' a E . (2 . so .00273 79093 days of mean sidereal time = 24h03 m 56�5 5 5 3 6 of sidereal time = 86636 .9 mE MEASUREMENT OF TIME = [:J t�l D' (2 _6. it will help to understand exactly how each is defined .8. When a scientist or layman uses the terms "hours.1 .6. It is the sun more than any other heavenly body that governs our daily activity cycle .cos L L o () L TH E M E ASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 01 () L L () () . The reason is that the earth travels about 1 /365th of the way around its orbit in one day . This o ccurs in about 23h 5 6m 4 s of ordinary solar time and leads to the following relationships : 1 day o f mean solar time = 1 . Since we will need to talk about another kind of time called " sidereal" time . minutes or seconds" he is understood to mean units of mean so lar time . 1 Solar and Sidereal Time . This should be made clear by F igure 2. The earth has to turn through slightly more than one complete rotation on its axis relative to the "fixed" stars during this interval. 2 .
when the earth is near perihelion. So far.91 Solar and sidereal day 1 day of mean sidereal time = . 2 Note : I A ng u l a r solar day has the been sake movement in one for doy e x a ggera te d of cla rity Figure 2. a mean solar day is defined based on the assumption that the earth is in a circular orbit who se period matches the actual period of the earth and that the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane . Based on the definition of an apparent solar day illustrated in the figure .1 02 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O BS E R V AT I O N Ch .9972695 664 days of solar time = 23 h5 6m04�09054 of mean solar time = 86 1 64 . no two solar days would be exactly the same length because the earth' s axis is not perpendicular to the plane of its orbit and because the earth' s orbit is slightly elliptical. An ordinary clock which ticks off 24 hours in one mean solar day would show the sun arriving at our local meridian a little early at . we have really defined only sidereal time and "apparent" solar time . it move s farther around its orbit in 1 day than it does in early July when it is near aphelion. In early January. In order to avoid this irregularity in the length of a solar day .09054 mean solar seconds .
Often it is desired to relate ob servations made in the topo centrichorizon system to the I J K unit vector s of the geocentricequatorial system and vice versa.) The local mean solar time on the Greenwich meridian is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) . The lo cal mean solar time in each zone differs from the neighboring zones by 1 hour. or Zulu (Z) time.3 Finding the Greenwich Sidereal Time when Universal Time is Known .2 Local Mean Solar Time and Universal Time . What we need is a convenient way to calculate the angle O g for any date and time of day. This relationship is illustrated on page 99. The conversion for time zones in the United States is as follows : EST CST MST PST + 5 hrs = UT + 6 hrs = UT + 7 hrs = UT + 8 hrs = UT 2. Suppo se we take the value of O g at at UT on 1 January of a particular year and call it 0 go ' Also . 0 g ' (expressed as an angle) at the date and time of the ob servation . .Sec. The earth is divided into 24 time zone s approximately 1 5 0 of longitude apart . Thus. The geometrical relation ship between these two systems depends on the latitude and longitude of the topos and the Greenwich sidereal time . 2 . (A few countries have adopted time zones which differ by only 1 /2 hour from the adjacent zone s.9. For example . 2.is 1 8 00 Eastern Standard Time (EST) the Univer sal Time is 2300 . Universal Time (UT). if it . let us number the days of the year conse cutively beginning with 1 January as day O. A time given in terms of a particular time zone can be converted to Universal Time by simply adding or subtracting the correct number of hours.9. If we knew what O g was on a particular day and time we could calculate O g for any future time since we know that in one day the earth turns through 1 .0027 379093 complete rotations on its axis. 9 T H E M E ASU R E M E NT O F T I M E 1 03 certain time s of the year and a little late at other time s of the year .
we can convert a particular date and time into a single number which indicates the number of days which have elapsed since our "time zero . . ° 229421 1. 0027379093x360° D [deg rees] 8 g=8 9 0 1 .9. Ephemeris and 2. 7451 6701 8g q 0 Values for D. in addition. The direction of the equinox is determined by the lineof intersection of the ecliptic plane (the plane of the earth' s orbit) and the equatorial plane ." If we call this number then or Nau tical A lmatlac Oh UT 1 Jan /1 go [h r . m i n . 2 31 28 31 30 31 30 January = 030 February = 058 = 089(090) * March 1 1 9(1 20) April 1 5 0( 1 5 1 ) May 1 80( 1 8 1 ) June 31 31 30 31 30 31 July August = Septemb er = October = November = De cember = = 2 1 1 (2 1 2) 242(243) 272(27 3) 303(304) 3 33(334) 364(365) *figures in parentheses refer to leap year If. 0027379093 x 21r x D [ radi a ns] . 8g + X + taken from page 1 0 of the A m erican are given below for several years. it is nece ssary to discuss the slow �ifting of the vernal equinox direction known as precession. To understand what the values of in the table preceeding represent .sec] 8 [deg ] 8 g o [ rad] 1968 6hh38m 53�090 99�721208 1. 74046342 1969 6h41 m 52�353 100?468137 1. 7 5349981 m 1 970 6h40m 55�061 100. we express time in decimal fractions of a day. 8 9=8 9 0 1 . 74933340 1971 6 39 57�7 69 99?990704 1 .4 Precession of the Equinoxes.104 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O BS E R V AT I O N Ch .
6 yrs I Figure 2.... However .z or period nut t i o n a of " nodd i ng = " 1 8 . so the lunarcaused precession has this same period... the polar axis sweeps out a coneshaped surface in space with a semivertex angle of 2 3* 0 . As the earth' s axis precesses. the lineofintersection of the equator and the ecliptic swings we stward slowly. 2 .9 T H E M EASU R E M E N T O F T I M E 1 05 pr e c e s s i o n peri o d of = 2 6 . The effect of the moon is to superimpose a slight nodding motion called "nutation . the equatorial plane is not . on the slow westward precession caused by the sun. Be cause the earth' s equator is tilted 23* 0 to the plane of the ecliptic.92 Precession of the equinoxes While the plane of the ecliptic is fixed relative to the stars. 0 0 0 y rs " . . the sun produces a torque on the earth which results in a wobbling or precessional motion similar to that of a simple top ." with a perio d of 1 8 . The period of the precession is about 2 6.6 year s . the moon' s orbital plane precesses due to solar perturb ation with a period of about 1 8 . Due to the asphericity of the earth. so the equinox direction shift s westward about 5 0 arcseconds per year .6 years..Sec . The moon also produce s a torque on the earth' s equatorial bulge.000 year s .
8 2 OU 1 ( 1 Jan 1 970  = 1 rad ian (east l ongitude is positive) Gl . The apparen t equ inox is the actual equinox direction when both precession and nutation are included. Lat = L= = 0) 0° 8g o for 1 970 is 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . What is the inertial position vector of a point 6. 25 8=8 g + A = .296° H = 6 .1 06 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O B S E R VATI O N 01 .1 .00 1 + L= 0 .0027379093 x 211" x 0=9 .378 km above mean sea level on the equator. 6 24 5 .74933340 = 1 . The values of 8 in the table preceding are referred to the mean g equinox and equato lb f the dates shown .0 = 8 6 24 5 rad ians From equation (2 .378km = 0 . 2 The mean equinox is the po sition of the equinox when solar precession alone is taken into account .6245 rad ians o 9 .8 7) 8 g =8 g + 1 . Day  = Long o 57 .e2 s i n 2 L 1 ae e2 si n 2 L � cos J Hl si n J L = 1 . 00 1 From section 2 .296 degrees west longitude . x= [ z= � ae + � . 5 7 . 2 January 1 970? The given information in consistent unit s is: = A = UT = 0600 h rs. at 0600 GMT.
Range Rate (p) Azimuth Rate ( A z ) = Elevation Rate (E 1 ) 1 0 rad/TUES = 5 rad/TUES What were the velocity and po sition vectors o f the space object at the time of observation? From equation (2 .2D UES = (0. At 0600 GST a BMEWS tracking station (Lat 600 N.88) R = x c o s () 1 + x si n () J + = 1 . 00 1 (S.(0.346D UES ODUES Hence = 0.From equation (2. 0.9 T H E M EASU R EM E N T O F T I M E 1 07 ZK J + OK EXAMPLE PROBLEM .4) (c o s 30° ) ( c o s 90°) = = ( 0 04 ) sin 30° = O.7 1 SJ + OK Sec.6245) = .4 DUES (E1 ) = 90° = 30° = 0 .6971 + .4) (cos 30 ° ) (sin 90 ° ) = 0. 00 1 c o s(S.6245 )1 + 1 .2Z ( D UES) From equation (2. Long 1 5 00 W) detected a space object and obtained the following data: Slant Range ( p ) Azimuth ( Az ) Elevation = .72) PE p Pz Ps = .74) . 2 .346E + O.
�� lO.3.0D U/TU P Z = (0) (si n 30) + (0.46 P =D1 .346J + 1 . 3.1 1 ) become s 0 1 and = r:.4) (si n 3 0 ) (5) (sin 90) + (0.061 .4) (cos 30) (5) = 1 .433 .2 �: :66 0 r =01 Similarly .2Z ( D U) From equation (2 .1 50° = 60° ( LST) The rotation matrix (2.0 1 .8 .77) v = [� ] [ J 0.0E + 1 .Ps = .84J .46 D U /T U (0.(0. 0.73Z D U (T U r = 0.5 1 .0.73D U/TU p e = Hence 3.1 .4) ( cos 30) (si n 90) ( 1 0) + = 3.1 . 2 PE = (0) (cos 30) (sin 90) .73 p + (O.8 .0588K) From equation (2 .232K ( D U/T U ) xr DU/TU .866 0.46S .04K ( D U e ) J = 1 .1 .346E + l .25 0. 1 08 Ch .610. 46 = 0.1 0) = (6) ( 1 5 0 /hou r) .4) (cos 30) (cos 90) ( 1 0) = .(0) ( cos 30) ( cos 90) + (0 4) (si n 30) (5) cos 90 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N .7·5 ) From equation (2 .
Ai. well known for his contributions to thermo dynamics. Ei. EI and k at three times by the methods of the last section or by any other technique . of course . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM POS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 09 v = 1 . k. 1 01 Orbit through f 1 . f2 and f3 The scheme to be presented is asso ciated with the name of J. 1 0 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM 1 THREE POSITION VECTO RS 6 In the preceding section we saw how to obtain f and V from a single radar measurement of p . f2 and f3 (assumed to be coplanar).3. 2. EI . may be lacking. Figure 2. These three vectors may be obtained from successive measurements of p . and the orb it is uniquely determined.081 . As Baker S points out . it was developed using pure ve ctor analysis and was historically the first contribution of an American scholar to celestial mechanics. but the contributions to cele stial mechanics of this . p . It may happen that a particular radar site is not equipped to measure Doppler phase shifts and so the rate information.8J . 2 .Sec.232K D U /TU Thu s the po sition and velocity vectors o f the object at one epo ch have been found . W. Gibbs and has come to be known as the Gibb sian method .0. Gibbs is. In this section we will examine a method for determining an orbit from three position vectors f 1 .
then u sing (2 . 1 02) gives (2 . Q and W. equation ( 1 . 2 fine scholar .r l ) + C 2 f3 X f l ( p. Notice that C2 may now be divided out. who in 1 8 63 received our country' s first engineering degree . 1 03) Cross (2. Multiply collect terms : P (f 1 (2 .r2 ) + C 2 f l X f 2 ( p.1 ) Using the polar equation o f a conic section. Dotting (2 . (2 . 1 0.r 3 ) = 0 . 1 03) by f3 X r l . Solution : Since the vectors fl' f2 and r3 are coplanar . 1 06) and C3 to obtain : we can elimin ate C1 C 2 r2 X f3 ( p. we can show that : e ' f = p . 1 06) Multiply (2 . f2 and f3 which represent three sequential positions of an orbit ing obj ect on one pass. 1 05 ) and (2 . (2 .r. 1 02) e and using the relation (2 . 1 07) the factor s and X f2 + f2 Xf 3 + f 3 Xf ) = 1 1 1 r 3 f Xf 2 + r f 2 Xf 3 + r 2 f 3 X f 1 . there must exist scalars C I ' C2 and C3 such that o . 1 08) . 1 0. is equally outstanding but le ss generally remembered . 1 0.5 4). The Gibbs problem can be stated as follows : Given three nonzero coplanar vectors f I . (2 .1 ) successively by fl . and the definition of a dot product . 1 04) . 1 05) (2 .1 ) by (2 . 1 04) (2 .11 0 O R B IT D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . find the parameter p and the eccentricity e of the orbit and the perifocal base vectors P. f2 and f3 to obtain (2 .
(2 .Let the right side of (2 . 1 0. Q and W are orthogonal unit vectors Q = W x P. i. Therefore . 1 0. N and D have the same dire ction. provided N .1 2) Now substitute for N from its definition in (2 . 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. equation (2 . 1 08) be defined as a vector N and the coefficient of p be defined as a vector D. . 2 . D = N P = O' N (2 .e .1 3) : (2 . 1 08) Now use the general relationship for a vector triple product ( axb ) x c = (a'c) b . (2. 1 01 0) It can be shown that for any set of vectors suitable for the Gibbsian method as described above . This is also the direction of W in the perifocal coordinate system. 1 09) D. (2 . Since P. then D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 111 Sec.1 1 ) can be written Q = 1 Ne (N X e) . 1 0.(b ·c) a To rewrite (2 . 1 0 pD = N .1 4) (2 . N and D do have the same direction and that this is the direction of the angular nnmentum vector h.1 5) .1 1 ) Since W is a unit ve ctor i n the direction of N and P i s a unit vector in the direction of e.
1 7) to find e.1 12 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1 8) N (2 .5 4) to obtain the velo city vector corresponding to any of the given position vectors. it is possible to develop an expression that gives the V vector directly in terms of the D. P = Q X W. 1 0. Then use (2 . N = p D and Q and S have the same direction e = and S D (2 . 1 0.1 6) . Q and W are orthogonal. D and S ve ctors. The information thus obtained may be used in formula (2.r 3 ) f t + ( r3 . (2 . 1 0. and (2 . 1 02 1 ) . (2 . 1 020) Thus. From equation ( 1 .1 9) Since P. (2.r t ) f2 + ( rt . Before solving the problem. check N * O and D . (2 . 1 0. 1 0.1 9) to find W. N > o. 1 020) to find P.1 8) to find Q. However . 1 01 0) to find p. 1 0. ( f  r + e) .52) we can write i X h = p. 1 0. 2 Again using the relationship (2 .1 6) == pS Where S is defined by the bracketed quantity in (2.r2 ) f3 ] (2 . 1 0. (2 . N and S vectors. since NeQ = pS. 1 02) and factoring p from the right side we have : NeQ=p [ ( r2 . to solve this problem use the given f vectors to form the N. Therefore.1 7) W Q = S S N (2 .
(h xr r = + (a . ON (2 . Using the identity .h = P. h (Wxr + eQ ) r I ( Wxr r = hW and e = + = y!Np. 1 022) Using the fact that h e we have v +Jb. so c) b .Sec . 2 . e) We can write h v v = . the left side becomes Thus ax (bxc) . v = eP. v) h and h ./O S eW X P ) ( 2 .E.(h .. b) c O . S NO NO = S o Q = =S an d D W0 (2 . h X (h h ) v . 1 025) . D X r + JJ{. 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M POS I T I O N V E CTO R S 1 13 Cro ss h into (2 . 1 024) (2 . 1 02 3) I r To streamline the calculations let us define a scalar and a vector B�D Xr L � JP.( a . = p.2 1 ) to obtain h X (r X h ) . 1 0.
find v2 : 2. Test : r } · r2 xr 3 Form the 0. Form L = = 6. to find any of the three velocities directly . There are a number of other derivations of the Gibb sian method of orbit determination . Form B = 0 x r 2 5 . By specifying three position vectors we appear to have nine independent quantitiesthree components for each of the three vectorsfrom which to determine the six orbital element s. N=FO. proceed as follows : For example . but all of them have some problems like quadrant resolution which makes computer implementation difficult . possible two body orbit . There are several general features of the Gibb sian method worth noting that set it apart from other methods of orbit determination. The fact that the three vectors must lie in the same plane means that they are not independent . v2 � + L S r2 • .1 14 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVAnON y = Then B r Ch . 4 . N and S vectors. This is not exactly true. shape and orientation of an orbit and the po sition of the satellite in that orbit . using the stated tests. 2 L + LS (2 . This method . = 0 for coplanar vectors. 1 02 6) Thus. Test: 0 10 . O·N>O to assure that the vectors describe a 3. 1 . Finally . appears to be foolproof in that there are no known special cases. Another interesting feature of the Gibb sian method is that it is purely geometrical and vectorial and makes use of the theorem that "one and only one conic section can be drawn through three coplanar position vectors such that the focus lie s at the origin of the three jOJlN . Earlier in this chapter we noted that six independent quantities called "orbital elements" are needed to completely specify the size .
and S vectors: D= N S 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 9701 = 2. 02 1 7K  Test : r1 • r2 xr 3 =0 to verify that the observed vectors are coplanar.047 1 = .000K = 0_700J .5000K Find : P. eccentricity. NlO and D ·N>O we know that the given data present a solvable problem.97 . This is such an important problem that we will devote Chapter 5 entirely to its solution . Since 010." Thus.0774J 0. r1 r2 r3 = 1 .0471 O U = 0 .Sec. If we make use of the dynamical equation of motion of the satellite it is possible to obtain the orbit from only two position vectors. P = 0= N  2.8000K = 0. Form the D . 1 0 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM P OS I T I O N V ECTO R S 1 15 po sition vectors. 2 . The time offlight b etween the three po sitions is not used in the calculations. r 1 and r2 . and the timeofflight between these po sitions.039 O U ( 3578 naut ica l mi les) 1 . Q and W (the perifo cal basis vectors expressed in the I J K system) . the only feature of orbital motion that is exploited is the fact that the path is a conic section who se focus is the center of the earth. Radar observations of a n earth satellite during a single pass yield in chronological order the following positions (canonical units). N .0. the semilatus rectum.9000J + 0. period and the velocity vector at position two .
1 16 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .0. 1r/{: 6.7 m i n utes) = Now form the B = D x r2 P = Q x W = .0.497 9.0.97 o lP = a = 1 . . then v 2 = V2 = L �B+ L S = 0 .0804 e = = = 0 . 0408 1 1 .67 TU (89.657K D U /T U 2 0.963J . Another approach is to immediately solve for v2 and then use f2 ' v2 and the method of section 2.270J + 0.270K W= N.960 DU/T U (4.576J .4 to solve for the elements.1 .963K N 1 . 0001 B ve ctor: = 1 . 700J . 1 0 nm/sec) The same equations used above are very efficient for use in a computer solution to problems of this type. = .041 DU (3585 nautical m i les) s 2 Q = "5= 0. 2 S .379K Form a scalar : L 1 lVOi'J" = .
j = 1. 3. 2.z and � be unit vectors along the 1 line ofsight to the satellite at the three ob servation times. [:i:n :: :. we may write I Lj = where sub scripts have been omitted for simpliCity and where p is the slant range to the satellite . so a minimum of three observations is required at three different time s to determine the orbit . S ix independent quantities suffice to completely specify a satellite's orbit . 1 Determining the Line o f Sight Unit Vectors. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M O PT I CA L S I G HT I N GS 1 17 2 . In either case . If we let L . r = pL [�. As a result . Since astronomers had to determine the orbits of comets and minor planets (asteroids) using angular data only . = OJ + R j . 1 1 2) r . then ' . (X1 ' < \ � . (X3 ' <\ The se could easily be obtained from a photograph of the satellite against the star background . an optical observation yields only two independent quantities such as EI and Az or right ascension and declination. optical methods still yield the mo st accurate preliminary orbit s and some method of orbit determination proceeding from angular data only (e . 1 1 . is the vector from the center of the earth to the satellite . (2 .Sec. 2 . L.g . Let us assume that we have the topocentric right ascension and de clination of a satellite at three separate time s .7 2). the method presented below has been in long use and was first sugge sted by Laplace in 1 780. topo centric right ascension and declination) is required. 1 1 O RBIT DETERMINATION FROM OPTICAL SIGHTINGS The modern orbit determination problem is made much simpler by the availability of radar range and rangerate information. Now since Lj are unit vectors directed alo ng the slant range vector 15 from the observation site to the satellite .:S :J: JS L K . and R is the vector from the center of the earth to the observation site (see Figure 2 . These may be the six classical orbital elements or they may be the six components of the 'lectors r and V at some epo ch.1 ) (2 . However the angular pointing accuracy and resolution of radar sensors is far b elow that of optical sensors such as the BakerNunn camera. ° 2 .6 2 : 1 1 .
\ •.. the above vector equation represen! � three component equ'!ti�!ls in 1 0 unknowns . .. R and R are known at time t2 . r u. \ Figure 2. 1 1 4) From the equation of motion we have the dynamical relationship = .r Sub stituting this into equation (2 . L. (2 . .[. f f. 2 We may differentiate equation (2 . p. 1 1 5) At a spe cified time . ':.. however . • 00 . are not known . : '< ' . say the middle ob servatio n . 1 1 3) (2 . .1 18 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M OBSE R V AT I O N Ch . • ' I . \' P2 i �� G "./  L . .1  R ) r3 . p..J V I . p and r.' ' " ': . � . �J 1  . 1 1 4) and simplifying yields " L jj + 2 L P + ( L + � )p = r  " (R + f. 0 (2 . �� I 1 " _ . ' ' :. L.. \ [L.1 . 1 1 2) twice to obtain t = p L + pL + R f = 2pL + jj L + p L + R . 1 1 1 Lineofsight vectors � �2P. . The vectors L. I . \ .
t 1 .t2 ) ( t 1 . t2 and t3 .t 1 .t 3 ) (t.t2 ) ( t 1 .t 3 ) L1 + 2t .t 2 ) [ (t) = 2 L L1 + ( t 2 .t2 ) .t 1 ) ( t.t 2 .t } ) (t 3 .t 1 ) (t 3 .t 2 ) + ( t 3 . t2 . 1 1 . thus ( tt } ) ( tt 3 ) · ( t. 2 Derivatives of the LineofSight Vector . 2 . We may use the Lagrange interpolation formula to write a general analytical expression for L as a function of time : L (t) = Note that this second order polynomial in t reduces to L1 when t = t 1 � wh�n t =.t 1 ) ( t3 .t 3 ) ( t } .t 3 ) L2 L} + ( t 2 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t2 L3 ( t 3 .Sec.t3 ) (2 .t2 ) ( t} . we can numerically differentiate to obtain L and L at the central date .t 1 ) ( t2 .t2 )  ' L ( t) 2t .t 3 ) 2 ( t 1 .t3 ( t 2 . 1 1 D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM O PT I CA L S I G H T I N GS 1 19 2.t 3 ) L2 (2. 1 1 6) + 2t . Since we have the value of L at.three t�es.t2 ) (t. provided the three observations are not too far apart in time . 1 1 7) 2 + 2 L3 · ( t 3 .t 1 ) ( t2 .t 3 ( t 1 . t } . 12 and � when t = t3 ' Differentiating this equation twice yields L and L.
. The determinant of the coefficients is clearly L D = L I J 2LI 2L J . it is evident that L Dp = . 1 1 5) for p using Cramer's rule. 4 Equation (2 ..u R Ir3 K J K This determinant can be conveniently split to produce .1 20 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BSE R V AT I O N Ch .u I r3 time s the first column from the third column. better yet . This.L I J 2L I R 2L J R L K 2 LK R I + . 2 By setting t = t2 ip equati. p' and r.u R Ir3 I + . making a least squares polynomial fit to the observations. 1 1 5) written for the central date now represents three component equations in four unknowns.u L 1 / r 3 L J + . I L . 2 . 1 1 5 ) . L J . For the time being. LI . in fact . a more accurate value of L and L at the central date may be obtained by fitting higher order polynomials with the Lagrange interpolation formula to the observations or . . however. L K + . p.u L /r 3 .u L K / r 3 LK 2LK Since the value of the determinant is not changed if we subtract . D reduces to L D =2 L I L .. 1 1 7) we can obtain numerical values for L and L at the central date . It should be noted.. must be done if L and higher order derivatives are not negligible .u R Ir3 J + . that if more than three observations are available . + . 1 1 3 Solving for the Vector f.ons (2 . L L L K K K J . p. let us assume that we know r and solve equation (2 . 1 1 6) and (2 . 1 1 8) Applying Cramer's rule to equation (2 . L J I (2 .
0.1 0) and (2 . R J .1 2) . Provided that the determinant of the coefficients. Then _ __ K I L J L L K I .4 Solving for Velocity . 2 . 1 1 2) 2 + 2p L R + R2 (2. 1 1 . Applying Cramer's rule again to equation (2. 1 1 . 2 . R R . 1 1 . r2 = pL RI = + p (2. 1 1 9) 2/l 0 2 r3 0 . r3 L L L J K I R R R J I . we may solve for p in a manner exactly analogous to that of the preceding section. O O. Once the value of r at the central date is known equation (2.L L L J K I p . L K L J L I K (2. L J L I K J!.1 1) Op = .. 1 1 .Sec . 1 1 .1 0) into (2. 1 1 . L K . 1 1 5). R R I .1 0) may be solved for and the vector r obtained from equation (2. 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 ) represent two equations in two unknowns. If we do this we find that .. 1 1 2). . p and r. is not zero we have succeeded in solving for p as a function of the still unknown r. . R . Substituting equation (2 .1 1) leads to an eighth order equation in r which may be solved by iteration.1 0) R R R J K I 1 21 (2 . J K I 2 � r3 f= L L L J K I L L J L K I 0 1 and the second (2. 1 1 D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O PT I C A L S I G H T I N G S Op= 2 p_2 0 1 o __ L L L J For convenience let us call the first determinant O2 . . The conditions that result in 0 being zero will be discussed in a later section. From geometry we know that p and r are related by Ir Dotting this equation into itself yields Equations (2 . 1 1 .
then a 2 2 complete redetermination of the orbital elements can be made and the new or "improved" orbital element s taken as the average of all . El. P. 1 1 . In the pre ceding analysis we have assumed that the determinant D is not zero so that Cramer's rule may be used to solve for and p. This preliminary orbit may be used to predict the position and velocity of the satellite at some future date . such as P. Az or three optical sightings of aI ' ° 1 . As a matter of fact . 2 (2 . a . a3 . ° . (2 . This 2 is another way of saying that if the observer lie s in the plane of the satellite' s orbit at the central date . D. 1 1 . A somewhat better method of orbit determination from optical sightings will be presented in Chapter 5 . 1 1 .For convenience let us call the first determinant D 3 and the second D . k. Laplace ' s method fails .5 Vanishing of the Detenninant .1 3) Since we already know r we can solve equation (2 . I v = r = i>L + pL + R · 1 v. 2 . 1 1 . E l . ° 3 . 1 2 IMPROVING A PRELIMINARY ORBIT BY DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTION The preceding sections dealt with the problem of determining a preliminary orbit from a minimum numb er of observations. 1 1 .2). Moulton7 has shown that D will be zero only if the three ob servations lie along the arc of a great circle as viewed from the ob servation site at time t . To obtain the velocity vector .1 4) p 2. If the downrange statio n can get an ? ther " sixdimensional fix" on the satellite . at the central date we only need to differentiate r in equation (2 . one of the first things that is done when a new satellite is detected is to compute an ephemeris for the satellite so that a downrange tracking station can acquire the satellite and thus improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit by making further observations. There are two ways in which further observations of a satellite may be used to improve the orbital eleme nts. Then 1 22 4 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch .1 3) for p.
The six residuals are �1 ' . of course. that the downrange station cannot obtain the type of sixdimensional fix required to redetermine the orbital elements. a future observation may consist of six closely spaced observations of rangerate only . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 23 preceding determinations of the elements. 2.Sec. Differential correction is based upon the concept of residuals. Suppose that the six components of ro and Vo are taken as the preliminary orbital elements of a satellite at some epoch to' Now assume that by some analytical method based on twobody orbital mechanics or some numerical method based on perturbation theory we can predict that the rangerates relative to some downrange observing site will be at six times. "can this information be used to improve the accuracy of the preliminary orbit?" The answer is "yes.::"P 3 . It may happen . 1 21) . ts and t6 ' These predictions are . t4 . 1 2. Doppler rangerate. \ ' t2 ." By using a technique known as "differential correction" any six or more subsequent observations may be used to improve our knowledge of the orbital elements.::"P 2 ' .::"P . p) will differ from the computed data. . Assuming that the residuals are small.g. we can write the following six firstorder equations (2. v Kl at t = to are correct. A residual is the difference between an actual observation and what the ·observation would have been if the satellite traveled exactly along the nominal orbit. 1 Computing Residuals. 1 2. . 2 The Differential Correction equations. The question then arises. 2. based on the assumption that the six nominal elements [r " rJ . Be cause such a nominal orbit will not be exactly correct due to sensor errors or uncertainty in the original observation station's geographical coordinates. The downrange station now makes its observations of p at the six prescribed times and forms a set of six residuals based on the difference between the predicted values of Ii and the actual observations. however .::"P s ' and � 6 ' 4 2. r K ' v " vJ . t3 . For example . the observational data collected by a downrange station (e .
Vj' D. The following notation will be used in the following examples of differential correction : = number of observations p = number of elements (parameters in the equation.3 Evaluation of Partial Derivatives.. rj .:::/1 ( r l + N I ' r j . however. . 2 A ssuming that the partial derivatives can be numerically evaluated. i. D. equations (2 . . ap1 . usually 6 for orbit problems) n .1 ) constitute a set of six simultaneous linear equations in six unknowns. The following example problems demonstrate the use of the method. by trial and error. the general method is valid no matter what type of data the residuals are based upon. Nj. V K ) .e. With the aid of a digital computer. The inversion of equations (2 . New residuals are formed and the whole process repeated until the residuals cease to become smaller with further iterations.1 ) requires a knowledge of all 36 partial derivatives such as ap1 / a r l ' etc. for example . 1 2 . NK. 2. D. Usually it is impossible to obtain such derivatives analytically. All that is required is to introduce a small variation. Although the preceding analysis was based on using rangerate data to differentially correct an orbit . The only requirement is that at least six independent observations are necessary. (A variation of 1 or 2 percent in the original elements is usually sufficient.VI .) Then. such as N I ' to each of the original orbital elements i? turn and compute the resulting variation in each of the predicted p's.r l " v K )p1 ( r l . .VK . In essence the differential correction process is just a sixdimensional Newton iteration where we are trying. 1 2. reduce the residuals to zero .1 24 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . to find the value of the orbital elements at time to that will correctly predict the observations. Using matrix methods these equations can be inverted and solved for the correction terms which will then be added to the preliminary orbital elements yielding a "corrected" or "improved" set of orbital elements These corrected elements are then used to recompute the predicted rangerates at the six observation times. NI . it is a simple matter to obtain them numerically. r K " ' arl D. 1 2. .
3 . Repeat steps 1 through 3 until the re siduals are : a. zero .g . Compute new residuals using the same data with new elements. V i dependent variable me asurement corresponding to xi ' Vi computed (predicted) value of dependent variable using previous values for the element s (a and (3). I f p < w e have more equations than w e d o unknowns so there is no unique solution. 2 . This mean s we find the curve that cau ses the sum of the square s of the residuals to be a minimum. A is an x p matrix of partial derivative s of each quantity with respect. Correct the elements (�EMI ao ld + M). If p the re sult is a set of simultaneous equations that can be solved explicitly for the exact solution .W is an x diagonal matrix who se elements consist of the square of the confidence placed in the correspo nding me asurements (e . The solution to weighted least squares iterative differential correction is given by the following equation : Sec. In this case we seek the best solution in a " leastsquares" sense .tb each of the elements measured. If p> we d o not have enough data to solve the problem. is the p x 1 matrix of computed corre ctions to our e stimates of the elements xi independent variable measurement .. for the exactly determined case (p or b. b is the 1 matrix of re siduals based on the previous estimate of the elements. called the root me an square (RMS) . minimum as described above .. . 1 22) for the changes t o the element s. Solve equation (2 . This way we can reduce the effect of questionable data without completely disregarding it . use 0. since p 2 below) .8 1 ) . Or equivalently we minimize the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared residuals. = = n) . for 90% confidence . 4. 2 . 1 22) Follow this pro cedur e : 1 . a and (3 are the elements (two here . 1 2 "" I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 25 n n n nX = n =n n (2. This can occur even though the curve may not pass through any points.
the partial derivatives are : .Assume equal confidence in all data.j3 EXAMPLE PROBLEM . To make this example simple let us first use two observations and two elements. 2 y == � = + �x ex = �) in the relationship =2 �= 3 where we have predicted the values of the variable V for the two values of x. 17 1 26 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M O BS E RVAT I O N Ch . == 2 + 3x l = 8 X2 2 2 + 3x2 = 1 1 b = trV2l =�2l] = [7] = r1 01 . lo 1 J = + �x Y Y1 9 . 21 X· 23 21 118 79 Vi  I Vi R es i d u a l and computed the residuals for the (2 x 1 ) matrix V From the fitting equation V Xl == 3. Choo se ex and for the first estimates. Therefore W is the identity matrix and will not be carried through the calculations.2. ex VI. Given: O b serva t i o n Let the elements be ex and ( M = � and . In this case the problem is exactly determined (n p 2).:.
1 22) for the elements of the (2 x l ) matrix [ :J 5 ATA AT. Thus. {3new = {3old + 6(3 = . 2.Sec. = [ 1 6] 4 1 [ 1J [13 1J [4161 1J [3J 1 1 1 + = r2 5 1 l5 = (ATA t l = � � [13 ] 5 2 "" 5 2 5 2 . Cl'n ew = OVId + La = X Zz = La 6{3 The fitting equation is now Y= which yield s the following : 13J . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 27 The matrix A ( 2 x 2) is : aY1 aY1 a{3 = A a C\' = a Y2 a C\' a Y2 a {3 We will now solve equation (2 .
1 28 O R B I T D ET E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N O b serva t i o n 2 1 X ·I Yi 2 3 2 1 Yi 2 1 Ch . This is not surprising since our equation is that of a straight line and we used only two points. This means that in a realistic problem 1 00 x 6 or larger matrices ( 1 00 observations. EXAMPLE PROBLEM. let u s assume that our curve passes through points 3 and 4.474 Xi 3 . yet still overspecified number of measurements. 36 Yi we predict values of residuals. corresponding to the given Xi and compute . This gives us a first guess of = exxf3 ex and f3 in the (p=2) Thus using Vi ex = 0. The relationships between the orbit elements and components of position and velocity are very nonlinear. To illustrate the method involved. 2 R es i d u a l 0 0 Notice that we achieved the exact result in one iteration. 6 orbit elements) would be used. we will use a simple .474 and f3 = 3. In practice. This obviously implies the use of a digital computer for the solution.360 = . large numbers of measurements are used to determine the orbit . yet still nonlinear relationship for our "elements" and a small. Let the elements be relationship: Y Given the following measurements o f equal confidence .
474 x 3 . aa . 969 ____  Vi . 1 2 I M P R OV I N G A P R E L I M I N A R Y O R B I T 1 29 X '1 1 2 3 4 Vi 2. 36 i Mter computing the elements of the matrices we have [� o o o 1 o o o �l .000 50. ( V i Yi ) 2 4.1 26 0._1.000 n = Vi 0.865 49.031  1 = 1 RMS residual /.474 4 0 07 19.1. 3 .500 8.866 4 x .) 2 n . E ( V 1.000 1 9.y. . 2 .1 05 9.Sec. 0 35 3... 934 = 1 .934 1_ The partial derivatives for matrix A are given by: a Vi __ = X� = 1 '" =j 1 3 .0 01 1 3.828 0 0.007 0. 1 l og e X 1· '" The residuals for matrix b are given by '" = b i Vi w  Since the data is of equal confidence . 36 1 aV ' a{3 I lxX {3 .Vi 2.
.z 10. 105.021 070 20.304 0. which is larger than what we started with.l Now using (2 ."""'" �T�� .474 + .733. 1 961 0.031 8. 1 22) we have £::. 81 30 8.039 £::. 0.I T """""""'" 1 Thus (Xnew (Xnew = Computation using the new residuals (based on the new elements and the observed data) yields an RMS residual of 2. 27 A WA = [12. 1 96 = 3. 58 (A WA) A Wb =�0 .670 3.001 07 33 b = 0.246 017] A Wb [3721 ] 0. 75 = lOll :0 17 """'.304 = .2..056 ""' T . = 3.0. 0 18 0. 1 75 ] 5.062 .380708 A = 40. {3 = {3 new ..�T�� {3 new {3 new = = .4 1 69. 2 (AT\j\j'A ) .1.027 12.1 30 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . so we iterate.3. Thus (X new = . The second iteration yields: £::.36 .360.(X 26 3.
2 . 7 35 x 3 . and finally. which means that to three significant figures we have converged on the b e st value s of ex and [3. However. during orbital decay. 1 3 SPACE SURVEILLANCE In the preceding sections we have seen how . Second : Weighting incorrect data less than the other data will cause the final values of the elements to be much clo ser to the values obtained using corre ct data than if the b ad data had been weighted equally . we can deter mine the orbital elements of a satellite from only a few observations. however. 2. The next value s of the parame ter are : a = . In practice . Typical requirements are for 1 00200 ob servations per obj e ct per day during the first few days of o rbit .00 1 . W e will con sider our RMS residual to be a minimum i f its value o n two succe ssive iterations differs b y less than 0. This b e st relationship between the given data and our fitting equation is given by y = 0. the RMS re sidual value is larger the lower the weight given the bad data. 205 0 observations per obj e ct per day to update already established orb its. 200300 observations to confirm and locate reentry.Sec . a handful of ob servations on new orb iting 0 bj e ct s can't secure the degree of precision needed for orbital surveillance and predic tion . 2 .4 Unequally Weigh ted Data. If the data is not we ighted equally we can ob serve several things : Fir st : If a piece o f data that i s actually exact should be weighted less than other good data. 8 In 1 97 5 there were ne arly 3 .5 8 2 . 038 . the algorithm above will still converge to the same b e st value but it will take more iteration s. This i s not yet the case so we iterate again .000 .735 This time the RMS residual is 1 . By 1980 this number is expected to grow to about 5 . 038 [3 = 3 . in theory. . 1 2. The number of iterations needed for convergen ce increases the lower the weight .500 detected obj ects in orbit around the earth.5 8 1 . 1 3 SPAC E SU R V E I L L AN C E 1 31 Recalculation of residuals using the se newer parameters yields an RMS re sidual of 1 .
manned spacecraft/debris collision avoidance . spacecraft failure diagnosis. 1 4 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS . 1 Radar Sensors. 2 . In addition to just catalogUing new space objects the mission of Spacetrack has been extended to reconnaissance satellite payload recovery. other sensors are available on an oncall basis: observations are received from the Eastern and Western Test Ranges.1 32 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . and from Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories' Millstone Hill radar. the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's optical tracking network . the precomputed 2. If an "unknown" ballistic object is detected. Since space surveillance is an outgrowth of ballistic trajectory monitoring. At present. and midcourse ICBM inter ception.5 003. forming "clouds" of space debris. about l O in width and 3�0 apart in elevation sent out from footballfieldsize antennas.500 miles make about 1 2 . the White Sands Missile Range . In addition. the Navy's Space Surveillance System (SPASUR). it is not surprising that all of our radar sensors are located in the Northern Hemisphere. 1 4 . The horizontal sweep rate is fast enough that a missile or satellite cannot pass through the fans undetected. and overthehorizon radars (OTH) . The task of keeping track of this growing space population belongs to the 1 4th Aerospace Force of the Aerospace Defense Command. the Electronic Intelligence System (EUNT). Radar sensors can be broadly categorized into two types: detection fans and trackers. Satellite tracking cameras deployed around the world by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in support of the recent International Geophysical Year (IGY) provide the data from the Southern Hemisphere . antisatellite targeting. the greatest effort is being expended on just keeping track of the existing space traffica j ob made more difficult by the Soviet's accidental or deliberate explosion in orbit of satellites and boo sters. The detection fansmo st of which are part of the BMEWS systemconsist of two horizontal fanshaped beams. 1 3. The data needed to identify and catalogue orbiting objects comes from a network of electronic and optical sensors scattered around the world and known as the "496L Spacetrack System." Spacetrack is a synthesis of many systems: it receives inputs from the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS).000 observations per daymostly of already catalogued obj ects. 2 2. These detection radars with a range of 2. 1 The Spacetrack System.
Alaska. while three are located at Clear. Turkey. and three more at Shemya in the Aleutians. and is on active spacetrack alert. A typical tracker such as the FPS49 has an 85foot mechanicallysteered dish antenna weighing 106 tons and is capable of scan rates up to 100 per second. Greenland. Figure 2.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 133 impact area is determined by a "table lookup" procedure at the site based on where the object crossed the two fans and the elapsed time interval between fan crossings. New Jersey. There is usually one tracker associated with each detection radar that can quickly acquire a new target from a simple extrapolation of its track through the detection fans.Sec. the FPS43. The only other detection fan which supplies occasional data to Spacetrack on request is located at Kwajalein Island.141 BMEWS diagram The best orbit determination data on new satellites comes from the tracking radars scattered around the Spacetrack net. Four of the larger FPS50s are deployed at Thule. 2. At present there are two FPSI7 detection radars at Diyarbakir.s The prototype is located at Moorestown. at the Trinidad site of the Eastern Test Range. One FPS49 . One of the earlier detection radars. is now on active Spacetrack alert.
This BMEWS station at Clear. Alaska.134 ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM OBSERVATION Ch. Alaska. Florida. An interesting new development in tracking radars is the FPS85 with a fixed "phasedarray" antenna and an electronicallysteered beam. One other radar sensor that contributes to the Spacetrack System is . uses a combination of one RCA FPS92 tracker.142. Pulse compression is used to improve both the gain and resolution of the 35foot dish antenna. An advanced version of this tracker (the FPS92) featuring more elaborate receiver circuits and hydrostatic bearings is operating at Clear. In addition. BMEWS which has other sites at Thule and Fylingdales Moor supplies data on orbiting satellites to Spacetrack regularly. The one at Diyarbakir has a unique feature which enhances its spacetrack usefulness. A variablefocus feed horn provides a wide beam for detection and a narrow beamwidth for tracking. plus three GE FPS50 detection radars which stand 165 ft high and 400 ft long. is at Thule and three are at Fylingdales Moor in Yorkshire. gives radar coverage of the Caribbean area. United Kingdom. under the 140ft radome at the left. there is an FPS79 at Diyarbakir and an FPS·80 at Shemya. It is capable of tracking several targets simultaneously. The prototype located at Eglin AFB. 2 Figure 2.
The Navy's SPASUR net is an active system of three transmitters and six receiving antennas stretching across the country along 330 N latitude from California to Georgia. 2. over·the·horizon radar with transmitters located in the Far East and receivers scattered in Western Europe.143. Two antenna arrays are used for electronic beam steering. When two or .Sec. It was a passive system requiring radio transmitters aboard the satellite. 2. OTH radar operates on the principle of detecting launches and identifying the signature of a particular booster by the disturbance it causes in the ionosphere.14. When a satellite passes through this "fence" a satellite reflected signal is received at the ground. Another class of sensors which provide accurate directional information on a satellite is based on the principle of radio interferometry.2 Radio Interferometers.14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 135 Figure 2. High sensor beam speed permits tracking of multiple targets but only at the expense of accuracy. the square array is the transmitter while the octagon serves as the receiver. The zenith angle of arrival of the signal is measured precisely by a pair of antennas spaced along the ground at the receiving site. The transmitters send out a continuous carrier wave at 108 Mc in a thin vertical fan. The original system using this technique was Minitrackused to track Vanguard. The Bendix FPS85 phasedarray tracking radar at Eglin AFB.
2 . In addition to these .1 36 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O BS E R VAT i O N Ch . To obtain a preliminary orbit from the first pass through the fence the rate of change of phase between the most widely spaced antenna pairs in the EastWest and NorthSouth directions is used to determine the velocity vector. two BakerNunns are operated by 1 4th Aerospace Force at Edwards AFB and Sand Island in the Pacific. the position of the satellite passing through the fence is determined by triangulation. The BakerNunn instrument is an F/1 Schmidt camera of 20inch focal . SPASUR is best utilized in the role of updating already established orbits by differential correction techniques. the semimajor axis. and the RCAF operates one at Cold Lake . Canada . but after 1 2 hours the earth rotates the system under the "backside" of the orbit allowing further improvement of the orbital elements. 1 4 . each equipped with a BakerNunn telescopic camera. is well established. Considering the type of observational data received. and therefore . After the second pass a refinement can be made as the period. 2 I N T ERFEROM E T E R R ECEIVING STAT I O N Figure 2 . 9 An orbit obtained in this way is very crude . but is useful in predicting the next pass through the system. These observations give information from only one part of the satellite orbit. SAO operates more than a dozen optical tracking stations around the world. 1 44 Determining direction to satellite from phase difference in signal more recelvmg sites are used . Alberta.3 Optical Sensors.
it recorded the 6inch diameter Vanguard I at a distance of 2. it is .14 TYPE AND LO CATION OF SENSORS 137 Figure 2. A separate optical system superimposes. Despite the high accuracy and other desirable features. The camera alternately tracks the satellite and then the star background. Optical tracking with BakerNunn cameras plays a gapfiller and calibration role for Space track. The latter condition means the site must be in darkness and the satellite target in sunlight. on the same strip of Cinemascope film.145. As a result. length with a field of view 50 by 300 . 1 0 Under favorable conditions. From the photograph the position (topocentric right ascension and declination) of the satellite can be accurately determined by comparison with the wellknown positions of the background stars. 2. Alberta. the instrument can photograph a 16th magnitude object.Sec. the BakerNunn data has certain inherent disadvantages. For a good photograph the weather must be favorable. and the lighting correct. seeing conditions must be good.400 miles. A BakerNunn satellite camera operated by the RCAF at Cold Lake. the image of a crystalcontrolled clock which is periodically illuminated by strobe lights to establish a time reference.
Several factors combine to make these fir stpass re siduals large .000 meters. Further .1 38 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Massachusett s .) Sensor errors themselve s contribute to the residuals. 2 usually impossible to get mor e than a few ob servations of the orbit at a desired point for any particular space craft . With all the radar trackers lo cated in the Nonhern Hemisphere . I I Most of the Spacetrack radar s can achieve pointing accuracies of 36 arcseconds. In any case . I I The mo st accurate angUlar fix is obtained from BakerNunn camera data. takes time. I 2 Unfortunately radar sensor s need almost constant recalibration to maintain the se accuracie s. Radial velocity uncertainties may b e a s low as 1 / 6 meter / sec . (A residual is the difference betwe en some orbital coordinate predicte d on the b asis of the preliminary orbital element s and the measured value of that coordinate . on the other hand . the B akerNunn cameras provide one of the few sources of data from the Southern Hemisphere and are extensively used for calibration o f the radar sensors in the Spacetrack net . while for tracking radars the uncertainty can vary from 1 00 to 500 meters depending on whether they u se pulse compression. For detection radars. 1 4 . for laboratory analy sis yield satellite positions accurate to 3 arcseconds. precise data reduction cannot be done in the field and . satellite position uncertainties can be as high as 5 . New Mexico site. in any case . Doppler rangerat e info rmation. 8 An intrack error o f this amount would make the satellite nearly 1 5 seconds early or late in p assing through a dete ction fan or the SPASUR fen ce . These uncertainties contrib ute 30300 meter s o f satellite prediction error . I I The 1 2 0·foot dish of the Millst one Hill tracker is good to 1 8 arcse conds. The radio interferometer te chnique (Minitrack . SPASUR) yields directional information accurate to 2040 seconds of arc and time of passage through the radio fence accurate to 24 millise conds. I 3 Another source of sensor inaccuracy is the uncertainty in the geodetic latitude and longitude of the tracking site . is relatively accurat e . . This would theoretically allow realtime analy sis of the tracking data and is under development at the Cloudcroft . 2 . One possibility of reducing the data pro ce ssing time is with an image orthicon detector coupled to the Schmidt tele scope by fiber o ptics. it is not surprising that the predicted po sition of a new satellite after one revolution can be in error by as much as 1 1 0 km. 4 Typical Sensor Errors. Onsite film reduction is accurate to o nly 30 seconds of arc b ut films sent to C ambridge .
lunar attraction. The persistant residue levels are due to departures from twobody orbital motion caused by the earth's equatorial bulge. 2. solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. Even if all sensor errors could be eliminated. more accurate models for the earth and its atmosphere are needed to reduce the residuals still further. Some of the most sophisticated instrumentation radar in the world is now operating or is scheduled for the radar complex at Kwajalein atoll in the Pacific. nonuniform gravitational fields. persistant residuals of about 5 km in position or 0.7 seconds in time would remain. Both TRADEX and Millstone Hill are called upon for Space track sightings although they are assigned to other projects.5 Future Developments.Sec 2. The RCA TRADEX instrumentation radar on Kwajalein. Although general and special perturbation techniques are used to account for these effects.14.146.14 TYPE AND LOCATION OF SENSORS 139 Figure 2. The TRADEX (Target Resolution and Discrimination Experiments) .
the laser is capable of providing real time tracking data more accurately than any other metho d . p. An improve d system planned for the early 1 970s is ALCOR (ARPALincoln C Band Ob servables Radar) . a continuousw ave . One of the most promising innovations in tracking is the use of laser technology. It is certain that solidstate cir cuitry will play an increasing role in surveillance and tracking systems. are required before a workable laser r adar system can be realized . Dopplertype laser radar that does not require a cooperative t arget is under development at MIT' s Lincoln Laboratory. but it also record s target tracks for later playback . In t he system under development . the t argetrefle cted laser b eam. While knowing the orbital element s of a satellite enab le s you to visualize the orbit and its orientation in the IJ K inertial reference frame . Many improvements . 1 5 A serious disadvantage of laser systems is that they only work in good weathe r . 1 4 The trend in future tracking radars seems to b e toward some form of electronicallysteered "agile beam" r ad ar . 2 system at Roi Namur is a highly sensitive 84foot tracker which operates in three radar b ands. providing test dat a on multiple targets at extreme range . Operating in the SHF b and .1 40 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R VAT I O N Ch . which is shifted in frequency by the moving targe t . it will provide extremely fine grain resolution data in both range and r angerate for the same type and complex of target s as TRADEX and ALTAIR . Now. is combined w ith a sample of the laser' s output producing a signal at the difference fre quency of the two mixed beams that is proportional to the range rate . it is often important to know what the ground track of a 2. Until recently most laser tracking systems required an optical refle c tor on the t arget satellite . This may take the form of a hybrid between the mechanicallysteered dish antenna and the fixed phasedarray configuration. howeve r . Not only can this r adar detect and track a numb er of targets simultaneously . The ALTAIR (ARPA LongRange Tracking and Instrumentation Radar) system is an advanced ver sion of TRADEX operating on two bands and featuring a larger ( 1 20foot) antenna and higher average power for extreme sensitivit y . of the target . 1 5 GROUND TRACK O F A SATELLITE . Theoretically .
F igure 2 . The arc CB which forms the • . 1 5 . For a retrograde orbit the most northerly o r southerly latitude on the ground track is i. 1 5 . 1 5 . 18cP  2 . respectively with a launch a zimuth . 1 5 .1 shows what the ground track would look like on a Mercator proj e ct io n . 2 Effect of Launch Site Latitude and Launch Azimuth on Orbit Inclination . One of the most valuable characteristics of an artificial earth satellite is its ability to pass over large portio n s of the earth' s surface in a relatively short t ime . {3 l The ground track of the resu t ing orbit cro sses the equator at a po int CJ. 1 5 2 . As a resu lt it has tremendous pot ential as an instrument for scientific or military surveillance .Sec. 20 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 141 Figure 2 . We can determine the effect of launch site latitude and launch azimuth on orbit inclinatio n by studying Figure 2 . Suppose a satellite is launched fro m point C o n the earth who se latitude and longitude are La and An. o f the orbit . at an angle equal to the orbital inclinat ion . The track of this plane o n the surface o f a nonrotating spherical earth is a great circle . If the earth did not rotate the satellite wo uld retrace the same ground track over and ove r . 1 Ground Track on a Nonrotating Earth . The orbit of an earth sate llite always lies in a plane passing through the center o f the earth. i. 2 ... Notice that the maximum latitude north o r south o f t h e equator that the satellite passes over is j u st equal to the inclination .1 Ground trace sat ellite is.
betwe en 00 and 1 80° . I nst ead o f retracing the same ground tr ack over and over a sat e llite i = . For a due east launch equat ion (2 .e . 1 5 · 1 ) There is a tremendous amo unt of interesting information concealed in this innocent·looking equat io n . The net effect of earth rotation is to displace the ground track westward on each succe ssive revolution of the satellite b y the number of degrees the earth turns during one orbital period . cos L o must alwa ys be po sitive . f3 ' should 0 be 90° . 0 i. this tells us that a satellite cannot be put dire ctly into an equatorial orbit ( i 0° ) from a launch site which is not on the equator . therefore . 2. For a direct orbit (0 < i < 9 0° ) co s i mu st be positive . i : c os i = . 90° for launch sit e s in the southern hemi sphere . 1 5 · 1 ) tells us that the o rbital inclination will be the minimum po ssib le from a launch site at latitud e . This is an expe nsive maneuver as we shall see in the next chapter . A direct orbit require s . 1 5 ·3 . Since L o can range betwe en 0° and 900 fo r laun ch site s in the northern hemisphe re and b etween 0° and .3 Effect of Earth Rotation on the Ground Track. . 1 5 . La and i will be precisely equal to L o ! Among o ther things . The Soviet Union is at a p articular disadvantage in t his regard be cau se none of its launch sites is clo ser than 45 ° to the equator so it cannot launch a sat ellite who se in clinat ion i s less than 45 ° . cos must be maximized which implies that launch azimuth . The orbital plane of a sate llite remains fixed in space while the e arth turns under the orbit . I o sf 1 9 0 0 s i n f3 0 cos L o (2 . Suppose we now a sk "what is the minimum orbital inclinatio n we can achieve from a launch site at latitude . If the Soviet s wish to e stablish an equatorial orbit it requires a plane change of at least 45 ° after the satellite is e stablished in it s initial orbit .c s 9 0 0 c o s f3 0 + cos i = s i n f3 0 c os L o . f3 ' be easterly . Since we know two angles and the included side of this tr iangle we can solve for the t hird angle . L o?" If i is to be minimized . that the launch azimuth. 2 third side of a spherical triangle is forme d b y the me ridian pa ssing through the launch site and subtend s t he angle L o at the ce nter of the earth. The result is illustrated in Figure 2 .1 42 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I ON F RO M OBSE R VATION Ch .
2 . It i s also d e si r a b l e i n manned spaceflight s to ove r fly the primary astro naut r e cove r y a r e a s at l e a st o n ce e a ch d ay . This i s a d e si r a b l e property fo r a r e c o n n aissance satellite where you w i sh to have it ove r fly a sp e cific target o n ce each day . 1 5 . Figure 2 . 1 5 G R O U N D T R AC K O F A SAT E L L I T E 1 43 Figure 2 .Sec. 1 53 W e stward d i sp l a ce m e n t o f ground trace due t o earth rotation . su r face . A global surveillance sate llite would have to be in a polar o r b i t to o ve r fly all of the earth' s axis ( 2 3 hrs 5 6 min) is a n exact mult iple o f the sate llite ' s p e r iod t h e n I f the t ime r e quir e d fo r o n e comp l e t e r o t a t io n of the earth on i t s eve n t u ally t h e sate llite will ret race exactly t h e same p a t h o v e r t h e earth a s i t d id o n i t s initial revo l u t io n .2 Effe ct of launch azimuth a n d l a titude on inclination eve ntually cove r s a swat h around the e a r t h b e t w e e n l a t it u d e s n o r t h a n d south o f the e quator e qu a l t o the i n clina t ion .
2 EXERCISES 2 . 885. i = 90° . Does it make a difference whether Colorado is on standard or daylight saving time? 2 . Colorado ( 1 04. = (partial answers : 2. 9 7 0 .1 44 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V A T I O N Ch . What was the lo cal sidereal time (radians) of Greenwich.7071 + . Which takes longer .2 v = Given r Determine the orbital eleme nt s and sket ch the orbit . e = .4 What wa s the Greenwich sidereal time in radians on 3 June 1 9 70 at 1 7 h OOm OO s UT? What is the remainder over an integer numb er of revolutions? (Ans. = u nd ef i ned ) = . What causes an apparent solar day to b e different from a me an solar day? c. Vo 1 73°) w Answer the following: a . Englan d . Obj ect is cro ssing the negative axis in a direct equatorial circular orbit at an altitude of A 1 DU. 1 7 1 48 7 radian s = GST) 2.7071 DU 1/2J DUlTU) p = 1 18 D U. at 0448 hours (local) on 3 January 1 970? d.89 0 W Lo ng) at that same time ? e .3 1 K DU = 11 DU/TU 1 DU. 1 Determine the orbital elements for an earth orbit which has the following position and velo city ve ctors: v r = (partial answers: a = 2. a solar day or sidereal day? b . J . What was the local sidereal time (radians) of the US Air Force A cademy .5 Determine by inspection if possib le the orb ital elements for the following obj ects (earth canonical units) : a .
Obj ect C departs from a point r = EX E R C I S E S y2 J   DU/TU. OBJECT A B P e DU 1K DU with local e scape v = V2 I 1 45 2 . c . Express the r and v ve ctor s for the satellite in the perifo cal i = 90 0 DU e W n = 1 800 Vo 0 = 900 Q 0 = 270 0 260 0 1 90 0 . 6 Radar readings determine that an obj e ct is locate d at with a velocity of (OAI 0 . 3<. (Answer [partial] e = . Qo = 270 0 ) C  DU/TU.) Determine p. (partial answer s : p = 8/9 .J + K ) ( DU e /T U e ) ro = in the geo centric equatorial coordinate system. 2 + b .7 A radar site reduces a set of observed quantitie s such that :  K (DU e ) 1 v o = "3 (I . e. 23 ' For the following orbital elements: e = . W = 1 04 ° 5 1 ) 2. u O ' n W vo ' Qo and the latitude of impact. . i .8 I J P = . 1. Obj e ct B departs from a point r = 1 K speed in the I direction. 82 u a .2K DU . Determine the orbital e lements. 2.8 2075 .Ch.
U se of a computer is sugge sted . LST = 63 . W. circular orbit at an altitude of 1 DU . the final rotation is 90 0 abo ut the third axis. 2 A basis I J K requires 3 rotations before it can be lined up with another basis UVW. What is the lo cal sidereal t ime ? (Ans.system along the unit ve ctor s P. b ut not nece ssary. 1 9 5 K) O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N 1 46 Ch . C alifornia . F ind the matrix required to transform a vector from the I J K basis t o the UVW b asis . p = 1 . the 2nd rotation is 600 about the second axis . makes an ob servation on an obj e ct at 2048 hours. 1 0 January 1 9 70. Explain why you would expe ct this to be so . Q.8 1 06 5 65 9 1 . equatorial . Units are earth canonical units. 2.060668 8 3 1 . b . b . Transform r = 2I J + 4K to the UVW basis . r2 1 .3 5 35 3995 0 1 . 1 2 Determine the orbital elements by in sp e ction for an obj e ct crossing the positive Y axis in a retrograd e . PST .7 6) .4 1 4202 0. r3 r l I J K 1 .4 1 4225 1 1 1 . 2. 9 A radar station at Sunnyvale . 2 . a.8 92 7 1 70 radians) 2 . By a suitable coordinate transformation t e chnique expre ss the r and v ve ctor s in the geo centric e quatorial sy stem in the I J K sy stem.3 1 065 1 5 0. 1 0 2. the 1 st rotat ion is 30 0 about the fir st axis . Site longitude is 1 2 1 . 1 7 1 . 1 3 8go  Determine the orbital elements of the following obj e cts using the Gibbs metho d . 6464495 a. Be sure to make all the test s since all the o rbit s may not be possib le . 1 1 The value s for for 1 9 68 through 1 9 7 1 given in the text cluster near a value of approximate ly 1 00 0 .4 1 42 2 5 11 (partial an swer : e = . (Answer : r = 1 .5 0 West .
207 1 25 5 1 .0 7 . fl f2 f3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f.0 1 .2K with a velo city o f AI .97 2 .5 65 6808 1 0.0 2 .0 0 .6 0.0 7 .9 1 42 3467 2 . fl f2 f3 d.6 0.2 EXE RCISES 1 47 b.094964 1 8 0.n Given the orbital elements for obj ects A .09497879 1 .0 0 2 .89497724 0 0 0 1 . . fl f2 f3 0 . fl f2 f3 3 .0 0 2 .94974 1 7 6 . 3K D etermine the orbital e lements of the orbit and the latitude of impact o f the obj e ct .97 0 1 .Ch. fl f2 f3 fl f2 f3 g.1 .1 5 0° 4° 1 10 ° 23 ° i undefined 1 8 0° 90 ° 60 ° 2 1 0° 260 ° 1 1 0° 260 ° II Q .0 0 .20709623 0 .62 1 34384 c.9 1 420062 4 .707 1 0 1 0 1 0.8 0 0 .0 2 .707 1 1 25 5 0.62 1 305 0 1 (partial answer : Straight line orbit · hyperbola with infinite e ccentricity) 1 .7 0 0 e.89497 879 0. 1 4  DU/TU. B . A BMEWS site determine s that an obj e ct is located at 1.5 35 5 28 1 3 0 .8 0 . DU * 2.0 1 . C and D fill in the blank to correctly complete the following statement s : OBJECT A B C D 309 90 ° 1 40 ° 1 60 ° * 2. 3 6 395 5 26 1 .565 6808 1 0 0 .
9 7 . d .620 1 I 0. ( A ns. ___ e. v = 0. __ __ has a line of nodes which coincides with the d . b. Obj ect c. * 2 . A r adar tracking site lo cated at 30 0 N . 2 a . 5 0 W obtains the following data at 0930 GST for a satellite passing directly overhead : *2. Transform the vector r into geocentricequatorial coordinates. Express the coordinates. Obj ect vernal equinox direction. Draw a sketch of the orbit and discu ss the orbit type . What is the velocity of the satellite relative to the radar site in terms of south.75 K D U /T U )  . Determine the velo city v in terms of geo centricequatorial coo rdinates. vector r in terms o f topocentrichorizon e. has a true anomaly at epoch of 1 8 00 . 1 6 A radar site located in Greenland ob serve s an obje ct which has components of the po sition and velo city vectors only in the K dire ction of the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. . Determine the rectangular coordinat e s of the obj e ct in the topo centrichorizon system. Obj ect __ has an argument of perigee o f 200 0 .17 p 0.1 D U A z = 30 0 EI = 900 = p=o Az = 0 EI = 1 0 R A D/TU a . Obj ect __ is in retrograde mot ion . Obj ect b .0078 J 0. east and zenith (up) component s? c. has its perigee south o f the e quatorial plane .1 48 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R O M O BS E R V AT I O N 0.
Pedro Ramon . November 1 9 67 . E scobal. Thomas Nelson and 3. 5 . C . Forest Ray . 1 9 1 4." Vol 48 . Edmond Halley . "Space Traffic Surveillance ." Pro ceedings of the lAS Sympo sium o n Tracking and Co mmand of New York . Institute of the Aero space S cience s . Academic Pre ss. 1 95 6 . Robert M . Mo tus (185 7) Th eory of the Mo tion of the Heavenly Bodies Mo v ing A bo u t the Sun in Con ic Sectio n s. 1 9 67 . S . Memo ires de 1 78 0 . G . 1 95 7 . "The BakerNunn Satellite Tracking Camera. C omentary on "An Ingenious Army Captain and on a Generous and Manysided Man . Navy Space Surveillance System. The M acmillan Company. C ambridge . Thoma s. Baker . 1 96 3 . New York . Jame s R ." Sky and Vol 1 6 . Paul G . Gauss. 2 1 49 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Second Revised Edition . 2 . 7 . 1 0 . L. Carl Friedrich. New York and London . 6. U. C leeto n . Inc. 1 965 .Ch. and A dvanced l' A cademie Roya le des Sciences de Paris . . 4. No 6 . Vol 3 . "The A erospace Vehicle s . Armitage . NY . 1 9 66. 9 . London . Me thods of Orb it Determinatio n . NY . Sky Publishing Corp . Newman . John Wiley & Sons. A s trodynamics: A pplicatio ns Topics . New York . K. Jr . A n Introductio n t o Celestial Mechanics . 8 ." in The World of Math ematics .1 1 1 . Sons Ltd . New York . Inc. New York . NY . A translation of Th eoria by Charles H. Dover Publications . D avis . 1 962. NY. Angus. Laplace . Pierre Simo n . Simo n and S chuster . Henize . E . pp 1 08 . Space/A ero na utics . Telescope . Mass. Moulton .
NY." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. Roger R.150 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M O B S E R V AT I O N Ch . Carson. Thomas J. Sunnyvale. USAF Academy. Gerald C. 1 962. New York. and Eller. Journal of Oct 2. 1 3 . 1 9 66. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. No 20 . 1 962. California." Satellite Control Facility." Department of Astronautics and Computer Science Report A702. No 5 . p 39 . 1 967 . "Aspects of Future Satellite Tracking and Control. "An Improved Approach to the Gibbsian Method. 1 4. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Davies. Institute of the Aerospace Sciences. Briskman. 1 5 . "NASA Ground Support Instrumentation. New York. Inc. "Future Radar Developments. Cheetham. 1 6. 1 966. Colorado. . Electronic . NY . Bate. NY. 1 966." Proceedings of the lAS Symposium on Tracking and Command of A erospace Vehicles. P. the A stronautical Sciences. S. Air Force Systems Command. Deep Space and Missile Tracking Antennas. 2 1 1 . 17. SepOct 1 967. Proceedings of a Symposium held Nov 27Dec 1 . New York . Vo1 40. R. Robert D . "Computerized Satellite Orbit Determination. McGrawHill. R. New York. 1 970. 1 2 . NY." The Vol 1 4.
and go on revolving through the heavens in those orbits just as the planets do in their orbits. The great pioneers of rocketryZiolkovsky. those bodies. Ley2 suggests that the absence of reliable telemetering techniques in the early 1 930s would explain tills oversight. energy and imagination to rocket 15 1 . the idea seems to have been forgotten. 1 0. or variously eccentric. according to their different velocity. and the different force of gravity in different heights. as of 5 .CHAPTER 3 BASIC ORBITAL MANEUVERS But if we now imagine bodies to be projected in the directions of lines parallel to the horizon from greater heights. ) 00 . or rather as many semidiameters of the earth. It very likely may have been Wernher von Braun or one of the others at Peenemundethe first place on earth where a group of people with spacetravel inclinations was paid to devote all their time . Who was the first to think of an unmanned artificial satellite after the concept of a manned space station had been introduced by Hermann Oberth in 1 923 still remains to be established. for the next 250 years. will describe arcs either concentric with the earth. Isaac Newton ! The concept of artificial satellites circling the earth was introduced to scientific literature by Sir Isaac Newton in 1 68 6 . It is a curious fact that these pioneers foresaw and predicted manned satellites but none of them could see a use for unmanned earth satellites. 1 . and Oberthwere the first to predict that high performance rockets together with the prinCiple of "staging" would make such artificial satellites possible. Goddard. After that .000 or more miles.
1 . The exact relationship between orbital altitude and satellite lifetime depends on several factors. 3 . 3 . In this chapter we will describe the methods used to establish earth satellites in both low and high altitude orbits and the techniques for maneuvering them from one orbit to another. After several Vanguard failures the von Braun team was at last given its chance and put up Explorer I on 1 February 1 9 5 8 . has largely been confined to regions of space very near the surface of the earth. His plan was to use a Redstone rocket with successive clusters of a small solid propellant rocket called "Loki" on top . still in its infancy . since it contemplated the use of military hardware . 3 The earliest plans to actually fire a satellite into earth orbit were proposed by von Braun at a meeting of the SpaceFlight Committee of the American Rocket Society in the Spring of 1 954. 1 Effect of Orbital Altitude on Satellite Lifetimes. 2 Walter Dornberger in his book V2 mentions that the discussions about future developments at Peenemiinde included the rather macabre suggestion that the spacetravel pioneers be honored by placing their embalmed bodies into glass spheres which would be put into orbit around the earth. Rather . The scheme was endorsed by the Office of Naval Research and dubbed "Project Orbiter." Launch date was tentatively set for midsummer of 1 95 7 . The reason for this is neither timidity nor lack of large booster rockets. However. Manned spaceflight . Vanguard I was finally launched successfully 1 � months later. to a very narrow region just above the earth's sensible atmosphere . Altitudes below 1 00 nm are not possible because of atmospheric drag and th� Van Allen radiation belts limit manned flights to altitudes below about 300 nm. 1 LOW ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS 1 52 BAS I C O R B I TA L MAN E UV E RS Ch . the Soviet Union successfully orbited Sputnik I . o n 2 9 July 1 95 5 . particularly if it is manned . the White House announced that the United States would orbit an artificial earth satellite called "Vanguard" as part of its International Geophysical Year Program. Project Orbiter. For circular orbits of a manned satellite about the size 3 . On 4 October 1 95 7 . was not considered appropriate for launching a "strictly scientific" satellite and the plan was shelved.research. the environment of nearearth space conspires to limit the altitude of an artificial satellite.
.. I DAY I M I S S I O N DU RAT I O N . � '" ....(/} � � (I) E � � .V'h WillI e: � .. ..J 10K 5K 2K 1 000 500 SAFE OPERATING REGION . . mJ77/1/. YEAR a YEARS . AST R O N A U T RADIATI O N TOL E R A N C E U N D E R A M I N I M U M O F POU N DS PER SQUARE FOOT O F S H I E LD I N G 200 100 50 . c c m m » ::0 I :I: o ::0 OJ I (I) _ ... ..J <t <J i= ::> <t z I ILl 0 ::> f i Ul ILl .EXCEPT FOR U N EXPECTED EVENTS sr.' � S' (1) 0 .///11// . VI/II � V � .. 20K (.rrrj. 11 L . .25 % � SOLAR CELL OUTPUT �////h R E D U CTI O N I N 00 � i" . (I) CD � ... I MONTH I ...H O URS WEEK .n w . 71. � .+ :=..50K �.: fiD It: 0 It: <t ...J ::> <J It: U 5 <t ��// � �� ��/h 'X« 4 �� V I "'EXPECTED WITH LI M I T FOR METEORO I D PUNCTURE I I I fI? " OF MEDI U M SIZED M A N N E D SPACE STATI O N S · 4 POU N D S P E R SQUA R E FOOT I N THE � � SHELL STRUCTU R E . c.... � ee. . ...rf/I/ ' » =i !:j i I I : ORBITAL FLIGHT DURAT I O N LI M ITAT I O N DUE TO ATMOSP H E R I C DRAG WITHOUT PROPULSION .::: 0(I) "" 20 10 .
a p ogee 1 00 n . stated. 3 of the Gemini or Apollo spacecraft. 1 . p er igee S ca l e 1 / 1 0 in = 200 n . Figure 3 . Figure 3 .2 Direct Ascent to Orbit.1 54 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E UV E R S Ch . The military potential of a low altitude satellite for reconnaissance is obvious from this sketch. 1 ·2 . It is possible to inject a satellite directly into a low altitude orbit by having its booster rockets burn 300 n . we have drawn one to scale in Figure · 3 . m . 1 2 Typical low altitude earth orbit . For elliptical orbits the limits are slightly different . m . 3 . m . The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit whose perigee altitude is 1 00 nm and whose apogee altitude is 300 nm is less than . but you should keep in mind that the perigee altitude cannot be much less than 100 nm nor the apogee altitude much greater than 300 nm for the reasons just . 1 .1 shows the limits imposed by drag . radiation and meteorite damage considerations.03 ! Because it is difficult to imagine just how close such an orbit is to the surface of the earth.
The first stage booster falls to the earth several hundred miles downrange but the final stage booster. there is very little clearance between the orbit and the surface of the earth . as you can see from Figure 3 .Sec. Any deviation from the correct burnout speed or flightpath angle could be catastrophic for. The injection or burnout point is usually planned to occur at perigee with a flightpath angle at burnout of 0 0 . 3 . 1 3 . The powered flight traj ectory looks something like what is shown in Figure 3 . The" vehicle rises vertically from the launch pad. 1 2 . may orbit the earth for several revolutions before atmospheric drag causes its orbit to decay and it reenters. The lower ballistic coefficient (weight to area ratio) of . The vehicle is not allowed to coast .or threeman vehicle into low earth orbit. since it has essentially the same speed and direction at burnout as the satellite itself. The pitch programa slow tilting of the vehicle to the desir e d flightpath anglenormally begins about 1 5 seconds after liftoff and continues until the vehicle is traveling horizontally at the desired burnout altitude.. It normally takes at least a twostage booster to inject a two. immediately beginning a roll to the correct azimuth. 1 LOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 55 f. between first stage booster separation and second stage ignition. The final burnout point is usually about 300 nm downrange of the launch point. 1 3 Direct ascent into a low altitude orbit continuously from liftoff to a burnout point somewhere on the desired orbit.!f? <I • _ Figure 3 .
1 4 Perturbative torque caused by earth's equatorial bulge The graVitational effect of an oblate earth can more easily be visualized by picturing a spherical earth surrounded by a belt of excess matter representing the equatorial bulge .1 56 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .3 Perturbations of Low Altitude Orbits Due to the Oblate Shape of the Earth . The two principal effects are regression of the lineofnodes and rotation of the lineofapsides (major axis). This torque will cause the plane of the orbit to precess just as a gyroscope would under a similar torque . successive ground traces of direct orbits are displaced westward farther than would be the case due to earth rotation alone. therefore. As a result. 3 . but for low altitude earth orbits the effects are not negligible . Note that for low altitude orbits of low inclination the rate approaches 9 0 per day . 1 4 the net effect of the bulges is to produce a slight torque on the satellite about the center of the earth. 1 5 . its centerofgravity is not coincident with its centerofmass. Nodal regression is a rotation of the plane of the orbit about the earth's axis of rotation at a rate which depends on both orbital inclination and altitude. The earth is not spherical as we assumed it to be and. 3 the empty booster causes it to be affected more by drag than the vehicle itself would be . 1 . The nodal regression rate is shown in Figure 3 . You . When a satellite is in the positions shown in Figure 3 . Figure 3 . If you are very far from the center of the earth the difference is not significant. The result is that the nodes move westward for direct orbits and eastward for retrograde orbits.
1 > .9 r�=r�rr."� ill Q rn o I � fS ..D E G R EES 1 50 140 1 30 120 � ������L�__L�����L�� � � W w 1 10 ro 80 1 00 90 9.2 ..J 8 1':::::=::"� z � � 0:: Z 0::  6 1=:::::*. 3 .J � 0 1 o Z O ���� o � 180 170 __ 160 O R B I TA L I N C L I N AT I O N .���� (DI R E C T ORBIT) E ASTWA R D IF O�BIT I N C lr l N AT I ON I S BETWEEN 90 A N D 1 80 +tI''''f'o<''""""� ( R E T R O G R ADE OR B I T ) rn w 0:: 0:: fS .Sec.5 ������+����4�� 4 F===t.�''' lOW A L T I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 57 8 0:: � g 7 r����r�+...:� 3 ���+��4���NODES M OV E : WESTWARD I F ORBIT I N C L I N AT I ON I S BETWEEN �AND 9d +�. 1 5 Nodal regression rate 4 " . "::> Figure 3 .
"' "' .. 1 6 ApsidaJ rotation rate 4 . I/) III III II: C) 5 III C I z 0 0 i= "' � 0 II: .1 58 25 20 15 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S P E R I G E E A L T I T U DE I S Ch . 3 100 NAUT I C A L M I L E S III 2 II: 1 0 III 0..J 5 "' C iii 0.J 0 I/) Z >"' C II: "' 10 0 180 30 1 50 60 120 90 OR B I T A L Figure 3 .
Q 360 ° per 90 days :.40 or greater than 1 1 6. Figure 3 .60 . 1 ) The given information is: = 500 n mi . 1 LOW A LT I T U D E E A R T H O R B I TS 1 59 should be able to look at Figure 3 . 1 6 shows the apsidal rotation rate versus inclination angle for a perigee altitude of 1 00 nl'll and various apogee altitudes.40 and 1 1 6. EXAMPLE PROBLEM . The rate at which the major axis rotates is a function of both orbit altitude and inclination angle. 1 5 i 50° h = = = Nodal regressi o n per day f�� 2. 3 . and oppo. completing one revolution every 90 days.N odal regressi o n per day � 40/day From Figure 3 . 1 4 and see why the nodal regression is greatest for orbits whose inclination is near 0 0 or 1 80 0 and goes to zero for polar orbits. With this perturbation .6 0 . The ascending node moves to the west . Therefore = .67 0 /day From Figure 3 . the maj or axis of an elliptical trajectory will rotate in the direction of motion of the satellite if the orbital inclination is less than 63. A satellite is orbiting the earth in a 500 nm circular orbit.6.site to the direction of motion for inclinations between 63 . What is the inclination of the orbit? b. a. It is desired that the ascending node make only one revolution every 1 35 days. The rotation of the line of apsides is only applicable to eccentric orbits. which also is due to oblateness. Calculate the new orbital inclination required if the satellite remains at the same altitude . 1 5 i :::::: 64° = = 2 ) It is desired to have � = 3 60 0 per 1 35 days.Sec.
for example . unmanned satellites can operate safely anywhere above 100 nm altitude. This is. Of course. This. For communications satellites this latter consideration can be all important.300 nm or about 5 . If you go high enough the period can be made exactly equal to the time it takes the earth to rotate once on its axis (23 hr 5 6 min).1 60 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch . 2 HIGH ALTITUDE EARTH ORBITS . 1 2 this would be 2*. 3 Figure 3 . There is much misunderstanding even among otherwise well informed persons concerning the . On the scale of Figure 3 . 2 .2. unfortunately. ground trace of a synchronous satellite. however. As you go to higher orbits the period of the satellite increases. is an illusion since the satellite is not at rest in the inertial IJ K frame but only in the noninertial topocentrichorizon frame .000 nm altitude . The reasons for wanting a higher orbit could be to get away from atmospheric drag entirely or to be able to see a large part of the earth's surface at one time .2 Launching a High Altitude SatelliteThe Ascent Ellipse. Figure 3. 1 The Synchronous Satellite. Launching a high altitude satellite is a twostep operation requiring two burnouts separated by a coasting phase . The first stage booster climbs 3 . of course. It might be able to detect missile launchings by their infrared "signatures. If the period of a circular direct equatorial orbit is exactly 23 hr 5 6 min it will appear to hover motionless over a point on the equator. 3 . Its usefulness as a reconnaissance vehicle is debatable. 3 . If the synchronous circular orbit is inclined to the equator its ground trace will be a "figureeight" curve which carries it north and south approximately along a meridian. Many think it possible to "hang" a synchronous satellite over any point on the earthRed China. The great utility of such a satellite for communications is obvious. This is the socalled "stationary" or synchronous satellite. Such a satellite would be well above the dangerous Van Allen radiation and could be manned.6 earth radii above the surface ." High resolution photography of the earth's surface would be difficult from that altitude. 1 .inches from the surface. The correct altitude for a synchronous circular orbit is 1 9 . The satellite can only appear to be motionless over a point on the equator.1 shows that to be safe fr o m radiation a high altitude manned satellite would have to be above 5 . not the case .21 shows why.
burn """ " " .Sec. . Satel l i t e a ea rth are shown at 3 hr. 3.. intervals . At apogee of the ascent ellipse.22 Ascent ellipse . This first burn places the second stage in an elliptical orbit (called an "ascent ellipse") which has its apogee at the altitude of the desired orbit.. reaching burnout with a flightpath angle of 45 0 or more. curve is \ " " . \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I / I / I I I I I I I Figure 3 . This burncoastburn technique is normally used any time the altitude of the orbit injection point exceeds 1 50 nm . Dot ted grou nd trace ...21 GroUnd trace of an inclined synchronous satellite ahnost vertically. ..2 H I G H A LT I TU D E EARTH O R B I T S 161 r I \ \ \ I ! I / /' 5 View looking down north polar axi s.� � Figure 3 ... the second stage booster engines are fired to increase the speed of the satellite and establish it in its final orbit.
33) or = da 2a2 vdv . a? v. 2vdv .1 62 B AS I C O R B I T A L M A N U EV E R S Ch .da a2 = fJ. and flightpath angle. (3. if a rendezvous is contemplated or if. 3 2) Suppose we decide to change the speed. 3 INPLANE ORBIT CHANGES v2 2 !!:. at appropriate points in the orbit.32) considering r as fixed an d in the velocity direction . (3 .3 .v (3.31) If we solve for '. we get (3 ..  fJ. In the next two sections we shall consider both small inplane corrections to an orbit . as they are called . it may be necessary to make small corrections in the orbit. 3 Due to small errors in burnout altitude . we get a change in . dv. We can find out by taking the differential of both sides of equation (3 . 3 . In Chapter 1 we derived the following energy relationship which is valid for all orbits: & = 3 . /:. Usually this is not serious. a very precise orbit is required. fJ. = _ r 2a . at a point in an orbit leaving r unchanged. but . for some other reason. This may be done by applying small speed changes or fslis. and large changes from one circular orbit to a new one of different size. What effect would this f:N have on the semimajor axis.34) For an infinitesimally small change in speed. 1 Adjustment of Perigee and Apogee Height. speed. the exact orbit desired may not be achieved.
Since we know r l . we could first make a direct ascent to a low altitude "parking orbit" and then transfer to a higher circular orbit by means of an elliptical transfer orbit which is just tangent to both of the circular orbits. suppose we make the speed change at perigee? The resulting But change in major axis will actually be a change in the height of apogee. 3 . Similarly. a2 6. The first recognition of this principle was by Hohmann in 1925 and such orbits are .V applied at apogee will result in a change in perigee 6. 4 Jl. 3 I N P LAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 63 height.v's applied at perigee and apogee as 2da. called Hohmann transfer orbits. the length of the orbit changes by twice this amount or Sec .34) for small but finite 6. We call the speed at point 1 on the transfer ellipse vl . We can specialize the general relationship shown by equation (3. Since the major axis is 2a. whose radius is rl . a 6. of the orbit given by equation (3 . In technical terms what we have just done is called "variation of parameters. Suppose we want to travel from the small orbit . Transfer between two circular coplanar orbits is one of the most useful maneuvers we have. therefore .1 .3. 2 The Hohmann Transfer. The least speed change required for a transfer between two circular orbits is achieved by using such a doublytangent transfer ellipse.V v P P (3. 5 Consider the two circular orbits shown in Figure 3. For example .semimajor axis.34). along the transfer ellipse. whose radius is r2 . we could compute vl if we knew the energy of (6. 3 .35) This method of evaluating a small change in one of the orbital elements as a result of a small change in some other variable is illustrative of one of the techniques used in perturbation theory." 3 .h a �  da.v) . It represents an alternate method of establishing a satellite in a high altitude orbit. to the large orbit.
t Hohmann transfer But from the geometry of Figure 3. 3 the transfer orbit.38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit.31 &. (3. its speed is .31 (3. 2at Figure 3 . &.37) We can now write the energy equation for point 1 of the elliptical orbit and solve it for Vi : (3. since p.1 64 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S 2 Ch ./2 a .36) = r i + r2 =  and.
w e went from a smaller orbit t o a larger one . For the transfer traj ectory. Minimum rp = 2 DU. 3 I N.V implies a Hohmann transfer . The speed change required to transfer from the ellipse to the large circle at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion . Find the minimum /::.Sec. The other po ssible transfer orbits between coplanar circular orbit s are discussed in the next section . Since lPt = 21TV<it3 /JL and we know <it. ra = 3 DU. i n our example . The only difference would be that two speed decrease s would be required instead of two speed increases. 3 . The time offlight for a Hohmann transfer is obviously j ust half the period of the transfer orbit . A communications satellite is in a circular orbit of radius 2 DU. to VI ' So .V required to double the altitude of the satellite . it also takes longer than any other po ssible transfer orbit between the same two circular orbits.P L A N E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 65 (3 .� D U 2 /T U 2 2a 5 /::. the same principles may be applied to a transfer in the opposite direction.39) To make our satellite go from the small circular orbit to the transfer ellipse we need to increase its speed from Vcs. I 6V I = VI • V CSl • (3.3.1 1) While the Hohmann transfer i s the mo st economical from the standpoint of /::'v required.1 0) (3 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . & t = � = . Although. .3.
1 66 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E RS Ch . Figure 3. I::.V1 = . We can express this condition mathematically as r = . Transfer between circular coplanar orbits merely requires that the transfer orbit intersect or at least be tangent to both of the circular orbits.32 that the periapsis radius o f the transfer orbit must be equal to or less than the radius of the inner orbit and the apoapsis radius must be equal to or exceed the radius of the outer orbit if the transfer orbit is to touch both circular orbits.313) .� r 1 1 +e p p (3.1 2) ra =  1 e _ p � r2 (3 .JfF"= .3.068 D U/TU V cs =. 3 V cs 1 = (il = .V2 = .VTOT == .3 General Coplanar Transfer Between Circular Orbits. I t is obvious from Figure 3 .707 DU /TU vi r.577 DU/TU r2 2 I::.346 ft/sec 3 . 1 29 DU/TU = 3.061 DU/TU I::.3.32 shows transfer orbits which are both possible and impossible .
respectively .I' l l  e ' )l2 p. �. ht.33) and interpret them graphically.3. I &. Suppose we have picked values of and e for our transfer orbit which satisfy the conditions above.3. Knowing and e. (3. We can plot these two equations (See Figure 3. 3 . To satisfy both conditions. and e of the transfer orbit must specify a point which lies in the shaded area. p p p  = . and the angular momentum.32 Transfer orbit must intersect both circular orbits where and e are the parameter and eccentricity of the transfer orbit and where r 1 and r2 are the radii of the inner and outer circular orbits. Orbits that satisfy both of these equations will intersect or a t least be tangent to both circular orbits. Since = a ( 1 if ) and & = p. Values of e) which fall on the limit lines correspond to orbits that are just tangent to one or the other of the circular orbits. / 2a .Sec. we can compute the energy. I mpossi ble ra �" < rz because Figure 3 .1 4) (3. in the transfer orbit. 3 I NPLAN E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 67 r < rl p Possi ble and because ra > ra I m po s s i b l e because rp > r.1 5) . p p (p.
33 P versus e rl p a r a m e te r .34 /::.39) The angle between v1 and va. 3 � I c CD o o CD � Q) t o Figure 3 . p r2.v required at point 1 We now can proceed just as we did in the case of a Hohmann trapsfer. we get (3.1 68 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . </>1 ' Since h = rv ros </>. its speed is (3 .38) Since our satellite already has circular speed at point 1 of the small orbit. __ Figure 3.. Solving the energy equation for the speed at point 1 in the transfer orbit . .1 is just the flightpath angle .
We can solve for the magnitude of b.1 'I' .34. 1 Simple Plane Change .4. 3 . together with the b. the b.41) 3.V using the law of cosines. To change the orientation of the orbital plane in space requires a b.V must be applied at one of the nodes (where the .310) when the flightpath angle .1 7) reduces to equation (3. 4 . Since the Hohmann transfer is just a special case of the problem illustrated above . we can use the law of cosines to solve for the third side .1 7) I f the object of the plane change is to "equatorialize" an orbit. b.4 O UTO FPLAN E O R B I T C H AN G ES 1 69 (3.V.V component perpendicular to the plane of the orbit.3.V2 = v 2 I 1 The speed change required at point 2 can be computed in a similar fashion. Or. as shown at the right of Figure 3 . assuming that we know v and e. then only the plane of the orbit has been altered . the speed and flightpath angle of the satellite are unchanged. after applying a finite b.V required. it is not surprising that equation (3 . The plane of the orbit has been changed through an angle . This is called a simple plane change. which lies in the plane of the orbit can change its size or shape . form an isosceles vector triangle. If. The initial velocity and final velocity are identical in magnitude and. or it can rotate the line of apsides. b. and obtain directly for circular orbits. e.1 . we can divide the isosceles triangle into two right triangles. since we know two sides and the included angle of the vector triangle shown in Figure 3. ¢l ' is zero. 3.Sec.V.V. more simply.31 6) Now. An example of a simple plane change would be changing an inclined orbit to an equatorial orbit as shown in Figure 3. (3 . b. (3.4 OUTOFPLANE ORBIT CHANGES + v2 CSl  2v 1 V CS l C OS ". A velocity change .41 .3.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM . Therefore . for example . It is desired to transfer supplies from a 0. calculate the additional b. Determine the total b. Large plane changes are prohibitively expensive in terms of the velocity change required . 3 Figure 3 .vrequired to accomplish the mission. a. b . Since it has no launch sites south of latitude 45 0 N .170 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S Ch .V equal to v! The Soviet Union must pay this high price if it wants equatorial satellites. DU circular orbit.41 Simple plane change through an angle e satellite passes through the equatorial plane). makes b. it cannot launch a satellite whose inclination is less than 45 0 . A plane change of 60 0 . a turn of at least 45 0 must be made at the equator if the satellite is to be equatorialized.1 DU circular parking orbit around the earth to a space station in a 4 DU coplanar circular orbit. Assume the plane change is performed after you have established the shuttle vehicle in a 4 .V required for the simple plane change necessary to accomplish the transfer. . If the space station orbit is inclined at an angle of 1 0 ° to the low parking orbit. The transfer will be accomplished via an elliptical orbit tangent to the lower orbit and crossing the high orbit at the end of the minor axis of the transfer orbit .
1 DU h 2 = 4 DU Therefore r = r + h = 1 .953 DU/TU L.Sec. The given information is: h I = 0.. v l = J2(& t + �) = jz( .Vl = 821 1 f t /see Since v and Vcs are not tangent 2 2  � 1 1 1 =' . 1 E9 ffi w 1 Since the transfer ellipse is tangent to the low orbit L.270. I t i s given that the transfer orbit intersects the high orbit at the end of its (transfer orbit) minor axis.Vl = V l .953 DU/TU 821 1 ft/see or L.V l 1 . 3.618 = 1 .1 TU 2 2a t 2r 2 2(5) .__ = .1 DU r2 = r + h 2 = 5 DU .4 O U TO F P lAN E O R B IT C H AN G E S 171 a. . Therefore at = r2 . 27 DU/TU Ves = v1C = 0.Ves l We need t o know &t for the transfer orbit. DU 2 1 Hence . & t = = �= . 1 +� 1 .1 = \1'1 .0.
31 7 + .626) = 0 . 1 5 DU/TU 6.3"1 7) v2 =vcS 2 :.317) to determine 6.626 vcs2 = V't.4 cos ¢2 = r 2hvt 2 = (5)(0.2v2 cs2 cos ¢2 0 .447 DU/TU 2 1 .V22 v.= 0 . 447)(.(0.4) (.042 ft/sec Therefore v = . 4 . 447 DU/TU 2 For the Student ? Why does From equation (3 . 3 87 . v2 = V2(& t + ¥) = 0. 2 + 0. 6.387 DU/TU = 1 0.447) 0.V2 = y'l'5= 0.V2 .2 . 3 and we must use equation (3.447) (.112 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E UV E RS Ch .253 ft/sec .704 DU/TU 18. + v�s2.2(.626) = 0.
V = 2v s i n !L 2 2 .4.Sec.078 v es s i n 2 5° = 2 ( . F o r a simple plane change use equation (3 . 3.4 O U T·O F ·P L A N E O R B I T C H A N G E S 1 73 b .447 ) ( .0873) = 2023 ft/se e D U /T U .1 ) t:::.
4 Refer to Figure 3 . What is the minimum 6. a plane change or an orbit transfer. 8 97 DU/TU) 3 . What would be the effect on the ground trace of a sychronous satellite if: a. 0. What sequence of orbit changes and plane changes would most efficiently place the lower satellite in the same orbit as that of the higher one? Assume only one maneuver can be performed at a time .1 74 BAS I C O R B I T A L M A N E U V E R S .e.5 b. c.3 Two satellites are orbiting the earth in circular orbitsnot at the same altitude or inclination.76.5 DU/TU.2 DU and 4 DU respectively. i. Your Service Module is in another circular orbit with a velocity of .V required to transfer between two coplanar circular orbits of radii r 1 = 2 DU and r.. 1 What is the inclination of a circular orbit of period 1 00 minutes designed such that the trace of the orbit moves eastward at the rate of 3 0 per day? 3. 3 . 1 1 DU and e = 0. i changedall other parameters remained the same. (Ans. lP < 2 3 hours 5 6 minutes.5 You are in a circular earth orbit with a velocity of 1 DU/TU. a.6 Determine which of the following orbits could be used to transfer between two circularcoplanar orbits with radii 1 .V needed to transfer to the Service Module's orbit? (Ans.5 DU .21 . 3 EXERCISES 3 .449 DU/TU) 3. = 5 DU respectively using a transfer ellipse having parameters p = 2. 3.2 Calculate the total 6. a = 2. Ch . e > O but the period remained 23 hours 5 6 minutes? b. r p = 1 DU e = 0. 0 .
At least 5 digits of accuracy are needed for this calculation. 9 Calculate the total l::. 34DU2 (fU d. 3 . (Ans. parameters for the ellipses are given by: r p 1 = 1 .V required to transfer between two coplanar elliptical orbits which have their maj or axes aligned.9 it is more economical to use the three impulse transfer mode . * 3 . P = 1.3 1 1 DU/TU) r P2 = DU 82 = .1 DU 8 1 = 0. 95 DU 8 = 0. 290 Assume both perigees lie on the same side of the earth. The . using Hohmann transfers.412 5 3 . 1 DU2 (fU2 h = 1 .56 c. 0 . Find the ratio between circular orbit radii (outer to inner) . orbit which could provide a continuous communications link between Moscow and points in Siberia for at least 1/3 to 1/2 a day .V required to make a Hohmann transfer from the 1 DU circular orbit directly to the 1 5 DU circular orbit . .7 3 . beyond which it is more economical to use the bielliptical transfer mode . 3 EX E R C I S E S 1 75 8 = 0. This is often referred to as a bielliptical transfer.Ch . C ompare this with the I::. 1 0 Note that in problem 3 . = 0. 5 & Design a satellite . 8 Compute the minimum I::.v required to transfer from a circular orbit of radius 1 DU to a circular orbit of infinite radius and then b ack to a circular orbit of 1 5 DU.
DC . 5 . New York . V2 . Space Planners Guide. Willy. and Space Travel. Headquarters. 4 . Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. The Viking Press. Rockets. Vol 2.. 1 95 5 . 1 . NY . The Viking Press. University of California Press. Dornberger. 1 9 60. Robert M . Berkeley and Los Angeles. Makemson. 3 LIST OF REFERENCES 2 .1 76 BAS I C O R B I TA L M A N E U V E R S Ch . Missiles. Air Force Systems Command . 1 96 1 . 2nd revised ed. Baker. 1 July 1 965 . 3 . Sir Isaac. L. 1 962. Washington . New York and London . Ley. A cademic Pre'ss. NY. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. . Newton . and Maud W. Walter . New York . Principia.
. For one must know an event before one can test a theory related to this event. if it were possible for the human spirit to accomplish it . of the heirs.. the determination of the true movement of the planets. or lack of circumspection.CHAPTER 4 POSITION AND VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME . or perhaps usurping them . The second problem lay in the question: What are the mathematical laws controlling these movements? Clearly. . I quickly took advantage of the absence. including the earth . . Recognizing the goldmine of information locked up in Tycho's painstaking observations. . presupposed the solution of the first. . by taking the observations under my care . . In a letter to one of his English admirers he calmly reported : " I confess that when Tycho died. This was Kepler 's first great problem. Albert Einstein ! 4 . 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The year Tycho Brahe died (I 60 1) Johannes Kepler. the solution of the second problem.2 1 77 . Kepler packed them up and moved them to Prague with him. was appointed as Imperial Mathematician to the Court of Emperor Rudolph II. . who had worked with Tycho in the 1 8 months preceding his death.
. "What matters to me. 1 . 4 pe r i he l i o n Figure 4 . When Christopher Columbus. trap or pitfall that he himself encountered. we not only forgive them. whole grand entertainment would be lost. He began by mak ing three revolutionary assumptions : (a) that the orbit was a circle with the sun slightly offcenter. The manner in which Kepler arrived at these two laws is fascinating and can be told only because in New A stronomy Kepler leads his reader into every blind alley. 2 Kepler selected Tycho's observations of M ars and tried to reconcile them with some simple geometrical theory of motion." Kepler points out in his Preface. "is not merely to impart to the reader what I have to say. Kepler immediately cleared away a vast amount of rubbish that had obstructed progress since Ptolemy . Kepler's first task was to determine the radius of the circle and the aphe l i o n  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .1 Kepler first assumed circular orbit with the sun offcenter. and lucky hazards which led me to my discoveries. and (c) that Mars did not necessarily move with uniform velocity along this circle.1 78 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y Kepler stayed in Prague from 1 601 to 1 6 1 2. but would regret to miss their narration because without it the . . detour. I + . (b) that the orbital motion took place in a plane which was fixed in space. It was the most fruitful period of his life and saw the publication of A stronomia Nova in 1 609 in which he announced his first two laws of planetary motion. but above all to convey to him the reasons. Magelhaen and the Portuguese relate how they went astray on their j ourneys. Thus. subterfuges.
never noticing his error. His results. But then without a word of transition. but faster or slower according to its distance from the sun. again incorrectly . 1 H I STO R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D 1 79 direction of the axis connecting perihelion and aphelion. Forgetting his earlier resolve to abandon circular motion he reasoned . His results showed that the e arth did not move with uniform speed . the line j oining the sun (which was offcenter in the circle) and the planet swept out equal areas in the orbit in equal times. prick your ears. Others might have shrugged off this minor disparity between fact and hypothesis. Before Kepler could determine the true shape of Mars' orbit. perihelion and aphelion. in the next two chapters Kepler explains. Kepler absentmindedly put down three erroneous figures for three vital longitudes of Mars. Moreover. . he had to determine precisely the earth's motion around the sun. . without benefit of any preconceived notions. as it were. at the extremums of the orbit (perihelion and aphelion) the earth's velocity proved to be inversely proportional to distance. for now we are going to invade your territory." He was convinced that there was "a force in the sun" which moved the planets. He decided that the sacred concept of circular motion had to go . were nearly correct because of several mistakes of simple arithmetic committed later in the chapter which happened very nearly to cancel out his earlier errors. At the very beginning of a whole chapter of excruciating trialanderror calculations. with the warning: "Ye physicists. It is to Kepler's everlasting credit that he made it the b asis for a complete reformation of astronomy.Sec 4. At this point Kepler could contain himself no longer and becomes airborne. there was a discrepancy of 8 minutes of arc. almost with masochistic delight. At the end he seemed to have achieved his goal of representing within 2 arcminutes the position of Mars at all 1 0 oppositions recorded by Tycho. how two other observations from Tycho's collection did not lit. yet he made the patently incorrect generalization that this "law" held true for the entire orbit. What could be more beautifully simple than that the force should vary inversely with distance? He had proved the inverse ratio of speed to distance for only two poin ts in the orbit. For this purpo se he designed a highly original method and when he had finished his computations he was ecstatic. since speed was inversely proportional to distance . however. This was the first of the critical mistakes that would cancel itself out "as if by a miracle" and lead him by faulty reasoning to the correct result. that.
. but analytical geometry came after Kepler. a kind o f snowblindness seemed t o descend upon him : he held the solution in his hands but was unable to see it. . He had . " Finally. with the narrow end at the perihelion and the broad end at aphelion. He was able to express the distance from the sun by a simple mathematical formula: but he did not recognize that this formula specifically defined the orbit as an ellipse.180 POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O f: T I M E Ch . .2 Finally. 2 The correct result is even more miraculous than Kepler realized since his explanation of why the errors cancelled was also erroneous! Kepler now turned again to . 1 2 Kepler's law of equal areas This was his famous Second Lawdiscovered before the Firsta law of amazing simplicity.. Any student of analytical geometry today would have recognized it immediately . 4 Figure 4 . On 4 July 1 6 03 he wrote a friend that he was unable to solve the problem of computing the area of his oval. as I shall prove further down . the problem of replacing the circle with another geometric shap e . he settled on the oval. but "if only the shape were a perfect ellipse all the answers could be found in Archimedes' and Apollonius' work. But a very special oval : it had the shape of an egg. arrived at by a series of faulty steps which he himself later recognized with the observation : "But these two errorsit is like a miraclecancel out in the most precise manner. after struggling with his egg for more than a year he stumbled onto the secret of the Martian orbit. As Koestler 2 observe d : "No philosopher had laid such a monstrous egg before.
That is to say. mine] . what a foolish bird I have been! 2 In the end. hypothesis. but he did not realize that he had reached it ! He tried to construct the curve represented by his equation.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y 181 reached his goal. .: which was introduced by Kepler in connection with elliptical mbits. in a moment of despair. Although he was not aware that parabolic and hyperbolic orbits .. came when. Ah..y it should move in an orbit at all. I thought and searched.e . Kepler threw out his equation (which denoted an ellipse) because he wanted to try an entirely new hypothesis : to wit·. . . Kepler timeofflight equation in much the same way that Kepler did. are one and the same . an elliptic orbit ! When the orbit fit and he realized what had happened. Kepler was able to write an empirical expression for th. 4. have persisted to this day. . .. which I had rejected . I laid [the original equation] aside and fell back on ellipses. whereas the two . .' " . and velocity and the timeofflight. de rive the . and ended up with a "chubbyfaced" orbit. : .!i ready familiar with the term "true anomaly" used to describe the angle from periapsis to the orbiting object measured in the directiop dmo ti on. disguising itself to be accepted. witl1 the penefit of hindsight and concepts introduced by Newton. for a reason why the planet preferred an elliptical orbit [to .2 T I M EO F . along w�th th� naples he used to describe them. We will then turn our attention to the solution of what has come to be known as "the Kepler problem"predicting the future position and velocity of an orbiting object as a function of some known initial position .and chased away. . he frankly confessed: "Why should I mince my words? The truth of N ature. In this section we will encounter a new term called "eccentric apotIialy'. . time offlight of a planet from one point in its ' orbit to anotheralthough he still did not know the true reason wb. In this chapter we will. return e d by stealth through the backdoor. . until I went nearly mad.2 TIMEOFFLIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ECCENTRIC ANOMALY . but he did not know how. Many of the concepts introduced by Kepler. You: are . believing that this was a quite different . The climax to this comedy of errors.Sec 4. made a mistake in geometry.F L I G HT . In doing this we will introduce one of the most recent advances in the field of orbital mecharticsa universal formulation of the timeofflight relationships valid for �U c oni� orbits.
We will pursue a lengthier.2. It is possible to derive timeofflight equations analytically. The universal variable approach is strongly recommended as the best method for general use . ''"'''"'. say from periapsis to some general point. This derivation is presented more for its historical value than for actual use . i.. but more motivated.l .1 ) i s the area � . We have already seen that in one orbital period the radius vector sweeps out an area equal to the total area of an ellipse.182 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TY . using only the dynamical equation of motion and integral calculus. The geometrical construction illustrated in Figure 4. In going part way around an orbit. the concept can be extended to these orbits also as we shall see. ''' The only unknown i n equation (4. the radius vector sweeps out the shaded area.. (4. I Because area is swept out at a constant rate in an orbit (Kepler's Second Law) we can say that Ll = 7T1P ab where T is the time of periapsis passage and p 1P is the period.22 will enable us to write an expression for A I ' Figure 4 .2. where the true anomaly is v . A ' in Figure 4. P. derivation in which the eccentric anomaly arises quite naturally in the course of the geometrical arguments. 1 TimeofFlight on the Elliptical Orbit ..e .2 .A F U N CT IO N O F T I M E Ch ...21 Area swept out by r . 4 existed .'''''1 per iapsis ' ''''.2. 4.1 ) . 7T a b .
 \/2 a2 _ . A dotted line . The angle is called the eccentric anomaly. 22 Eccentric anomaly.E C C E N T R I C A N O M A L Y y E a = a rea 1/2 QOY at 1 83 b A circle of radius a has been circumscribed about the ellipse. Before proceeding further we must derive a simple relationship between the ellipse and its auxiliary circle .Sec 4 . From analytical geometry. E E Circle : .Z x2 + . 2 T i M EO F .F L I G HT . perpendicular to the major axis. the equations of the curves in cartesian coordinates are : Figure 4 .l. has been extended through P to where it intersects the "auxiliary circle" at Q.
we can write : Al A2 = Area P SV  A2 . sin = Area ' PSV is the area under the ellipse . It Tollows directly from equation (4. Y circle Y ellipse = 12 a Y circle = V/a 2  x2 (4 .a E) . Area QSV is the corresponding area under the auxiliary circle . Figure 4 � 22 we note that the area swept out by the radius vect �r is . it is b ounded by the dotted line and the maj or axis. oos E and whose (4. A2 . 4 Hence .�rea PSV minus the dotted area. From This simple relationship between the vordinates of the two curves will play a key role in subsequent area and length comparisons. .22) Since A2 is the area of a triangle whose b ase is altitude is b/a (a E ) .22) that a � (e sin E cos E sin = ae .From which 1 84 POSIT I O N A N D V E LOC I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .23) Area P SV � (Area QSV ) v QS V .
27) reduces to (4. Kepler introduced the definition M = It .e si n Ai yields E) .1 ) and expressing the period as 21T � ' . cos v a a(1 e 2 ) equation Since r = + e cos v .2 . v. Obviously ." then the mean anomaly may be written : M = n (t  T) = E .Sec 4.22.F L I G H T .e si n E ) I (4.E CC E N T R I C A N O M A LY 1 85 The Area OSV is just the area of the sector QOV . we must be able to relate the eccentric anomaly.27) (4.26) which is often referred to as Kepler 's equation .T = 4 ( E .2 T I M EO F . Hence Area PSV = ab ( E 2 � cos E si n E ) .we get � ( E . cos E = e + cos v 1 + e cos v cos E = ae + r  (4." If we also use the definition where n is called the "mean motion. Substituting into the expression for area Ai = a Finally. E. whose base is (a CDS E).28) . From Figure 4.e sin E (4. which is 1 /2 a 2 E (where E is in radians).25) where M is called the "mean anomaly.24) E . to its corresponding true anomaly.24). substituting into equation (4. minus the triangle . and whose altitude is (a si n E ). in order to use equation (4.e si n E (4.
we can say that t .( Eo  E) (4. At this point it is instructive to note that this same result can be llerived analytically. Provided the object does not pass through periapsis enroute from Vo to V (Figure 4.[ 2kn + (E . E Figure 4 .T) .to = ( t . In this case the eocentric anomaly appears as a . If the obj ect does pass through periapsis (which is the case whenever Vo is greater than v) then .24 right.T) . In general we can say that t  to = 4.T ) .e Sin .( t o . when v is between o and n.T o ) . + t .28).24 Timeofflight between arbitrary points Suppose we want to find the timeofflight b etween a point defined by Vo and some general point defmed by v when the initial point is not periapsis.29) e sin Eo ) ] where k is the number of times the object p asses through periapsis enroute from Vo to v. The correct quadrant for is obtained by noting that v and are always in the same halfplane . so is 1 86 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .(to . from Figure 4.to = lP (t .24 left).Eccentric anomaly may be determined from equation (4. 4 E E.
Sec 4.1 3) (4.+ COS (4.J1=82 d E (4.  si n E ( 1 + COS si n COS E ) T)  COS .1 5) p Er dE h(t V 1 8 2 f0 Qa 1 Qa.7 . From equations in section 1 .E CC E NT R I C A N O M A L Y 1 81 convenient variable transformation to permit integration. we obtain v a y'17" sin E r r = a(1 .1 1) = = 8 8 COS  COS E E  (4.2 T I M EO F.2. Only the skeleton of the derivation will be shown here .8 E ) dE (4.82 f: ( 1 .21 6) V 1 .1 0) Now let u s introduce the eccentric anomaly as a variable change to make equation (4.8 E ) COS dv then v (18 8 v) d E Sinn vE ((p/r ) si ria) a.82 ( E .1 2) (4.8 si n E ) V r .1 1 ) easily integrable .F L I G H T .21 2).2 we can write or t hdt =IV r2 dv i T 0 (4.2.2.2.T) jv (1 p2dv8 v) 2 = 0 .2.2.2.28) and geometry the following relationships can be derived : COS V h(t .1 4) sin Differentiating equation (4. From equation (4. .
1 88
since
h = vJiP
(t
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY
I
which is identical to the geometrical result . 4.2.2 TimeofFlight on Parabolic and Hyperbolic Orbits. In a similar manner, the analytical derivation of the parabolic timeofflight can be shown to be

T)
=
.jf ( E  8 sin

A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
E)
(4.2 4)
t t
or �
__ __ __
where
[ P O + � 0 3]1 ,  2 � [(PO � )  (P DQ � Dt) 1
T =
�______�____________________
�
tan
(4. 2 1 7)
tQ =
D= y'P
f
+
0
3
+
(4.2 1 8)
o is the "parabolic eccentric anomaly." From either a geometrical or analytical approach the hyperbolic timeofflight, using the "hyperbolic eccentric anomaly," can be derived as
F,
or
 � t o j
t
T
=
Il
(8
sinh F  F) si n h F  F ) (8 sinh F
v
V
(4.2 1 9)
t
=
(a) 3 [ (8 Il
8+ 1 +8 o
for y = cosh F . Whenever v i s between 0 and should b e taken as positive ; whenever v is between and should be taken as negative . . Figure 4 .25 illustrate s the hyp erbolic variables. or
F = l n y + ..j y 2
[
 1]
cos
cs

0

F0 ) ]
(4.2 20)
(4.22 1 )
7r 27r, F 7r, F
Sec 4.2
T I M EO F F L I G H T  E CC E NT R I C A NOMA LY
1 89
y
F
=
area coy 1 / 2 a'L
����llli���� X o ,_ a 1+ ae H
Figure 4.25 Hyperbolic eccentric anomaly, t
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A space probe is in an elliptical orbit around the sun. Perihelion distance is .5 AU and aphelion is 2.5 AD. How many days during each orbit is the probe closer than 1 AU to the sun? The given information is :
r p = 0.5 AU , ra = 2.5 AU r1 = 1 AU , r2 = 1 AU
Since the portion of the orbit in question i s symmetrical, . we can compute the time of flight from periapsis to point 2 and then double it.
From eq. ( 1 .7 4)
e = ra +r p
1 90
POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
From eq. ( 1 .7 2
)
a
=
rp 2
_
+ ra
3
2
e+cosv 2 c o s E 2 = "1 +ecos v 2
E 2 = 600 = 1 . 048
1 =2
rad ians, sin E 2 = . 866
From equation (4.29)
t2
_T=
) 1 .5) 3
1
[ 1 . 048  � ( ' 866 ) l = 0 . 862 T U t:\ ( 58 . 1 33 D S ) = 1 00 T o
3
Q
TO F = 1 . 7 24 T U 0
�Y
days
4.2.3 Loss of Numerical Accuracy for NearParabolic Orbits. The Kepler timeofflight equations suffer from a severe loss in computational accuracy near = 1 . The nature of the difficulty can best be illustrated by a numerical example : Suppose we want to compute the timeofflight from periapsis to a point where V = fiP on an elliptical orbit with a = 1 00 D U and e = 0.999 . The first step is to compute the eccentric anomaly. From equation
e
. cos E = 1 +999 + ( ..5 ) = .99967 . 999 5 Therefore E = 0.02559 , sin E = 0.02560 and (e sin E ) = 0.0255 7 . Substituting these values into equation (4.24), 3 t  T = j 1 00 ( . 02559  . 02557 ) 1
(4 .28),
= 1 000 ( . 00002) = . 02 T U
Sec 4.3
numbers in the last step . As a result, the answer is totally unreliable . This loss of computational accuracy near e 1 and the inconven ience of having a different equation for each type of conic orbit will be our principal motivation for developing a universal formulation for timeofflight in section 4.3 .
=
E when There i s a loss o f significant digits in computing E from E is near zero . There is a further loss in subtracting two nearly equal
U N I V E R SA L FO R M U LAT I O N  T I M EO F  F L I G H T
191
cos
The classical formulations for time offlight involving the eccentric anomalies, E or F, don't work very well for near parabolic orbits. We have already seen the loss of numerical accuracy that can occur near e in the Kepler equation . Also, solving for E or F when a, e, /J0 and t are given is difficult when e is nearly 1 because the tria1anderror solutions converge too slowly or not at all. Both of these defects are overcome in a reformulation of the timeofflight equations made pos sible by the introduction of a new auxiliary variable different from the eccentric anomaly. Furthermore, the introduction of this new auxiliary variable allows us to develop a single timeofflight equation valid for all conic orbits. The change of variable is known as the "Sundrnan transformation" and was first proposed in 1 9 1 2. 6 Only recently, however, has it been used to develop a unified timeofflight equation . Goodyear 7 , Lemmon 8 , Herrick 9 , Stumpff 1 0 , Sperling l l and Battin 3 have all pre sented formulae for computation of timeofflight via "generalized" or "universal" variables. The original derivation presented below was sug gested by Bate 1 2 and partially makes use of notation introduced by Battin. 4.3 . 1 Definition of the Universal Variable , x . Angular momentum and energy are related to the geometrical parameters p and a by the familiar e quations:
4.3 A UNIVERSAL FORMULATION F O R TIMEOFFLIGHT
to
1
= 
8. = Y2 V 2

I::!:. = :1:!:....
If we resolve v into its radial component , r, and its transverse com ponent, rv, the energy equation can be written as
r
2a
.
1 92
POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
Figure
Solving for 'r 2 and setting ( r �) 2 .
Since the . solution of this equation is not obvious, we introduce a new ind , p' d'nt ' " � defID,d "
First we will develop a general expression for r in terms of divide equ ation (4. 3 1 ) by equation (4. 3 2) squared, we obtain
.
� : ;;
r2 r
X == ,
,
. � 2 = .:EJ2..+ �_ �
4 .31 Radial and transverse components of velocity vector, V
a'
== 02 2
r
, we get (4.3  1 )
..
'r
' _
"
x
(4.3 2) If we
(§tY
==
p + 2r
� .
(4.33)
Separating the variables yields For e =1= cO' is
dx. .'!:::, Jp +dr r2 fa . 2rx +. c 0
1 the indefinite integral, calling the constant of integration = /asin  1 ( rfa  1 ) v' 1 pia
v a
Sec 4.4
T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L E M
1 93
But
p = a{1
+
e = y' l  p/a and we may write x C o = Va si n 1 ( ria e
 e 2 ) , so

Finally , solving this equation for r gives r
 1)
= a
{1
+
e si n x + C o
+
Va
(4.3 4)
Substituting equation (4.34) into the definition of the universal variable , equation (4.32), we obtain
C = ax  ae Ja (c o s x C o  c o s � ) Va Va at t = o . where we assumed x =
VIi t
+ 0
Vii dt
= a
(1
+
e si n x C o ) dx
Va
(4.3 5)
At this point we have developed equations for b oth r and t in terms of x. The constant of integration, co ' has not been evaluated yet. Appli cation of these equations will now be made to a specific problem type.
4 . 4 THE PREDICTION PROBLEM With the Kepler timeofflight equations you can easily solve for the timeofflight , t  to ' if you are given Vo and v. The inver se problem of finding v when you are given Vo and t t is not so simple, as we o shall see . Small4 , in An A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of Kepler, relates: "This problem has, ever since the time of Kepler , con tinued to exercise the ingenuity of the ablest geometers; but no solu tion of it which is rigorously accurate has b een obtained. Nor is there much reason to hope that the difficulty will ever be overcome . . . " This problem classically involves the solution of Kepler's Equation and is often referred to as Kepler's problem. 4.4. 1 Development of the Universal Variable Formulation. The pre diction problem can be stated as (see Figure 4.4 1 ) :
a, e,
a, e,

1 94
POSI T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
r,
Find :
We have assumed x == 0 at t == O. From equation (4.34)
v at time t.
..;a
o C  ==
Ch . 4
e S .i n
Now differentiate equation (4. 34) with respect to time :
==
r
.illL
Applying the initial conditions to equation (4 .42) and using the identity ror r r , we get ro " Co e COS Va == YJi.8 (4.43)
==
va
C Os ( X
a [ ]#.
r
a
 1.
)
(4 .4 1 )
va
+ co
(4.42)
r
va
Using the trig identity for the cosine of a sum we can write equation (4.35) as
v'Ji t
Si. n
x
==
c Co  SI I'1 Va .sL...  COS ::::. va
ax  ae Va OS � \ Va
.
!c
va . ya v'ii
Then substituting e quations (4 .4 1 ) and (4 .43) and rearranging :
)
v'Ji t
==
a (x
r  va si n �) + o '
va
a
(1
 cos �)
(4.44)
va
In a similar fashion we can use the trig identity for the sine of a sum to rewrite equation (4.3 4) as
r ==
a
+
ae
c c ( s i n � c o s fL + c o s � s i n fL) . (4.45)
va
va
va
va
4.4
1 95
Given : fO ' Vo ' t to

Find: f, v
SUb sti u n
At this point let us introduce another new variable # 2
z
: : : : : [�:� � :: � : (:4;�W'
q a ' v
Va
d
a
;; 'cos
Va
Then
= �. a 2 a=�
z
,,]
Equation
y'il t = t
viz
(4.44)
(4.46) 4 . 4  7) (
then becomes
( x _ � si n ylz)
y'z
fo o + ·V
y'il
�2 ( 1  co s y'z )
+ r o � si n vlz
1 96
POSI T I O N A N D V E L O C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E
Ch . 4
which can be rearranged as
(4.48)
Similarly equation (4.46) becomes
r
=
These equations are indeterminate for z O. To remedy this we will in troduce two very useful functions which can b e ex ressed as a series: �' 2 3 1 (z) == 1  c o s v Z 1  c o sh ,U _ L + L  L +
=
+
r0
x Z
2
fO' X + Vii O AT si n .JZ' V
2
(4.49)
C OS Vz  � c o sJZ.
C
z
=
=
� (_z ) k
z·
=
2! 4!
_
_
6! 8!
S(z)  ,5  s i.I'l)/Z ..fi3
K=O
�
(2k+2) !
=
sinh ,U g vrzr

(4.4 1 0)
,
= __ _ L + �  � + 1 3! 5! 7! 9!
.
. . .
=
The properties o f these functions will be discussed in a later section. Using these functions equations (4.48) and (4.49) become
(2k +3) ! k o
=
�
� (_z) k
(4.4 1 1 )
(4.4 1 2)
the t vs x curve is wellbehaved and a Ne:wton iteration technique may be used successfully to solve for X when timeof·flight is given. An intermediate step to fmding the radius and velocity vectors at a future time is to find x when time is known .1 4) x_ E l l i pse Is where 70 H yperbola Is where r. we cannot get it by itself on the left of the equal sign . a trialanderror solution is indicated. 'Ii t n vfil = fO·VO x2 C n + where t n is the timeofflight corresponding to the given fa. 4.4 4. Figure 4. C and S should have a subscript of n also because they are functions of the guess of xn . But now we have a problem. Equation (4 . In one sense . Fortunately .42 Typical t vs x plots perigee not p e r i g e e .4. From and the energy equation you can obtain the semimaj or axis.4.1 3) ro va v t" . If we let to = 0 and choose a trial value for xcall it x n' then r = yf"ii Ql = X 2 C + dx TH E P R E D ICTION P R O B L E M 1 97 # rO·vO x (1  zS) + r0 ( 1  z C ) . Therefore .4.1 2) is transcendental in x.2 Solving for x When Time is Known . ( 1 . va' a and the trial value of x. a. (4 .47) has been used to eliminate z. since equation (4.Sec 4.aro ) x3 S n + r a xn (4.
we must then calculate the corresponding and v.41 7) dx VIi _ _  l fO ' When the difference between t and tn becomes negligible. and A and B are not colinear.1 8) Differentiating this expression gives (4. 4 . With x known.1 5) where t is the given timeofflight.41 6) yields Vo ( 1 VJI Q.1 = x 2 C + x . 1 dt r (4. Knowing x we now wish to calculate the and v i n terms of f0' v0 and x. (4. An analytical expression for the slope may be obtained directly from the definition of x in equation (4. 4 A better approximation is then obtained from the Newton iteration algorithm x n + 1 = x n + dt/dx I x=x n (4 .z S ) + r0 ( 1 z C ) .4.4. and where dt I d x x = x is the slope n of the t vs x curve at the trial point.fii Note that the slope of the t vs x curve is directly proportional to r. the iteration may be terminated. the four vectors fO ' (4.3 The f and 9 Expressions. Substituting for r in equation (4.4. Since Keplerian motion is confined to a plane. Some typical plots of t vs x are illustrated in Figure 4 .41 9) .A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .32). To do this we will now develop what is called the f and 9 expressions in terms of x and z .1 98 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y . xn . B and C are coplanar vectors.42. it will be minimum at periapsis and maximum where r is maximum. In determining this relationship we will make use of a fundamental theorem concerning coplanar vectors: If f f V0 ' r and v are all coplanar. it is pos sible to express C as a linear combination of A and B. Thus A.41 6) dx x .
if you know any three you can determine the fourth from this useful identity. g.4. We can isolate the scalar ..420) This equation shows that f . x.4.1 9) gives Sec 4 .tg Since r = X p + Y Q and V o w w . the left side of the O .1 8) by crossing the equation into v o: r Equating the scalar components of h on b oth sides of the equation yields h .. g . we will derive an interesting relationship between f..4. = fg.1 8) into equation (4. Crossing equation (4.. in equation (4. We will now develop the f and 9 expressions in terms of perifocal co ordinates. f. First. f and 9 are not independent. t and 9 are time dependent scalar quantities. The main pur pose of this section will be to determine expressions for these scalars in terms of the universal variable .. however.. equatIOn b ecomes r x = Xw p + Yw Q. O P Q W Vo = X w Y w Xw Y w 0 o 0 0 .. g .4 TH E P R E D I C T i O N P R O B L E M 1 99 (4.where f. f and g...
Xw .34) and (4.424) To get the f and 9 expressions in terms of x.a l e + Sln Y. (4.e2 )  r .X w0 Yw 0 f= A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .r Since YW 2 = r 2 x "2 W _ . x + Co cos v = .426) .1 8) : 9 in a similar manner by crossing ro into equation To obtain f and 9 we only need t o differentiate the expressions for f and 9 (or we could cross r O into equation (4. .4.1 9) to get 9 and then cross equation (4.w o Yw h (4. we need to relate the perifocal coordinates to x.425).1 9) into 'vo to get f): f = Xw . x wYw . yw x .4.42 1 ) We can isolate (4. (4. 4 h (4.4.425) Combining equations (4.423) (4. From the standard conic equation we obtain re c os v _ = a ( 1 . . o .E 200 POSI T I O N AN D V E LOC I T Y uating the scalar components of W and solving for f . ) .
.. e quation (4. ro .43 0) 0 1 f C a = .(e sin � + cos � )......429) Substituting equations (4.a Va 2 = 1 9. 4 T H E P R E D I CT I O N P R O B L EM 201 we obtain yW = a � cos  x + Co Va 0 (4.Sec 4 ..4. x + co h = .427) and using the definition of the universal variable ... r.32). \�� cos � a yI'17 c o s x + c ro v a __  f = h1 x+c [a le + sin . ro ro ..426) and (4. ( 1 cos �) = 1 � C . Using the trig identities for sine and cosine of (4.Va • W . x =� cos x + c r .42 7) Now by differentiating equations (4..426) through (4 .a 0 ) h ro c sin � + __ Va � Recall that a sum. e quation (4.428) yw .. x = 0 at t = o .429) into equation (4. (4.43 1 ) .sin r  � (4..42 1 ) c /Ii. Using the def becomes e(z) and equation (4.a  mitions of z.1 ) .43 0) f (4.
4·3) � r o .202 POS I T I O N A N D V E lOC I TY .4.c o sva ) + � si n � a va Then [ ] (4.j1e'2 c o s via Va x+c C + a � (c o s �) a ( e + s i n 0)] Va Va =1 h [a ( e __ c Co c o s __ c o s _x Va Va via c + sin � si n 0f<j ) + sin x r. � a Va [e L =fo ( c os _ Using equations (4. r and Ig � t  In a similar fashion we can show that 1  9 = �S 'I + §.436) . vo � g =v'Ji8 y7i8 ( l .4 34 ) C omparing this to equation (4 . 4 We can derive the expression for 9 in a similar manner : 9 x + Co + si n � ) a .4..433) (4.1 ) and (4 .A F U N CT I O N OF T I M E Ch .] � a ..4..435) (4.32) (4. r cos � � = 1  �C r (4 .1 4) we see that  y'/i 9 = Vii t x 3 S §.
43 5) and (4. can be used.1 2) above we must know how and z are related to the physical parameters of the orbit .434) . 4 . la . if we are going to use equation (4.34) (4. 1 The Physical Significance of and z.1 ) Va = _ E . The advantages o f this method over other methods are that only one set of e quations works for all conic orbits and accuracy and convergence for nearly parabolic orbits is b etter.1 8). 5 .5 IMPLEMENTING THE UNIVERSAL VARIABLE FORMULATION In this section several aspects of the universal variable formulation will be presented which will increase your understanding and facilitate its computer implementation. the expression (t would replace 4 .4.4.e E).43 6) . Up to now we have developed universally valid expressions for r and in terms of the auxiliary variables X and z. 5 .420) can b e used as a check on the accuracy of the f and 9 expressions. 4 .[ i + x + c 0 ] Va . rtoto Vo to x x2tJ 0 t. then compute r and r from equation (4 . 1 .4. From and determine r and a.Sec 4. Given (usually is assumed to b e zero). its definition. Let's compare the expression for r in terms of with the corresponding expression for r in terms of eccentric anomaly : W e can conclude that But + si x + Co ) cos si n x + Co cos . Evaluate f and 9 (rom equations (4. then compute v from equation (4. Si n va = Va =  c o s .4 . Also.4 Algorithm for Solution of the Kepler Problem. Va x (4. in any of the equations where z appears. to 4. Obviously . Note also that if were not zero . note that equation (4.1 9) . 3 .5 U N I V E R SA L VAR I A B L E F O R MU L AT I O N 203 In computation. 2 . but we have not said what and z represent. solve the universal timeofflight equation for using a Newton iteration scheme .x + C0 ] r = a (1 x x t to x e n r = a (1 .43 1 ) and (4. Evaluate f and 9 from equations (4. x + Co cos [ � .
Do .53) from (4 .3 4) and (4.53) Subtracting equation (4. therefore 1 x2 2 + f OVO X + ro y'Ti z = ° and C = 1 12.5 2) yields X = Using the identity · x F iE. 1 (4.7r +  r = r0 ' and E = Eo' we get E o = !r.66) that f • V0 = Vii D and in o equation (4. (4 .1 3) .5 4) (4. + C o 2 2  X Co � ya to when +  A F U N CT I O N O f T I M E Ch _ 4 If we compare equations (4 .204 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TY so E . To determine what x represents on the parabolic orbit let's look at the general expression for r in terms of x : I I ya (4.F 0 1  Va I E . 5 ·1) at time x = 0. so l ( p + D 2 ) = 1 x 2 + D x + l( p + D 2 ) 0 0 2 2 2 W hich i s valid fo r p arab o lic o rb it s . we get x= D .52) whenever is negative .65) that r = 1 /2 ( p + D2 ) and r0 = �/2 ( p + �).E o l .4.56) la. Since z = x2 I If we solve this quadratic for x .57) . a r= r= X2 C + f O VO VIi X I I (4 . since (1  Z S) + ro ( 1  a z = 00 C) _ . (4 . we can conclude that = V'ii I F .55) F or the parabolic orbit We will show later in equation (4 . Obviously x i s related t o the change i n eccentric anomaly that occurs between fO and f. (4 .
A word of caution is in order concerning the use of the universal timeofflight equation for solving the Kepler problem. 5 . 5 . I z = I F . so Sec 4.5.to 4 . Therefore . a. the reciprocal of a should be computed and stored instead: (4.5 U N I V E RSAL V A R I AB L E F O R MU LAT I O N z 2 05 When is zero . 2 Some Notes on the Computer Solution of the Kepler Problem.1 Change in true anomaly and eccentric anomaly during time t .when z is positive .8) Figure 4 . In computing the semimaj or axis.F a ) '· z is zero. from TO and Vo and the energy equation we get If the orbit is parab olic the denominator of this expression is zero and an error finish would result if the computation is performed on a digital computer.5 9) . either a is infinite or the change in eccentric anomaly 1 is negative it can only mean that E and E o are (4. If imaginary.
All equations should then be modified by replacing 1 /a. Furthermore . then Z will be a large negative number . so S � V0r eFz 2 . so s i n h fi . 4 X ___ � � 2nya lP t I X � yp. C = 1 .a � eFz ± 2x 3 . convergence will be extremely rapid. with £X... In the case of elliptical orbits. / ( . a = ± x 3 .cosh .. Solving for X and letting lP = 2n. .. Use this for a first guess .5 . I But cosh yCz = ( eyCz + e yCz )/ 2 and ifyCzi s a large positive number.z )/ 3 But s i n h Fz = ( e v'Z .fZi3 = q . and . When z is negative the C function may be evaluated from (4. X = ¥ after one orbital pedod and we can make the approximation where lP is the period. where the given time·offlight exceeds one orbital period.v y� ( ..a vG ) . If the orbit is hyperbolic and the change in eccentric anomaly. can obviously be reduced to less than the period and the same r and v will result.. if the initial estimate of X is close to the correct value. wherever it occu rs. since X = foE.. The number of iterations required to compute X to any desired degree of accuracy depends mainly on the initial trial value of X. is large.6F.1 0) 206 POS I T I O N AND V E L O C I T Y A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .e . we get for elliptical orbits.P)/ 2.5. z e Fz will be large compared to 1 or e Sunilarly we can say that == C s � 2z eFz = aeFz 2X2 .:z. ( t a to) .ji11.
a eFz sign ( t .r:z . Anytime t . Thu s .r� ) ] J The use of these approximations.sign (t . n a [ (ro ' vo) + sign(t .to f V " ) Fz a ( o · 0 e Solving for e ft r .5 U N IV E RSA L VAR I A B L E F O R M U L AT I O N 207 Substituting these approximate values for C and S into the universal time·offlight equation and neglecting the last term.. so Sec 4 .to is positive.£.t o ) � ( 1 . if X is po sitive we should take the sign and if X is negative we should take the .a .sign in the above expression . 3 ) that the S function is positive for all values of z.r�)l a [ a [ (f o vo l + 2J.t o ) x ::::: sign (t .L yields 2# � in We can resolve the ± sign in the same way as before.t o ) sign (t . recognizing that X will be positive when (t .t o ) 2x 3 � + t .The ± sign can be resolved easily since we know (section 4. where appropriate .1 1 ) . The functions C(z) and S(z) are defined as [ ] (4. 4 . Therefore.tJ is positive .t o ) Fa . for selecting the first trial value of X will greatly speed convergence . X will be positive and . 3 Properties of C(z) and S(z) . 5 . 5 . we get � S .L ( t .tohATci ( l .Q) eV La 2J.5. vice versa . for hyperbolic orbits: 2M (t .t o ) #a ( 1 ] . .
B i � � i sin i O = sinh 0.7! + . .5.5. (4..4.1 3) COS .1 2) and (4 . Sin (J = 1 = 0 0 Substituting these series into the definitions o f C and S .s i n i V} = i si n i B . s o a n equivalent expression for C is · 1 . .208 POSI T I O N A N D V E LO C ITY C = S  yz. If z is near zero .51 + )� J ' ' ' ! ! ! 2 4 6 02 + 0 4 . we can write equation (4. Z2 Z3 Z 2! + 4! .4.0 6 + .y:'[ But cos iO = cosh 0 . the power series expansions of the functions may be used to evaluate C and S.s i n VI Vz3 1 z 1  cos V z A F U N CT IO N OF T I M E Ch .4.1 1 ) . 4 (4 . use equations (4. 1 .4.5.1 1 ) We can write equation (4.1 1 ) as But i v:z . The series expansions are easily derived from the power series for sin 0 and cosO: 'k E I  (4.5.1 0) and (4.4.Ji .4.1 0) as C where = i C = .". use equations (4. so an equivalent expression for S is S � s .(1  .1 2) Si To evaluate C and S when z is positive. if z is negative .cosh .1 0) (4. z cos i � . = Similarly. w e get C = Z 1 [  03 O S 07 3! + 51 .1 3)..
0 .5..Ji! + Ji!.52 Plot of S(z) and z _ e(z) versus z . (4Ir) 2 .. Since the e and S functions are defined by means of the cos and sin Figure 4 . The e function is 1 /2 when z = and decreases to zero at z ::: (211)2 ..5 � e U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N Z = 1 S = _ P 3! _ 1 Z .5.. The S function is 1 /6 when z = 0 and decreases asymptotically to zero as z approaches plus infinity ..+ .1 5) Both the e and S functions approach inf mity as z approaches minus infinity .. . (611)2 etc. . 0 'j (4.1 4) ·· 1 . . 2! 4! 6! l 2 1 S = _ [rz� 5! +� 7! (yz_ .Sec 4.� + 3! 5! 7! _ 1 209 ' (4.
va > � a= :l = 1 .266  . 1 K D U /T U t = 2 TU x.5.[i viz dz 2z [ _ 2( 1  c o s . we get _ 1 dS = _ 1 . it is not surprising that the derivatives.c o s y!? 3 ( VZ.( 1 .1 6) Differentiating the definition of S . va = Therefore & = 1. 1 K . can be expressed in terms of the functions themselves. 1 dz 2z 1 dC = _ sin . Find r.zS .[i) z ] (4 . Differentiating the definition of C.21 0 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I T Y  A F U N CT I O N OF: T I M E Ch . dC /d z and dS /d z .2C ) .5 . 4 functions .3S ) .12 1 = 2 1 _ ra = rp va 0. r a . 2& . and v at = t=2 T U . 39 5 .)] P (4. t=2 T U9 ra = I. we get I � = fz. 1 .1 7) EXAMPLE PROBLEM.s i n z dz 2z [ 0. I dS = _ ( C . Given ra = I D U va = 1 .
8 1 6 1 ..277 dXn 1 . Using a digital computer this accuracy can be improved to 1 1 decimal places if necessary.58) 2 1 . 58+ .222 Repeating the process.t o ) a = 2:Jr for 21 1 one complete orbit.1 .58 1 .1 4) and (4. using a slide rule .973 a Using equation (4. we have found the value of X for a timeofflight of 2 TU accurate to three decimal places.1 .Since x = and .5 U N IV E R SA L VA R I A B L E F O R M U LAT I O N _ .82 1 1 . 24 1 = 1 . 58+.222 = 1 .4. solving for t .000 1 .266 ( 1 .705 2 .4.. y'ii"(t .. we can construct a table and see how the iteration process drives our successive values for �: .8 1 6 1 .12.t.t o x_ 21Tya lP :. 705 .6E first approximation for x: Sec 4.279 1 .1 7) to find t l and dt d\ / Inserting these figures in the Newton iteration : x = 1 .222 1 . xn tn fit After three iterations.007 2.58 1 .8 2 1 1 .8 1 6 x n+1 . 2 2 x 3 ' etc.222 2= 95 X 1 + 2.. 1 .821 1 . X l Zl y"""a6E or x . we can make a 2 __ = 1 .. tn toward t = ZTU..
1 Some Useful Identities Involving D. we will examine the very interesting and fundamental relationship between E and F. Finally.A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E v= f r o +g vo = 0. f. But . v.JPt::. D. 4. Taking each of the eccentric anomalies in tum. (4.0. Then we will relate the eccentric anomalies to the dot product r • v. E or F. as D = v'P tan � 2 .2.321 . we will derive expressions for xw . 880 1 1 . In order to simplify Barker's equation (4. f = 0. But first some useful identities will be presented. r = _. 236K g. g.. g = 1 .6 CLASSICAL FORMULATIONS OF THE KEPLER PROBLEM In the interest of relating to the historical development of the solution of the Kepler problem we will briefly summarize the solution using the various eccentric anomalies.1 7). 1 24. for the parabola. yw and r in terms of D.6 .8801 Ch ..1 we can see that X w = r cos v .0 3'5 Thus 212 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I TY .6. Now let ' s look at the relationship between these auxiliary variables and some other physical parameters of the orbit. You have already seen how these eccentric anomalies relate to the true anomaly. we introduced the parabolic eccentric anomaly . E and F. ellipse and hyperbola which involve the auxiliary variables D.1 ) From Figure 4. We have developed timeofflight equations for the parabola._ ' + cos V P cos v + cos v 1 (4. and 9 = 0. f = 0.031 9 K r=fr o +gv 0 = 0.Then from the definitions of f.6.32 1 1 + 1 . 4 4...2) . since e = 1 . E and F.6.
1 in the denominator : 2 x w= Q 2 = Si�  (1  ta n 2 �) .62) and substitute cos v = 2 cos .6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 213 Figure 4 .65) .6. yw = r si n v = 1 p tan 2 v (4.63) The expression for yw is much simpler : r. r2 = x 2 + y 2 W W in r = 1 (p 2 + D2 ) .Sec 4 .64) r Since Xw and yw are the rectangular components of the vector the perifocal coordinate system. the expression for Xw reduces to p sin v = + cos v (4.61 Perifocal components o f r v 2v Now substitute cos v cos2 22 in the numerator of equation 2 (4. (4. 2 If we substitute from equation (4.1 ) .
J7!. 52) and setting e = 1 in this equation and substituting for r from the polar equation of a parabola yields 214 POS I T I O N A N D V E lO C I TY  A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . r • v. For the eccentric anomaly . r •v = 1 + P cos If w e now substitute from equation (4. 4 rr.Now let's fmd an expression for the dot product.62 Perifocal components of r . The origin of the perifocal system is at the focus of the ellipse and the distance between the focus and the center (0) is just c = ae as shown. Using r • r = and equation (2.66) v .1 ) .62 we have drawn an ellip se with its auxiliary circle in the perifocal coordinate system. w e get which is useful for evaluating D when r and v are known. in Figure 4 .6. 2' 1 Q Figure 4 .s i n p v = ffp ta n v . (4.
we see that Xw or From geometry and the relationship between the ywordinates of the ellipse and circle .1 0) e sin E also. we can say that I yw = Q. since b2 = a2 c3 for the ellipse and C = ae. e illS E we get another useful  �. 6 THE K E P L E R P R O B L E M 215 From Figure 4. (4.67) (a si n E ) a But . M  (4. To To find E we could differentiate the Kepler timeofflight equation : = ( ae sin E ) E .6.Sec 4 . we get 1 = a c o s E ae  Xw = a ( c o s E e)  '1 (4.24) .69) We will find it convenient to have an expression for get it we need to differentiate equation (4.62. yw Just as we did for the parabola.   = aJ 1  e 2 sin E . I Substituting from equations (4. t T = Yf83 ( E e S i n E ) . 69) I e C OS E = 1 r .67) and (4 .8) and simplifying.6. (4. we obtain If we solve this equation for expression : I r = a( 1 �  e cos E ) .
6. solving this equation for • v . E is imaginary .6.1 2) cos E = = 1 e + cos V + e cos V 1 + (4.6.28) cosh F e + e cos V cos V (4.. is given by e si n rr = r = $a .e Si n r E Finally .6.1 3) . The . e cos E from equation (4.22 1 ) From which we may conclude that cosh F = cos E Using the identity cosh In other words. relationship between the eccentric anomalies and the true anomaly.216 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TVA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . we obtain E = .. when E is a real number.. when F is a real number . F is imaginary.. v.. we get /¥ (1  e cos E and substituting for E)E .1 1 ) And so r which is particularly useful since the term e si n E appears in the Kepler timeofflight equation. The ± sign is a result of defining E in the E = ± iF 8 = cos i8 we see that apparently (4.1 0) .:. For the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly we will exploit the relationship between E and F to arrive at a set of identities involving F which are analogous to the ones involving E. 4 Thus = Solving this equation for (4.!.Y Vfia e sin E and again noting that (4.
Although an ellipse is shown we need to make no assumption concerning the type of conic.2 The f and g Expressions in Terms of /':. 4. 6.e ) . 6. Similarly.1 5) The following identities are obtained in analogous fashion : r (4. may be written as (4. From equation (4.63 we have drawn an orbit in the perifocal system. 6. so Yw = a � sinh F.61 6) r e cosh F = 1.6.1 8) .e) .Il a •v (4. Yw = a � sin E = ai � sin iF.6 .1 4) Xw = a(rosh F .67) we can write Sec 4 . so (4.el = a (cos i F .1 9) xw = r cos V e sinh F =_ � v .1).  But i si n iF = si n h F. But l cos i F = cosh F .1 7) This last identity is particularly useful since the expression e sinh F appears in the hyperbolic timeofflight equation. The proper sign can always be determined from physical reasoning. r. 6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 217 xw = a (cos E .6. In Figure 4 .range from 0 t o 2rr while F i s defined from minus infinity t o plus infinity. = a ( 1 e cosh F )  (4.a r  (4. The rectangular components of a general position vector.
. . . are yw = r sin v (4. the rectangular components of the velocity vector .JiLP.. 626) .:..218 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I T Y . V.I M E Ch . so 1 � L (I .6·2 0 ) If we substitute these expressions into equation (4. tan p /:.. where tv = v . 622) + c o s v) cos v o ) sin V o ( r sin v) VJiP But cos v cos V o + sin v sin v o = cos /:.V _ 2 1 .625) (4. r0 · = 1 ... 62 1) (4. 4 +..624) ) _ _ 1 r _ _ ro 1 ) . ( ...42 1 ) ..1 .._ c��V P IW (4. 623) . and note that h = .vo' = + ( r cos v �( e +Vf j 'f = Similarly we obtain and lf .x".: o s /:.63 Perifocal components of position and velocity From equation (2 54) .c o s tv ) (4.V. Figure 4..A F U N CT I O N O F T.P ( 1 . we get Yw = Ji! ( e P �w f = .p . (4..ji! sin v p (4.c os I 9 ' = v'f.
63 1 ) (4. From equations (4. using equation (4.a sin Eo a � sin E r o v! fJa ( l .e 2 ) cos E .e2 ) = 1.6.1 1 ) Differentiating the expression for Vw above yields �w Yw = a � E cos E .e2 ).6 TH E K E P L E R P R O B L E M 219 = . o But cos E cos Eo + sin E si n Eo = COS& and using equation (4. r (4.Ji!.67) and (4. we get f = a( cos E . (4.628) r If we now substitute into equation (4.63 0) (4.E . (4. = . Therefore = 1 v'fJa ( 1 .63 2) .3 The f and 9 Expressions in Terms o f Eccentric Anomaly .E ) f = .� ( 1 .4.sin L'!. yw 9 and (t . E rr . Thus Xw Sec 4.e) v! fJa( l . Similarly.a ( 1 .6.cos L'!.(cos E cos E o + sin E sin E o .( L'!.e2 ) cos Eo + ro VfJa ( 1 .I Jlla sin E. the rectangular components of velocity may be obtained directly by differentiation. 629) f = 1 .e cos E o ) .!Ji8 sin L'!.42 1 ) and recognize that h = v'fJa (1 .cos L'!.E) 9 r _ 0 j..1 (4.1 0).68) .6.E ) .a E sin E .e2 ) v.to ) . 627) But.
and that he did not believe there was any geometrical or rigorous method of attaining to it.63 3)  L( 1 In the same manner rO cosh J1 9 = f and = ( t .2 6) is one equation in one unknown .to) . ro  cos i6 F ) 6F ) ( s i nh (4.8 sin M where M is known as n (t T) . 4 As before we will use the relationship that and the identities relating the circular and hyperbolic functions to derive the hyperbolic expressions directly from the ones involving From equation (4. with respect to the direct solution of the problemfrom the mean anomaly given to find the true.4 Kepler Problem Algorithm. The next was by Newton in the Prin cipia . M can be obtained from = (4.6F ) . of course .629) we get = f = I But cos i6F cosh 6F so = f = 1  L (1 6E i6F 6E." The first approximate solution for E was quite naturally made by Kepler himself. A very large numb er of analytical and graphical solutions have since been discovered because nearly every prominent mathematician since Newton has given some .j( a) 3 £jia s i n h r r ra  6F . it is transcendental in there is no way of getting E by itself on the left of the equal sign .(1 E . (4.6. . Kepler himself realized this.t o ) . (4. � V a3 ( t .  E. and Sma1l4 tells us: " But. In classical terms.[Kepler] tells us that he found it impracticable .220 POS I T I O N AN D V E LO C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F TI M E Ch . the Kepler problem is basically the solution of the equation M = E .63 6) 4.. cosh 6F ) .26) Even though equation (4.2k7T + M o .63 5)  6F a 9 = 1 . from a graphical construction involving the cycloid he was able to find an approximate solution for the eccentric anomaly .634) (4.
Sec 4 .64 and then determine what value of E corresponds to a known value of M. that results from this trial value . We will resort again to the Newton iteration method. but this is not very accurate. � Figure 4.638) n dM/d E I E=E n . M n . compute the mean anomaly. be possible to graph Kepler's equation as we have done in Figure 4.63 7) Now. E n+ l E + M . select a new trial value.64 M vs E plot E c c e n t r ic � anoma l y . E It would. of course .Mn En+ 1 ' from (4. Since we can derive an analytical expression for the slope of the M vs E curve. ' (4. we can formulate a Newton iteration scheme as follows : first select a trial value for Ecall it E n Next . 2 � ���� � 0 � c: 0 Q) 0 c: 0 E >. 6 TH E K E P L E R PROBLEM 221 attention to the problem.
A F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch . r0 ' p and LW (or �E or �F).4. 4 . the true anomaly may be found from equation (4.M n becomes acceptably small we can quit iterating. Evaluate the f and 9 expressions above using r.1 4) or the similar expression for the hyperbola. Given t to ' solve the appropriate Kepler timeofflight equation for E or F using a trialanderror method such as the Newton iteration. The slope expression is obtained by differentiating Kepler's equation.t ' are given. Solve for V if needed. even when e is nearly 1 . Picking a first trial value of E l = 7r should guarantee convergence.1 2) . 5. 1 . t . Once E i s determined by any method. however. where d M / d E l E = En En. e. It can be used for LW or�E .4 0) EXERCISES 4. Solve for r from the polar equation of a conic or equation (4.5 cos V DU . o We may now state the algorithm for solving the Kepler problem. e.  . p and va· 2 .when e is nearly 1 . va and the timeofflight.222 POS I T I O N A N D V E LO C I T Y . d M = 1 e cos E . we can anticipate convergence difficulties for the nearparabolic orbits. The algorithm using �E (or �F) is shorter than using LW since neither p or V need to be calculated. Exactly analogous methods may be used to solve for v on a hyperbolic orbit when a. equation (4. 2. Determine f and V from equations (4.636) may be written as  E n+l = En + When the difference M . dE Therefore. 3 . Since the slope of the M vs E curve approaches zero at E = 0 0f 21(.1 9).4.6.e cos En (4.5 + .1 8) and (4. 1 The equation of a body in earth orbit is r=  1 . From fa and va determine r 0' a.2. 4 is the slope of the M vs E curve at the trial value.
6 For the data given in problem 4.Ch . 4 EXERCISES 223 Calculate the time of flight from one end of the minor axis out to apogee. Returns indicate a position and velocity of: 4.3 Given l:J) = ffP. i. 625) . TOF = 5. (Ans. 9:f and 9 that could be used to calculate position and velocity at the second sighting. 4. in a computer solution for position and velocity on an llipse.5 Four hours later another ship at 1 20 0 W on the equator spots the same object directly overhead. (partial Ans.2 In deriving TOF on an ellipse. one modifies t by subtracting an integer e number of periods to make the t < 1P. glven fO' vO' and t. it was stated that the area beneath the ellipse was to the area beneath the auxiliary circle as bfa. V = 3481 . x.5K DU/TU) A radar ship at 1 5 00 W on the equator picks up an object directly overhead. to reduce iterations to a minimum? (partial Ans. find r and v for .85 TU) 4. Find the values of f. corresponding to l:J) of 600• .4 If.e. f = 4 . Explain why this must be so . a rea PS V a rea QS V a a b as a result of the fact that that fO = 1 + J DU and Vo = 2K DU/TU. how should the area of search for x be limited.348J +  1 . find the universal variable.3.. Yel l ipse Y c i rcle b 4 .
== 1 . e = . Which method would be most convenient to program on a computer? 4 .51 0) and (4.1 1).5 .10 rp 4 . then . 2. TOF = 2. g.5 DU.to and solve for f and v. 7 The text. ra == 2. an expression for a first guess for x for the parabolic trajectory. 1 3 Construct a flow chart for an algorighm that will read in values for fa. f and g.99). 4 4 . gives analytic expressions to use as a first guess for x in an iterative solution for either the elliptical or hyperbolic trajectory. 4 . Find the time required to go from a point above 30 0 N latitude to a point above 300 S latitude. Le. 1 0. 1 4 Any continuous timevarying function can be expressed as a Taylor Series Expansion about a starting value. with a perigee above the north pole. Va and t . e = . 5 DU. and give your analytic reasoning behind. 4 . 9 At burnout. if X == x (t ) .22 TV) A satellite is in a polar orbit.224 POS I T I O N A N D V E LOC I TYA F U N C T I O N O F T I M E Ch. 5. Develop. 1 1 For problem 4. 8 Why is the slope of the t vs X curve a minimum at a point corresponding to periapsis? If the slope equals zero at that point. a space probe has the following position and velocity: 4 . 11 DU How long will i t take for the probe t o cross the xaxis? (Ans. Do the same for problem 4. (Ans. 1 2 Construct a flow chart for an algorithm that will read in values for fa.73 TV) 4..9 compare the calculations using classical and universal variable methods. fb o vb o == == V21 D U /T U 1 . what ' type of conic section does the curve represent? Draw the family of t vs X curves for ellipses with the same period but different eccentricities (show e = 0. Va and w and will solve for f. in equations (4. 4 .
The Sleepwalkers.0 + . 4. 2. Company. L'. 1 963 . NY. Arthur. r. A lunar probe is given just escape speed at burnout altitude of DUEB and flightpath angle of 45 0 • How long will it take to get to the vicinity of the moon (r2 = 60 DU) disregarding the Moon's gravity? (Ans TOF = 2 1 9. Madison. 1 964.6 TU) . A New York.( t .r = U r I r Verify the results expressed in equations (4. Robert. Koestler. 4 E X E RC I S E S 225 ( t . Einstein. equation (4.to ) 0 (t  to ) 2 . 1 95 1 . Kepler. 63 2).. LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . The Macmillan 3 . Albert. Small.1 8). 4 . 1 8 Expand r and v in Taylor Series and substitute the equation of motion to derive series expressions for f. r3 fJ.. NY.and using it in our equation of motion 3 Ch .16 * 4. o 4 .. A n A ccount of the A stronomical Discoveries of reprinting of the 1 804 text with a forward by William D. 4.I:!:. Stahlman.. = . f and 9 in terms of the eccentric anomaly.630) through (4. 1 5 Derive analytically the expression for timeofflight on a parabola. Richard H. . See equations (4. Philosophical Library. f and 9 in terms of (t . Battin. NY.43 5) and (4.2 . The University of Wisconsin Press. New York. 1 95 9 . New York..to ) 3 = Xo + 1 1 + 2' X o + 3 ' °x� X Xo dX Where X o = dt X = X o By defining U � .43 6). Introduction to Johannes Kepler: L ife and Letters. A stronautical McGrawHill Book Company.E. g. 1 7 Derive the expression for g . Wise. Guidance . 2.tJ and derivatives of U o' Find the first three terms of each expression.
J. H. pp 66066 1 . California. H." ARS 1. H . 1 965.1 28 . "Computation of Keplerian Conic Sections. 1 2. pp 1 05 . J. Forest Ray. 1 0. Sperling. pp 3093 1 5. "Neue Formeln and Hilfstafeln zur Ephemeridenre chung. 8.1 92. Brooks. W . "Completely General Closed Form Solution for Coordinates and Partial Derivatives of the Twobody Problem. pp 1 89. 9. Vol 70. K. Vol 3 1 . Goodyear. Vol 275 ." A stron. Roger R." A str. pp 1 08. Sundrnan. 1 9 1 4. 1 1 . 1 965. W. Stumpff. Mathmatica. Redondo Beach." A stron. N. S. to Celestial Mechanics. The MacMillan Company. Moulton.226 POS I T I O N A N D V E L O C I TYA F U N CT I O N O F T I M E Ch .ach. 1 947. 4 5 . A n Introduction York. 1 9 1 2 . Unpublished notes.1 79. 1 965 . United States Air Force Academy . Herrick. Dept o f Astronautics and Computer Science. "A Universal Formulation for Conic TrajectoriesBasic Variables and Relationships. 7. W. Lemmon. New 6. . 1 96 1 . "Universal Variables. Bate." A cta Vol 36. Vol 70. "Memoire sur Ie probleme des trois corps. . and 1. F . E. K." Report 340060l 9TUOOO TRW/Systems.
in 1 7 8 1 . astronomers had been looking for further members of the solar systemespecially since Bode's law predicted the existence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. in the first year of the 1 9th century. Eric Temple Bell ! The most brilliant chapter in the history of orbit determination was written by Carl Fredrich Gauss.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND . so perhaps those wretched lumps of dirt were after all his lucky stars. Ever since Sir William Herschel had discovered the seventh planet. But the brilliant success of Gauss in these matters brought him instant recognition as the first mathematician in Europe and thereby won him a comfortable position where he could work in · comparative peace . A plan was formed dividing the sky into several areas which were to be searched for evidence of a new planet. Uranus. even if the problem of orbit determination was of a sort which Newton said belonged to the most difficult in mathematical astronomy. 227 5.. Lesser mathematicians than GaussLaplace for instance might have done all that Gauss did in computing the orbits of Ceres and Pallas. CHAPTER S ORBIT DETERMINATION FROM TWO POSITIONS AND TIME Probably all mathematicians today regret that Gauss was deflected from his march through darkness by "a couple of clods of dirt which we call planets"his own wordswhich shone out unexpectedly in the night sky and led him astray. before the search operation could begin one of the prospective participants. But. a 24yearold German mathematician.
l The method which Gauss used is just as pertinent today as it was in 1 802. no less. I t is ironic that the discovery of Ceres coincided with the publication of the famous philosopher Hegel of a vitriolic attack on astronomers for wasting their time in search for an eighth planet. Ceres was rediscovered on New Year's day in 1 802. the only information astronomers had to work with was the lineofsight direction at each sighting. The technique of determining an orbit from two positions and · time is of considerable interest to modern astrodynamics since it has direct application in the solution of intercept and rendezvous or ballistic missile targeting problems. 5. Piazzi was only able to observe the asteroid for about 1 month before it was lost in the glare of the sun. Hegel asserted. the first of the swarm of asteroids or minor planets circling the sun between Mars and Jupiter. To understand why computing the orbit of Ceres was such a triumph for Gauss. and for convenience in referring to it later. The data that Gauss used to determine the orbit of Ceres consisted of the right ascension and declination at three observation times. His method is much simplified if the original data consists of two position vectors and the timeofflight between them. and the direction of . exactly 1 year later. observed what he first mistook for a small comet approaching the sun. The object turned out to be Ceres. they would see immediately that there can be precisely seven planets. on New Year's day of 1 80 1 . This slight lapse on Hegel's part no doubt has been explained by his disciples even if they cannot explain away the hundreds of minor planets which mock his philosophic ban. but for a different reason.2 THE GAUSS PROBLEMGENERAL METHODS O F SOLUTION . the timeofflight from r l to r2 which we will call t. precisely where the ingenious and detailed calculations of the young Gauss had predicted she must be found. 5 Giuseppe Piazzi of Palermo ." We may define the Gauss problem as follows : Given r l r2 . Because of its importance. we will formally define the problem of orbit determination from two positions and time and give it a name."the Gauss problem. you must appreciate the meager data which was available in the case of sighting a new object in the sky. If they paid some attention to philosophy . The challenge of rediscovering the insignificant clod of dirt when it reappeared from behind the sun seduced the intellect of Gauss and he calculated as he had never calculated before . To compound the difficulty in the case of Ceres.228 O R B I T D E T E R M I N A T I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Without radar or any other means of measuring the distance or velocity of the object. no more .
5 . We will rewrite them below making an obvious change in notation to be consistent with the definition of the Gauss problem : = = 0 . Sec . but a unique solution is possible for VI and V2 ' In the latter case. the method of solution may have to be modified as there may be a mathematical singularity in the equations used.. Obviously . the orbit is a degenerate conic. The relationship between the four vectors f l . the two vectors and f2 uniquely define the plane of the transfer orbit. there are an infinite number of orbits passing through f l and f2 ' but only two which have the specified timeofflightone for each possible direction of motion.. the plane of 2 l the transfer orbit is not determined and a unique solution for VI and v2 is not possible. ." through an angular change greater than 7r.motion.. It is not surprising.. find VI and v2 • By "direction of motion" we mean whether the satellite is to go from f I to f2 the "short way.21 f Shortway and longway trajectories with same timeofflight One thing is immediately obvious from Figure 5 . particularly if the parameter. therefore.. that nearly every known method for solving the Gauss problem may be derived from the f and 9 relations. appears in the denominator of any expression.. / I I I I I Figure 5 . p.".. / .SO L U T I O N 229 I I I I I \ \ I \ \ \ \ . If the two position vectors are collinear and in the same directi Oll (W or 27r)." through an angular change (w) of less than 7r radians.1 .. f2 ' VI and v2 is contained in the f and 9 expressions which were developed in Chapter 4. 2 T H E G A U SS P R O B L E M . 2. . or the "long way. If the vectors l f and f are collinear and in opposite directions (w 7r). .
24) Si n �E (5 .. what we have is three equations in three unknowns. t..cos �E ) .r 1 rZ 1 1 ' ) = r 1 r2 . p. f and g.. a and �E. but the first four are known. From equation (5 .( 1 .cos �V . n �v yfiiP 2 =t If (�E . 27) . Use equations (5. We may outline the general method of solution as follows : 1 .25). Test the result by solving equation (5 .1 ) (5 . so a trialanderror solution is necessary . Consider equations (5 . r . The only trouble is that the equations are transcendental in nature. a 9 = 1 .cos �v) = 1 .cos �v) = 1 p f ' = ITtan �v ( 1 .y'ii8 .cos �E ) f = 1 . r2 P p rI .22) r2 a ( 1 . 23) and (5 .230 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I ON F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .23). Guess a trial value for one of the three unknowns. 9 and the two known vectors r 1 and r2 .sin �E ) � JJ. 25) to compute the remaining two unknowns.2. 5 f2 = fr 1 + gv 1 V2 = fr l + gv 1 where (5 . bv . 2. the solut �on to . (5 .= p 9 r1 r 2 Si.26) 9 Since equat ! o� s (5 .25 ) (5 . 3.24) arid (5 . g.1 ) we see that the Gauss problem is reduced to evaluating the scalars f.( 1 . g. (5 .. so 2 . f.23) Actually. (5 . 2.22) express the vectors VI and v in 2 terms of f. this last equation is not needed since we have already shown that only three of the f and 9 expressions are truly independent.27) and (5 . 24) for t and check it against the given value of timeofflight . There are seven variablesf1 . p. (5 . a or � directly or indirectly by guessing some other parameter of the transfer orbit which in tum establishes p. a or �E.( 1 .
Solution using the Lambert theorem will not be treated here because the universal variable method avoids much of the awkwardness of special cases which must be treated when applying Lambert's theorem. suggest a method of accomplishing the first three steps but give no guidance on how to adjust the iterative variable. r1 (5 . however. In each case . Later we will show that a trialanderror solution based on guessing a value of p can be formulated. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SAL V A R I A B L ES 231 4. introduced in Chapter 4. This point is frequently overlooked by authors who . If the computed value of t does not agree with the given value. 5 . What we are referring to as the Gauss problem can also be stated in terms of the Lambert theorem.3 2) . = 1 .1 ) (5 . Several methods for solving the Gauss problem will be discussed in this chapter. In discussing general methods for solving the Gauss problem earlier in this chapter. adjust the trial value of the iteration variable and repeat the procedure until it does agree. n 6V r2 = t  = 1 . since the method used to adjust the trial value ofthe iteration variable is what determines how quickly the procedure converges to a solution. we indicated that the f and 9 expressions provide us with three independent equations in three unknowns. A solution based on guessing a trial value of 6E or 6F would work. 3 . x and z.( 1 . a and L'£ or 6F..Sec. p. g . { and 9 in terms of the universal variables:  5. including the Qriginal method suggested by Gauss.cos 6v) p 9= VJiP r 1 r 2 S I.:t x3 S. A direct iteration on the variable a is more difficult since picking a trial value for a does not determine a unique value for p or 6E. and would enable us to use the universal variables. a scheme for adjusting the trial value of the iterative variable will be suggested and the relative advantages of one method over another will be discussed.c x2 y.3 SOLUTION OF THE GAUSS PROBLEM VIA UNNERSAL VARIABLES f . let's write the expressions for f. This last step is perhaps the most important of all. since Z = L'£2 and z = 6F2 To see how such a scheme might work.
jE: . such that r 1 r2 We will also find it convenient to define another auxiliary variable... P Using these definitions of and more compactly as ( 1 zSI   sin b. yields X C. we obtain A.39) . ( 1 .36) may be written (5 . we get r 1 r 2 (1 .v) (5 . p r1 j .v y.37) I y = r 1 + r2 .c o s b.v) • 9 = = IE. rrrV 'l'2 y 1 COS b..33) and cancelling vwp from both sides..( 1 c o s b.v (5 .31 ).A ..33)  (5..v ) 1 c o s b..V r :J r i r 2 r1 S P _ _ _ Ch . as We can write this equation more compactly if we define a constant.1I 1 � ..35) pC Substituting for x in equation (5 .v) = 1 r2 P Solving for x from equation (5 . ( 1 c o s b. A y= .232 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E f (5 .34) If we multiply both sides by r1 r2 and rearrange.( c o s b. 5 X2 (5 .i n b.38) y.j A equation (5 .viI x ( 1 zS) \ . 1 .
9I VI ' we can compute VI from Since r (5 . v2 ' may be expressed as Substituting for VI from equation (5 .Sec. so that (5 .LI I 9 A fi 1i======fJ. we can obtain the following simplified expressions : If = 1 . From equations (5 .1 6) (5 . by using equations (5 . (5 . 3.: r I .=1' Ig =r2 =. and the auxiliary variable .31 1 ) r I r2 si n !:w vIP The simplification of the equations resulting from the introduction of the constant . +. I" � \ ·1 fr .3.1 0) (5 .qr::oo .420). y. 5 . can be extended to the f and 9 expressions themselves. thi 't "p.38).35) more concisely: If we now solve for t from equation (5 .31 3) (5 . rl v2 = f r I + g v I  (5 ..37 ) and (5 .3.r I (5 .1 4) 1 The velocity.1 6) and using the identity fg fg 1 .on simplllw. . 3.". to � A simple algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables may now be stated as follows : ':: . the last term of this expression may be simplified.1 ). 32).31 2) Vii t = x 3 S + I . 3 We can also express X in equation (5 .34).32) and (5 .3.31 5) (5 .31 7) . A.ff. we get SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VA R I A B L ES 233 x � But.
3 .37). 3. Determine the auxiliary variable.1 1).1 4) and (5 . 3. this amounts to guessing the change in eccentric anomaly . The derivative. which converges more rapidly.P . may be used successfully to pick a better trial value for z. If it is not nearly the same . 1 Selecting A New Trial Value of z. dt / dz. (5 .1 2) (5 . When the method has converged to a solution. Check the trial value o f z b y computing t from equation (5. necessary for a Newton iteration can be determined by differentiating equation (5 ." evaluate the I 2 constant.31 5).31 6) and (5 .31 2) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. then compute VI and v2 from equations (5. Evaluate the functions S and C for the selected trial value of z using equations (4.3. Pick a trial value for z. such as a Bolzano bisection technique or linear interpolation.S + X 3 _ + .0.31 2) for t: Differentiating equation (5 .31 3).31 0) for x yields 0l t = x 3 S + A Vv dt dx dS A dy y'/i .0. Values of 'z greater than (27Tf correspond to changes in eccentric anomaly of more than 27T and can occur only if the satellite passes back through f 1 enroute to f2 . y. A. from equation (5 . 2 . evaluate t.1 0) and (4.= 3 x 2 .dz dz dz 2yy dz . 1 � = __ d Y _ x 2 dC dz · dz 2x C dz (5 . 9 and 9 from equations (5 .31 9) . 4. a Newton iteration.E2 and z = . may be used if we can determine the slope of the t vs z curve at the last trial point.4.4.1 0) . 6. 5.31 7). adjust the trial value of z and repeat the procedure until the desired value of t is obtained.234 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . From f ' f and the "direction of motion. using equation (5 . 7 . The usual range for z is from minus values to (27T)2 . 5. A Newton iteration scheme for adjusting z will be discussed in the next section. Although any iterative scheme .3. Determine x from equation (5 . Since z = .31 8) ( ) (5 .39). 5 1 .
5 . i n section 4 . 3 . 5 . we get ( 1 .320) (5 .2C) dz 2z [ ) �] (5 .Sec.__ � VC[ S _ z '\ dz 2VC dz C . Q) '"  g � e l l i pses :� e l l i pses w here t exceeds one orbital period o Figure 5 .=  dS (C .39) for dy = dz  But. we showed that y.z S) dS _ . 3 SO L U T i O N V I A U N I V E R S A L V A R I A B L ES 2 35 E "= hyp orbolas '5 .31 Typical t vs z plot for a fixed r1 and r2 Differentiating equation (5 .3S) dz 2z dC 1 ( 1 zS .32 1 )  . .
Using universal variables. From radar measurements you know the position vector of a space object at 0432: 00Z to be: + 0. determine on what two paths the object could have moved from position one to position two .  (5 . ill rl . There is only one path for a given direction of motion. equations (4. 1 2z 4! 6! 1 2z Sf = . we get Cf = _ + If we now substitute equations (5 .OK DU. 5 so. I f we differentiate the power series expansion of C and S.01 + + O.236 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . the expression for dy / dz reduces to where Sf and C' are the derivatives of S and C with respect to z.32 1 ) except when z i s nearly zero (nearparabolic orbit)." We first find V I and for each direction by solving the Gauss problem and then use VI and the method of Chapter 2 to solve for the orbital elements. At 0445 : OOZ the position of the object was: 0. D M � si g n (1T L'>.6J + 0.v) .323) 1' V dz 2C C _ � = � yfC dz 4 = x3 ( (5 .325) v2 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. To facilitate our solution let us define an integer quantity DM.326) .320) and (5 .+ 5! 7 ! _ _ . "direction of motion": rl =0.41 1 ).4. Assume the object occupies each position only once during this time period.+ 4z3! 9! 1 1 (5 .322) into equation (5 .+ _ _ 3z 2 4Z3 8! 1 0! 3z 2 .319) and (5 . we get f 3 SC ' Iji dt � � + S + (5 . Thus the two paths sought are the "short way" and "long way.1 0) and (4.7K DU. 51 r2 = 1.322) _ ) (3svY x ) 8 which may be used to evaluate the derivatives when z is near zero.318). These derivatives may be evaluated from equations (5 .324) _  (5 .
327) r1 = 1 . A A l ong way =1 .Sec.321 radians Using (5 .28406 short way Step 2 and Step 3 : Let the first estimate b e S (Z ) Step 4 : Z = .CXXXXXXXlOO OU short way = the smallest angle between r 1 and r2 = .0488008482 OU r2 = 1 . For ease of numerical solutions. 5 .0. 3 SO LU T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L VAR I AB L ES 237 For OM = . I Z=O 0 = 1 C(Z) I Z=O 1 =_ 2 Using (5 .1 4) and (4. 28406 ( __ = 3 . 0000 1 . a convenient form of equation (5 . 5 .1 5) . 37) is which does not present the problem that (5 .6V short way = 5. 0488088482 + 1 . 0488088482 + 1 . 23287446 yT12 vm .962 radians LW long way = 21T .6V > 1T). Now following the algorithm of section 5 . 86474323 = 1 .28406 ( __ ) = 0 .5.3 : Step 1 : LW (5 . 0000 + 1 . Y 1 0 ng wa y Y short wa y 1 = 1 .37) does when .39).28406 = 1 .1 we have "long way "(LW ' > 1T).327).6V is small. OM = +1 we have "short way " (.1 .. from equations (4.
(The iterations must be performed separately for long way and short way..86474323 2.) Convergence criteria should be chosen with the size of �t taken into consideration. Y l o ng = 3. Care must be taken to insure that the next trial value of z does not cause y to be negative.. Since �t for this problem is less than 1 .28406 y'0.86474323 = 1 .05725424 TU 1 ts h o rt = 0. 1 3 min = 0445 z .1 0). X i o ng way X s h o rt way Step 6 : .672625 1 6 TU + through 6.444689 m 0.23287446 0. Step 5: Using equation (5 .3 1 7854077 ( 6") 1 . 5 Here we must insure that we heed the caution concerning the sign of y for the short way. from the given data.68245800 1 /2 Now using equation (5 . 0432z = 1 3.. 1 .0 we do not normalize. so We see that our computed =0 we adjust the value of using a Newton iteration and repeat steps 2 �t z z Now.9667663 T =values o f t usingUi nlTUare too far off.780 1 9540 1 /2 0..3·1 2) solve for t: = v'M X fo ng S + A l o ng vIvi o ng 1 t l on g = 2 1 ...489482706 (6") . the desired time o f flight is : ..23287446 t l o ng = 0.3.28406 y'3.238 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & TI M E Ch ....
1 5).31 7) we get: Long way : VI = 1 .36 1 677491 + 0.94746230 A = 1 .83236253 Using equations (5 .0. (5. 7499473 9 t = 0. 3 SO L U T I O N V I A U N I V E R SA L V A R I A B L ES When £>. (5 .842624 1 9K 9= f = 0.989794 D U/TU 0. (5 .60 1 874421 . 1 1 39209665J  0.5544 1 39777J 0.8826885334K v2 = 0.96670788 z = x 0.02234 1 8 1 1 . 1 7866539741 + 1 .79852734 v2 = 1 .6009 1 852 .662242 1 3 A = · 1 .5845 1 6 D U /T U 9 9 = 3 .28406 Y = 4.Sec.554824 D U /T U f = 3.1 3).t solved . 5 .5288 97 1 4 = 2.0. W e have : � 104 (within 0.83073807 v 2 = 1 .63049 1 80961 1 .50634848K v2 = 0.035746 D U/T U 9 = 0.58 1 43981 VI = 0.t .0.3.250 1 3 1 5563K Short way:  V I = 0. 74994739 VI = 0.9668 1 0 1 2 z= Step 7 : 3.76973587J .3 .1 6) and (5 .28406 Y = 0.3.6 1 856634 = 0.314).4 1 8560 1 9 t = 0. 1 seconds) we consider the problem 239 Long way (after 2 iterations) X Short way (after 2 iterations) = 2.
Whenever  yfC  A( 1 the value of (5 3 . yet equation (5 .= 0.39) will result in a negative value for y if f::1) < 7T and z is too large a negative number. In other words. This is apparent from the fact that A is positive whenever f::1) < 7T and negative whenever 7T <f::1) < 27T. the t vs z curve crosses the t = Oaxis at some negative value of z as shown in Figure 5 .38) and (5 .2553 D U 2 /TU 2 Energy = 3 .0 1 9 1 D U while the short way is an ellipse : Energy = 4. the ellipse is the only traj ectory a real object could travel on. This result illustrates the beauty of the universal variables approach to this problem: with one set of equations we solved problems involving two different types of conics. There is one pitfall in the solution of the Gauss problem via universal variables which you should be aware of. there is a negative lower limit for permissable values of z when f::1) < 7T. For "short way" trajectories.636 D U 2 /T U 2 = 0.38) it is obvious that y cannot be negative.zS) y will be negative and > r 1 + r2 x will be imaginary in equation .076832 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0. Because both C and S become large positive numbers when z is large and negative (see Figure 4. 96 Eccentricity and perigee radius = 0.1 O} VC . the expression Then using the given r vectors and these v vectors we have specified the two paths. where f::1) is less than 7T.52). and the ellipse intersects the earth (but only after it passes the second position). Notice that the long way trajectory is a hyperbola: 240 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E ell . 5 A ( 1 zS) can become a large positive number if A is positive.39). The reason for this may be seen by examining equations (5 .9958 0 U Since the hyperbola passes through the earth between the two positions. From equation (5 .31 .
5.6V p � . we obtain 5.va si .c o s ""E si n ""E . a Newton iteration scheme is possible for adjusting the trial value of p .v.1 ) rearranging yields thiscosexpression for ""E ) Substituting p( 1 1 r 1 r2 ( 1 . we get  .cos & 1_ _ _1_ ) . The trial values are checked by solving for t and comparing it with the given time offlight.6V COS .j1 .4 TH E p. a and ""E..4 T H E p ITERA TION METHO D · From equation (5. and 2 solving for p.1 ) and si n  COS . we can solve for a and get 1 .cos ""V ( 1 .cos !:::. (sin xl i .25). hence. r 1 r2 p r 1 r2 yp s i n ""V a _ _ n ""E  (5 . The method consists of guessing a trial value of p from which we can compute the other two unknowns.6V V 1 . if we cancel ylil from both sides and write ta n (� I 2) as ( 1 cos �) I si n !:::. A The next method of solving the Gauss problem that we will look at could be called a direct piteration technique.4..?S.I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 24 1 Any computational algorithm for solving the Gauss problem via universal variables should include a check to see if y is negative prior to evaluating x.4. From equation (5 .Sec./ 1 1 Using the trigonometric identity . The piteration method presented below is unusual in that it will permit us to develop an analytical expression for the slope of the t vs p curve .)2 cos .4. It differs from the piteration method first proposed by Herrick and Liu in 1 959 6 since it does not directly involve eccentricity. 1 Expressing p as a Function of "" E.c o s x =. 5.V ) a (5 .23).42) into equation (5.. This check is only necessary when is positive. for all values of z and the t vs z curve approaches zero asymptotically as z approaches minus infinity. F or "long way" trajectories y is positive .
45) ± Using these same definitions. a may be written as a = p ( 1 COS Ll.43) as Ll. We will find it convenient to define three constants which may be determined from the given information: k=r m = 1 r2 ( 1 .2 Expressing a as a Function of p. (5 .. 5 ( 1 c o s bJ) bJ) ) Ll.J r 1 r 2 ( 1 + co s Ll. (5 .v ) we can rewrite equation (5 . 2 Ll.47) co s2 2mp 2 2 If we substitute this last expression into equation (5.Qp y'2ni p .E Q ± y'2ni C O S .4.E CO � = ± p= k = .48) k .c o s bJ)) (5 .45) and simplify.242 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E P= r 1 + r 2 . we get Ll. The first step in the solution is to find an expression for a as a function of p and the given information.E) •  k = k Ll.E .Q p ) 2 (5 .E Solving for cos2.44) • r1 r 2 ( 1 + c o s bJ)) Using these definitions. E 2p s i n 2 __ 2 k (5 . we obtain m p a= (5 .E ( k .46) Ll.2 � c o s 2 c o s 2"  r 1 r2 Ch . and noting that � c os '2 .43) 5.
. The two points where a approaches infInity correspond to parabolic orbits j oining r1 and r2 .4.!!? E )( c c c t E °t��It�==��parameter . Sec.41 Typical plot of a vs p for a fIxed r1 and r2 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 243 . Q) <J) p + r2 and Dv less than Figure In Figure 5 . 5 .. The values' of p that specify the parabolic orbits are labeled P j and P j j and will be important to us later . Notice that for those orbits where a is positive (ellipses). 5. a may not be smaller than some minimum value .4 .where k. First . Once we have selected a trial value of P and computed a from equation (5 048). Q and m are all constants that can be determined from r1 and r2 • It is clear from this equation that once p is specified a unique value of a is determined. Those orbits where a is negative are hyperb olic.. am The point where a is a minimum corresponds to the "minimum energy ellipse" j oining r1 and r2 . however.4 T H E p. 5. we need to determine � (or .F in case a is negative). The limiting case where P approaches infinity and a approaches zero is the straightline orbit connecting r1 and r2 • It would require infinity energy and have a timeof· flight of zero. 2. we' are ready to solve for t and check it against the given timeofflight .3 Checking the Trial Value of p.6.1 we have drawn a typical plot of a vs p for a fixed r 1 ' 'fr.
F ) . let's look at the family of orbits that can be drawn between a given £ 1 and £2 .25): 244 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . In Figure 5. 5 c o s . If (.23).4. although t approaches infInity for this orbit.6. If we look at "long way" trajectories.1 0) = = 1 .4.F is positive. The timeofflight may now be determined from equation (5 .6. we can compute f.6. let's consider the orbits that permit traveling from £ 1 to £2 the "short way.4 The t vs P Curve .a r1 (1  f) (5 . 9 and f from equations (5 ..6. F 1 .( 1 . This is the limiting case where p is infinite and t is zero. (5 . p approaches a finite minimum value which we will call P i .49) Since we always assume . If a is positive.6.From the trial value of P and the known information. we need to understand what the t vs p curve looks like . Before discussing the method of selecting a new trial value of p.s i n .E a If yield is negative. To get a feeling for the problem.F (5 .24) or the corresponding equation involving .41 1) c o sh .Tar (si n h .vi.6.23) and (5 .42 we have drawn £1 and £2 to be of equal length.E from equations (5 .E ) (5 . we see that the limiting case of .6. we can determine .E .41 2) (5 . As we take longer to make the journey from £1 to £2 ' the trajectories become more "lofted" until we approach the limiting case where we try to go through the open end of the parabola joining £ 1 and £2 · Notice that. The conclusions we will reach from examining this illustration also apply to the more general case where £ 1 =1= £2 · First. there is no ambiguity in determining � from this one equation.6.F: (5 . F .24) and (5 .6." The quickest way to get from £ 1 to £2 is obviously along the straight line from £ 1 to £2 .25). the corresponding f and 9 expressions involving .f) a r1 t=9+ t=9 + 5 .4..1 3) .6.
as well as all subsequent guesses for p.... Sec. P must lie between o and P j j . P must lie between P j and infinity.4 T H E p. we should first compute P j or P j j ....42 Family of possible transfer orbits connecting fl and r2 . As we choose trajectories with longer timesofflight.. parabola hyperbola Figure 5 . From the discussion above. For l'J) less than IT.. 5 .. t approaches infinity as P approaches a finite limiting value which we will call P j j . P iricreases until we reach the limiting case where we try to travel through the open end of the other parabola that j oins r 1 and r 2 • For this case .. lie within the prescribed limits. for t:sv greater than IT. In Figure 5 .zero timeofflight is achieved on the degenerate hyperbola that goes straight down r 1 to the focus and then straight up r2 and has p equal to zero.I T E R AT I O N M E T H O D 245 \  e l l i ps e m i n energy e l l i pse ...43 the solid line represents "shoit way" trajectories and the dashed line represents "long way" traj ectories. we can construct a typical plot of t vs P for a fixed r 1 and r2 . Since it is important thar the first trial value..
b . and one that gives too large a value. we can keep it bracketed while reducing the interval of uncertainty to some arbitrarily small value. 5 1 :co . one that gives too small a value for t.43 k p a rameter . by choosing our next trial value half way between the first two . . In the bisection method we must find two trial values of p. ell . .4. . '" E 0> '" .246 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I IVE . The method used to adjust the trial value of p to give the desired timeofflight is crucial in determining how rapidly p converges to a solution..4.. Several simple methods may be used successfully..1 5) 5 . Typical t and p plot for a fixed f l and f2 Pi = Pii Figure 5. such as the "Bolzano bisection" technique or "linear interpolation" (regula falsi).� &> � cS> a '< The limiting values of p correspond to the two parabolic orbits passing through f l and f2 · Since DE = for all parabolic orbits we can obtain. 0 Q + y2in k  (5 . I . � " . . The solution is then bracketed and. p )0 p" .4. from equation (5 .46).yLri1 (5 . • .5 Selecting a New Trial Value of p.1 4) Q .
...... If this last trial value is called Pn and t n is the timeofflight that results from it. . . .. . .1 and t n are the timesofflight corresponding to these trial values of p..t n ) ( P n . .. 5 .. .4. . . . If tn...I Figure 5 . .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 247 In the linear interpolation method we choose two trial values of pcall them Pn.1 6). . It is not necessary that the initial two trial values bracket the answer.1 ) (5.. then a better estimate of p may be obtained from . O��_4o P n..1 ) (t n . . .1 and Pn . then we select a new value from P n+ 1 = P n + (t . always retaining the latest two trial values of P and their corresponding timesofflight for use in computing a still better trial value from equation (5.Sec. . .. .P n . .. .. .......4.44 Selecting a new trial value o f P b y linear interpolation An even faster method is a Newton iteration ... 4 T H E p. . . .1 6) This scheme can be repeated.... .. tn t ... . . . .t n .... . but it requires that we compute the slope of the t vs P curve at the last trial value of p.
We must now obtain an expression for the derivative .1 2) Differentiating this expression with respect to p. 41 9) .24) Differentiating with respect to p yields dg dp  .iri equati �n (S. ( � .si n L'> E l .41 8) (S . � ( S . 5 where t p = Pn i� the slope at the last trial point.41 7). fl3  fJ.4. we get The expression for 9 is + r 1 r 2 si n L'>v g . From tbe f and 9 expressions we can write P n+1 = P n I P=P n and dt / dp is the desired timeofflight + + d t /d p (S .248 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 7) I t =9 viIZ.r 1 r 2 s i n L'>v 2p 0iP d g g = d p 2p  (S .4. (1  dL'> E c o s L'> E ) dp (S .
47) Differentiating both sides of this equation yields ( Y:d 2 cos 2 Si n bE .Q2 ) p2 + 2mk2 Qp + _ (5 .I T E R AT I O N M ET H O D 249 The derivative expression for a : da / dp comes directly from differentiating the m kp a = '( 2m .E / dp and noting.Sec.Q2 ) p 2 which simplifies to (5 .2 dp k ( k . 3 _ mk _ 2mk(2m Q2 ) p2 .Qp) 2 / ( 1 + cos �E) .Qp ) 2 4 m p 4m2 p4 which simplifies to �E d� E � si n .4 T H E p. we obtain .420) From equation (5 .47).k2 ] 2 [ (2m . bE d�E . that ( k .Qp ) mp3 m p2 Solving for cb.( k .47) we can write �E ( k Qp ) 2 cos 2 .= 2 2 m p2 _ (5 . 5 .2mk2 Qp 2kQp .Q 2 ) p 2 + 2 k Qp _ k 2 da dp mk(2m . from equation (5 .4 8) .Qp ) Q.2 dp 4 m p 2 ( k .
(5 .423) . p(k h JJ. 5 (5 . _ � a(t _ g ) ( k 2 + (2kmp2.4..420) W e are now ready t o substitute into equation (5 . which is valid for the elliptical portion of the vs curve. By an analogous derivation starting with the equation t p t = +}: ) 3 (si n 6F .6E JJ.COS6E)(1p(kcosQp) )2k 3 si n 6E + .4.Qp) si n 6E JJ.Q2 ) p2) dp 2p 2 m _ }a) 3 2k sinQp)6F ..42 1 ) : dL£ 2k(1 + cos 6E) dp p(k . (5 .6F) 9 we can arrive at the following slope expression which is valid for the hyperbolic portion of the vs curve : t p dt = :9.42 1 ) which simplifies to dt g 3a 3 ..1 9).� (6E .= .1 8) from (5 .si n 6E)[k2+m(2k m _ Q2 )p2 ] dp 2p 2 p2 + A (1 .250 O R B I T D ET E R M I NAT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I !VI E Ch . and (5 .
E or Ll. The type conic orbit will be known from the value of a. a.1 1 ) .4. 5 .423). should be used in equation (5 . we will develop and use the f and 9 series. Its main disadvantage is that separate equations are used for the ellipse and hyperbola.27) and (5 .F obtained from the trial value. Pn .4. Determine the limits on the possible values of P by evaluating P j and P j j from equations (5 . 5 251 .422) or (5 . Instead of using the f and 9 expres�ions. 8 . 4 .22). t and .1 3) and compare it with the desired timeofflight. Q and m from r] .F. 9 and f from equations (5 . 5 . The piteration method converges in all cases except when r ] and r2 are collinear. Solve for t from equation (5 . Evaluate 9 from equation (5 . Pick a trial value of P within the appropriate limits.6 ) and then solve for V I and v2 using equations (5 . Solve for Ll. 2 . 2.4. We can summarize the steps involved in solving the Gauss problem via the piteration technique as follows : 1 . 25). the values of g. as appropriate .1 0) or equation (5 .1 4) and (5 .44).1 5). (5 .To evaluate the slope at Pn . 9 .24) and (5 .4. This defect may be overcome by using the universal variables X and z introduced in Chapter 4 and discussed earlier in this chapter. of p.2·3). 7 . Evaluate the constants k. 5 THE GAUSS PROBLEM USING THE f AND 9 SERIES . Adjust the trial value of P using one of the iteration methods discussed above until the desired timeofflight is obtained.1 2) or (5 .4. equations (5 . G AUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D 9 S E R I ES In this section we will develop another method for solving the Gauss problem.II using 2 .4. Sec. using equations (5 . 6. Solve for f. the motion of a body in a Keplerian orbit is in a plane which contains the radius vector from the center of force to the body and the velocity vector. 5 .8). If we know the position r o and the velO City Vo at some time to then we know that the position vector at any time t can be expressed as a linear combination of ro and Vo because it always lies in the same plane as ro and vo' The coefficients of ro and Vo in this linear combination will be functions of the time and will depend upon the vectors ro and vo . 3 .49) and (5 . solve for a from equation (5 4 .6E or Ll. r and Ll. As stated earlier . Using the trial value.
5 5) r r (5 . we write equation (5 . 5 4) Differentiating with respect to time r ( n+ 1 ) = Fn r + F n v ' but � = . 5 4) for n = O. 5 6) Comparing with equation formulas F n+ 1 = F n . (5 .57) (5 .54) we have the following recursion (5 .� r and if we define u = � we can write + Gn r + Gn V (5 . 5 2) (5 . r (0) = r = F r + Go r o • (5 . 5 9) . 5 8) In order to determine F0 and Go so that we can start the recursion. 5 . 5 We can determine the functions series expansion around t = to r= where f and 9 (5 .1 ) by expanding r in a Taylor n=O L (5 .252 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . Therefore. 5 3) Since the motion is in a plane all the time derivatives of r must lie in the plane of r and v. (5 .u G n G n+ 1 = F n + Gn . we can write in general (n) r = Fn r + Gn v.
5 11 ) (5 . u L. (r ' V) 2 r4 (5 . 5 . 5 .1 4) Using the relationship this can be written: Using the definitions of q and p we have r2 ( V) 2 _ p=_ 1 r · V = rr .and the equation of motion f  (5 .1 7) .51 6) (5 . this can be (5 .5. 5 . p and q which will be useful later .51 2) u . v ) (no t the semilatus rectum)  (5 .Before continuing with the development of the functions F n and G n it is convenient to digress at this point to introduce and discuss three quantities u. q.5W)  (r .5. as we shall u . 5 GAUSS P R O B L E M U S I N G f AND g S E R I E S = 1 and Go = 253 q == p == � (V)2 r r2 _ 1 (5 . v are known .51 3) rr and the definition of p.515) =  ur. 1 Development of the Series Coefficients . p. These quantities are useful because their time derivatives These quantities can all be determined if the position r and the velocity can be expressed in terms of the quantities demonstrate. From which it is obvious that F 0 u == I:L r3 Sec. We define them as follows : O. Using the relationship written : r ·V = (5 .
5 . v) _ 1 u. 5 2 1 ) u =� r3 p = r 2 (r . .3u p (5 . . 5.1 9) q = 2p ( u + q + u ) + 3up q = . r) (v) 2 . Summarizing: (5 . ) _ 24 (r . ) .U = 22 r2 r  Similarly.r .254 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R OM 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .u G2 = F + G = O 1 1 . . 5 20) (5 . = .U .57) and (5 . 1 1 1 1 . _ [1 1  2 (v . q and the expression for U we have q = 22 u (r .58) we obtain F = F0 a u G 0 = 0 G = F0+ G0 = 1 F2 = F a u G = . (5 .1 8) Using the definition of P.23 r· (V) r   u.(v) 2 . d q = d t . r r (5 . 5.p (u + 2q ) . 522) q = .p (u + 2q ) After this digression we are now in a position to carry out the recursion of the F n and Gn· We have already seen that Applying the recursion formulas (5 .
Fs = F4 .5 GAU SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I ES _ 255 It may be appropriate to stop at this point and check that these results make sense .r r3 2 2 O r( ) = r = Fo r + G0 .6 u 2 p = . Writing equation (5 . = .Sec.1 5p 2 + 3q ) + u 3 U P . 5. = r 0.. 2 we have : ) r( 1 = . Since everything seems to be working we shall continue.6 u 2 p = . F3 = F .u G 4 = u ( u . ' r ( 2) = � = F r + G r = .1 5p 2 + 3q ) Continuing. = F 1 r + G 1 .u 2 '2 In the next step we shall see the value of u .54) for n = 1 .30p p + 3 q ) .3 u p ( u .u r = .t!:.3p ( u + 2q ) .u = 3up 2 2 G 3 = F + \. = .30p ( q _ 2p2 ) .7 p 2 + 3q ) ] [ .2p2 ) + u2 = u ( u .1 5u p ( u . p and q.u G = . = 3p (3u p ) + 3 u ( q .1 5 p2 + 3q ) + u ( u .
52) and (5 .tao Comparing with equation (5 .526) .523) . but we shall use our results so far to determine the functions f and 9 to terms in t5 .2p2 } + 6p (3up} = u (u .5.524) (5 . Referring to equations (5 .54) r= where f( r o ' V 0' t ) = F �7=( t�o ( t . therefore.51) I n=O I n=O 00 (5 . .1 5p2 + 3q } + 6p(q .t o } n r ( n) o 2 n=O n ! (t . .t o } n nr + G n 2 n! n=O Tn r n! n o + ) [I F VI] t=to (� n T.Gn n.u o 72 + � U O P 07 3 + i4 u o (u o .1 5p � + 3 Q o ) 74 (5 . the algebra was programmed on a computer to get further terms which are indicated in Table 5 . 5 = U (u .525) Using the results for F n and G n we have previously derived f= 1  t.256 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F RO M 2 P O S I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .1 . ) .4 5p2 + 9 q} To continue much farther is obviously going t o become tedious and laborious. Vo (5 .
20u) + 1 26up(7S q2 + 24 uq + u2 ) G 9 = I 039Sup4 (9 1 p2 + l OSq + 2Su) .u(22Sq2 + S4uq + u 2 ) G s = 630up3 (99p2 .51 . F = 3up 3 F = u(.30q .u) G s = u(_4Sp 6 G 7 =3 1 Sup2 (.u(99 225q4 + 8S41 0uq3 + I S 066u2 q 2 + 498u3q + u 4 ) Go = O. F 5 = 1 5up(7p2 .30up(26460q3 + 1 2393uq2 + 1 1 70u2q + 1 7u3) Table 5 .l Sup(66 1 Sq3 + 4959uq2 + 729u 2 q + 1 7u 3 ) F 6 2 2 2 4 lO = 675675up (1 5p + 84q + 28u) .3 1 5up2 ( 1 Sq + 7u) (9q + U) + u( 1 S 7Sq3 + l 1 07u Cj 2 + 1 1 7u2 q + U 3 ) F 9 = 1 3S 1 35upS (l 5p2 .6q .l Ou) + 63up(25q 2 + 1 4up + U2 ) = 1 039Sup\1 3pS + 1 5q + 5u) .28q . 5 . G = O. G = u.94Sup2 (3 1 S q2 + 1 1 8up + 7u2 ) + u(1 1 02Sq3 + 4 1 3 1uq2 + 243u2 q + u3 ) G 10 = 8 1 08 1 0up s (20p 2 .U) 4 F 6 =1 05up 2 (9p2 + 6q + 2u) .u(45q2 + 24up + U2 ) FS F0 = F 7 = 3 1 5up3(33p2 .1 Sp2 + l Oq + 2u) .7u) + 346Sup 3 (3 1 5q 2 + 1 8 6uq + 1 9u 2 ) .1 891 890up ( 1 5 q + 9uq + u ) + 660up2 (66 1 Sq3 + 5 1 84uq2 + 909u2q + 32u3 ) .7u) + 1 3860up3 (630q2 + 26 luq + 1 9u 2 ) . F 1 = 0.90q .3q . F 2 = 'U. G 1 = 1 . 5 G A U SS P R O B L E M U S I N G f A N D g S E R I E S 257 1 .1 5p 2 + 3q + U). G = 6up 4 3 2 2 + 9q + u). G = 30up(1 4p2 .2 1 q .Sec.
The f and 9 series may be used . f I . p.2·3). In the interest of its historic and illustrative value we will exa· mine the method which was originally proposed by Gauss in 1 8094 . to solve Gauss' problem if the time interval between the two measurements is not too large . 5  45 P 0 2 + 9Q O ) 7 5 74 (5 .f (r I .6 WE ORIGINAL GAUSS ME THOD r 2 . 2·5).51) + 9= 7  1 .2 Solution of the Gauss Problem. 5.0 1 6 U0 73 + 4 U 0 P0 uo (uo 1 Ch . This method has the advantage of not having a quadrant ambiguity as some other methods. This method converges very rapidly if 7 is not too large.24) and (5 .5·29) to compute a new value of VI ' This method of successive approximations can be continued until V I is determined with sufficient accuracy.258 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E where u O Po and Qo are the values of u . we will present a very compact and concise development of the Gauss method using only equations (5 . 5.5·28) from which we find If we guess a value of VI we can compute f and 9 and then can use equation (5 . The derivation of the necessary equations "from scratch" is long and tedious and may be found in Escobal3 or Moulton5 . From equation (5 . the extension of the method to cover hyperbolic orbits will be obvious. In going from rl to r the radius 2 5 . We assume that we are given the positions r � and r2 at times t I and t2 and we wish to find v. Although we will assume that the transfer orbit connecting r I and r2 is an ellipse. (5 .5·27) + ' (5 . 1 Ratio of Sector to Triangle . 5 .6. Since all of the relationships we need are contained in the f and 9 expressions.5·29) . 7) (5 . q at t = to' The f and 9 series will be used in a later section to determine an orbit from sighting directions only. r I . 7) r I g (r I .
The area of the triangle formed by t�e two radii and the subtended chord is just onehalf the base times the altitude . .77) where t is the timeofflight from r 1 to r . 5. This . A trial value of Y (usually Y � 1) is selected and the first equation is solved for L£ .Sec. As. h Since h = �the area of the shaded sector. so Gauss called the ratio of sector to triangle area Y.61 Sector and triangle area (5 . L£ .61) The Gauss method is based on obtaining two independent equations relating Y and the change in eccentric anomaly. 259 vector sweeps out the shaded area shown in Figure 5 6. becomes dt (1 . thus Figure 5 .1 In Chapter 1 we showed that area is swept out at a constant rate : = 2 dA.6 TH E O R I G I N A L G AUSS M ET H OD .
' l'2 2 2 (5 . x)/ ( 1 cos x) = cos2 �. let s w = = Note that s and W are constants that may be evaluated from the given information.43) and using the identity.6. If we square the expression for the sectortotriangle ratio. but fails completely if the radius vector spread is large.2 The First Equation of Gauss. we obtain Ji p t 2 2 Substituting for p from equation (5 . this expression becomes 2 y = _ _ _ _ _ _ (r1 r s i n L'Jl ) 2 (si n2  2 2 2r1 r 2 c o s2 L'Jl 2 (r 1 In order to simplify this expression.c o s b.6.62) (5 .2 Vrrr c o s L'Jl co s b.1 ) an expression which contains L'£ as the only unknown.2E ) 2 . The first equation of Gauss will be obtained by substituting for p in equation (5 .V 1 2 gt 2 S r1 + r2 2 1 + r 2 . 5 value of L'£ is then used in the second equation to compute a better trial value of y. A little trigonometric manipulation will prove that y2 may be expressed compactly as W y2 (5 . 5. This technique of successive approximations will converge rapidly if y is nearly one.260 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .64) = 2 (2� co s � )3.63) which is known as "the first equation of Gauss." + l( 1 . 4 � c o s b. . E ) .
si n l:v cos � . 5 .24) and (5 .= .65). (5 . ( .67) 1 cos l:>v =.s i n l:>E ) . Si.6 . n l:> E ) ... we see that r 1 r2 But r 1 r 2 1 .1)(2� 2 ) (l:>E .£Q.6 T H E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 26 1 5 . so .L s i n l:>v/ VJiP = 3 s i n l:>v = t If J.s i n l:>E ) .JiiP 1 We still need to eliminate a from this expression...L t 2 y3 1 y l:> 1 2 cos V 2� 2 2 If we now cube this equation and mUltiply it by equation (5 . t/y.Sec. Using the identity.(5 . 3 s i n 3 l:>E a will 2 . L ( l:>E . .61). From the first of these equations.65) 0LP t r 1 r 2 S i n l:>v COS l:>v From equation (5 . Another completely independent expression for y involving l:>E as the only unknown may be derived from equations (5 .jiF ( l:>E Y t 1 J.2 ( 1 r1 r .23) we can write y  =2 2 2  ...L .cos l:>E ) Substituting this last expression into equation (5 .67) eliminates vp" in favor of va: Vii t y= (5 . 3 The Second Equation of G auss.68) s i n l:>E cos l:>v be eliminated and we end up with J. equation .2 2 L (5 .61 ) becomes si n l:v .
from r I ' r2 . S + 1 . there is no problem determining the correct quadrant for LE . (5 . equations (5 .6.4 Solution of the Equations .69) are transcendental.262 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch . and so on.43) and the f and 9 expressions evaluated.6. We then added another independent equation. We can now solve Gauss' first equation for 6E.25). n = 2 si n 3 LE . 27) and (5 . 6.s) . The first step is to evaluate the constants.Si.64) and solving for y. we get y = 1 + ( A A )( C C = . (5 . Unfortunately. y and LE . the parameter p may be computed from equation (5 .6. p. 22) completes the solution. pick a trial value for y. y 2 ( y . a good first guess is y � 1 .1 ) = W (LE .69) cos f = 1 . recall that we started with three equations. in three unknowns. This better value of y is then used in equation (5 . When convergence has occurred. until two successive approximations for y are nearly identical.from (5 . using the trial value of y: 2 2 ) (5 . The determination of VI and v2 from equations (5 . 5 Recognizing the first factor as w. Next. and one more unknown. which is known as "the second equation of Gauss. To review what we have done so far. (5 . we now have reduced the set to two equations in two unknowns.64) and (5 .1 0) . so a trialanderror solution is necessary. a and LE. since this method only works well if 6vis less than about 90 0 . (5 .2(� . 24) and (5 . By a process of eliminating p and a between these four equations.1 ) .si n LE ) we may write. y. 23). s and w. !:JJ and t." 5 . We are now ready to use this approximate value for 6E to compute a better approximation for y from Gauss' second equation. more compactly s i n 3 6E Substituting for y.cos � 2 If we assume that LE is less than 21r (which will always be the case unless the satellite passes back through f l enroute to f2 ) .1 0) to compute a still better value of 6E.
c:.S ) y (5 . F s i n h 3 "2 . )� s + 1 . they are valid only if the transfer orbit from ( 1 to (2 is elliptical.1 0) may also b e written as Sec. For this reason.6.69) becomes = These equations may be used exactly as equations (5 . E or .E is imaginary. 6 TH E O R I G I N A L G A U SS M ET H O D 263 cosh y . difficulties may be anticipated any time .1 2) become indeterminate.F are close to zero.s i n . we can conclude that the transfer orbit is hyperbolic when this occurs.c:. F = si nh .c:.c:.5 Extension of Gauss' Method t o Any Type of Conic Orbit.c:.F 2 ) · (5 . F. the righthand side of equation (5 .F is real. i sin i.c:.c:.c:. 5 . 6. equation (5 .69) and · (5 .c:.c:.1 0) may become greater than one. indicating that�.E is imaginary.c:. 6.1 0) x 1+( 2" = 1  2 ( w2 . as y2 = W S + x . Noting that .1 1 ) s i n h .E 2 � (1  cos �) The first equation of Gauss may then be written.69) and to determine y.c:.cE.F = rush .E and . E = i . Since we already know that when .6.c:.E .6. Gauss solved this problem by defining two auxiliary variables.c:.c:.c:.0. x (not to be confused with the universal variable of Chapter 4) and X as follows : (5 .c:.c:. The extension of Gauss' method to include hyperbolic and parabolic orbits is the subject of the next section.F . then .cosh 2 .c:.F whenever the right side is greater than one .F . Using the identity. equation (5 . S.F will be zero and both equations (5 .Since the equations above involve .6. If the given timeofflight is short.c:.1 2) = X = .E s i n 3 . If the transfer orbit being sought happens to be parabolic.. .F and COS i .F .
replacing CDs 6. E with CDsh F in the case of the hyperbolic orbit. 5 ·x = The second equation of Gauss may be written as y  s. it is possible to expand the function X as a power series in x.6.6. (s + x ) · 1 (5 . g .26).63). .1 5) 1 . The type of conic orbit is determined at this point. and then expressing 6. 3 .27) and (5 .62) and (5 .1 4) Now. . 4. E as a power series in x. ( 1 + §. s and w. problem via the Gauss method We may now reformulate the algorithm for solving the Gauss as follows : 1 .1 0) or (5 .. the orbit being an ellipse.61 3) I y= 1 +X (5 . f. the iteration to determine y fails to converge shortly beyond this point.25) and (5 . 1� = 2 3 1. Determine p from equation (5 . parabola. The method outlined above is perhaps the most accurate and rapid technique known for solving the Gauss problem when l:J) is less than 900 ..1 5) and use it to compute a better approximation to y from equation (5 . 2 6.6. .Y:i.F from equation (5 . 7 . ) .264 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E . r2 . 6 . Repeat this cycle until y converges to a solution. This may be accomplished by first writing the power series expansion for X in terms of &. Solve for VI and v2 from equations (5 . The result. Assume y � and compute X from equation (5 . or negative. . Compute the constants. Evaluate f.1 3). 5 ..22).1 1).1 4).6.23).43). X + 6 · 8 x + 6 · 8 · 1 0 x + 3 5 5 ·7 5 ·7 ·9 . or hyperbola according to whether x is positive. is .24).]) and t using equations (5 .1 (5 . (5 . /:.E or 6. (5 . zero.2 Ch . Depending on the type of conic. which is developed by Moulton.6 . and 9 from equations (5 . from rl .6. determine 6. Determine X from equation (5 . 2. 2 .6.
INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS . we will assume that the target satellite is in a nearly circular orbit inclined 65 0 to the equator and at time . 72. let's define a hypothetical mission and show how such an analysis is performed. We will assume that a single impulse is added to the launch vehicle to give it its launch velocity. The subject of ballistic missile targeting is covered in Chapter 6 and interplanetary trajectories are covered in Chapter 8. Let's assume that we have the position and velocity of a target satellite at some time to and we wish to intercept this target satellite from a ground launch site." In all but the simplest cases. To avoid generalities. Usually. The £:. The situ�tion at time to is illustrated in Figure 5 . to' it is over the Aleutian Islands heading southeastward." Mission planning includes determining the optimum timing and sequence of maneuvers for a particular mission and the cost of the mission in terms of f':N or "characteristic velocity. Our launch site will be at Johnston Island in the Pacific. The Gauss problem is also applicable to lunar trajectories which is the subject of Chapter 7 . and ballistic missile interception.v required to intercept the target depends on two parameters PROBLEM. Applications of the Gauss problem are almost limitless and include interplanetary transfers. then we may also be interested in the velocity we will have upon arrival at the destination. and we must rely on a computer analysis to establish suitable "launch windows" for a particular mission. The problem is to establish the optimum launch time and timeofflight for the interceptor. �atellite intercept and rendezvous.Sec. 5 . We will assume that time to is 1 200 GMT. we would like to know what velocity is required at the first point in order to coast along a conic orbit and arrive at the destination at the prescribed time . 7 I NT E R C E PT AN D R E N D E Z V O U S 265 5 . To make the problem even more specific. ballistic missile targeting. Oribt determination from two positions and time i s usually part of an even larger problem which we may call "mission planning. the problem of determining the optimum sequencing of velocity changes to give the minimum total t:lJ defies analytical solution. If the object of the mission is to rendezvous with some other satellite. 7 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF THE GAUSS A fundamental problem of astrodynamics is that of getting from one point in space to another in a predetermined time .
7 . fI }/ \ \ . . I n .� . 5 i nterceptor ..' ':.f.. ) / ot t.. r." \ t a rg e t / \ .\..7. at t. .�: :. ��y V \" _ .266 O R B I T D E T E R M I NAT I ON F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .. "..� ' ... \ •• • • • • • ..1 .1 Important practical applications of the Gauss problem ... I NT E R C E P T RENDEZVOUS a BA Ll i STIC M I SSI L E TARGE T I N G Figure 5 .... �/ �/ "...". ". e Pt _ f e rc _   t rajec tary.
The next step is to determine where the target will be at 1 2 1 0. we need to find the position vector from the center of the Earth to the launch site at 1 205 . We have already discussed this problem in Chapter 2 . Suppose we pick a launch time of 1 205 and a timeof·flight of 5 minutes. The velocity of the interceptor is due solely to earth rotation and is in the eastward direction at the site . 5 . we can update r and v to 1 2 1 0 by solving the Kepler problem which we discussed in Chapter 4. the launch time and the timeofflight of the interceptor. which is when the intercept will occur. Since it is stationary on the launch pad at Johnston Island.Sec. We now have two position vectors and the timeofflight between . Since we know the position and velocity of the target at 1 200.7 I N T E R C E PT A N D R E N D E ZV O U S 267 Figure 5 .7 2 Example intercept problem which we are free to choose arbitrarily. The first step in determining �v is to find the position and velocity of the interceptor at 1 205 .
launch vel. . 1 21 km/sec and �Vl + �V2 = 1 1 . Since the interceptor must be put on a collision course with the target for a rendezvous mission. The difference between the velocity of the target and interceptor at the intercept point is the �V2 that would . . 74 where lines of constant indicate the regions of interest. But how do we know that some other launch time and timeofflight might not be cheaper in To find out. . have to be added if a rendezvous with the target is desired. so we can solve the Gauss problem to find what velocity is required at the launch point and what velocity the interceptor will have at the intercept point. we need to repeat the calculations for various terms of combinations of launch time and time offlight. . . . 7 3 Satellite intercept from Johnston Island . The results may be displayed in tabular form or as we have done in Figure 5 .268 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .238 km/sec. �v? �v . . the total cost of interceptrendezvous is the scalar sum of �Vl and �V2 ' If we carry out the computations outlined above we get �Vl = 4. . \ J o h n ston l a u n c h site Is. 5 them. " . . The difference between the required launch velocity and the velocity that the interceptor already has by virtue of earth rotation is the �Vl that the booster rocket must provide to put the interceptor on a collision course with the target. \ \ \ Figure 5 . .
Because of earth rotation. In this case "optimum" launch conditions are those that result in the earliest intercept time without exceeding the 6V limitations of the interceptor. One is where we have a fixed payload and are trying to minimize the size of the launch vehicle required to accomplish the mission . Suppose the mi ssion i s to intercept the target as quickly a s possible with an interceptor that has a fixed 6V capability. In summary . the closer the intercept point is to the launch site . 1 Interpretation of the t:N Pl ot. A great deal may be learned about a particular mission just by studying a 6V plo t .7 . " It would be a mistake to assume that those launch conditions which minimize 6V are the optimum for a particular mission. This can only occur if the launch takes place at the exact time the launch site is passing through the target's orbital plane and only occurs twice every 24 hours at most . the better .7 . we can say that the mo st important single factor in determining the 6V required for intercept is the choice of where the intercept is made relative to the launch site . We have to know more about the mission before we can properly interpret a 6V plot .72 we can see that this will first occur when the intercept time is about 1 2 1 0 (launch at 1 205 plus 5 min timeofflight) .2 Definition of "Op timum Launch Conditions . 7 I NT E R C E PT A N D R E N D E Z V O U S 269 . 5 . Keep in mind that the Earth is rotating and . 5 . The target satellite in our example will again pass close t o Johnston Island at about 1 340 GMT and another good launch opportunity will present itself.5 . The lowest 6V's for intercept are likely to occur when the intercept point is close to the launch site . There are two common instances where we would be trying to minimize 6V. The other is where we have fixed the launch vehicle and are Sec. A similar 6V plot for interceptplusrendezvous would show that the lowest 6V's occur when the transfer orbit is coplanar with the target's orbit. the next pass at 1 5 1 0 will not bring the targe t satellite nearly so clo se to the launch site . In Figure 5 . This is most likely to occur when the intercept point is located far from the launch site and timeofflight is short . From Figure 5 . the launch site will have moved eastward . although the target satellite returns to the same position in space �fter one orbital period. 74 the shaded area represents those conditions that result in the interceptor striking the earth enroute to the targe t . After 1 2 hours the launch site will again pass through the plane of the target's orbit and another good series of launch windows should occur.
O F .J 1430 1500 1530 Figure 5 .270 O R B I T D E T E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & T I M E Ch .4 /':. 5 5 I NTERC EPTOR 10 T I M E .V plot for example intercept problem ..7..) z :J « .F L I GHT 1230 1300 1 330 l1J ::0 >1400 :I: <.
Sec.8 . L e t us a ssume that w e can measure the righ t ascension and declination of an Earth satellite from some station on the Earth at three time s t 1 . the three components of r2 . P3 . i. the three components of v2 and the three quantities P I ' P2 .1 ) The ve ctor r from the center of the Earth is We expand the vector r in terms of the f and 9 series evaluated at that r=R+p L.8 DETERMINATION O F ORBIT FROM SIGHTING DIRECTIONS AT STATION (5 . 5 . 8 D E T E R M I N AT I O N O F O R B I T 27 1 trying to maximize the payload it can carry. another method will be develope d . Though one me thod of orbit determination from optical sightings was presented in Chapter 2.e.V plot as an aid in mission planning is generally applicable to all types of mission analy sis . 82) t2 so (5 . (5 .85) (5 . Although we have examined a very specific example . the te chnique of producing and interpreting a 6.86) This is a set of nine equations in the nine unknown s r2 .84) (5 . now that we have develope d the f and 9 series. t 3 ' The unit vector L j p ointing in the direction of the satellite from the station is 5. P3 · . v2 • P I ' P2 . t2 .
the components of f2 and V2 . 8. L3 . � into equations (5 .R 1 Z L 1 Y ==  L2 ZX . Substitute these values of fl ' 9 1 . f3 and 9 3 using the terms of equations (5 . Letting the Cartesian components of f2 be x . 5 to (5 . R1 . in fact only six of the equations are independent. y and z .272 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POS I T I O N S & . 526) and (5 .T I M E We can eliminate the Pj by cross multiply the obtain jt h e qu ation by Lj Ch .8) (5 .e.1 0) A procedure which may be used to solve this set of equations is as follows: a. b . i.8. 5 27) which are independent of P2 and q 2 d .1 0) and solve the resulting linear algebraic equations for the six unknowns x. Estimate the magnitude of f2 . y.8·7) (5 .8·9) Although it appears that there are now nine equations in six unknowns. and eliminating the K components. L2 .L2 XZ f 3 L 3 Z X f 3 L 3 XZ + 9 3 L 3 Z� 9 3 L3 xi = R 2 X L2 Z R 2 Z L2 X  == (5 .8. ' r2 . Using this estimate compute u 2 = �' 3 f3  L3 zy f3 L 3 Z y  + 9 3 L 3 z Y 9 3 L 3 y i == R 3 Y L 3 Z ==  R 3 X L3 Z R 3 Z L3 X  R 3 Z L3 Y c. f3 ' 9 3 and the known values of the components of L1 . Rz . y and Z . the components of Vz be X. these equations are : f 1 L 1 z X f 1 L 1 XZ + 9 1 L 1 Z� 9 1 L 1 xi  f 1 L I ZY R 1 xLI Z R 1 ZL1 X f 1 L 1 yZ + 9 1 L I ZY 9 1 L 1 yi R 1 Y L I Z . Compute the values of f l ' 9 1 .
\ls for various combinations of reaction time and time of flight to the target for a given interceptor location. Usirlg specific numbers. 5.V required for intercept? 5. which are the components of f2 and v2 .1 for specific values of f } and f2 (such as f} 2l. Then compute new values of f } 9 } f3 and 9 3 from equations (5 . but it is probably too tedious for hand computation because of the time required to solve the system of six linear algebraic equations several times. c. =: =: 5 .522). 5 . e . 5. Discuss and· rank each method for each of the following criteria: a.41 .3 Verify equations (5 .39). verify and amplify the descriptive statements used in discussirlg Figure 5 . f. . using as many terms as are necessary to obtain required accuracy.4 Verify the development of equation (5 048). (5.t2 and t2 t } are not too large.6 Derive equation (5 . Compute new values of u2 P2 q2 from this f2 and v2 using their definitions equations (5 . Limitations.32). b. 5 Make a plot similar to Figure 5 04. I I I I  x. What relative orientation between launch site and target would minimize the 6. Z. The process is well suited to solution on a digital computer.31 3) through (5 .423) for hyperbolic orbits. and (5. Accuracy. Ease of computation. Repeat steps d and e until process converges to correct values of f2 and v2 · This process converges very rapidly if the time intervals t 3 .31 5) by developirlg them from equations (5 . Y.527).31 ). EXE RCISES 273 EXERCISES Several methods for solving the Gauss problem have been developed in this chapter. f2 I + J DU).1 5.526) and (5 . 5 Z.Ch .2 As a mission planner you could calculate 6.
h = 1 . 1 1 For the following data sets for r I .7 .J + K).t l determine v2 using a. p 1 + J + K DU DU 5. r2 . The piteration technique. vI = 0. which will contain both position vectors. = 1 rl r1 Find the velocity VI at ti using the f and 9 series. d.274 O R B I T D ET E R M I N AT I O N F R O M 2 POSI T I O N S & T I M E Ch .9 Repeat problem 5 . 5 . t2 .009 (.t 1 = T U 8 =1 DU 1 . (Ans. The universal variable method .06 1 8 5 80261 + 1 . Find an expression for the semimajor axis of the minimum energy ellipse.tl = 1 .8 using the universal variable.8 An Earth satellite is observed at two times t l and t2 to have the following positions : =I = fmd e and h for t2 . 5 Given two position vectors rI . although a few iterations can be made by hand. Note : The remaining exercises are well suited for computer use. 5. The original Gauss method. 10 An Earth satellite's positions at two times t l and t2 are measured by radar to be 5. d. rl r2 p. as a function of rI r2 .0922 TU. (Ans.00256 (J + K» . Use the piteration technique with = 2 as a starting value. r2 'and the distance between them. 5 . + lJ + IK D U 8 8 and t 2 . b. c.
Herrick.0. Eric Temple ." in The World of 1 .4804847 1 1 2 +0. Two Body Orbit Determination From Two Positions and Time of Flight. New York. A stronautical Guidance. Davis. the MacMillan Company. 1 964. 51 + 0. Inc. S. (Answer : v = 0. Methods of Orbit Determination.t 1 = 20 T U f 2 = . Bell. 3. NY. Aeronutronic Pub No C·365 . Inc.t 1 = 1 0 T U r2 = 21 Use " short way" trajectory. Theory of the Motion of the Heavenly Bodies Revolving about the Sun in Conic Sections. Gauss.000 1 T U r 2 = J Use "short way" trajectory. a. r 1 = 2I t2 . NY.7K D U t 2 . McGrawHill Book Company. New 6. New York. and A. Moulton.6J + 0. (Why is this data set insoluable?) LIST OF REFERENCES e. New York. Pedro Ramon. 1 . 1 9 59. Dover Publications. NY. Forest Ray.9 378 1 789K D U/T U ) b .t 1 = 1 0 T U f 2 = 2J D U Use " short way" trajectory. f l = 0 . New York. Vol 5 . Simon and Schuster. d . Richard H. NY. 2I D U t2 . to Celestial Mechanics. r 1 = 41 t 2 . John Wiley & Sons.Ch .66986 9921+0 . r 1 = I t 2 . 1 9 1 4.t 1 = 20 TU r 2 = 21 . Battin. Liu. a translation of Theoria Motus (1 857) by Charles H. . Escobal.t 1 = 0. Mathematics. "The Prince of Mathematicians. 1 965.2J Use "long way" traj ectory. Carl Friedrich.J D U Use "long way" trajectory. A n Introduction York. 1 963. 2 . c . 5 E X E R C I S ES 215 Compare the accuracy and speed of convergence . Appendix A. f 1 = 1 . 1 956. 4.
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World War II as "too late . As a result the German High Command was more receptive to suggestions for rocket development than were military commands in other countries. The first two operational missiles were fired against Paris on 6 September 1 944 and an attaok on London followed 2 days later. which concern us in this chapter. 1 General Dornberger summed up the use of the longrange missile in . It had a dispersion at the target of 1 0 miles over a range of 200 miles and carried a warhead of about 277 . 2 He might have added that it was not a particularly effective weapon as used. By the end of the war in May 1 945 over 3 . longrange ballistic missiles.000 V2's had been fired in anger . During 1 943 and 1 944 over 280 test missiles were fired from Peenemiinde . begun in 1 93 2 under the direction of then Captain Walter Dornberger . ironically . It forbade the Germans to develop longrange artillery . Napoleon I 6. The result is well known.CHAPTER 6 BALLISTIC MISSILE TRA JECTORIES 'Tis a principle of war that when you can use the lightning 'tis better than cannon. Efforts. have a very short history . . 1 HI STORICAL BACKGROUND While the purist might insist that the history of ballistic missiles stretches back to the first use of crude rockets in warfare by the Chinese. The impetus for developing the longrange rocket as a weapon of war was. the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I . culminated in the first successful launch of an A4 ballistic missile (commonly known as the V2) on 3 October 1 942.
Brigadier General 3 . in June 1 9 53 . At an intelligence briefing at WrightPatterson Air Force Base in August 1 95 2 . California. No German was permitted to enter this separate building. They were assigned the task of designing a rocket motor with a thrust of 260. it was more than just an extension of long·range artilleryit was the first b allistic missile as we know it today. In October 1 95 3 a study contract was placed with the RamoWooldridge Corporation and by May 1 9 54 the new ICBM program had highest Air Force priority. Trevor Gardner . Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Research and Development. According to Dr. But in November 1 95 2 at Eniwetok the thermonuclear "Mike" shot ended all doubts and paved the way for the "Shrimp" shot of March 1 954 which revolutionized the program. Even more disquieting should have been the report that the Soviets had built a separate factory building adjacent to that occupied by the German workers.000 3 pounds and later one of 5 3 0 . these disquieting facts were revealed by Dornberger who had interviewed many of his former colleagues on a return trip to Germany .278 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . Darol Froman of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory the key question in the 1 9 50's was "When could the AEC come up with a warhead light enough to make missiles practical?" The ballistic missile program in this country \\li S still essentially in abeyance when a limited contract for the ICBM called "Atlas" was awarded.000 pounds thrust. The Soviets were able to assemble at Khimki a staff of about 80 men under the former propulsion expert Werner Baum. convened a special group of the nation's leading scientists known as the Teapot Committee . They met in a vacant church in Inglewood. 4 Accordingly. and the result of their study was a recommendation to the Air Force that the ballistic missile program be reactivated with top priority . The experts displayed no particular sense of immediacy. The group was led by the late Professor John von Neumann of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton. The United States Army obtained the services of most of the key scientists and technicians including Dornberger and Wernher von Braun. the atomic bomb was still too heavy to be carried by a rocket. After all. In July 1 95 4. 6 one ton of the high explosive AmatoL Nevertheless. After the war there was a mad scramble to "capture" the German scientists of Peenemunde who were responsible for this technological miracle.
After three unsuccessful attempts.000 people participating directly. Ballistic missile targeting is just a special application of the Gauss problem which we treated rigorously in Chapter 5 . To compute precise missile trajectories requires the full complexity of perturbation theory.2 THE GENERAL BALLISTIC MISSILE PRO B LEM A ballistic missile trajectory is composed of three partsthe powered flight portion which lasts from launch to thrust cutoff or burnout. Schriever was given the monumental task of directing the accelerated ICBM program and began handpicking a staff of military assistants. the freeflight portion which constitutes most of the trajectory. Within a year of its beginning in a converted parochial school building in Inglewood the prograin had passed from top Air Force priority to top national priority. From 2 main contractors at the beginning. Blasingame . the first successful flight of a Series A Atlas took place on 1 7 Decemb er 1 95 7 . Atlas was a reality. 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 279 Bernard A. we cannot use 2 body mechanics to determine its path . While the history of the ballistic missile is b oth interesting and significant. The trajectory of a missile differs from a satellite orbit in only one respectit intersects the surface of the Earth.Sec. 6. by mid· 1 95 9 . later to become the first Head of the Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy. the program had. and the reen try portion which begins at some illdefined point where atmospheric drag becomes a significant force in determining the missile's path and lasts until impact. it follows a conic orbit during the free· flight portion of its trajectory and we can analyze its behavior according to principle s which you already know. 3 0 main contractors and more than 80. Otherwise. Progress was rapid. 6 . Since energy is continuously being added to the missile during powered flight . a knowledge of how and why it works is indispensable for understanding its employment as a weapon. In this chapter we will present a somewhat simplified scalar analysis of the problem so that you may gain some fresh insight into the nature of ballistic trajectories. Only 4 months after the Soviet Union had announced that i t had an intercontinental ballistic missile . When he reported to the West Coast he had with him a nucleus of four officersamong them Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin P. In this chapter we are concerned mainly with concepts.
(6 . =. 6 ." etc. It will not be discussed in this text. Reentry involves the dissipation of energy by friction with the atmosphere . There are. During freeflight the trajectory is part of a conic orbitalmost always an ellipsewhich we can analyze using the principles learned in Chapter 1 . a few new and unfamiliar terms which you must learn before we embark on any derivations.2. we will determine the timeofflight for the freeflight portion of the trajectory. Figure 6. We will find it very convenient to define a nondimensional parameter called Q such that (6 . We will begin by assuming that the Earth does not rotate and that the altitude at which reentry starts is the same as the burnout altitude.2. such terms as "height at burnout. Since you are already familiar with the terminology of orbital mechanics." "flightpath angle at burnout. We will then answer a more practical question"given rbo' vbo' and a desired freeflight range. Q .22) .. 6 from launch to burnout. The path of the missile during this critical part of the flight is determined by the guidance and navigation system.1 ) Q can b e evaluated a t any point in a n orbit and may be thought o f as the squared ratio of the speed of the satellite to circular satellite speed at that point.2 The Nondimensional Parameter.ji1Tr.280 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . need not be redefined." "height of apogee. Since Va:. This latter assumption insures that the freeflight trajectory is symmetrical and will allow us to derive a fairly simple expression for the freeflight range of a missile in terms of its burnout conditions.. This is the topic of an entire course and will not be covered here . 1 defines these new quantities.2.. 1 Geometry of the Trajectory .2. what flightpath angle at burnout is required? " Following a discussion of maximum range trajectories. 6 . however.
6.21 Geometry of the b allistic missile trajectory .2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L EM 28 1 p oint 'It r  powered flight range angle freeflight range angle reentry range angle total range angle A n    R re Rff Rp  ground range of powered flight ground range of free flight ground range of reen try  � Rt  total ground range Figure 6 .Sec .
24) 6 . (6.2. It would be rare to find a ballistic missile with a Q equal to or greater than 2. We can take the familiar energy equation of Chapter 1 .25) Solving for cos vbo ' we get ___ cos v b o = p rb er b o 0 (6 . If Q= 2 it means that the satellite has exactly escape speed and is on a parabolic orbit. the satellite is on a hyperbolic orbit. Since the freeflight trajectory of a missile is a conic section.the expression p.O/r from equation (6.23) or IQ=2�·1 p .282 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E C TO R I ES Ch . the satellite has exactly local circular satellite speed. rb o = 1 + e cos vb o (6 .2.26) . the general equation of a conic can be applied to the burnout point. This yields both of the following relationships which will prove useful: (6. 6 The value of Q is not constant for a satellite but varies from point to point in the orbit.1 ) . If Q is greater than 2 . and substitute for V. When Q is equal to 1 . This condition (Q = 1 ) exists at every point in a circular orbit and at the end of the minor axis of every elliptical orbit.3 The FreeFlight Range Equation .
and co s � = . 'l'. lies on each side of the major axis. be written as (6.Sec. 6 . 2 Equation.22 Symmetrical traj ectory Since the freeflight trajectory is assumed to be symmetrical (h bo = h re) . half the freeflight range angle . 2 G E N E RA L BA L L I ST I C M I SSI L E P R O B L E M 283 Figure 6 .27) . therefore.co s v b o .f6.26) above can.
we can use the definition of Q to obtain P  We now have an expression for the freeflight range angle in terms of '=='"� ' 11 r 2 v 2 c o s2 Q.e2 ). ¢ro.1 2) From this equation we can calculate the freeflight range angle resulting frbm any given combination of burnout conditions. (6. a Substituting p = rQ cCJil cp and a = n' we get e2 = 1 + e2 = 1 (6_2. it is not particularly useful in solving the typical ballistic missile problem which can be stated thus: Given a particular launch point and target. h = rv cos cp.28) we have one form of the freeflight range equation: (6. what should the flightpath angle.284 . = r Q C O S2 cp . If we know how far the missile will travel during powered flight and reentry./.1 1) into equation (6. 6 cos _ _ r p = b0 2 e rb o ___ (6. also becomes known.2. can be calculated as we shall see later in this chapter. ':1' B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ ECTO R I ES 01 . . the total range angle. the required freeflight range angle. and rbo' Since p = h2 /11 and.29) and (6. since p = a( 1 .T. A. If we now specify rbo and vbo for the missile. rbo ' vbo and CPbO" While this will prove to be a very valuable equation. be in order that the missile will hit the target? 'l1.1 1) If we now substitute equations (6.1 0) Q(Q 2) co s 2 cp  (6.29) Now.28) p.2.2. . . e.
2. The angle between the local horizontal and the tangent (direction of voo') is the flightpath angle . it would be nice to have an equation for ¢bo in terms of rbo' vbo and \{r. F'. and the normal is perpendicular to the tangent . with a little algebra.23 Ellipse geometry 6 . we will derive an expression for ¢bo geometrically because it demonstrates some rather interesting geometrical properties of the ellipse . choose the straightforward way of solving the range equation for cos ¢ bo . 23 we have drawn the local horizontal at the burnout point and also the tangent and normal at the burnout point . Now. is called r bo . it can be proven (although we won't do it ) that the angle . ¢bo. In Figure 6 . Instead . The line from the burnout point to the secondary focus.4 The FlightPath Angle Equation. 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 2 85 \ � \ Figure 6 . We could . Sec 6 .In other words. the angle between r bo and the normal is also ¢bo . Since rbo is perpendicular to the local horizontal.
x) = sin (6. we can express d as 'i' d = o S .1 3) (6. a person standing at a particular point in the room corresponding to one focus could be heard cl e arly by a person standing at the other focus even though he were whispering. 6 between r OO and rbo is bisected by the normal. we get + 'i' ( 1 80 0 . It means.2. � + 'lr) = .1 5) sin Since rbo = a (2 . shown in Figure 6. light emanating from one focus would be reflected to the other focus since the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.2.I n 2 and also as rb (6. We know two of the angles in this triangle and the third can be determined from the fact that the angles of a triangle sum to 1 800. r bo 2 (2¢bO 2 \J ¢bo 2 r = ? O sin � . d. that. F' and the burnout point.000 ) from equation (6. the basis for the so called "whispering gallery.23) and r60 + rbo = 2a .2. This fact gives rise to many interesting applications for the ellipse ." What all this means for our derivation is simply that the angle between roo and rbo is 2¢bo ' Let us concentrate on the triangle formed by F. Qb o 2 2 (6.2. if the ellipse represented the surface of a mirror . If the ceiling of a room were made in the shape of an ellipsoid.1 6) . si n This is called the flightpath angle equation and it points out some interesting and important facts about ballistic missile trajectorie s. This is. in fact.Qb o sin � . If we divide the triangle into two right triangles by the dashed line .24. for example.286 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .1 4) Combining these two equations and noting that sin x.
sin and ( 2<P b o + 45 ° ) = 2 But there are two angles whose sine equals . 6.2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M 287 Figure 6 .24 Ellipse geometry Suppo se we want a missile to travel a freeflight range of 90 0 and it has Qbo= Substituting these values into equation (6 .866. the trajectory associated with the smaller flightpath angle is the low trajectory .1 6) gives us . 8 66 There are two trajectories to the target which result from the same values of rbo and vbo· The trajectory corresponding to the larger value of flightpath angle is called the high trajectory .2. .9.Sec. so ·9  ·9 si n 45 ° = .
A familiar illustration of this result is the behavior of water discharged from a garden hose . This maximum range will always be less than 1 800 for Q bo less than 1 . Because a = . Since both the high and low trajectories result from the same r bo and vbo' they both have the same energy.21 shows which traj ectories are possible for various combinations of Q bo and 'l'. If Q bo is greater than 1 . Nevertheless.1 6) will always yield one positive and one negative value for ¢bo' regardless of range . the shock value of such a surprise attack in terms of what it might do towards creating chaos among our defensive forces should not be overlooked by military planners. If Q bo is exactly 1 . ." it would be costly in terms of payload delivered and accuracy attainable . Provided that 'l' is attainable. so only the high trajectory can be realized for Q bo greater than 1 .P/2&. the speed of the water leaving the nozzle is fixed . This implies that there is a maximum range for a missile with Q bo less than 1 .1 6) does not exceed 1 . This would not be a very practical missile trajectory.288 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . If Q bo is less than · 1 there will be a limit to how large 'l' may be in order that the value of the right side of equation (6 . one of the trajectories to the target will be the circular orbit connecting the burnout and reentry points. but it does represent the borderline case where ranges of 1 800 and more are just attainable. there will be both a high and a low trajectory to the target. An illustration of such a trajectory would be a missile directed at the North American continent from Asia via the south pole . 2.25 should be helpful in visualizing each case. A negative ¢bo is not practical since the trajectory would penetrate the earth. The nature of the high and low trajectory depends primarily on the value of Q b o. With constant water pressure and nozzle setting. If a target well within the maximum range of the hose is selected. 6 The fact that there are two trajectories to the target should not surprise you since even very shortrange ballistic trajectories exhibit this property . Figure 6 . equation (6 . the target can be hit by a flat or lofted trajectory. Table 6. While such a trajectory would avoid detection by our northern radar "fences. the maj or axis of the high and low traj ectories are the same length. The real significance of Q bogreater than 1 is that ranges in excess of 1 800 are possible . 2.
6 . 2 G E N E R A L B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M I m po s s i b l e 289 Figure 6.Sec.25 Example ballistic missile traj e ctories .
skims earth high only . cos ¢ b o == 0.625 .low traj .5 DU.1_ 18 2 ==j2(l�+ (1 ) j 2 ( _. hits earth Table 6 . ha p og ee 0.11 5 18 1 . the following measurements were made : h bo = / DU. 6 Significance of 0b o °00 < 1 °00 == 1 'l' < 1 800 both high and low if 'l' <max. 5 (�) � 2  ra  == _ 11 D U 2 IT U 2 _ _ = 11) == l D U ITU 3 = D U 2 /TU � = � (�) c os ¢b o' :. vbo = 2/3 DU/TU.290 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . range both high and low ( ¢bo O O for low) == 'l' > 1 800 impossible high has ¢oo = 0 ° one low traj . During the test firing of a ballistic missile.low traj . what was the freeflIght range of the missile during this test in nautical miles? == 15 v 2 (1 == b o �== � rb o a h == r aV a == 18 _1.21 Before we can use the freeflight range equation to find 'l'. we must find ¢ bo and 0bo v EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Assuming a symmetrical trajectory. hits earth 000 > 1 high only .
60 0W . What must the flightpath angle be at burnout? R ff= (36. 600 E. 'IT. 6 . 6 2 1 . 'IT = cos 'IT = cos 60° cos 1 20° + si n 6 0 ° sin 1 20 0 cos 1 20 ° = . <Pbo' for a fixed value of Q bo less than 1 . Burnout velocity and altitude are 1 .2 2 = Q b o = ( 1 . 36° .2.025 DU respectively. Reentry is planned for 3 0 0 S .1 2) . 5' = 1 43 ° 04' 39. Notice or <P b o = :. We get a curve like that shown in Figure 6 . 1 84n mi Deg <Pbo' we must From spherical trigonometry. :. A missile 's coordinates at burnout are : 3 00 N.2. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E P R O B L E M Using equation (6 . 6 2 5 si n ( 2<p b o + 1 28°4 1 ' ) = 2.5 The Maximum Range Traject ory .08 1 7 DU/TU and . As the flightpath angle is varied from 0 ° to 90° the range first increases then reaches a maximum and decreases to zero again .. 08 1 7 ( 1 . 2<P b o + 64°20.1 .025) = 1 . 6. 'IT is less than 1 80 ° .4Deg. 2 20 291 EXAMPLE PROBLEM. Suppose we plot the freeflight range angle . 2 sin ( 128°4 1 ) . 26. c os � = + N . versus the flightpath angle .Sec. ) (60 n m i ) =2. Before we can use the flightpath angle equation to find find Q bo and 'IT.2 r 1 28°41 ' From the flightpath angle equation.
One way is to derive an expression for a'l' / a<p and set it equal to zero.Qbo 2 Qbo from which 2 <P bo + � 90 0 2 and <P bo = � ( 1 80 0 .. � 80 .'l' ) sin = + = sin � = 1 2 (6.26 Range versus <Pbo that for every range except the maximum there are two values of <Pbo corresponding to a high and a low trajectory. we get only a single answer for <Pbo' This must..:: 20 l 17 / V �� max QbO' ..1 7) I (6. (2<P bO � ) 2 .s. be the maximum range condition. If the right side of equation (6..1 6) equals exactly 1 .292 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S ell . . s 0> Q) 0 � c ..2. A t rruximum range there is only one path to the target.1 8) L__________________� . There are at least two ways that we could derive expressions for the maximllm range condition .� 90 Figure 6.pa t h a n g l e 15 30 degrees EO � 75 .2. 0> <1> <1> � IJ. 2. en EO I . A simpler method is to see under what conditions the flightpath angle equation yields a single solution .7 I ran� � 45 'Pbo in F l ight .... then. :.
6 Time of FreeFlight. The timeofflight methods developed in Chapter 4 are applicable to the freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj e ctory .1 7 ). 220) for maximum range conditions.8) . 'JI . 29) on page 1 86 we get the time of freeflight ( 1T  E 1 +e si n E1 ) (6.2.7 you can see that the timeofflight from burnout to reentry is just twice the timeofflight from burnout (point 1 ) to apogee (point 2). but .cos 2 . the eccentric anomaly of point 2 is 1T radians or 1 80 0 .'JI12 = cos E1_ 1 'lr e . due to the symmetry of the case where h re = hbo ' the equations are considerably simplified./2 ) 1 + s i n ( 'lr /2 ) (6. We can easily Cind the maximum range angle attainable with a given Q boo From equation (6. 2 . This latter form of the equation is useful for determining the lowest value of Qbo that will attain a given range angle .e cos 2 (6.. The value of E can be computed from equation (4 . By inspection. VI 1 800 .222) .Sec:. 2. From the symmetry of Figure 6.1 9) for maximum range conditions. 6 . noting that l .2. 2 G E N E R A L BA L l i ST I C M I SS i L E P R O B L E M 293 for maximum range conditions only. If we solve this equation for Q bo ' we get 2 s i n ( 'lr Q b o . 6 .Qbo Qb o (6 . sin �= 2 2 .22 1 ) If we now substitute into equation (4. 2.
most ballistic missile problems can be solved completely using just this chart. In fact . Values for TI' may be calculated from cs Figure 6 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.1 1). a. 29 is an excellent chart for making rapid timeofflight calculations for the ballistic missile . Figure 6 . 2. and the eccentricity. 23) and (6. A ballistic missile was ob served to have a burnout speed and altitude of 24. What must be the maximum freeflight range capability of this missile? . e.27 Time of freeflight (6. 6 The semimajor axis. since five variables have been plotted on the figure.294 B A L L I ST I C M i SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S a pogee 2 Ch . 28. can be obtained from equ ations (6. 223) or they may be read directly from Figure 6 .300 ft/sec and 2 5 8 nm respectively. The freeflight time is read from the chart as the ratio tff!IPcs ' where W is the period of a fictitious circular satellite orbiting at the burnout cs altitude.
28 Circular satellite period vs altitude In canonical units == (0.075) == 0.884) ( 1 .750 n m .8 period vs.29 it is rapidly found that 'lf max == 1 2 9 ° and Qbo " (�:�:��: ) 2 ( ���� 1+ R t f == ( 1 ) ( EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 2 G E N E R A L BA L L I ST I C M i SS i l E P R OB L E M 295 100 Figure m i nutes lPcs 95 Circular satellite 6.95 From Figure 6. What should b e the design burnout speed? ���3 ) == 2.000 nm.Sec. 6 .25 D U == 7 . The design burnout altitude has been fixed at 3 44 nm. altitude I I 90 85 o 100 200 300 a lti tude i n naut i c a l m i les 400 Figure 6. It is desired to maximize the payload of a new ballistic missile for a freeflight range of 8.
. . ' . hi.aje. � ren I ("') !XI r » Free .N � 'iifs tt f EJ:. . :: : J: : : . : :/ . . . : : : : j: i � ! :x : ! : : ·: .. : : . : : . : ' . :: :"/ N .f l i ght range 'I' in degrees (I) &2 .CI�rie� v X I .9h Ir. . .I ' : ' : : : : : : ..� '" �� :.!:: 7:�i� I� : : : . : d :lJ !: m en m ("') rm I :lJ S C.
.6C. . 6 . and outofplane errors as "crossrange" errors. F or purposes of this example. perpendicular to the intended plane of the trajectory and all other conditions are nominal.6X and . suppose the intended burnout point is on the equator and the launch azimuth is due north along a meridian toward the intended target at A.32 r ads = 1 33. range may be sacrificed to increase payload and viceversa.6C may be / 9 57 1.6X to the east but with the correct launch azimuth of due north.Sec. The actual burnout point occurs at a point on the equator a distance .1 � 0. 6 .1 ) ° Q b o m i n = 2 sinn 66 . In Figure 6 . These errors are of two typeserrors in the intended plane which cause either a long or a short hit.6X. .OOO nm max = 3. For a fixed burnout altitude .444 n m = 2. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 297 For a given amount of propellant. position. 1 Effect of a Lateral Displacement of the Burnout Point.6C represents the cro ssrange error. 'l' From equation (6. It is customary in spherical trigonometry to measure arc length in terms of the angle subtended at the center of the sphere so that b oth . 957 Hsi 66.77 0 = 0 .220) . For brevity . payload may be maximized by minimizing the burnout speed (minimum Q bJ . 8.1 we show the ground traces of the intended and actual traj ectories. at impact can be determined from spherical trigonometry.3 . and outofplane errors which cause the missile to hit to the right or left of the target.2. 3 .933 D Urr U � 24.3 EFFECT OF LAUNCHING ERRORS ON RANGE Variations in the speed. If the thrust cutoff point is displaced by an amount. There are two possible sources of crossrange error and these will be treated first.  Vbo 6. The arc length .3 ° From equation (6. As a result the missile flies up the wrong meridian. 2 00 ft/sec . the crossrange error. impacting at B. we will refer to errors in the intended plane as "downrange " errors. and launch direction of the missile at thrust cutoff will produce errors at the impact point.
for example. you can use the fact that a 60 nm arc on the surface of the Earth sub tends an angle of 1 0 at the center.31 and noting that the small angle at 0 is the same as �X.1 ) Since both �X and � C will be very small angles. cos . Applying the law of cosines for spherical trigonometry to triangle O A B in Figure 6.1 ) to (6.1 . we can use the small angle approxunatlOn. X 298 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R A J E CTO R I E S Ch . I 1 . the actual burnout point could occur anywhere on the equator and we would hit the target so long as I � �C � � X cos 'lr. ."2 to simplify equation (6 . Equation (6. if the intended target had been the north pole . 32) tells us that crossrange error is zero for a freeflight range of 90 0 (5 . 6 Both �X and �C are assumed to be expressed as angles in this equation.3 .3. 3. we get (6. If they are in radians you can convert them to arc length by multiplying by the radius of the Earth. In Figure 6 .31 Lateral displacement of burnout point .thought of as angles. if they are in degrees.32) 2 X Figure 6.400 nm) regardless of how far the burnout point is displaced out of the intended plane .
The ground trace of the actual and intended trajectory are shown . will result.32 is the crossrange error . 0 cos �C = cos 2 'l1 + sin2 'l1 cos 6(3 (6. 32 illustrates the geometry of an azimuth error. �C. Figure 6 . If the actual launch azimuth differs from the intended launch azimuth by an amount. From the law of cosines for spherical triangles we get �C �C.33) . this p articular source of crossrange error is not as significant as an error in launch azimuth as we shall see in the next section. P.32 Azimuth error 6 . a crossrange error.'l1. Since most of our ICBM' s are targeted for ranges of approximately 90 0 .Sec. the freeflight range of both the actual and the intended trajectories is The third side of the spherical triangle shown in Figure 6 . we will consider to be expressed in terms of the angle it subtends at the center of the Earth. 6(3. are as planned. 299 Figure 6.3 .2 CrossRange Error Due to Incorrect Launch Azimuth. 3 L A U N C H I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E launch azimuth and freeflight range . before . 'l1. Since all launch conditions are assumed to be nominal except launch azimuth. 6 .
x ' to simplify equation (6..oo a "'00 Fl ight . 6.3.3 Effect of DownRange Displacement of the Burnout Point.300 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T RAJ E CTO R I E S Ch . cos X � 1 ..0.� I a q. <Pb o IM� Figure 6 .33 Effect of flightpath angle errors on range 6 .0.D. If the actual burnout point is 1 nm farther downrange than was intended.\]I. An error in downrange position at thrust cutoff produces an equal error at impact. it will hit the target anyway .y I  : : i.4 Errors in Burnout FlightPath Angle. \]I. The effect may be visualized by rotating the trajectory in Figure 6.34) max :7 Q) '" c o a:: r.0. the missile will overshoot the target by exactly 1 urn .33 we show a typical plot of freeflight range versus flightpath angle for a fixed value of roo and vbo' The intended flightpath angle and intended range. are shown by a solid line in the figure . This . In other words. (6.\]I will represent a downrange .. If the actual <P bo differs from the intended value by an amount �o' the actual range will be different by an amount .33) to 2 This time we see that the crossrange error is a maximum for a freeflight range of 900 (or 2700 ) and goes to zero if \]I is 1 80 0 . <Pbo' In Figure 6.21 about the center of the Earth.C will be very small angles we can use 2 the approximation. it really doesn 't matter in what direction you launch it .3 . 6 If we assume that both 43 and ..path angle . if you have a missile which will travel exactly half way around the Earth.
33 illustrates the fact that gtt:io) at the point corresponding to the intended (6.1 2) of this chapter . we can simplify further to obtain cot = 2 csc 2<P b o . If we call the numerator of this expression a and· the denominator {3.8) (6.37) 1 Q b o cos2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <P b /1 cos 2 o o Since J 1 cos2 <P b o = sin <P b o'  <P (6 .2.35) which is a good approximation for very small values of �bo. 3 LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 301 error causing the missile to undershoot or overshoot the target.Sec. The expression for differentiation of the freeflight range equation. But first we will derive an alternate form of the freeflight range equation. 6 .1 0) Qbo I i .39) 1 Q b o cos 2 <P b o cot � = 2 Q b cos <Pb si n <Pb o o o But since cos X sin x = % sin 2x. The freeflight range equation was derived as equation (6.3 .36) (6.cot <P b o (6. then gto may be obtained by implicit partial cos � = � 2 {3 a and cot � = 2 J{3 2 a2 Sub stituting for a and {3 we get _  ( (6 .6.'lr if we knew the slope of the curve (which is trajectory.3. We could get an approximate value for . The diagram at the right of Figure 6 .
1 2) 2 2 ogr bo ( .1 1 ) implicitly with respect to (6.3.2 c o t 2cf> bo csc 2cf> bo )+ csc 2 cf> bo . _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 2 2 a cf> bo W e now proceed t o differentiate (6. Vb Substituting from equation (6. 3. 6 We now have another form of the freeflight range equation which is much simpler to differentiate .1 1 ) cf>bo' considering rbo and vbo as constants.2 c o t 2cf> b o (c o t � + c o t cf> b o ) 2 a cf> bo 2 2 + csc 2 cf> b o 2( 1 . acf> bo  a 'l1 = 4(c o t 2cf> b o si n � c o s � si n 2 �) 2 2 2 a cf> b o = 4 (1 c o t 2cf> bo sin 'l1 .sin 2 �) 2 2 2(si n 'l1 c o t 2cf> bo + c o s 'l1 .c o t 2cf> b o c o t Solving for i) .1 0) in terms of r bo ' vbo and ¢b o ' (6.302 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 1 ) we get _ 1 csc 2 � a 'l1 = .3. a'l1 . Let us first express equation (6.1 ) 2 si n 'l1 c o s 2cf> b o + c o s 'lr si n 2cf> bo 2 sin 2cf> bo _ = = .3.3.
remember that water from a garden hose behaves in exactly the same way . is called an influence coefficient since it influences the size of the range error resulting from a. the actual range error on a 3 . 3 . The maximum range traj ectory is the least sensitive to flightpath (6 .600 nm ICBM flight due to a 1 minute error in cf>b o is only 4 feet ! 6 .Sec.3 . 3 LAU N C H I NG E R R O R S O N R AN G E 303 which finally reduces to (6. The maximum range condition separates the low traj ectories from the high trajectories. Too high a cf>bo on the high traj e ctory will cause the missile to fall short and too low a cf>oo will cause an overshoot. 3 5 ) tells us that 6'1' will be approximately zero for small values of t4t0. when used in the manner described above.1 3) This partial derivative . 5 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Burnout Height. an error of 1 minute ( 1 /60 of a degree) causes a miss of about 1 nm on the high trajectory and nearly 3 nm on the low traj ectory . the general effect of errors in flightpath angle at burnout are apparent from Figure 6 . a flightpath angle which is lower than intended (a negative l4bJ will cause a negative 6'1' (undershoot).1 3) to evaluate the magnitude of the flightpath angle influence coefficient. equation . While we need equation (6. In fact.33 also reveals that the high trajectory is less sensitive than the low traj e ctory to flightpath angle errors.33. If this seems strange. 6 . Since ��o = 0 for the maximum range case. Just the opposite effect occurs for all high trajectories where aw is a¢bo :00 always negative . particular burnout error . angle errors. Figure 6. We can use exactly the same approach to errors in burnout height as we used in the previous section.3. A plot of range versus burnout radius. For all low traj e ctories the slope of the curve is positive which means that too high a flightpath angle (a positive t4� will cause a positive 6'1' (overshoot) . For a typical ICBM fired over a 5 .000 nm range.
3. Following the arguments in the last section we can say that (6 .31 7) where OW/ oV bo ' (6.3.6rb o · The partial derivative with respect to rbo is much simpler . . too slow and the missile falls short. the missile overshoots .1 2 cs c 2 Solving for oW _ 4g o rb o v S o r s o °W we get o rb o W oW = .2g 2 o rb o v 2 o r2 o b b esc 2rJ.3.3.1 4) for small values of . 6. The magnitude of the error is (6. Speed at �urnout affects range in just the way we would expecttoo fast and the missile overshoots .304 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . is not particularly interesting since it reveals just what we might suspectif burnout occurs higher than intended.1 1) implicitly.3. if burnout occurs too low. b o 'fJ ' (6 .3. the missile falls short of the target in every case .000 nm range trajectory will cause a miss of about 2 nm on the high trajectory and about 5 nm on the low traje ctory .6 DownRange Errors Caused by Incorrect Speed at Burnout . differentiating the range equation (6 . 6 however.1 5) sin2 y sin 2¢ bo W (6..1 1) as is given by implicit differentiation of equation .1 6) A burnout error of 1 nm in height on a 5 . Again.
1 D U . A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : V b o = . 1 ) 2 .6¢ b o = . LW b o = .9 for this case) and 'Ir ('Ir � 1 000 from Figure 6 29) . 1 ) 2 si n60 0 a � = 2r bo = 2( 1 . .6'1r a 'lr = 4 (si n50 0 ) 2 = 2 .4 D U .4 rad ians. ub o = 5 x 1 0 .1 0.6¢ b o a ¢ bo [�] .9 0 5 D U !TU . EXAMPLE PROBLEM. 6 . 3. 735 rad DU r b o ( . There is no crossrange error. 649 r ad U D U/T . Most ICBM's are programmed for the high traj e ctory for the simple reason that is revealed herethe guidance requirements are less stringent and the accuracy is better. 3 sin 2 2 a 'lr _ 8g aV bo v6 0 r bo s i n 2¢ b o LAU N CH I N G E R R O R S O N R AN G E 'Ir 305 (6 . We will need Q bo (. a'lr / avbo is larger on the low trajectory than on the high. like the other two influence coefficients. ¢ bo = 30 0 The following errors exist at burnout : How far will the missile miss the target? What will be the direction of the miss relative to the trajectory plane? We will find total downrange error .905 r bo aV bo v bo a TOT a r bo . Total downrange error : . r bo = 1 .1 8) would reveal that.735 = 6 .1 8) A rough ruleofthumb is that an error of 1 ft/se c will cause a miss of about 1 nm over typical ICBM range .3.6 b o aV bo = a 'lr r + � . An analysis of equation (6 .5 x 1 05 D U/TU .6V b o + a 'lr .Sec.905) 2 ( 1 .
If measurements of these three quantities are made from the surface of the rotating Earth (by radar. its flightpath angle. m i .4. for example). {3. v. 56x 1 0 .56x 1 0. We will compensate for motion of the target by "leading it" slightly.2 1 (. If we know the timeofflight of the missile . That is.649 (5x 1 O .306 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . both the launch point and the target are in motion. Relative to this inertial XY Z frame . The freeflight portion of a ballistic missile traj ectory is inertial in character. 6 =2. 6.4 THE EFFECT OF EARTH ROTATION Up to this point the Earth has been considered as nonrotating. 2 1 0 a<P b o si n60 _ = ( 1 1 . The rotation is from west to east. 1 Compensating for the Initial Velocity of the Missile Due to Earth Rotation.S ) .5 24 ft/sec. <p. we will send our missile on a traj e ctory that passes through the point in space where the target will be when our missile arrives. it remains fixed in the XY Z inertial frame while the Earth runs under it.1 .2sin 1 60 o 2 = . In the two sections which follow we will see what effect earth rotation has on the problem of sending a ballistic missile from one fixed point on the Earth to another. We will compensate for motion of the launch site by recognizing that the "true velocity" of the missile at burnout is the velocity relative to the launch site (which could be measured by radar) plus the initial eastward velocity of the launch site due to earth rotation. The Earth rotates once on its axis in 23 hrs 5 6 min producing a surface velocity at the equator of 1 . ove rshoot 6. we can compute how much the Earth (and target) will turn in that time and can aim for a point the proper distance to the east of the target.4 ) (3444) � 4 n . and its azimuth angle. 0.4 rad 6R ff 6'1r a 'lr . then all three .1 .1 0.735 ( 5x 1.4 )+6. That is.4 ) TOT =1 1 . We describe the speed and direction of a missile at burnout in terms of its speed.
direction in this frame as 1>e and �e. and a speed of.41 "True" velocity and direction �� I measurements are erroneous in that they do not indicate the "true" spee d and direction of the missile. and the azimuth considerably less than 900 . we make our measurements in a moving reference frame . of 900 (east). (6.I ·=<� • . of 45 0 . an azimuth. An observer at rest would not agree . we will refer to measurements of burnout . Suppose we set up a cannon on a train which is moving along a straight section of track in a northerly direction. �.000 ft/sec.Sec. Hereafter. Since a point on the equator has a speed of 1 . of train l \\�. 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R OT AT I O N 307 vel. 1>.. If we point the cannon due east (perpendicular to the track) and upward at a 45 0 angle and then fire it." The vector diagram at the right of Figure 6. 6 .4. He would correctly see that the "true" velocity of the proj ectile includes the velocity of the train relative to the "fixed frame . an observer on the moving train would say that the proj ectile had a flightpath angle.000 ft/sec. This frame is called the topocentric horizon system. Like the observer on the moving train.:��Orlh_ · I __ '" " l� I 90° Figure 6 .1 illustrates the true situation and shows that the speed is actually somewhat greater than 1 . A simple example should clarify this point. we can express the speed of any launch point on the surface of the earth as V o = 1 524 c o s L o ( f t/sec) .4. say 1 .1 ) . . the flightpath angle slightly less than 45 0 .5 24 ft/sec in the eastward direction.
by breaking up ve into its components and adding Vo to the eastward (E) comp onent. break up V into its components. 6 where L o is the latitude of the launch site . Thus. One word of caution : you will have to determine in which quadrant the azimuth. and azimuth can then be found from v = j v 2 S +v 2 E +v 2 Z (6 . first. then subtract Vo from the eastward component to obtain the components of Ve . east . flightpath angle . v. (6 . this will not be difficult. It is.308 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . lies. Once you have the components of ve.45) The inverse problem of determining ve' ¢e and {3e if you are given v. ¢ and {3 can be handled in a similar manner . v at burnout which determines the missile ' s . If you can draw even a crude sketch and visualize the geometry of the problem. We can obtain the south.44) �.43) sin ¢ = � v tan � = v  v (6. �.42) The true speed. The subscript "0" is used to indicate that this is the initial eastward velocity of the missile even while it is on the launch pad. and up components of the true velocity. finding ve' ¢e and �e is easy. of course. Vs (6 .
Sec. and the third side of the spherical wEetA' Nt ) wEe'  . The trajectory goes from the launch point at A to an "aiming point" at B. Hopefully.43 we show the Earth at the instant a missile is launched. Rather . Arc length 0 B is simply 90 0 4. 6. The latitude and longitude coordinates of the launch point are Lo and N o ' respectively .4 E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OT A T I O N 309 trajectory.43 is just 90 0 L o.4. t} earth turns is approximately 1 5 /hI. This aiming point does not coincide with the target at the time the missile is launched . represents the number of degrees the at which the Earth turns during the time t : The angular rate . z ( Up ) S (Sou th ) E ( East) Figure 6 . the target will be there also.42 "True" speed and direction at burnout 6 .2 Compen!\llting for Movement of the Target Due to Earth Rotation. The term. when the missile arrives at point B. so the arc length OA in Figure 6. In Figure 6 . it is a point at the same latitude as the target but east of it an amount equal to the number of degrees the Earth will turn during the total time the missile is in flight . then the latitude and longitUde of the aiming point should be 4 and Nt + �tA' respectively. The rocket booster only has to add ve to the initial velocity VO" If the desired launch velocity is eastward the rocket will not have to provide as much speed as it would for a we stward launch. If the coordinates of the target are ( 4.
(6 . we can use the law of cosines for spherical triangles to obtain B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .0. A. and another between 1 80 0 and 3 60 0 . If you are firing the missile the "long way" around. we get c o s {3 = sin L t . (6 .N + wffitA' where .N + wffitA lies between 0 0 and 1 800 then so does {3.N + wffitA between 00 and 1 80 0 requires that {3 lie between 1 80 0 and 3600 .0. The angle formed at 0 is just the difference in longitude between the launch point and the aiming point.0.0.47) Solving for cos {3. 6 31 0 In applying this equation we must observe certain precautions.46) si n Lt = si n La c o s A + c o s La si n A c o s {3 . (6 . then a value of .N is the difference in longitude between launch point and target. {3. It is worth going back for a moment to look at the equations for . we can solve for the required launch azimuth. Once we know the total range angle. These two solutions represent the two greatcircle paths between the launch point and aiming point. If we assume that we know the coordinates of the launch point and target and the total timeofflight. {3.43 againthis time considering {3 as the included angle : c o s A = s i n La sin L t + c o s La c o s L t c o s (. should be measured from the launch point eastward toward the target. this equation yields two solutions for {3one between 0 0 and 1 80 0 and the other between 1 8 0 0 and 360 0 . by applying the law of cosines to the triangle in Figure 6. . tA . Whether you select one or the other depends on whether you want to go the short way or the long way around to the target.0.0.48) Again. The longitude difference. The equation yields two solutions for Aone angle between 0 0 and 1 800 . . A simple rule exists for determining which value of {3 is correct : If you are going the "short way" to the target.si n La c o s A c o s La Si n A .N.N + w ffitA ) . and if.triangle (the dashed line) is the ground trace of the missile trajectory which subtends the angle A The included angle at A is the launch azimuth.
tA But . the digital computer is more suited for this type Figure 6. By adding the times of powered flight and reentry (which also depend somewhat on A) to t ff you get a value of tA which you can use as your second "guess. " The whole process is then repeated until the computed value of tA agrees with the estimated value . 6 . (3.Sec.43 Launch site and "aiming point" at the instant of launch . A In order to compute A we must know the timeofflight. In order to compute (3 we must know the coordinates of the launch point and target as well as the range. A. In actual practice you would begin by "guessing" a reasonable time for tA This value would be used to compute an initial estimate for A which in turn would allow you to get a first estimate of t ff . Needless to say. and launch azimuth. how can we know the timeofflight if we do not know the range being flown? The situation is not entirely desperate . 4 E F F E CT O F E A R T H R O T AT I O N 31 1 total range .
4 5) : v= .3 ° W burns out at 30o N..5022 ta . flightpath angle and azimuth may b e found using equations (6 . 6 .. what are the coordinates of the reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory . 87 9 ) 2 ( 1 . v = . 8° v n /3 = v = ...( . 4 5 D U /T U of trial and error computation than the average student who se patience is limited. 3 39 D U /TU E Qbo = ( . 9cos3 00cos 3300= .j( . 1 ) 1 . 6 7 5 ) 2 + ( . 9 s i n 300= ..42) through (6 . 45 ) 2 = . 339 ) =. Its elevation and azimuth relative t o the Earth are : The inertial speed. . using Q bo = . Assuming a rotating Earth and a r bo of 1 . 79 . 87 9 D U /T U v s i n ¢ b o = � = AL = . 87 9 30.0 58 8cos290 = .312 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch . 8 5 and ¢bo = 3 10 . 85 From Figure 6 . Using the Law of Cosines from spherical trigonometry. 6 7 5 D U /T U S Vz = . EXAMPLE PROBLEM . 9cos30 0s i n3 30 0+ .675 s (J=333 .. 339 ) 2 + ( . 29 . 33° ¢bo = v E = . 1 DU. 5 1 1 95 v . 80 0 W after developing an incre ase in velocity of . A ballistic missile launched from 2 9° N.9 DU/TU..
w e have si n L re=si n Lb ocos'l1+cos L b osi n'l1cos(3600{) ) =si n 300cos900+cos300si n900cos(26 . 29 .Sec. 6. . 46 lPcs lPcs=21Tjr�o3 = 21Ty"1. 334TU ) =123. E F F E CT OF E A R T H R OTAT I O N 313 Using the Law o f Cosines again. 77° = .13 = 7. 2 30E ( reentry long itude) = . using 0bo cos'l1=si n Lresi n Lb ot:cos LrecosL b ocoS(L�'N +wetff ) cos900=si n 50042's i n300 + cos50042'cos300cos (boN +wetff ) cos (boN+wetff ) = 0.7 8 0 . 334 TU boN = 135° .123 . 770 N re = 156. 2 5 TU :. 6 70) =. 334)=135° .3. tff=3.80° .4 . 3709 �GG (3. 7 7° N re =Nbo +boN = .203.85 and ¢bo = 3 0.we(3.7055 boN+wetff=135 ° 8 ' tff � . 7739 Lre = 50042'N ( reentry latitude) From Figure 6 .
2. m i .6 ft/sec) 6 . v = 1 6 . and a spherical Earth.040 n mi? Neglect atmosphere and assume roo = 1 D U . 2 A ballistic missile i s launched from a submarine in the Atlantic (300 N. . r b o = 1 . 6 EXERCISES 6 . m i .000 ft/sec and at an angle of 3 00 to the local horizontal . 1 The following measurements were obtained during the testing of an ICBM : R re 300 n . What is the true speed of the missile relative to the center of the rotating Earth? (Ans. Assume the submarine lies motionless in the water during the firing.' 314 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . what will the value of Q be at reentry? 6. 5 A ballistic missile's burnout point is at the end of the semiminor axis of an ellipse .3 For a ballistic missile having : vb o = rb o = 0. 75 0W) on an azimuth of 1 35 0 . R = 6 0 n .4 What values of Qbo may be used in equation (6 .1 DU What will be the maximum range 4>b ? o 6 . = . Burnout spe � d relative to the submarine is 1 6. 4> b o p Vb o = 6 .6 What is the minimum velocity required for a b allistic missile to travel a distance measured on the surface of the Earth of 5 .5 D U!TU 1 .926 D U /TU . Assuming burnout altitude equals reentry altitude.840.05 D U = 1 0° .1 9)? Why? 6 .
What is the maximum freeflight range of this missile in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory . 6 . 1 0 During a test flight.Ch. 1 1 A rocket testing facility located at 3 00N . .83 DU/TU at an altitude of 1 .0 n mi where the free flight range of the ballistic missile is 5 . 6 EXER CISES 315 6 . he was unable to obtain a new maximum range Why? ¢bo for Qbo = 1 . .)(. how large can . in the launch causes the rocket to burn out east of the intended burnout point.02. Rtf = 5 . A lateral displacement . = ¢ b o = ( 1 80 0 2 ! Qb o 2· Q b o .j3T5K D U /TU  What is the maximum range capability o f this missile in nautical miles? (Ans. In what direction will the error at impact be? 6 . 8 An enterprising young engineer was able to increase a certain rocket's Q bo from 0.400 n mi. 9 A ballistic missile is capable of achieving a burnout velocity of . Using the equations si n iL.98 to 1 . 1 000W launches a missile to impact at a latitude of 700 8. Rtf = 4 .'lr ). 7 I n general.000 run) 6 .x and L¥3 be? .06 DU. (Ans.6.6. Do not use charts.02. 1 2 Assuming that the maximum allowable crossrange error at the impact point of a ballistic missile is 1 . an ICBM is observed to have the following position and velocity at burnout : fb o = I 3/4J D U v b o = 1 /5J + . how many possible traj ectories are there for a given range and Qbo? (Q bo < 1 ) What is the exception to this rule? 6 .2 1 2 run) 6.
what is the minimum burnout velocity required to achieve a freeflight range of 1 . or maximum range trajectory? Why? 6 . 1 3 A malfunction causes the flightpath angle of a ballistic missile to be greater than nominal. 6 6 . 7 . ct>bo was e qual to ct>bo for maximum range .0 DU for a ballistic missile.346 n mi long) b. How will this affect the missile 's freeflight range? Consider three separate cases: a. low. 1 6 Assuming rOO = 1 .6888 n mi L:.800 nautical miles? (Ans. b . a. vbo = 0.936 fps where the influence coefficients have been calculated to b e : 'l1 aa ct> = 1 . 1 5 In general will a given �o cause a larger error in a high or low trajectory? Why? 6 .642 DU/TU) .. Determine the error at the impact point in n mi. Is this a high. 5 a 'l1 = 3 0 _1_ D U$ ar . c . (Ans. ct>bo was less than ct>bo for maximum range. 1 4 A ballistic missile has been launched with the following burnout errors : L:.31 6 BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch ..V = 25 .r = 0. ct>bo was greater than �o for maximum range . 6 .
¢ bo a� bo a Q bo Derive and expression for a a Q bo 'l' in terms of Q bo' '1'.530 ft/sec.e . 3 0 0 E. Reentry range is calculated at 1 5 5 n mi. 8 and an altitude of i 5 0 n mi. 5 DU. If the velocity at burnout was 28. Ch . 5 DU and whose perigee is . b. what was the flightpath angle at burnout? 6 ..20 A ballistic missile which burned out at 45 0 N.23 A ballistic missile has the following nominal burnout conditions : . 6 E X E R C I S ES 317 Q bo = 1 .QL. Do not use charts.4 min) = 6. i.. 1 7 A ballistic missile whose maximum freeflight range i s 3 .092574 x 1 0 6 ft will reenter at 45 0 N. Burnout will occur 45 n mi downrange at a Q of . 1 5 00 E. 6 . Q bo + .22 The range error equation could be written as: b. using a minimum timeofflight trajectory . What will b e the time of freeflight? (Ans.where e is the 6 .. �bo and analyze the result . at the same altitude . at an altitude of 2. 1 2 00 W. What should the flightpath angle be at burnout? Neglect the atmosphere and assume Q bo = Q bo maximum. 6 . what is the freeflight range expressed in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. 1 8 Show that for maximum range : eccentricity.600 n mi is to be launched from the equator on the Greenwich meridian toward a target located at 45 0 N. 1 9 An ICBM is to be flighttested over a total range . 2 1 A ballistic missile ' s traj ectory is a portion of an ellipse whose apogee is 1 . tff 40. using a "backdoor " trajectory ('I' > 1 80 0 ). R t of 4. 6.6 .ri.700 n mi using a high trajectory. determine whether the influence coefficient is always positive or negative and if so what it means.. Assuming burnout occurred at sea level on a spherical earth .'I' = � b.
905 D U EI/TUffi r b o =22 .6Z (ft/sec) What must the speed . 99 ( 1 0) 6 ft = 1 .66E+20784.2 0 x 104 ft/sec ct>e = 44. (Ans.48966 = 3 1 5 .25 An ICBM is to be flight tested. Do not assume a nonrotating Earth. 1 200W .02 nm) Is the shot long or short? Is this a high. v bo = . low. How far will the missile miss the target? 4.1 0 . 24 A rocket booster is programmed for a true velocity relative to the center of the Earth at burnout of . b. 0926 x 1 0 5 ft = 20.0057 ° = .3 ft/sec = 5 ( 1 0rs D Uffi/TUffi br bo= + 1 .5 0 . or maximum range trajectory? 6 .4 rad ian s a. (partial answer : ct>e = 600 ) * 6 . elevation . It is desired that the missile display the following nominal parameters at burnout : h Ve f3e = 2 .318 V bo =23. and azimuth relative to the launch site be at burnout? Launch site coordinates are 28 0 N. 92S1 0608.1 045 .500 ft/sec=O. 7 2 n m = +5( l Or 4 D U ffi bct> bo = O. 6 The following errors exist at burnout : bV bo = 1 . c. 1 D U ffi ct> bo =30 o BA L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CT O R I E S Ch .
L t 54 0 3 1 '. N t 1 79 23 W) == == * 6 .649 n mi . 1 20 OW .28 A ballistic missile burns out at an altitude of 1 72 . 1.400 nautical miles where : r bo = 2 1 . 26 An ICBM located at 60 0N . 5 7 min) == * 6 . and r bo � r(fl. in nautical miles? Assume a symmetrical trajectory. site located 319 During the actual firing. atmosphereless Earth. 6 E X E R C I S ES All angles and velocities are measured relative t o the launch at 3 00 N. == R R E = 60 n mi R p = 1 40 n mi *6. What was the freeflight range. 1 60 0E is programmed against a target located on the equat or at 1 1 5 0W using a minimum velocity trajectory . what is the minimum burnout velocity required to reach a target at this range? b . 27 A requirement exists for a b allistic missile with a total range of 7 .8 ( 1 0) 6 feet a. == == == What are the coordinates of the missile ' s reentry point? Assume a symmetrical traj ectory and do not assume a nonrotating Earth. . downrange displacement of burnout point . the following errors were measured : &:Pe 3 0 ' . rotating.Ch . What should the time of flight be? Assume a spherical. What is the required ¢bo? (Ans. What will be the time of free flight (t ff)? d .6 1 8 . 43e . 1 967 n mi with a Q = The maximum altitude achieved during the ensuing flight is 1 . tff 3 2 . ¢bo 1 5 0 ) c. 0 (Ans.73 n mi. (Ans.1 2 ' . In order to overshoot the impact point would you increase or decrease the elevation angle? Explain . Assuming a symmetric orbit.
New York. Schwiebert. NY. "Free Flight . altitude at bo ::: . New York .320 B A L L I ST I C M I SS I L E T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .1 6) from the freeflight range equation (6 .2.6Vb o . New York.1 2) . Inc. 6 * 6. The United States A ir Force Report on the Ballistic Missile. Los Angeles.4) . 1 965 . * 6. . NY. Garden City. 5 .30 A ballistic missile is targeted with the following parameters: Qbo ::: 4/ 3 . Praeger. Publishers. Lt Col Kenneth. NY. Walter.2. The MacMillan Company. 4. Space Technology Laboratories. 1 95 5 . 6 r bo and errors? (Hin t : Use a Taylor series expansion. Doubleday & Company. The Viking Press. 3 . A ir Force Ballistic Missiles. R ff ::: 1 0.3 1 The approximation : * 6. What will be the time of freeflight? Do not use charts." Chapter 1 of A n Introduction to Ballistic Missiles. Dornberger . 1958. Vol 2. 1 960. Gantz . V2 . Ernest G . 2. 1 962.02 DU.29 Derive the flightpath angle equation (6 . Inc. Eric. LIST OF REFERENCE S 1. and truncate all terms third degree and higher). A History of the U.800 n mi.S. Burgess. LongRange Ballistic Missiles . Wheelon . Albert D. NY. ed . Frederick A. (Hin t : See section 6.3 . How could this equation be modified to accomodate larger 6'1t� o 'lt 6<P bo + � r b o o rbo O<P b o 6 + oV 'lt O bo 6vbo is only useful for small values of the inplane errors 6<P b o . Calif.
together with the Earth. according as she is nearer or farther from the Sun. the 32 1 . move round the Sun once a year. "Altogether the most important circumstance in what may be called the history of the Moon is the part which she has played in assisting the progress of modern exact astronomy . The Moon is the more useful. since it gives us light during the night. fictitious philosopher created by George Gamow 1 7 . when it is light anyway. Proctor. when it is dark. whence arise several irregularities in her motion. .the Moon. does. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND According to the British astronomer Sir Richard A. drawn by him more or less than the center of the Earth. 2 The first complete explanation of the irregularities in the motion of the Moon was given by Newton in Book I of the Principia where he states: For. though principally attracted by the Earth. and is. and moving round it. have been discovered. the Sun or the Moon? . ..CHAPTER 7 LUNAR TRAJECTORIES Which is more useful. of all which. It is not saying too much to assert that if the Earth had no satellite the law of gravitation would never . whereas the Sun shines only in the daytime. about which she moves.
2 THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM The notion that the Moon revolves about the Earth is somewhat erroneous. . Newton nevertheless regarded the Lunar Theory as very difficult and confided to Halley in despair that it "made his head ache and kept him awake so often that he would think of it no more . Much of the work was motivated by the offer of substantial cash prizes by the English Government and numerous scientific societies to anyone who could produce accurate lunar tables for the use of navigators in determining their position at sea . Even interplanetary trajectories. In the second part we will look at the problem of launching a vehicle from the Earth to the Moon . not merely because we fmd our abode on the Earth. Although the mass of the Moon is only about 1 /80th the mass of the Earth. What distinguishes these situations from the problem of lunar trajectories is that the vast majority of the flight time is spent in the gravitational environment of a single body. 7.in this case the Sun." In the 1 8th century Lunar Theory was developed analytically by Euler. it is more precise to say that both the Earth and the Moon 3 . 7 Author in this book.322 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . The motion of nearEarth satellites o r ballistic missiles may be described by 2body orbital mechanics where the Earth is the single point of attraction. Thus the EarthMoon system is a rather Singul ar event. W. may be characterized by motion which is predominantly shaped by the presence of a single center of attraction. In the first part of this chapter we will describe the EarthMoon system together with some of the irregularities of the Moon's motion which have occupied astronomers since Newton's time . which are the subj ect of the next chapter. A more exact theory based o n new concepts and developed by new mathematical methods was published by G. but the relative sizes of the Earth and Moon. A significant feature of lunar trajectories is not merely the presence of two centers of attraction. Lagrange and Laplace . has given a full account. but because it comes close to being a double planet. D'Alembert. this ratio is far larger than any other binary system in our solar system. with no less subtility than industry. Clairaut . W. Hill in 1 878 and was finally brought to perfection by the research of E. Brown .
This puts the center of the system 4. According to one theory advanced by G. :.. This shifts the center of gravity of the Earth to the east of the line joining the centers of mass of the Earth and Moon and gives the Moon a small acceleration in the direction of its orbital motion causing it to speed up and slowly spiral outward .: =j Figure 7. The Earth and Moon both revolve about their common center of mass once in 27. Describing the motion of the EarthMoon system is a fairly complex busine ss and begins by noting that the center of mass revolves around the Sun once per year (by definition).3 days arising from the fact that we observe it from the Earth and not from the center of mass of the EarthMoon system. .400 km 4 and the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 . the most reliable source for determining the Moon's mass until Ranger 5 flew within 45 0 miles of the Moon in October 1 962. . ��===c==Q. the Moon was at one time much closer to the Earth than at present. As a result . 7 . .21 Acceleration of moon caused by earth 's tidal bulge . 2 T H E E A R T H M OO N SY ST E M 323 revolve about their common center of mass. . .67 1 km from the center of the Earth or about 3/4 of the way from the center to the surface .3 04 of the mass of the Earth. in fact.:. These periodic fluctuations in longitude were.. . . son of the great biologist Charles Darwin. H. . Darwin.3 days. . The orbital period of the Moon is not constant but is slowly increasing at the same time the distance between the Earth and Moon is increasing. .Sec. The mean distance between the center of the Earth and the center of the Moon is 384 . . The slow recession of the Moon can be explained by the fact that the tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans raised by the Moon is carried eastward by the Earth's rotation. the longitude of an obj ect such as the Sun or a nearby planet exhibits fluctuations with a period of 27 .
324 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 Figure 7. In the case of the Moon's orbit . due primarily to the perturbative effect of the Sun.22 Lunar orbital elements 7.2.1 Orbital Elements of the Moon. The right ascension at epoch is the angle measured eastward from the vernal equinox to the projection of the Moon's position vector on the equatorial plane. for example : asemimaj or axis eeccentricity iinclination nIongitude of the ascending node wargument of perigee �right ascension at epoch The fIrst fIve of these elements are defined and discussed in Chapter 2 and should be familiar to you. In Chapter 2 orbital elements were studied in the context of the "restricted 2body problem" and the elements were found to be constants. the orbital elements are constantly . When viewed from the center of the Earth the Moon's orbit can be described by six classical orbital elements.
Due to solar perturbations the sidereal period may vary by as much as 7 hours." was discovered more than 2 .Sec.3 1 66 1 days.8 days. The mean eccentricity of the Moon's orbit is 0.400 km. c.054900489 . The average time for the Moon to make one complete revolution around the Earth relative to the stars is 27. 23 Rotation of the moon's line of nodes .000 years ago by Hipparchus. 2 T H E E A R T H M O O N SYST E M 325 changing with time . their value at any particular time can be obtained from a lunar ephemeris such as is published in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. 7 . This effect . The Moon's orbit is inclined to the ecliptic (plane of the Earth's orbit) by about 5 0 S ' . We will mention some of the principal perturbations of the Moon's motion in order to illustrate its complexity : a. b. called "evection. which is the intersection of the h Zt ve rnal equ i n o x d i rect ion Figure 7 . The line of nodes. Small periodic changes in the orbital eccentricity occur at intervals of 3 1 . The mean value of the semimaj or axis is 384.
When the Moon's ascending node coincides with the vernal equinox direction. The average time for the Moon to go around its orbit from node to (the same) node is 2 7 . The Earth's equator is inclined to the ecliptic by 23 0 27'. Both the slight variation in inclination relative to the ecliptic and the regression of the line of nodes were first observed by Flamsteed about 1 670. the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is the difference . e . The inclination of the Moon's orbit to the ecliptic actually varies between 4 0 5 9 1 and 5 0 1 S I . Only when the Moon is at one of these nodal crossing points carl eclipses occur . the inclination of the Moon's orbit to the equator is a maximum.9 years.2. d .2 Lunar Librations. The line of apsides (line joining perigee and apogee) rotates in the direction of the Moon's orbital motion causing w to change by 360 ° in about S. Earth and Moon be suitably aligned . in l S72.6 years. its mean value is 5 0 S ' . the other . 7 Moon's orbital plane with the ecliptic.6 years. and except for the slow precession of the Earth's axis of rotation with a period of 26. From Figure 7. Thus. being the sum of 5 0 S ' and 23 0 27' or 2S 0 3 5 ' . The node where the Moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node . 2 1 222 days and is called the "draconitic period. The Moon's period of revolution around the Earth is exactly equal to its period of rotation on its axis. the inclination relative to the equator varies between l S o l 9 ' and 2S 0 35 ' with a period of l S . for only then can Sun. rotates westward. is the descending node . If the Moon's orbit were = . where the Moon crosses from north to south.000 years.23 we can see that the angle between the equator and the Moon's orbital plane varies because of the rotation of the Moon's line of nodes. In 1 749 the French mathematician Clairaut was able to derive the correct result from theory ." in reference to the superstition that a dragon was supposed to swallow the Sun at a total eclipse . Newton tried to explain this effect in the Principia but his predictions accounted for only about half the ob served apsidal rotation. but more than a century later . 23 ° 27' .5 0 S ' l S o 1 9 ' .326 L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES Ch . so it always keeps the same face turned toward the Earth . the equatorial plane is relatively stationary. the correct calculations were also discovered among Newton's unpublished papers : he had detected his own error but had never bothered to correct it in print ! 7. When the descending node is at the vernal equinox. making one complete revolution in l S .
the computer time required could become prohibitive . The idea is to adjust the injection conditions by trialanderror until a suitable lunar impact occurs. At one time during the month the Moon's north pole is tipped toward the Earth and half a month later the south pole is tipped toward us allowing us to see slightly beyond each pole in turn.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 327 circular and if its axis of rotation were perpendicular to its orbit.75 0 around each limb of the moon. taking into account the oblate shape of the Earth. monthbymonth basis. ro and vO' at the injection point and then use a RungeKutta or similar numerical method to determine the subsequent trajectory. SIMPLE EARTHMOON TRAJECTORIES The computation of a precision lunar trajectory can only be done by numerical integration of the equations of motion. In addition to the apparent rocking motion described above there is an actual rocking called "physical libration" ca. actually mission planning places heavy reliance on a lunar ephemeris. and 7. about 5 9 percent of the lunar surface because of a phenomenon known as "lunar libration. 5 0 to the plane of its orbit.3 . If we have to explore a large number of different launch dates and a variety of injection conditions.Used by the attraction of the Earth on the long diameter of the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid figure.Sec. This permits us to see about 7 . Actually we see . which is a tabular listing of the Moon ' s position at regular intervals of chronological time. Even on a highspeed digital computer this procedure can take hours of computation time for a single launch date . we would see exactly half of its surface . As a result. The geometrical libration in longitude is due to the eccentricity of the orbit. solar pressure . among other things. and the terminal attraction of the Moon. solar perturbations. daybyday. The general procedure is to assume the initial conditions." The libration or "rocking motion" of the Moon is due to two causes. 3 S I M P L E E A R T H . Because of the complex motions of the Moon. The rotation of the Moon on its axis is uniform but its angular velocity around its orbit is not since it moves faster near perigee and slower near apogee. lunar missions are planned on an hourbyhour . 7 . The geometrical libration in latitude occurs because the Moon's equator is inclined 6 . Depending on how well we select the initial ro and vO' the trajectory may hit the Moon or miss it entirely. at one time or another.
In a precision trajectory calculation the launch time is selected so that this is approximately true in order to minimize the .6V required for the mission since plane changes are expensive in terms of velocity. It is not important that the analytical method be precise.2 TimeofFlight Versus Injection Speed. 2& e = y'1  pia .400 km. In order to study the basic dynamics of lunar trajectories. We can compute the energy and angular momentum of the trajectory from & = . 7 . but only that it retain the predominant features of the actual problem.. _ I:L ro 2 v 2 The parameter. and eccentricity are then obtained from p = h2 fJ. With this thought in mind. 7.3.. we will assume that the Moon's orbit is circular with a radius of 384.328 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . With the assumption stated above we can proceed to investigate the effect of injection speed on the timeofflight of a lunar probe. 1 Some Simplifying Assumptions. a = :l:!:. we will look at a few simple EarthMoon trajectories in order to gain some insight into the problem of selecting optimum launch dates and approximate injection conditions. semimaj or axis.Q. In the analysis which follows we will also assume that the lunar trajectory is coplanar with the Moon's orbit . Since the mean eccentricity of the actual orbit is only about . We will also assume that we can neglect the terminal attraction of the Moon and simply look at some trajectories that intersect the Moon's orbit. 7 some approximate analytical method is needed to narrow down the choice of launch time and injection conditions. this will not introduce significant errors.0549 .3 ..
3 ..Sec.. we can solve for va . 7 .r1 1... j 80 .31 we have plotted timeofflight vs injection speed for Solving the polar equation of a conic for true anomaly.c " 0 ... We now have enough information to determine the timeofflight from Earth to Moon for any set of injection conditions using the equations presented in Chapter 4.31 Lunar flight time vs inj ection speed . 60 \ \ I njection . In Figure 7.M O O N T R AJ E CTO R I ES 329 . we get c o s V = 2.i. F l i g h t pa t h a n g le a lt i tude = = 320 km o· 1\ '\ " '" 40 � 10.g' . 100 1 S I M P L E E A R TH .9 I njection 1 1.2 10..  I.:..c C/) . . k m / sec ____ If we let r = r0 in this expression. e r Figure 7... E i= . if we let r equal the radius of the Moon's orbit. we can find the true anomaly upon arrival at the Moon ' s orbit. II.0 S pe e d . 1 r1 1 .
\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I N ot to scal e \ I: \.330 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .: / :1 . . \ 0 �� ' earth " .')'. .32 we have shown a family of orbits corresponding to different inj ection speeds.. 7 ... In Figure 7. We see from this curve that a significant reduction in timeof·flight is possible with only modest increases in injection speed .. As we lower the injection speed the orbit goes from hyperb olic .. 3 The Minimum Energy Trajectory . then it is easy to see what effect injection speed has on the orbit..32 Effect of injection speed on traj ectory shape . : : I : I I I I I I I Figure 7 .. For the limiting case where the injection speed is infinite . to parabolic. . .3 . : . the curve is nearly independent of flightpath angle at injection. to elliptical in shape I I I I I i / I I I I I I / "' .05 Earth radii (32 0 km) and a flightpath angle of 0 0 ..J! .. Actually. For manned missions lifesupport requirements increase with mission duration so the slightly higher injection speed required to achieve a shorter flight time pays for itself up to a point.. the path is a straight line with a time·offlight of zero.. 7 an injection altitude of .. If we assume that injection into the lunar trajectory occurs at perigee where <Po = CP. It is interesting to note that the flight time cho sen for the Apollo lunar landing mission was about 72 hours.
if we keep reducing the injection speed . Because all other trajectories that reach to the Moon's orbit have shorter flight time s.Sec. 7 . is a function of . 7 . Assuming no lunar gravity . This represents the slowest approach speed possible for our example. If we give our lunar probe less than this speed it will fail to reach the moon's orbit like the dotted path in Figure 7 . 3 S I M P L E E A R T H MOO N T R AJ E CT O R I E S 331 and the timeofflight increases. as the injection speed is decreased. we can get some idea of how much we will miss the center of the Moon if. 05 Earth radii (32 0 km) . resulting in an impact on the "leading edge" or eastern limb of the Moon. Since the Moon's orbital speed is about 1 km/sec. the speed upon arrival at the Moon's orbit for the minimum energy trajectory is 0 .966 and represents the minimum eccen tricity for an elliptical orbit that reaches as far as tht. In general the sweep angle . Probes which have a higher arrival speed would tend to impact somewhere on the side of the Moon facing us. the Moon would literally run into our probe from behind. If we are trying to minimize injection speed. we will arrive at the dashed orbit in Figure 7 .32. From Figure 7 . . Using our simplified model of the EarthMoon system and neglecting lunar gravity . 1 72 minutes or about 1 20 hours.4 Miss Distance at the Moon Caused by Injection Errors. In such a case . The eccentricity of the minimum energy trajectory is 0.we will never reach the Moon at all. this represents an approximate maximum timeoffligh t for a lunar mission . both the sweep angle and the timeofflight will differ from their nominal values and the trajectory of the probe will cross the . In trying for a direct hit on the Moon we would time our launch so that the probe crosses the Moon's orbit just at the instant the Moon is at the intercept point. 82 km/sec. The timeofflight for this minimum energy lunar trajectory is 7 . if we try to take longer by going slower. which we can call 1/1. this minimum injection speed is 1 0. the injection conditions are not exactly as specified. Assuming an inj ection altitude of . Eventually . an increase in sweep angle (up to 1 800 ) corresponds to a decrease in injection speed. Moon from our assumed inj ection point .32 whose apogee just barely reaches to the distance of the Moon . injection speed for a fixed injection altitude and flightpath angle . 3 . We will make use of this general principal later in this chapter. 1 8 8 km/sec. due to errors in guidance or other factors. we should tty to select an orbit which has a sweep angle of nearly 1 80 0 . the geocentric angle swept out by the lunar probe from injection to lunar intercept increases from 0 0 to 1 80 0 for the minimum energy case .32 we see that.
the effects of such injection errors tend to cancel. Neglecting lunar gravity. so the Moon will be west of the predicted intercept point by an amount wrrft. 7 \ot \ moon ''''''h Figure 7. the probe will cross the Moon's orbit west of the predicted point by some amount 6tj. for example . where wm is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit.. that is. the initial velocity is too high. . In the case of a direct (eastward) launch. But. the angular miss distance along the Moon's orbit is the difference between 6tj. and wrrft. This may be seen from Figure 7 . If. the geocentric sweep angle will be smaller than predicted .33 Effects of launch error may tend to cancel Moon's orbit at a different point and time than predicted.332 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .33 . the timeofflight will be shorter by an amount 6t.
1 ) . it is necessary to account for the terminal attrac tion of the Moon if we want to predict the lunar arrival conditions more exactly . For the analysis which follows we will adopt the definition of sphere of influence suggeste d by Laplace .4 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMATION While it is acceptable to neglect lunar gravity if we . It is good primarily for outbound deltav calculations.0 km/sec.3 00 km. For this condition an error of 1 0 in flightpath angle produces a miss of about 1 . the miss distance at the Moon is a function only of errors in the flightpath angle. . 4 T H E PAT C H E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N : 333 (7 . The transition from geocentric motion to selenocentric motion is a gradual process which takes place over a fmite . only are interested in determining ap.encounter with the Moon 's sphere of influence." Before we show how this is done it should be clear to you that what we are about to do is an approximation. R s' given by the expression Sec. we pick a point in the vicinity of the Moon where we "turn off the Earth and turn on the Moon.p roximate injection conditions that result in a lunar impact.It is possible to show that for an injection speed of about 1 1 . which results in a sweep angle of about 1 60 0 . 7 . We can take lunar gravity into account and still use 2b ody orbital mechanics by the simple expedient of considering the probe to be under the gravitational influence of the Earth alone until it enters the gravitational "sphere of influence" of the Moon and then assuming that it moves only under the gravitational influence of the Moon.4. for all practical purposes. There is. It will also be in error for the same reason in calculating the perilune altitude and lunar trajectory orientation. however. 5 However. 5 The effect of lunar gravity is to reduce this miss distance . the effects of ' errors in injection altitude and speed exactly cancel and. In effect. the patchedconic analysis is no t good for the calculation of the return trajectory to the Earth because of errors in the . This is a sphere centered at the Moon and having a radius.arc of the trajectory where both Earth and Moon affect the path equally. 7. evidence to show that this simple strategy of patching two conics together at the edge of the Moon ' s sphere of influence is a sufficiently good approximation for preliminary mission analysis.
" The difficulty with selecting these four quantities as the independent .1 ) yields the value Rs = 66.4. 1 The Geocentric Departure Orbit.4.) Then.4 .300 km or about 1 /6 the distance fr om the Moon to the Earth. A full derivation of equation (7 .) ( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n d ue t o m oo n . a = ( centra l accelerati o n d ue t o eart h . 6 To give at least an elementary idea of its origin. the equation of motion viewed from the Moon is A= ( central acce lerati o n due t o m oo n )( + p ertu r b i ng accelerati o n due t o earth ) The sphere of influence is the approximation resulting from equating the ratios Equation (7.334 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 7 where D is the distance from the Earth to the Moon. The four quantities that completely specify the geocentric phase are where 'Yo is called the "phase angle at departure . consider the equation of motion viewed from an Earth frame.1 shows the geometry of the geocentric departure orbit.4. Figure 7 .1 ) can be found in Battin . 7 .
the radius. 1 . 4 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 335 variables is that the determination of the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence involves an iterative procedure in which timeofflight must be computed during each iteration. This difficulty may be bypassed by selecting three initial conditions and one arrival condition as the independent variables.r h V 1 I (7 . r 1 . The energy and angular momentum of the orbit can be determined from (7 . Finally.43) From the law of cosines. Given these four quantities we can compute the remaining arrival conditions.42) (7 . A particularly convenient set is where the angle \ specifies the point at which the geocentric trajectory crosses the lunar sphere of influence.46) where <PI is known to lie between 0 0 and 9 00 since arrival occurs prior to apogee . r 1 . from geometry . The speed and flight path angle at arrival follow from conservation of energy and momentum : (7 . VI ' <P and 'Y1 • We will assume that the geocentric I traj e ctory is direct and that lunar arrival occurs prior to apogee of the geocentric orbit.Sec. at lunar arrival is (7 .45) COS <P I .44) .
336 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .48) (7 .49) (7 . t l . Before the true anomalies can be found we must determine p. p=� (7 . 7 Figure 7. 1 p ia  a = :l!. JJ.47) 2& e = ".4. a and e of the geocentric trajectory from r1 1 (7 .to ' from injection to arrival at the lunar sphere of influence can be computed once V0 and V I are determined.1 0) .41 Geocentric transfer to the lunar sphere of influence Rs si n 'Y l = __ sin A The timeofflight.
649 2.1 5) 2.4.4. 1 37 X X 1 0.1 2) Next.1 6) The phase angle at departure.1 4) e si n E 1 ) (7 . where w m is the angular velocity of the Moon in its orbit. timeofflight is obtained from  The Moon moves through an angle wm (\ .3 rad/TUEIl (7 .4.to = � [ ( E 1 V J1 e + c os Vo co s E o = 1 + e cos Vo e + cos v cos E 1 1 + e cos v 1 1 (7 . 4 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A P P R O X I MA T I O N 337 Then Vo and v 1 follow from the polar equation of a conic : cos v o = � r oe p r c os v 1 = . Based on our Simplified model of the EarthMoon system.4.1 3) (7 . we can determine the eccentric anomalies.e 1 r1 __ (7 . Eo and E1 from Finally. the timeofflight and phase angle at departure need not be computed until we have verified that the values r0 ' vo ' ct>o and A1 . 'Yo ' i s then determined from Actually.4.4. .to ) b etween injection and arrival at the lunar sphere of influence . Wm = = t 1 .6 rad/sec 1 0 .1 1 ) (7 .Sec. 7 .
If we let the subscript 2 indicate the initial conditions relative to the Moon's center.1 6) above . (7 . then we will adjust the values of r0' vO ' ¢o and \ until it is.4.1 8) (7 . at arrival is completely determined by \ . Since we must now consider the Moon as the central body. 7 . is 338 L U N A R T R AJ E C TO R I E S Ch . v2 ' may be obtained by applying the law of cosines to the vector triangle in Figure 7 . it is necessary to find the speed and direction of the spacecraft relative to the cen ter of the Moon .4. We will do this in the sections that follow.45). result in a satisfactory lunar approach trajectory or impact .4.1 7) The velocity of the spacecraft relative to the center of the Moon is where vm is velocity of the Moon relative to the center of the Earth.45) will be negative and the whole computationa1 process fails. In Figure 7 . Before proceeding to a discussion of the patch condition.1 9) . The orbital speed of the Moon for our simplified EarthMoon model is The selenocentric arrival speed. It may happen that the traj ectory is not sufficiently energetic to reach the specified point on the lunar sphere of influence as determined by \ If so.48) through (7 . the quantity under the radical sign in equation (7 . Only after this trialanderror procedure is complete should we perform the computations embodied in equations (7 .4.2 Conditions at the Patch Point . a few remarks are in order concerning equation (7 . The energy in the geocentric departure 0rbit is completely determined by r0 and vO . r2 .42 : V m = 1 . We are now ready to determine the traj ectory inside the Moon's sphere of influence where only lunar gravity is assumed to act on the spacecraft .which we chose arbitrarily . The geocentric radius.0 1 8 k m/sec.4. 7 .42 the geome try of the situation at arrival is shown in detail. (7 . If the lunar trajectory is not satisfactory. r 1 . then the selena centric radius.
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PAT C H E D  CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
339
to eorth
1',
to eorth
Figure 7 .42 The patch condition
The angle €2 defines the direction of the initial selenocentric velocity relative to the Moon's center. Equating the components of v2 perpendicular to f2 yields
from which
It is obvious that for a deadcenter hit on the Moon €2 must be exactly zero. 7 .4 .3 The Selenocentric Arrival Orbit. The selenocentric initial conditions r2 , v2 and €2 are now known and so we can compute terminal conditions at other points on the trajectory. There are a
340
L U N AR T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
number of terminal conditions of interest depending on the nature of the mission, for example : 1 . Lunar impact , in which case we wish to determine if the periselenium radius is less than the radius of the Moon. In case rp. < r m we may wish to compute the speed at impact. The radius of the Moon, r m may be taken as 1 ,738 kIn. 2 . Lunar orbit, in which case we may wish to compute the speed increment necessary to produce a circular lunar satellite at the . periselenium altitude. 3 . Circumlunar flight, in which case we probably would want to compute both the periselenium conditions and the conditions upon exit from the lunar sphere of influence. In any case , the conditions at periselenium will certainly be of interest and are probably the best single measure of the trajectory. The energy and momentum relative to the center of the Moon are given by (7 .42 1 )
(7 .422) where P m is the gravitational parameter of the Moon. Since the mass of the Moon is 1 /8 1 .3 of the Earth's mass, JIm may be determined from
JIffi JI m = 8 1 .3 JI m = 4.90287x 1 0 3 k m 3 /sec 2 .
The parameter and eccentricity of the selenocentric orbit can be computed from
p = . n.:
JIm
(7 .423)
(7 .424)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N
341
The conditions at periselenium are then obtained from
rP = � 1 +
e
(7 .42 5)
If the periselenium conditions are not satisfactory, either the injection conditions, r0 ; vo ' <Po or the angle \ should be adjusted by trialanderror until the trajec�ory is acceptable .
(7. 426)
EXAMPLE PROBLEM. A lunar probe is sent to the Moon on a trajectory with the following injection conditions:
Upon arrival at the Moon's sphere of influence, Al
Calculate the initial phase angle 'Yo and the altitude at close st approach to the Moon for the probe. The given information in canonical units based on the Earth is:
<P o = 00
= 1 .05 D U Vo = 1 .372 D U /T U
r0
= 300 .
r0
= 1 .0 5 D U
A l = 300 (arrival condition at the moon's SOl)
From equation (7.42)
<P o = 00
V o = 1 .372 D U /T U
& =  0.0 1 1 D U 2 /TU 2
342
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
Ch . 7
From equation (7 .43)
h = 1 .44 D U 2 IT U
We know that
D = 384,400km = 60.27 D U
Rs = Using equation (7.44)
From equation (7.45)
and from equation (7.46)
V I = J 2 ( & +�) = 0. 1 296 D U /T U 1
r 1 = ..J0 2 + R�  2D R S c o s \ = 5 1 . 53 D U
66,300k m = 1 0.395 D U
(CP1
< 9CP since arrival at the Moon's SOl occurs prior to apogee)
From equation (7 .47) we get the phase angle of the Moon at arrival,
In order to calculate the time of flight to the Moon's SOl, we need the parameters p , a, e, Eo ' E 1 for the geocentric traj ectory. Using equations developed earlier we obtain :
v0
1'1 =
si n  1
s (r
R · 0 _ _ S i n \ )  5.78  0. 1 rad. 1
e
p = 2 .074 D U , a = 45.45 D U , = 00 since CP o = 00
= 0.977
(the probe burns out at perigee)
Sec. 7 . 4
T H E PATCH E D CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N
V l = 1 69 .20 = 2 . 95 rad . E l = 97 .40 = 1 .7 rad . E o = 00
since
343
V 0 = 00
s i n E l = 0.992 t l  to =
Using equation (7 .4 1 5) we get the TOF :
= 50. 1 98 h o u rs.
= 306 .45 [0.73 1 ] = 223.98 T U
Jf [ ( E �  e si n E l )  ( E o  e s i n E o ) ]
'Yo '
From equation (7.4 1 6) w e get the phase angle a t departure,
At the M oon's SOl it is necessary to convert vl and Rs to units based on the Moon as the gravitational center of attraction. Using km and km/sec we get :
'Yo = V l  v O  'Y l  w m (t l  t o ) = 2 . 37 1 rad = 1 35 . 87 ° where w m = 2 . 1 37 ( 1 0  3 ) rad/T U .
Vl = 0 . 1 296 D U /T U = 1 .024 k m/sec
and
Jl
R s = 1 0.395 D U
Using equation (7 .41 9)
V m = 1 .0 1 8 k m/sec.
2 m = � = 4.903( 1 0 3 ) k m 3 /sec 8 1 .3
=
66,300 k m
v2 = 1 . 1 98 k m/sec.
344
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
eil . 7
From equation (7.420)
Using equations (7 .42 1 ) through (7 .426) we can determine the minimum distance of approach to the Moon.
&
==
2 � 11 m 2 Rs

==
0.6437 (Why is &>O? )
p == � ==
e ==
/1 +2� h 2
J.Lm
11m
1 .264 ( 1 04 ) km
==
2.078
TIll s i s the minimum distance o f approach.
7.5 NONCOPLANAR LUNAR TRAJECTORIES The preceding analysis has been based on the assumption that the lunar traj ectory lies in the plane of the Moon's orbit. The inclination of the Moon's orbit varies between about 1 8.2 0 and 28.5 0 over a period of 1 8.6 years. Since it is impossible to launch an Earth satellite into an orbit whose inclination is less than the latitude of the launch site (see section 2 . 1 42), a coplanar trajectory originating from Cape Kennedy, whose latitude is 28.5 0 , is po ssible only when the inclination of the Moon's orbit is at its maximum value. This occured in the early part of 1 969 and will occur again in 1 978. Launches which occur at times other than these must necessarily
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P L A N A R
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S
345
result in non coplanar trajectories. In the sections which follow we will examine noncoplanar trajectories and develop a method for selecting acceptable launch dates and injection conditions. 7 . 5 . 1 Some Typical Constraints on Lunar Trajectories. If there are no restrictions on the launch conditions of a spacecraft or on the conditions at lunar approach, then there are no limitations on the time of the lunar month at which the spacecraft can approach the Moon. Practical considerations, such as launch site' location, missilerange safety, accuracy tolerances, and the limited range of attainable injection conditions, impose restrictions on the lunar intercept declination which can be accommodated. It i� interesting to examine the limitations on the possible launch times for lunar missions that are imposed by some of these restrictions. A typical design restriction for lunar missions is the specification of the lighting conditions on the surface of the Moon as determined by the phase of the Moon. For a particular year, the declination of the Moon at a given phase varies between maximum and minimum values which correspond approximately to the mean inclination of the Moon's orbit for that year. Another typical restriction concerns the permissible directions of launch from a particular site . In the analysis which follows the launch site is assUmed to be Cape Kennedy which has a latitude of 2 8 . 5 0 . The launch azimuth, P o ' must be between 400 and 1 1 5 0 as specified by Eastern Test Range safety requirements. 7 .5.2 Determining the Geocentric Sweep Angle. An important parameter in determining acceptable launch times is the total geocentric angle swept out by the spacecraft from launch to lunar intercept. The total sweep angle I/It ' consists of the freeflight sweep angle , I/Iff' from injection to intercept plus the geocentric angular travel from launch to injection, I/I c. Depending on the launch technique used, I/I c may be simply the burning arc of the booster for a directascent launch or it may be the burning arc plus the angular distance traveled during a coasting period prior to injection . While the angle I/Ic may be selected arbitrarily, the freeflight sweep angle, I/Iff' is determined by the injection conditions r0' Vo and cpo . The angle I/Iff is just the difference in true anomaly between injection and lunar intercept and may be computed from the equations in section 7 . 3 .2. In Figure 7 .52 we have plotted the freeflight sweep angle for
346
L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES
Ch . 7
intercept f I
I
/¥'t®:':::
/ burn plus coast
f r ee
f l ight
CD '0
e;,
II) ., Ql
It
u::
Ql Ql
� <Jl
.,
140 130
1 50
160
170
1 80
Figure 7.51 Geocentric sweep angle
320 km
I nject i o n c l t i t u d e
0. '"
.c
'"
1 00
1 10
1 20
90
10.8
10.9
1 1 .0
I n je c t ion
S pe e d
Figure 7 .52 Free flight sweep angle vs inj ection speed
k m / sec
11.1
1 1 .2
Sec. 7 . 5
N O N CO P lA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CT O R I ES
347
several values of Vo and ¢o and a fixed inj ection altitude of 320 km or about 200 miles. Lunar intercept is assumed to occur at a distance of 3 84,400 km. By selecting the inj ection conditions, r Vo and ¢o we can determine 1/1ff" If we arbitrarily select 1/1 C' we can obtain the total sweep angl e from
0'
(7 .5 1 )
Since the latitude or declination of the launch site is known, we may determine the declination of the spacecraft after it has traversed an arc 1/1t if we know the launch azimuth, This is essentially a problem in spherical trigonometry and is illustrated in Figure 7 . 53 . From the law of cosines for spherical triangles, we obtain
si n
81
=
si n
8 0 c os 1/1 t + co s 8 0 sin 1/1 t c os f3 0
f30'
.
(7 . 5 2)
Figure 7.53 Lunar interception angular relationships
40 .54 Intercept declination vs sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 . Tota l Sweep Angle I l/!t I in degrees Figure 7.348 L U NA R T R AJ ECTO R I E S Ch .20 .30 . «>  0. 7 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 .50 � � c 0 i e 1.
7 .52) versus total sweep angle for launch azimuths between 400 and 1 1 5 0 in Figure 7 . However. The American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac (AE) lists the right ascension and declination of the Moon for every hour as well as the phases of the Moon. then launch azimuth may be read directly from Figure 7. sir! 0 1 . 54 or computed more accurately from c o s {3 o =  7.52 we see that freeflight sweep angles of less than about 1 200 are impossible to achieve without going to very high injection speeds or large flight path angles.5 5 shows a typical p age portion from a lunar ephemeris. we can intercept the Moon at any point along its orbit. Figure 7 . once t/Jt is known selecting either launch azimuth or declination at intercept determines the other uniquely.54 that launch azimuth and lunar declination at intercept are not independent .si r! 0 0 c o s � :c o s sir! t/J t = 00   t/Jt (7 . t/J c ' large enough to make t/Jt greater than 1 800 . Since the Moon's declination at intercept is limited between +28 . Once the lunar declination at intercept is determined the next step is to search through a lunar ephemeris to find a time when the Moon is at the correct declination . 5 4 worth noticing.3 Selecting an Acceptable Launch Date . 5 N O N CO P LAN A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 349 We have plotted values of 0 1 obtained from equation (7 . It should be obvious from equation (7 . If lighting conditions are important.5 0 and 28 .52) and Figure 7 .5 0 . There are several interesting features of Figure 7 . If lunar declination at intercept is specified. From Figure 7 . As a result . b oth of which are undesirable. those portions of the graph that are shaded represent impossible launch conditions. if we are interested in minimizing injection speed. 54.5 0 (during 1 969) and because of the range safety restrictions on launch azimuth. we must find a time when both declination and phase are simultaneously correct .5. Perhaps the most interesting is the fact that a sweep angle of 1 800 is possible only if we intercept the Moon at its maximum southern declination of 28. we must intercept the Moon when it is near its maximum southern declination for directascent launches or launches where the coasting period is small enough to keep t/Jt less than 1 80 0 . For this condition any launch azimuth is correct. if we add a coasting arc.5 3) .Sec.
424 1 67 .020 1 8 1 6 49. 8 0 1 36. 1 2 1 1 8 08 29 . 7 8 o 1 8 33 26.737 18 1 9 36 .44 28 2 1 1 8 .374 1 8 00 07 .6 1 6 1 7 48 5 8.963 1 8 27 5 5 .695 1 8 02 54 .97 28 3 1 47 .883 s 5 o ' " 1 67 .23 1 23 .6 5 5 May 6 28 1 9 5 3 .87 28 34 22.76 28 3 1 09 .63 1 1 1 .27 3 5 .00 28 28 1 5 .05 8 1 65 .05 28 33 1 1 . .538 1 8 3 6 1 1 .97 29. 1 99 1 8 1 1 1 6 .970 1 66 . 5 7 1 1 66 . 24 28 23 34 . 1 3 . 1 67 1 7 29 26 .3 3 3 1 67 .84 60.08 28 29 08 . 2 1 28 34 42 .449 1 67 . 1 90 1 67 .9 8 9 8 . 078 1 66 . 3 5 7 1 7 32 1 3 .435 1 65 .3 1 28 29 48 .89 28 24 29 . 1 69 1 8 1 4 03 .949 1 8 05 42. 8 1 28 32 47 . 1 1 28 22 1 7 .45 8 0.1 44.376 1 67 .85 4 1 . 1 5 28 34 1 0. 1 36 1 7 5 1 45 .95 7 1 7 37 48. 24 . 5 9 28 34 33 .39 28 3 0 34.862 1 65 . 1 0 1 6.254 1 67 .47 28 25 3 8 . 7 . F OR EACH HOUR OF EPHEM ERIS TIME Ch . 02 1 1 8 3 0 40.3 1 + 1 48 .56 .35 28 1 6 08 .90 28 33 5 3 .385 1 67 .97 28 34 3 9 .766 1 7 43 23 .85 1 1 66 . 5 8 1 1 7 54 32 .44 22. 973 FIgure 1 65 .998 17 5 7 20.3 1 8 5 . 1 7 2 1 67 .97 1 1 9.3 1 9 3 .34 28 32 1 7 . 1 6 +1 6 1 .72 1 1 8 25 08. 7  ::t: 1 !3 h h m o  Apparent Right Ascension May s Apparent Declination o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1 7 26 39.350 L U N A R T R AJ ECTO R I ES MOON . 55 T yplcal page portion from lunar ephemens . 5 8 67.7 1 54.4 1 3 1 66 . 1 969 . 1 9 173.2 1 5 1 7 46 1 0.242 1 66 .32 1 1 67 . 7 1 7 1 66 .46 1 1 67 . 267 1 67 .88 28 33 3 5 .78 1 3 1 .41 7 1 67 .38 + 9 . 86 28 26 29 . 1 4 1 06.342 1 7 40 3 5 .308 1 8 22 22.3 .460 1 67 . 624 1 7 3 5 00.203 28 1 8 49 .58 73. .445 1 67 . 1 0 28 27 29 .07 47.
which may be computed from the injection conditions. between launch and intercept is fixed by the geometry of Figure 7 . 5 4). I t would b e sheer coincidence i f the difference a1 . it is possible to adjustt l . 1/1 c ' Thus. is the same as the "local sidereal time . The right ascension of the moon at t1 should be noted from the AE. tt ' is (7 .89) : (7 56) . 7 . To establish to we need to compute the total time from launch to intercept .ao were the same as the !::lX calculated from equation (7 . \ ' for lunar intercept that meets the declination and lighting constraints. ao' at this launch time .si n 0 s i n 0 1 0 cos 0 0 c os 0 1 (7 . 5 3 . c o s 1/1 t . This is the angle a1 in Figure 7 .5 ." 8. to ' can now be obtained from The right ascension of the launch point . The launch time. Since the right ascension of the Moon changes very slowly whereas the right ascension of the launch point changes by nearly 3600 in a day . the total time .53 . slightly (7 .9 . to' and the right ascension of the launch site .55) where tft is the freeflight time and t c is the burnpluscoast time. The difference i n right ascension . we get cos 6a.54) where AE is the east longitude of the launch site and 8g is the G�eenwich Sidereal Time at to' Values of 8 are tabulated in the AE for Q o UT on every day of the year and may oe obtained by interpolation for any hour or by the method outlined in section 2 .3 . �. 5 N O N CO P LA N A R L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I ES 351 Suppose we now select a time . 84). !::lX . = The next step is to establish the exact time of launch. plus the time to traverse the burning and coasting arc. This consists of the freeflight time from injection to intercept. at the launch point (see Figure 2.Sec.57) ao = 8 = 8 9 + A E . Applying the law of cosines to the spherical triangle in Figure 7 . and may be obtained from equation (2.
(Xo and the required f::Dl from equation (7 . 1 Calculate the burnout velocity required to transfer a probe between the vicinity of the Earth (assume rbo = 1 DU) and the Moon's orbit using a Hohmann transfer.300 hm Pm em = = = VI = 1 k m/sec 0. 352 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO I. 7. These launch conditions should provide us with sufficiently accurate initial conditions to begin the computation of a precision lunar trajectory using numerical methods. The lunar declination at intercept will change very slightly as t l is adjusted and it may be necessary to go back to equation (7.t I ES Ch . r0 ' vo ' CPo ' day and hour of launch and lunar intercept that will satisfy all of the constraints set forth earlier.426 k m 2 /sec2 6.54) agree. � . 7 30 EXERCISES 7 . and the exact We now know the injection conditions. 53) and redetermine the launch azimuth. Neglect the Moon's gravity in both parts.4 The following quantities are with respect to the Moon : €2 = .2 For a lunar vehicle which is injected at perigee near the surface of the Earth.3 224 . determine the eccentricity of the trajectory that just reaches the sphere of influence of the Moon. . What additional 6. 7. 084 k m2 /sec �m Determine = A of perilune .V would be required to place the probe in the same orbit as that of the Moon. 7 .and recompute to and Qb until (Xl .3 For a value of € = + 2r:P determine the maximum value of V 2 which will allow lunar impact. 000 k m 33 .
b. . Calculate the initial value of €2 which must exist to satisfy the conditions. At the sphere of influence v2 = 5 00 m/sec . The burnout conditions are : For v m oo n V bo = 1 600 m/sec = r bo = 7972 km 1 024 m/sec and D = 384. 8 Given a lunar declination at intercept of 1 5 0 and a total geocentric sweep angle of 1 5 00 find the launch azimuth.6 A space probe was sent to investigate the planet Mars. 7 A lunar vehicle arrives at the sphere of influence of the Moon with A. Determine the /:. What is the elevation angle of the probe at D? c.. What is the speed of the probe a s it is at the distance D from the Earth? b . S It is desired that a lunar vehicle have its perilune 262 km above the lunar surface with direct motion about the Moon. Determine the velocity of the sounding rocket at apogee relative to the Moon (neglecting Moon gravity) if the Moon were nearby. Find v relative to the Moon 2 and €2 ' Is the vehicle in retrograde or direct motion relative to the Moon? 7 . What is the angle through which the Moon will have moved 3 0 hours after launch o f the probe? 7 . a .9 A sounding rocket is fired vertically from the surface of the Earth so that its maximum altitude occurs at the distance of the Moon's orbit. 7 EXERCISES 353 7 .v necessary to place the probe in a circular orbit in which perilune is an altitude of 262 krn.I = 0 0 • The speed of the vehicle relative to the Earth is 200 m/sec and the flightpath angle relative to the Earth is 80 ° . 7 . Is this an acceptable launch azimuth? 7. On the way it crosses the Moon's orbit.Ch .400 k m : a . The vehicle is in direct motion relative to the Earth.
select ro ' vo ' to meet this . Then make some estimates as to how inaccurate the patchedconic approximation is and discuss how great the realworld or actual errors would be (use the sensitivity calculations as a basis for the discussion). Which would be best for a lunar landing? 7 . requirement. Find the vbo ' CPbo and 'Yo such that the return trajectory will have h p3r igee = 5 0 n mi and thus insure reentry. <1>0 = = = * 7 . There are several orbits that may meet the criteria. You will have to extend the iterative technique of this chapter. A suggested set of data is h bo 200 km. given that you wish to arrive at perilune at a specified altitude . 1 0 Discuss the change in energy with respect to the Earth due to passing by the Moon in front or behind the Moon's orbit (retrograde or direct orbit with respect to the Moon) . . Attempt to have a perilune altitude of about 1 00 n mi. Use h bo l OO n mi . 1 percent) to find the sensitivity of perilune distance and return traj ectory perigee to the burnout parameters. (Hint : Use a computer and don ' t expect an exact solution. vary vbo ' r bo and CPbo by some small amount (. 7 7 . Choose a reasonable value of maximum available velocity (of which Vo is a part) and consider having enough velocity remaining at perilune to inject the probe into a circular lunar orbit at perilune altitude. 1 2 cannot really be used in practice. Specifically. 1 1 Design a computer program which will solve the basic patched conic lunar transfer problem.Determine such an orbit using the patched conic method. CPo 0 0 and vary the Vo to show the effect of insufficient energy to reach the Moon. One approach is to select a reasonable r 0' vo ' CPo and iterate on Ai until the lunar orbit conditions are met. 1 2 A "freereturn" lunar trajectory is one which passes around the Moon in such a manner that it will return to the Earth with no additional power to change its orbit.354 L U N A R T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 3 To show that the calculations in problem 7 .) * 7 .
1 967. NY. McGrawHill Book Company. London and New York. Battin. A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Motte's translation revised by Caj ori. L. Doran and Company. New York.Ch. Baker. Doubleday. 7 L I ST O F R E F E R E N C ES 355 LIST OF REFERENCES 1 . Principia . The Moon . Second Edition. Makemson. Academic Press. 3 . Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1 962. New York. Abelard Schuman. an d Maud W. 1 943 . 6. Inc. Robert M. 1 9 5 9 . A stronautical Guidance. Fisher." ARMA Document DR 220. George . NY. Isaac . 5. University of California Press. NY. 4. . The Story of the Moon . Clyde . Richard H . "Inertial Guidance for Lunar Probes. Garden City. 2. Gamow. Newton.1 6. November 1 95 9 . 1 964.
.
two ears. The ancient Greeks gradually saw its significance . and a mouth .. C opernicus. From which and many other similar phenomena of nature. so in the heavens there are two favorable stars. 1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The word "planet" means "wanderer. two nostrils.CHAPTER 8 INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES There are seven windows in the head. who was born in Polish Prussia in 1 47 3 . Francesco Sizzi (argument against Galileo's discovery of the satellites of Jupiter ) } 8 . we gather that the number of planets is necessarily seven. Aristarchus of Samos realized that the planets must revolve around the Sun as the central body of the solar system. By 1 507 he was 357 . two unpropitious. such as the seven metals. which it were tedious to enumerate . At first it was not understood . and Mercury alone undecided and indifferent . two luminaries. But the tide of opinion ebbed. two eyes. compiled tables of the planetary motions that remained useful until superceded by the more accurate measurements of Tycho Brahe . etc. and an Earthcentered system held the field until Copernicus rediscovered the heliocentric system in the 1 6th century. indeed." That the nakedeye planets wander among the stars was one of the e arliest astronomical observations.
2. at the age of 70. 1 Bode's Law. was forced by the Inquisition to renounce what he knew to be true . Not until 1 6 1 6 was it declared "false . Mo st conspicuous are the nine planetsMercury. . during the lifetime of Copernicus his work received the approval of the Church. some of which pass near the Sun. Uranus. the members of the solar system." The publication of Newton's Principia in 1 687 laid to rest forever the Earthcentered concept of the solar system. Earth. or asteroids which vary in size from a few hundred miles to a few feet in. indeed. The "law. Mars. 8. are spread much more widely throughout the system. the numbers thus obtained represent the mean distances of the planets from the Sun in Astronomical Units (AU) . With Newton the process of formulating and understanding the motions within the solar system was brought to completion." in spite of the fact that Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1 609. Saturn. Galileo's books which set forth cogent and unanswerable astronomical arguments in favor of the Copernican theory were suppressed and Galileo himself. nevertheless. . An Astronomical Unit is the mean distance from the Sun to the Earth. If we write down the series 0. In addition. diameter. 8. Such was the atmosphere of the Dark Ages that even the telescopic . Between Mars and Jupiter circulate the minor planets. and Pluto . Jupiter . and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture." as may be seen in Table 8 . . 1 2 . 8 convinced that the planets revolved around the Sun and in 1 53 0 he wrote a treatise setting forth his revolutionary concept . Neptune.2. . 6. Galileo 's data seemed to point decisively to the heliocentric hypothesis : the moons of Jupiter were a solar system in miniature.2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun is attended by an enormous number of lesser bodies. 3.358 I N T E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . comets. After swearing that the Earth was "fixed" at the center of the solar system he is said to have murmured under his breath "it does move. predicts fairly well the distances o f all the planets except Neptune and Pluto. Venus.1 . It is not well known that this work was dedicated to Pope Paul III and that a cardinal paid for the printing. observations of Galileo in 1 6 1 0 failed to change the Church's position. The mean distances of the principal planets from the Sun show a simple relationship which is known as Bode's Law after the man who formulated it in 1 772. add 4 to each number and divide by 1 0.
changes rapidly with time and may b e obtained for any date from the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac.76 Whether Bode ' s Law is an empirical accident or is somehow related to the origin and evolution of the solar system by physical laws is a question which remains unanswered. the orbits of the planets are nearly circular and lie nearly in the plane of the ecliptic.28 3 0.21 Actual Distance 0.2 Table 8.52 1 9. Pluto ' s orbit is so eccentric that the perihelion point lies inside the orbit of Neptune .8 77. The size.65 5.20 9.3 THE PATCHEDCONIC APPROXIMA nON An interplanetary spacecraft spends most of its flight time moving under the gravitational influence of a single bodythe Sun. 8.2.6 2. 8.2 1 0. Only for brief periods.39 0. Table 8 .2 Orbital Elements and Physical Constants. 8. The sixth orbital element. A complete set of orbital elements for the epoch 1 969 June 2 8 .52 2.7 1 .8 5 . 0 is presented in Table 8 . which defines the position of the planet in its orbit.0 1 9 . compared with the total mission duration.72 1 . Except for Mercury and Pluto .22.6 3 8 . shape and orientation of the planetary orbits is described by five classical orbital elements which remain relatively fixed except for slight perturbations caused by the mutual attraction of the planets.4 0.00 1 . 2 T H E SO L A R SYST E M 359 BODE'S LAW Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Asteroids (average) Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Bode's Law Distance 0 . is its path . this suggests that Pluto may be an e scaped satellite of Neptune .Sec.0 1. 1 7 39.23 summarizes some of the important physical character istics of the planets.
2056 . 0934 .970 7 6 ° . 1 3 6 47 ° .4 1 6 3 3 5 ° .870 L.203 9.005 0 .405 undefined 49 ° .0539 . 1 39 1 1 3 ° .684 93 ° . 38 7 1 .306 2 ° . 5 68 3 1 ° .773 1 7° .0 Planet Semimaj or axis a ...423 £0 � Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (") I o :J:l m (fj c.225 237 ° . 8 94 341 ° .28 3 0.096 1 88 ° .850 1 ° .5 24 5 . 05 1 4 . 0 1 67 .ORBITAL ELEMENTS OF THE PLANETS* FOR THE EPOCH 1 969 JUNE 28. 074 1 83 ° .497 1 3 ° . 0068 .322 1 00 ° . 1 7 3 9 . 5 1 3 5 2 ° .2583 7 ° .828 1 7 1 °.9 1 6 1 3 1 ° . 3 97 1 09 ° .004 3 ° . 1 1 1 326 ° .400 276 ° .5 1 9 1 9 . 9 8 1 1 3 1 ° . 76 ° . 5 73 1 75 ° . m � Z m I � :lJ < I jJ » 0 r Z I m :lJ *From reference 2 (") ::r 00 .76 ..489 0° .441 73 ° . 7 73 1 ° . 1 1 7 265 ° . 000 1 °.394 0° .000 1 ..7233 1 .) 00 . [AU] Orbital eccentricity e Inclination to ecliptic Longitude of ascending node Longitude of Tme longitude at epoch perihelion w en c i n II Mercury Venus N N (.275 222 ° . 1 42 1 02 ° .. 0482 .
46 84.6 1 7 .9 1 08 .65 6.232x l 0 4 3 .8 778 1 426 2 868 4494 5 896 47 .79 24..5 8 7x l O s ? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .000 1 ." :::0 o X s: » o z ::! *From reference 3 I I w en > .000 ." » l ('") J: o m � t h i o z ('") » .820x 1 0 6 6 .9? 1 .2 1 4.268x 1 0 B 3 .87 3 5 .49 4.PHYSICAL CHARACTERI STICS OF THE SUN AND PLANETS * J.3 27x 1 0 11 696000 2487 6 1 87 6378 3380 7 1 370 60400 23 5 3 0 22320 701 6? 7° 1 5 ' ? 32 ° 23 ° 27 ' 23 ° 5 9 ' 3 ° 04' 26 ° 44' 97 ° 5 3 ' 28 ° 48' ? I I l J: m .986x l O s 4." .257x l O s 3 .8 6 29.06 9 .05 6 .8 247 .896x 1 0 6 3 . 1 08 3 1 8 .80 5 .l Planet Orbital Period years  Mean distance 1 0 6 km  Orbital speed km/sec  Mass Earth = 1 km3 /sec2 Equatorial radius km Inclination of equator to orbit l I f{l !"l !XI w Sun Mercury . 0 1 1 64..74 2 .3 05x 1 04 1 .04 29.8 1 7 1 .0 95.8 8 1 1 1 .24 1 . 5 227.7 5 7 . 00 3 3 3 43 2 . 1 4 1 3 .6 1 5 1 .795x 1 0 7 5 . 1 1 49 .3 .
The Hohmann transfer. this consideration is important. For preliminary mission analysis and feasibility studies it is sufficient to have an approximate analytical method for determining . A Hohmann transfer between Earth and Mars is pictured in Figure 8. especially if the spacecraft is to return to Earth. was the Hohmann transfer. from the standpoint of /:. we can determine both the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the Sun and the subsequent heliocentric orbit. If we now switch to a heliocentric frame of reference .3l . Just as in lunar trajectories. 8. if continued past the destination planet . The patchedconic method permits u s to ignore the gravitational influence of the Sun until the spacecraft is a great distance from the Earth (perhaps a million kilometers). If the spacecraft continued its flight it would return to the original point . At this point its speed relative to the Earth is very nearly the "hyperbolic excess speed" referred to in Chapter 1 . for a probe which is to be recovered or for a manned mission. For a oneway trip this is irrelevent. the computation of a precision orbit is a trialanderror procedure involving numerical integration of the complete e quations of motion where all per�urbation effects are considered. 1 The Heliocentric Transfer Orbit. For transfers to mo st of the planets. The best method available for such an analysis is called the patchedconic approximation and was introduced in Chapter 7 . The same procedure is followed in reverse upon arrival at the target planet's sphere of influence. While it is always desirable that the transfer orbit be tangential to the Earth's orbit at departure. however.362 I NT E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . we may consider that the planetary orbits are both circular and coplanar. In Chapter 3 we discussed the problem of transferring between coplanar circular orbits and found that the most economical method. S shaped by the gravitational field of the departure or arrival planet. it may be preferrable to intercept Mars' orbit prior to apogee. The outbound trip to Mars on the Hohmann trajectory consumes between 8 and 9 months. the total !::N required to accomplish an interplanetary mission. would not provide a suitable return traj ectory. The perturbations caused by the other planets while the spacecraft is pursuing its heliocentric course are negligible . The first step in designing a successful interplanetary trajectory is to select the heliocentric transfer orbit that takes the spacecraft from the sphere of influence of the departure planet to the sphere of influence of the arrival planet.v required.3 .
u o_____+. The energy of the Hohmann transfer orbit is given by . Therefore .V. the Hohmann transfer provides us with a convenient yardstick for determining the minimum /::.d so that the spacecraft will encounter the Earth at the point where it recrosses the earth's orbit.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C APP R O XI M AT I O N Mars at arr i v a l 363 I I I I I / / ..v required for an interplanetary mission." . either the spacecraft must loiter in the vicinity of Mars for nearly 6 months or the original traj ectory must be modifip. \ _. Earth a t de pa rt u re Figure 8. .' . Nevertheless.. 8.31 Hohmann transfer to Mars of departure only to f md the Earth nearly on the oppo site side of its orbit.Sec.
3 . transfers to the outer planets require that the spacecraft depart the Earth parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity.l0 i s the gravitational parameter o f the Sun. The heliocentric speed. and r is the radius of the arrival planet's 2 orbit.32) The timeofflight on the Hohmailn transfer is just half the period of the transfer orbit since departure occurs at perihelion and arrival o ccurs at aphelion. From Table 8.3 . • .where f. for the Hohmann transfer.l 0 (8 . If t l is the time when the spacecraft departs and t is the 2 arrival time.1 ) 364 I NT E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .78 kIn/sec. VI ' and the Earth's orbital speed represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth at departure which we will call /:"V1 The method for computing /:"v1 for other than Hohmann transfers is presented in section 3 .33) In Table 8 . The orbital speed of the Earth is 1 AU 0'TU0 or 29. In any case . the difference between the heliocentric speed.31 it is obvious that transfers to the inner planets require that the spacecraft be launched in the direction opposite the Earth's orbital motion so as to cancel some of the Earth's orbital velocity.3.1 we have listed the heliocentric speed required at departure and the timeofflight for Hohmann transfers to all of the principal planets of the solar system. t2 t 1 � w = 1f (r 1 + r 2 ) 3 j} f. then. B (8 . VI ' required at the departure point is obtained from (8 . r 1 is the radius of the departure planet's orbit.3 and should be reviewed .
295 1 . Neglect the phasing requirements due to their relative positions at the time of transfer . t2 .42 4 1 . 1 2 5 8 . VI AU a/TU a km/sec TimeofFlight .28 27. 1 6 30.Sec. From Table 8 .31 ) the energy of the Hohmann transfer trajectory is : .07 4 1 . EXAMPLE PROBLEM.74 6. rE9> are respectively : .05 4 1 .748 .524 A U From equation (8 .31 1 05 .9  2 . Calculate the heliocentric departure speed and time of flight for a Hohmann transfer from Earth to Mars.397 22.345 1 .28 32.379 1 .78 46. Assume both planets are in circular coplanar orbits. r d = 1 .57 .03 The important thing to remember is that 6V1 represents the speed of the spacecraft relative to the Earth upon exit from the Earth 's sphere of influence. rd> and the radius to Earth from the Sun.3 T H E PATCH E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 365 HOHMANN TRAJECTORIES FROM EARTH Planet Heliocentric Speed at Departure .60 Table 8.04 1 6.9 1 6 1 . 40.\ days years  Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto .5 1 46 .3 9 1 1 . 8.73 38.099 1 .22 the radius to Mars from the Sun. it is the hyperbolic excess speed left over after the spacecraft has escaped the Earth. In other words .
73Km/sec .34) __ (8 . 2 cos V 1 c o s v2 = The timeofflight may be determined from the Kepler equation which was derived in Chapter 4. the correct phase angle at departure is er2 p r1 = er 1  p  __ r2 (8. The total sweep angle from departure to arrival is just the difference in true anomaly at the two points. The target planet will move through an angle while the spacecraft is in flight.t 1 = 1T = 4. From equation (8 .32 for a Mars trajectory. 8 From equation (8 . Thus.7088 years = 258.9 d ays 8.VI ' which may be determined from the polar equation of a conic once p and e of the heliocentric transfer orbit have been selected. v .3.32) the heliocentric speed . where is the angular velocity of the target planet.t1 ) wt . The angle between the radius vectors to the departure and arrival planets is called 'Y1 . If the spacecraft is to encounter the target planet at the time it crosses the planet's orbit then obviously the Earth and the target planet must have the correct angular relationship at departure.3.099A U/TU 0 = 32. the phase angle at departure .2 Phase Angle at Departure.366 I NT E R P LA N E T A R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .35) wt (t2 . vl ' required at the departure point is : = 1 .4538 T U G J! 3 = 1'"" 0 _t_ = rr 11 . and is illustrated in Figure 8 .3) the timeofflight from Earth to Mars for the Hohmann transfer is t 2 .
. .. Synodic period is defined as the time required for any phase angle to repeat itself. If we miss a particular launch opportunity...Sec. The heliocentric longitudes of the planets are tabulated in the A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. and these may be used to determine when the phase angle will be correct. . pp 1 60.1 76 . .. how long will we have to wait until the correct phase angle repeats itself? The answer to this question depends on the "synodic period" between the Earth and the particular target planet. The heliocentric longitude of the Earth may be obtained from pp 2033 of the AE by adding 1 800 to the tabulated geocentric longitudes of the Sun. 'Yl (8 .36) The requirement that the phase angle at departure be correct severely limits the times when a launch may take place . .. . 8.. . Figure 8.. ..32 Phase angle at departure.3 T H E PATC H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I ON " . 367 .
v 1 determined.07 5 . 1 3 1 .04 1 . yrs 0. Since the Earth's sphere of influence has a radius of ab out 1 0 6 km. 3 ·2.3 Escape From the Earth's Sphere of Influence. Mars and Venus.025 Synodic Period. if a Mars or Venus launch is p ostponed. 8.32 1 . It is clear that for the two planets nearest the Earth. 7S' the Earth moves through an angle WEfJ7S and the target planet advances by �7S' If 7S is the synodic period. so W EfJ7 s . then the angular advance of one will exceed that of the other by 21T radians and the original phase angle will be repeated.01 1 . 8 SYNODIC PERIODS OF THE PLANETS WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH Planet Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto �.38) .213 .W t7s = 7 The synodic periods of all the planets relative to Earth are given in Table 8 . rad/yr 26 . 340 .09 1 .07 1 1 0.2 1 7 3 . the times between the reoccurence of a particular phase angle is quite long. Once the heliocentric transfer orbit has been selected and /:::. we must either compute a new trajectory or wait a long time for the same launch conditions 'to occur again. we can proceed to e stablish the inj ection or launch conditions near the surface of the Earth which will result in the required hyperbolic excess speed.w t I (8 .3. Thus.37) (8. we assume that s I = ± 21T 21T w EfJ .00 Table 8.32 In a time .60 2.530 .368 I N T E R P LA N E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch .03 8 .0 1 1 .
. .310) The hyperbolic excess speed is extremely sensitive to small errors in ... . . (8 ... . we may equate & at injection and & at the edge of the sphere of influence where r = roo.. . . � _ i t_ r b_ . .39) Solving for vo ' we get (8 .. . . '?. � / dep r t ure a asymp tote 7 . ". 8 .:V.r_______ ___ __ _ _ ��<. .Sec. .33 / . f I _ scape hyperbola Since energy is constant along the geocentric escape hyperbola. 3 T H E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I M AT I O N 369 to sun Not t o sca e l � o ea r t h 's a vel: i : l� .. . . . �. � Figure 8. '\ .
so equation (8 . From Figure 8.1 1 ) becomes = 2 . Assuming that inj ection occurs at perigee of the departure hyperbola. C but since e = da for any conic. 3.34 we see that the angie . This may be seen by solving equation (8 .6 which says that a 1 percent error in injection speed results in a 1 5 .39) for v! and taking the differential of both sides of the resulting equation assuming that r0 is constant : 370 I N T E R P LAN E TA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . is given by cos fI =  §. For transfer to one of the outer planets.3. 8 The relative error in v"" may be expressed as (8 . fI.1 1 ) v"" For a Hohmann transfer t o Mars.33 . the angle .the injection speed .98 km/sec and Vo = 1 1 . between the Earth's orbital velocity vector and the inj ection radius vector may be determined from the geometry of the hyperbola.2 percent error in hyperbolic excess speed. fI. the hyperbolic excess velocity should be parallel to the Earth ' s orbital velocity as shown in Figure 8. we may write . km/sec.
34 Geometry of the departure hyperbola .CO N I C A P P R O X I MAT I O N 37 1 cos 71 = . is obtained directly from the injection (8 . 8 . conditions : = (8 .1 3) h r 0 Vo ( f o r i njecti o n at p erigee) (8.1 e where the eccentricity .1 4) � �I "" c Figure 8 .3. 3.3.1 2) e.Sec. 3 T H E PATC H E D.
8 locus of injection points Figure 8 . then v and cfJ may be determined from 2 2 . When the launch site rotates through this circle launch may occur.36. The locus of possible injection points forms a circle on the surface of the Earth.3.4 Arrival at the Target Planet. Generally.1 5) It should be noted at this point that it is not necessary that the geocentric departure orbit lie in the plane of the ecliptic but only that the hyperbolic departure asymptote be parallel to the Earth's orbital velocity vector . At arrival. 8.35 Interplanetary launch (8 .3. the heliocentric transfer orbit usually crosses the target planet's orbit at some angle .72 I NT E R P L A N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch . the heliocentric transfer orbit will be tangent to the Earth's orbit at departure in order to take full advantage of the Earth's orbital velocity.3. cfJ as shown in Figure 8. however. 2' If &t and hr are the energy and angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit.
sun to r 2 ��� " Figure 8 . (8 .1 7) If we call the velocity of the spacecraft relative to the target planet V3 ' then from the law of cosines. 3.2v v cos cfJ 2 2 CS 2 2 CS 2 where VCS2 is the orbital speed of the target planet.36 Relative velocity at arrival (8 .1 6) (8. 8 .3. 2 v3 = V 2 + V 2 . 3 . 3 TH E PATC H E DCO N I C A PP R O X I MA T I O N 373 I I I /2 I V  I //: :.Sec.1 8) .
It also means that the relative velocity vector. v3 ' upon arrival at the target planet ' s sphere of influence . then the vector v3 ' which represents the hyperbolic excess velocity on the approach hyperbola.s i n if> 2 v (8 . 5 Effective Collision Cross Section. 32 1 ) Once the offset distance i s known. If the spacecraft crosses the planet ' s orbit a distance x ahead of the planet. resulting in a straight line hyperbolic approach traj ectory.1 9) where the plus or minus sign is chosen depending on whether the spacecraft is to cross ahead of ( ) or behind (+) the target planet .38 the hyperbolic approach trajectory is shown.36). From Figure 8 . 3 7 we see that  (8 . 8 . In Figure 8.3 . If it is desired to fly by the target planet instead of impacting it. 3. S If a deadcenter hit on the target planet is planned then the phase angle at departure. where V3 is the hyperbolic excess velocity upon entrance to the target planet ' s sphere of influence and y is the offset distance . 'Yl should be selected from equation (8.The angle . . 3 7 .36 may be determined from the law of sines as 374 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Ch . then the phase angle at departure must be modified so that the spacecraft crosses the target planet ' s orbit ahead of or behind the planet. is offset a distance y from the center of the target planet as shown in Figure 8 . will be directed toward the center of the planet. in Figure 8.320) y = x si n e (8. e. If the miss distance along the orbit is called x then the phase angle at departure should be 3 ' sin e =if. the distance o f closest approach or periapsis radius may b e computed. This ensures that the target planet will be at the intercept point at the same time the spacecraft is there.
Sec. 8 . (8 .322) . X / / I · 0 p l a ne t I ar r i v a l I at Figure 8.lt/ 2 X _ . 3 T H E PAT C H E D·CO N I C A PP R O X I MAT I O N 375 d i st a ncE! a l ong m i ss orbit .37 Offset miss distance at arrival Figure 8.38 Hyperb olic approach orbit From the energy equation we know that the energy in the hyperbolic approach traj ectory is & = v� f.
)1 + 2& h 2 IM � (8 .327) for y Yields (8 .328) Equating the energy at periapsis with the energy upon entrance to the sphere of influence. 327) The usual procedure is to specify the desired periapsis radius and then compute the required offset distance. W e may now compute the periapsis radius from = h 2 /M t e = .(8. Solving equation (8 . the speed at periapsis is simply .376 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 323) The parameter and eccentricity of the approach traj ectory follow from p where Mt is the gravitational parameter of the target planet . 325) r =� 1 +e P (8 . 324) (8. y. 8 The angular momentum is obtained from (8 . we obtain .326) Because angular momentum is conserved.
then a much smaller target must be considered. rt This particular offset distance is called b .05 DU. The. We can determine the impact parameter by setting r = rt in p equation (8 . " The radius of the effective collision cross section is just the impact parameter.39. EXAMPLE PROBLEM.329) It is interesting to see what offset distance results in a periapsis radius equal to the radius of the target planet. The cross section for hitting the atmosphere of the target planet is called the "reentry corridor" and may be very small indeed. 8.t 3  rt (8 .Sec.328) we 'get (8 .329). If we wish to take advantage of atmospheric braking. only a thin annulus of radius b and width d b . This concept is also employed by atomic and nuclear physicists and is called "effective collision cross section. Determine the burnout velocity required to accomplish this mission. It is desired to send an interplanetary probe to Mars on a Hohmann ellipse around the Sun . The given information is . the "inwact parameter.3 THE PATC H E D·CO N I C A P P R O X I M AT I O N 377 and solving for vp and substituting it into equation (8 . " since any offset less than this will result in a collision . In this connection it is convenient to assign to the target planet an impact size which is larger than its physical size.launch vehicle burns out at an altitude of 0. V2 + 2fJ.33 0) The effective cross section of the planet represents a rather large target as shown in Figure 8 . b.
05 D U 1 .378 I N T E R P LAN ETAR Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES Cil . energy equation v"" = 6V 1 :: Hence .099  vtf) = on the Hohmann ellipse at the region of the earth 1 . 8 reentry cor r i do r db ta rget p l a net col l i s i o n cross sect ion Figure 8 .1 :: 0.099 .099 A U/TU 0.1 VI = 1 .099 A U/TU = :. 3 . 6V 1 = 1 .373 DUjTU and we can write the 0.39 Effective Cross Section From Table 8 .373 DU!TU At the earth's SOl.
Sec. Fimple 4 has shown that a good procedure to use when the target planet lies above or below the ecliptic plane at intercept is to launch the spacecraft into a transfer orbit which lies in the ecliptic plane and then make a simple plane change during midcourse when the true anomaly change remaining to intercept is 900 . 4 NONCOPLANAR INTERPLANETARY TRAJECTORIES Up to now we have assumed that the planetary orbits an 1ie in the plane of the ecliptic.1 .v = 2v si n L 2 /::.07 6 ft/sec 2 .905 = = 379 37 . the required inclination is just equal to the ecliptic latitude.43 DU/TU . 8 .044 8 .v (8 . departure Figure 8 .41 Optimum plane change point Since the plane change is made 9 00 short of intercept. 1 39 + 1 .22 it may be seen that some of the planetary orbits are inclined several degrees to the ecliptic. From Table 8 .4. {32 ' of the target planet at the time of intercept. t2 • The required to produce this midcourse plane change depends on the speed of the spacecraft at the time of the plane change and is /::. This minimizes the magnitude of the plane change required and is illustrated in Figure 8.4.1 ) . 4 Vb o vb o = N O N CO P lA N A R T R AJ EC TO R I ES 1 .
4 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the use o f a Hohmann transfer for interplanetary travel.3 . 8. 8. " .3. 8..62 DUJTU� 8.1 ) .7 Find the distance from the Sun at which a space station must be placed in order that a particular phase angle between the station and Earth will repeat itself every 4 years.. 7.6 Calculate the escape speed from the surface of Jupiter in ft/sec and in Earth canonical units..1 )) .3 Calculate the radius of the Earth's sphere of influence with respect to the Sun (see equation (7 . 8..4.380 I N T E R P LA N ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I ES Ch .8 The figure shown below illustrates the general coplanar interplanetary transfer. 8 as derived in equation (3 .2 Calculate the velocity requirement to fly a solar probe into the surface of the Sun .5 Repeat the example problem at the end of section 8 . EXERCISES 8 . _  /' . 5 for the planet Jupiter. 8 . 1 Verify the synodic period of Venus in Table 8.. 8. (Ans.32. Use a trajectory which causes the probe to fall directly into the Sun (a degenerate ellipse) .
v = 39 . h0 is the specific angular momentum of the heliocentric transfer orbit. & is the specific me chanical energy of the heliocentric 0 transfer orbit.000 ft/sec. it is necessary to see if we have the capability of actually producing the velocity required to accomplish this mission. M = 5.V = 0. P0 is the parameter of the heliocentric transfer orbit.9 In preliminary planning for any space mission. Refer to material in Chapters 1 and 7 for treating the orbit inside the sphere of influence . lP j is the period of planet j in sidereal years. where 8.v ? (Ans. 8 E X E R C I SE S 381 Show that 3 ( 1 e fu l fj .l:.348 DUe/TUE9> . What must our speed be as we leave the circular orbit? What is the . The space vehicle is in a circular orbit about the Earth of 1 .V required? (Ans. What is the speed necessary to place the vehicle on a parabolic escape path? What is the . r j i s the heliocentric orbit radius o f planet j . Actually we want a hyperbolic excess speed of 5 . vesc = 1 .. a.35) ITbo no .Ch.l:.l:. If c = 9 .900 ft/sec.l:.000 ft/sec what is the ratio of the initial mass to burnout mass? (Ans. .l:.�� 1l0   or 2y' /P0 � Y2 J) A U/TU V j v is the speed of the space vehicle relative to planet i. It can be shown that .394 DUe/TU� b .V = C In M where C is the effective exhaust velocity of the engine and M =. e0 is the eccentricity of the heliocentric transfer orbit . Note that Vj v = Vo<> at planet i. 1 DUE[) radius. 1 00 ft/sec) c.v = 1 5 .
What will be the speed of the probe relative to the Earth after it has escaped the Earth's gravity? (Ans.28 AU2 /TU2 . a.Find the hyperbolic excess speed in geocentric and heliocentric speed units.V of . 1 3 (This problem is fairly long.254 AU/TU� . 1 1 A Mariner space probe is to be sent from the Earth to Mars on a heliocentric transfer orbit with p = 2/3 DU8 and e = 2/ 3 .0.. What is v= in ft/sec? (Ans. (Ans.) We wish to travel from the Earth to Mars. 0. 09 DUe/TU$) = .. 3 .9 5 6 DUa/TUEI1 ) b .0. Determine the energy in the orbit before and after an impulsive 6.V required to achieve escape speed from the original elliptical orbit at apogee? d. 0.0. The mission will begin in a 1 . v= 0.V at apogee or perigee? 8.which results if the same 6. 1 DUe/TUEI1 is applied at apogee. v=' (Ans. Find the 6.V required to escape from the above orbit at perigee? e.382 I N T E R P LAN ETA R Y T R AJ E CTO R I E S Ch . 1 0 A Venus probe departs from a 2DUEI1 radius circular parking orbit with a burnout speed of 1 .. The transfer orbit has an energy (with respect to the Sun) of 0. What burnout speed is required near the surface of the Earth to inject the Mariner into its heliocentric orbit? (Ans. 8. = 0. so work carefully and follow any suggestions.? (Ans. Find the hyperbolic excess speed in heliocentric units.V is applied at perigee..458 DUe/TUEI1 = 0..9 00 ft/sec) 8 . 1 22 AU/TU 8 = 1 1 . Find the hyperbolic excess speed. 6. What is the 6. 1 2 A space probe is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 3 DUEI1 and a perigee of 1 DUE&" a. 0. What is the 6..73 1 DU8TU� b .5 DUe/TUEI1• The thrust is applied at the perigee of the escape orbit. The Durnout speed after thrust application in the circular orbit is to be 1 .5 DUEI1 circular orbit. (Ans.. � = 0. What is the 6. 1 28 DU� /TU� ) c. Is it more efficient to apply a 6. a. 8 8 . 1 DUe/TUEl1..046 DU� /TU � b .
Find Vsv at arrival at the Mars orbit. (Ans. 0. Find the velocity of the satellite with respect to the Sun at its departure from the Earth.050 ft/sec) 8 .87 TU� b .) (Ans. 1 . 1 5 To accomplish certain measurements of phenomena associated with sunspot activity. 8 EXE R CISES 383 (Ans.Ch. show that sin o = 1 +� Mp . 1 6 A space probe can alter its flight path without adding propulsive energy by passing by a planet en route to its destination. For a given planet. The departure from the Earth's orbit will be at apohelion.5 AU. Upon passing the planet it will be deflected some amount. 1 . 3 .2 AU/TU� d.What must the burnout velocity )in DUeJTUEB and ft/sec) be at an altitude of 0. Compute the phase angle at departure. then find h. (Ans. What will be the timeofflight to Mars on the heliocentric orbit of Problem 8 .867 AU/TU� e . it is necessary to establish a heliocentric orbit with a perihelion of 0.4 64 DUeJTUEB = 3 8 . 1 4 a. called the turning angle . 'Y1 . O o) 8.373 AU/TU � f.2 DUEB to accomplish this mission? (Ans. c. P. <P2 and vll1II in that order. (Hint: Find <PI from the Law of Cosines. What will be the reentry speed at the surface of Mars? (Ans. 0.5 AU? (Ans.3 9 DU oITU& 2 . 1 1 if the radius of Mars' orbit is 1 . Find the hyperbolic excess speed upon arrival at Mars. 8 . for the above transfer. Vrrw = 0.
where D and 0 are as defined in the drawing and v is the velocity relative to the planet and fl is the gravitational parameter of the planet. 1 96 1 . transfer time. * Ch .V! Give the answer in lan/sec" . Fimple . Derive an expression for the loiter time at the superior planet in terms of the phase angle. 4 . D C . W . 1 7 With the use of Hohmann transfer analysis calculate an estimate of the total b. No 2 . LIST O F REFERENCES 2 . Vol 2. 1 8 It is desired to return to an inferior (inner) planet at the earliest possible time from a superior (outer) planet . The World of Mathematics. Assume circular. New York. ." AIAA Journal. 3 . What would be an estimate of the return b. coplanar planet orbits. 1 963. The return is to be made on an ellipse with the same value of p and e as was use d on the outbound j ourney . Explanatory Supplement to the American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. and the angular rates of the planets. 1 969. NY. R. Vol 1 . Newman. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. Simon and Schuster. 1 .V required to depart from Earth and soft land a craft on Mars. 1 967. "Optimum Midcourse Plane Change for Ballistic Interplanetary Traj ectories. Washington. p 384 I N T E R P L AN ETA R Y T R AJ ECTO R I ES * 8. U S Government Printing Office . London. American Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac. James R. 8 8. 1 95 6 . pp 430434.
one tends to view the universe as a highly regular and predictable scheme of motion .CHAPTER 9 PERTURBATIONS "Life itself is a perturbation of the norm . 1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A perturbation is a deviation from some normal or expected motion. " "An unperturbed existence leads to dullness o f spirit and mind." "To cause a planet or other celestial body to deviate from a theoretically regular orbital motion. and at times unexplainable . Yet when it is analyzed from accurate observational data. There is always some variation 385 . The actual path will vary from the theoretical twobody path due to perturbations caused by other mass b odies (such as the Moon) and additional forces not considered in Keplerian motion (such as nonspherical Earth). Macroscopically . " Webster 9 . it is found that there seem to be distinct. Seldom does anything go exactly as planned . We are very familiar with perturbations in almo st every area of life. but is perturbed by various unpredictable circumstances. it may come as somewhat of a shock to realize that realworld trajectory problems cannot be solved accurately with the restricted twob ody theory presented. irregularities of motion superimpose d upon the average or mean movement of the celestial bodies. After working in great detail in this text with many aspects of the twobody problem.
Those which are unpredictable (wind gusts.from the norm. about a century later. yet the path may change abruptly from the theoretical. The shape of the Earth was deduced by an analysis of longperiod perturbation terms in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The fIrst accurate prediction of the return of Halley's Comet in 1 75 9 by Clairant was made from calculation of the perturbations due to Jupiter and Saturn. The presence of the planet Neptune was deduced analytically by Adams and by Leverrier from analysis of the perturbed motion of Uranus. Ignoring the effect of the oblateness of the Earth on an artificial satellite would cause us to completely fail in the prediction of its position over a long period of time . atmo spheric drag and lift. meteoroid collisions. Brown 's papers of 1 897. M. mo st of the perturbations we will need to consider in orbital flight are much more predictable and analytically tractable than the above example . for they can be as large as or larger than the primary attracting force. An excellent example is an aircraft encountering a wind gust. magnetic.1 908 explain in great detail the perturb ative effects of the oblateness of the Earth and Moon on the Moon's orbit and the effect of other planets. except the motion of the perigee. Following are some specific examples of the past value of perturbation analysis. 9 . In fact.) must be treated in a stochastic (probabilistic) manner. Note that these were studies of bodies over which we have no 386 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . In 1 749 Clairant found that the secondorder perturbation terms removed discrepancies between the ob served and theoretical values. and relativistic effects. These are but a few of the examples of application of perturb ation analysis. Analytic formula tions of some of these will be given in section 9 . 6 . the asphericity of the Earth or Moon. Some of the perturb ations which could be considered are due to the presence of other attracting bodies. solar radiation effects. the full explanation was found in an unpublished manuscript of Newton's. E. many interplanetary missions would miss their target entirely if the perturbing effect of other attracting bodies were not taken into account. The wind gust was a perturbation. Fortunately. The power and all directional controls are kept constant. Without the use of perturb ation methods of analysis it would be impossible to explain or predict the orbit of the Moon. Newton had explained most of the variations in the Moon's orbit. It should not be supposed that perturbations are always small. which had not been treated by Newton . Then. etc. He correctly predicted a possible error of 1 month due to mass uncertainty and other more distant planets.
2 COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 387 control. The application o f Cowell ' s method i s simply to write the equations . A list of classical and current works on perturb ations and integration techniques will be included at the end of the chapter for the reader who wishes to study perturbation analysis in greater depth. In particular.2 COWELL'S METHOD This is the simplest and most straight forward of all the perturb ation methods. This method has been "rediscovered" many times in many forms . There are two main categories of perturbation techniques. 9 . This is a more difficult and lengthy technique than special perturbation techniques. See section 1 . the Cowell. Since numerical integration is necessary in many uses . but it leads to better understanding of the source of the perturbation. Most of the discoveries of the preceding paragraph are due to general perturbation studies. Analytical formulation of some of the more common perturbation accelerations is included to aid application to specific problems . This chapter is a first step to reality from the simplified theoretical foundation laid earlier in this text . Cowell and Crommelin also used it to predict the return of Halley ' s Comet for the period 1 75 9 to 1 9 1 0. The obj ective of this chapter is to present some of the more useful and wellknown special perturbation techniques in such a way that the reader can determine when and how to apply them to a specific problem. and variation of elements techniques are discussed. It was developed by P. Cowell in the early 20th century and was used to determine the orbit of the eighth satellite of Jupiter.2 for a table showing relative perturbation accelerations on a typical Earth satellite. a section discussing methods and errors is included . H. Special perturbations are techniques which deal with the direct numerical integration of the equations of motion including all necessary perturbing accelerations.Sec. General perturbation techniques involve an analytic integration of series expansions of the perturbing accelerations. With the capability for orbital flight . knowledge of how to handle perturbations is a nece ssary skill for applying astrodynamics to realworld problems of getting from one place (or planet) to another. Encke. This is the main emphasis of this chapter. These are referred to as special perturbations and general (or abso lute) perturbations. 9. It is especially popular and useful now with faster and larger capacity computers b ecoming common .
388 PE R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .22) Y = ap  r3 where r and y are the radius and velocity of a satellite with respect to the larger central body .2. the equation would be (9 . the equations would be .22) would be further broken down into the vector components. Sun and planets. For the twobody problem with perturb ations.1 ) For numerical integration this would be reduced t o firstorder differential equations. 9 of motion of the obj ect being studied.23) where r= (x 2 + y2 + Z 2 )1 /2 The perturbing acceleration. r=Y �r (9 . F or numerical integration equation (9 . Considering the Moon as the perturbing body. and then to integrate them stepbystep numerically. ap ' could be due to the presence of other gravitational bodies such as the Moon. including all the perturbations. y = vy (9.
25) .  ilEa 3 r r r ms r m Ea . Cowell's method has been applied in a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in equations (9 . and he would be correct . roundoff error will soon take its toll in interplanetary flight calculations if step size is small. the state (r and v) at any time can be found by applying one of the many available r = radius from Earth to satellite r ITS = radius from Moon to. 9 . In spherical coordinates (r. Even in double precision computer arithmetic.23). Intuitively. Classically.3 ) r m s r m Ea (9.'0 co s ¢ 2rO� s i n ¢ (9 .Sec. It has been found that Cowell's method is not the best for lunar traj ectories. In this case the r will tend to vary slowly and the angle change often will be monotonic .22). Some improvement can be made in trajectory problems by formulating the problem in polar or spherical coordinates. one would suspect that no method so simple would also be free of shortcomings. ¢) the equations of motion are (for an equatorial coordinate system): o rfj co s ¢ + 2.24) numerical integration schemes to equations (9 . When motion is near a large attracting body . Any number of perturbations can be handled at the same time . This method is approximately 1 0 times slower than Encke's method.Il m ( 3 . This will often permit larger integration step sizes for the same truncation error . There are some disadvantages of the method . 8 . satellite r I1iEl = radius from Moon to Earth Il m = gravitational parameter of the Moon. The main advantage of Cowell ' s method is the simplicity of formulation and implementation. 2 r=v • v = COW E L L 'S M E T H O D 389 where Having the analytical formulation of the perturbation . smaller integration steps must be taken which severely affect time and accumulative error due to roundoff.
In the Cowell method the sum of all accelerations was integrated together. In the Encke method . one should always pick the coordinate system that best accommodates the problem formulation and the solution method. it appeared over half a century earlier in 1 8 5 7 . Bond had actually suggested it in 1 8492 years before Encke 's work became known . In mo st works the reference trajectory is called the osculating orbit. Thus all calculations and states (position and velocity) would be with respect to the reference trajectory. The term connotes the sense of contact. Presumably . the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated. "O sculation" is the "scientific" term for kissing.g orbit with rectification a reference orbit along which the obj ect would move in the ab sence of all perturbing accelerations. this reference orbit would be a conic section in an ideal Newtonian gravitational field .31 The osculatil. contact between the reference (or osculating) orbit and the true perturbed . This implies True o r p ertu r b ed o r b it R ectificati o n to o k p lace h ere .390 P E R T U R BAT I O N S r¢ + 2�� + riP sin ¢ c o s ¢ = 0 Ch .3 ENCKE 'S METHOD Though the method of Encke is more complex than that of Cowell. in our case .'l. reference or b i t Figure 9. and . 9 (9 .25) As a reminder. 9.
. respectively .3.32)  Sr. Let r and p be the radius vectors to . The basic objective is to find an analytic expression for the difference between the true and reference orbits. 9 .  (9 . r + � r3 r = a t .3 2) into (9 . the osculating and true orbits are in contact or coincide (see Figure 9 . r(t o ) Sr = r Sr = r .Sec. At that time .3 .1 ) . The osculating orbit is the orbit that would result if all perturbing accelerations could be removed at a particular time (epoch). Any particular osculating orbit is good until the true orbit deviates too far from it. and v( t o ) p ( t o ) == (9 . Then a process called rectification must occur to continue the integration.33) Sub stituting equations (9 . Note that at the epoch. neglecting the perturbations (see Figure 9 . 9. This simply means that a new epoch and starting point will be chosen which coincide with the true orbital path. or epoch.e analytic formulation o f Encke 's method.33) we obtain . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H OD 391 orbit.1 ) .1 ) and (9 .3. = p ( tb ) p p to = 0.to ) ' p (9 . the true (perturbed) and osculating (reference) orbits at a particular time 7 (7 = Then for the true orbit.. 3 . Now w e will consider th. Then a new o sculating orbit is calculated from the true radius and velocity vectors.1 ) and for the osculating orbit. be defined as (see Figure and .32) Let the deviation from the reference orbit .
.t) can be calculated numerically. p is a known function of time .lL r r3 p3 + P E RT U R BAT I O N S Ch . However. So . theoretically. but the term equal quantities which requires many extra digits of computer accuracy on that one operation to maintain reasonable accuracy throughout .392 6r == a ) p + IlL p . == { 1 2q == 1 _ r2 p2 2q ) ..3 4) This is the desired differential equation for the deviation . 9 == a p bi [ lL p3 ( r .37) .lL r ] 3 == a p + lL p3 [(1  3 � r .3 / 2 (9 .was to obtain more accuracy. we should be able to calculate the perturbed position and velocity of the object .3 6) Equation (9 . For a given set of initial conditions. one of the reasons for going to this method from Cowell's method.6r ) .34) then becomes (9. A standard method of treating the difference of nearly equal quantities is to define ( 1 r� )  3 is the difference of two very nearly thus e:. so r can be obtained from 6r and p. 6r.6r] r3 r (9 .35) 3 3 r _ (9 . 6r (to + ..6.
Expanding. we get + r2 = P � oz (p z p2 + 2p z o z = P p2 � + P + � + O X2 + + + o y2 Y2 o x ) OZ2 + 2p x O X y + 2p o y y 2 [ o x (p x + + oY (P + + Y2 o y ) + then � + = Y2 o z ) ] 1 + L p2 [ o x (p x Y2o x ) o Y (P y Y2o y ) + o z (p z + Y2o z ) ] . 3 E N C K E 'S M ET H O D 393 Pertu rbe d orbit . o y . however. since q is a small quantity and the accuracy problem seems unsolved. Now some ways of calculating q must be found. OZ are the cartesian components o f or. 9 .Sec.32 or deviation from reference orbit = (p x + OX)2 + (p y + oy ) 2 + + (p z + OZ)2 where ox. R ef eren ce orbit J p (t o ) = r (t o ) / / / . In terms of its components Figure 9./  Our problem is not yet solved .
37) becomes (9 . at any point where p and <5r are known we can calculate q. /) y2 . so the second method was to define a function f as f = 1 [ 1 .2q r 3 / 2 ] q Then equation (9 . It should also be noted that when the deviation from the reference orbit is small (which should be the case most of the time) the /)x2 .35) we find that r p2 2 _ 1 .394 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . but as was noted before the same problem of small differences still exists in equation (9.38) and (9 .38)  1 .39) Before the advent of high speed digital computers this was a very cumbersome task . 1 960) 1 to avoid hand calculation . .(1 . .2q r 3 / 2 = 3q _ 3·5 q2 + 3· 5·7 q3 2! 3! _ .2q So q =  Now.1 1 ) Tables o f f vs q have been constructed (see Planetary Coordinates.37). (9 .3. <5z2 term can be neglected in equation (9.( 1 . 3.31 2) . The first is to expand the term ( 1 2q)3 / 2 in a binomial series to get *2 [ <5 X (P X +% <5 X ) + <5 Y (P y + % <5 y ) + <5 z (p z +% <5 z ) ] (9. 9 From equation (9 .1 0) (9 . There are two methods of solution at this point .
t).3.t) . b.3. = = = = = p continue. g.t . k. calculate (jr (to + t:.t) calculate 1 . so larger step sizes can be taken. Given the initial conditions r (to ) p (to ) ' 'v (to ) iJ(to ) def the me osculating orbit .01 ). In the case of (2) a new osculating orbit needs to be chosen using the values of r and p ( f qr 5r)  or (2) . 3 E N CK E 'S M ET H O D 395 which is easily calculated .t) from equation (9 .t) 2 . Encke 's method is generally much faster than Cowell's due to the ability to take larger integration step sizes when near a large attracting body. Knowing 5r(to + t:. f(to + t:. d . 2 A computational algorithm for Encke 's method can be outlined as follows . Then the tables could be u sed to find f .t to get (jr{ to + kt:. care must be taken to see when the approximation is not valid. If equation (9 .1 0). q( to + t:. Rectification should be initiated when . For an integration step. a. but only about 3 times faster for Earth satellites (see Baker . c.3 8) 3. p(to + t:.Sec.is (jr greater than or equal to some small constant (of the reader's selection depending on the accuracy and speed of the computing machinery used.1 2) may be slightly faster. v = p + (jr. If. although the use of equation (9 . Vol 2.39) is recommended for use with the computer. rectify and go to step a . f.t where k is the step number.> a specified constant. q (to ) O. Calculate r = p + (jr. 9 .nowing p (to ) .t ) from equation (9 . The Encke formulation reduces the number of integration steps since the (jr presumably changes mbre slowly than r.1 2) is used. The advantages of the method diminish if ( 1 ) ap becomes much larger than 3 Il the case of ( 1 ) it may be that the reference parameters (or orbit) need to be changed since the perturbations are becoming primary. The method using equation (9 . Otherwise (jr p . and 5r 0 at this point. Go to step c with t:.does not remain quite small. In (jr p v as described earlier. but of the order of magnitude of 0.3. e . It will be about 1 0 times faster for interplanetary orbits. Integrate another t:. t:.t replaced by kt:. (jr 0. r (to ) . p 229).
The latter are concerned with a calculation of the coordinates whereas the variation of parameters calculates the orbital elements or any other consistent set of parameters which adequately describe the orbit. A twobody orbit can be described by any consistent set of six . The Encke method has been found to be quite good for calculating lunar trajectories. = . One main difference between the Encke method and the variation of parameters method is that the Encke reference orbit is constant until rectification occurs. 9 This algorithm assumes that the perturbation accelerations are known in analytic form. For instance. Then e � . Though.6.4 VARIATION OF PARAMETERS OR ELEMENTS 8. Similarly. it has distinct advantages in many problems where the perturbing forces are quite small.6.t which is an approximation for the time rate of change of .23) for the addition of the Moon ' s gravitational acceleration . from the Encke method 9. the orbital parameters of the reference trajectory are changing with time . then the perturbed state (r and v) would be known. this method may seem more difficult to implement.3. In variation of parameters the reference orbit is changing continuously. at the outset. In a lunar flight another check would be added to determine when the perturbation due to the Moon should become the primary acceleration . Thus. See equation (9 . if at any two successive points along the perturbed trajectory one were to calculate the eccentricity of a reference trajectory (unperturbed) using the actual r and v. etc . one would observe a small change in eccentricity due to the perturbing forces . A similar check could be made on i .1 3) The method of the variation of parameters was first developed by Euler in 1 748 and was the only successful method of perturbations used until the more recent development of the machineoriented Cowell and Encke methods. they would remain constant. From previous work we know that r and v can be calculated from the set of six orbital elements (parameters) .cSr ) (9 ./l m {m s .396 P E R T U R B AT I O N S Ch. In the absence of perturbations.r m El) I r ms 3 rm 3El) p 3 + /l EI) ( fq r . a . e eccentricity. so if the perturbed elements could be calculated as a function of time .
4 . Vol 2 . 1 Variation of the Classical Orbital Elements. where a = semimaj or axis e = eccentricity i = orbit inclination n = longitude of the ascending node w = argument of periapsis T = time of periapsis passage (Mo = mean anomaly at epoch = M . The first will be the classical orbital elements because of their familiarity and universality in the literature . . Integrating the expressions analytically is the method of general perturbations.T (or M) will be used. 3 The coordinate system chosen has its principle axis. R (unit vector R).. r.Sec. or the perturbing acceleration is integrated as in Encke 's method.g. n. the eccentricity may change only slightly in an entire orbit) so larger integration steps may be taken than in the cases where the total acceleration is being integrated such as in Cowell's method. . Therefore .. � . 9 . along the instantaneous radius vector. i.I OOS . The orbital elements are only one of many possible sets (see Baker. e.tp ))' d a de di dn dw The object is to find analytic expressions for .variations (e. w and. for a table of parameter sets). The axis S is . This is done by finding analytic expressions for the rateofchange of the parameters in terms of the perturb ations. p 246. but any other system can be used in the derivation and the results transferred to the desired coordinate system rather easily. In this section two sets of parameters will be treated. it would be best for illustrative purposes to choose a system in which the derivations are the easiest to follow. The second will be the f and 9 expression variations which are of greater practical value and are easier to implement . It is clear that the elements will vary slowly as compared to the position and velocity .To dt dt dt dt dt do this some reference coordinate system is necessary. 2 The essence of the variation of parameters method is to find how the selected set of parameters vary With time due to the perturb ations . 4 VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S O R E L E M E NTS 397 parameters (or constants) since it is described by three second order differential equations. reference to an "inertial" system may be de sired. Eventually . This derivation partially follows one described in NASA CR. These expressions are then integrated numerically to find their values at some later time .n (t . 9 .and dM ?. The standard orbital elements a.
4. The third axis.41 R SW coordinate x R system system the perturbing force is (9. The time rateofchange of energy per unit mass (a constant in the normal twobody problem) is a result of the perturbing force and can be expressed as 0 Fo 0 0 d G. = dt F·V m v (QL dv F r + r Fs) (9 .42) ° f da lIst we will conSl°d er the derlVatlOn 0 dt . 9 In the F R SW coordinate Figure 9.1 ) = m ( F rR+F s S+F wW) (in terms of specific forces) and r = rR = v ( � R + rS ) uv (9. is perpendicular to both R and S o Note that this coordinate system is simply rotated v from the POW perifocal system described in Chapter 20 398 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . W.43) .rotated 900 from R in the direction of increasing true anomaly .
Sec.43).4.46) and F S (9 .45) To express this in known terms. (9 ..45) + 2e n Vf82 sin v F r 2a .44). Differentiating the conic equation Qr.1:!:. expressions for found.48) Substituting in equation (9. (9 .49) Consider now the derivation of dt ' In deriving the remaining variations.o r VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR E L E M E N TS 2a a . V a3 Therefore V na 2 � r2 n = = (9 .� 2& ' = 399 (9 . This rate is expressed as the moment of all perturbing forces acting on the system.46) From the conservation of angular momentum where /l!:. 9.4 and .48) we find da dt = (9. the time rateofchange of angular momentum is needed.!I=8!" nr from (9 . so dh dt = de 1 (rxF ) m (9 .44) (9.1 0) . dv = V • and dr must be dv + re Si n v e COS v (9 .
400 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . 9 (This could also have been developed from d h = A ( rxv) = ( dr 4 + r dt dt � ·f where dv = L = a m P X dv dt dt .. so dh = dt where a is the angle of rotation.lae dt h $) a dt .1 2) From the expression p = a ( 1 e2 ) e = (1 .) Since h = hW.4.2 )% a = (1 . r hW + h da S dt (9 . Note that the change of h must be in the SW plane since the perturbing force is applied to r and the momentum change is the cross product of components of equations (9 04.1 1 ) and (904· 1 0).la _ (9 04.�) % J. the vector time derivative can be expressed as the change of length in W and its transverse component along the plane of rotation of h.1 1 ) and F m' Comparing dh = rF S dt (904.1 3) So de = dt _ _ h_ (2 d h 2J.
4. 1 e2 (9 .4.1 8) .Sec.1 4) The derivation of relationship of and i .1 6) we obtain . 3 From the chapter on orbit determination recall that 1' h. but it is more direct to do it analytically (see NASA CR· 1 QD5 for a geometric development) ./I7 (2 d h 2 2na e VAR I AT I O N O F PA R AM ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S dt : na /1  e2 � 401 dt (9 .4.4.h cos i rF s h2 .4. K) � (9 . K ..1 6) Differentiating both sides of equation (9 .4.sin QL = dt .�� i n i cos u rF w s ���= na 2 "'.1 5 ) could be found geometrically from the cos = h ·K h (9 . 4 .si n QL dt = h ( §¥ ' K)  ' h2 (h .n di dt (9 . so = h ( rF sWrF W S) .1 7) But W • K = cos i and S • K = si n i cos u where U is the argument of latitude (angle from the ascending node to r). 9 .
402
 �r==.,...
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
As was expected, changes in i result only from a perturbation along W. and d i
_
dt
rF w c o s u na\/ 1 e 2
(9.4· 1 8)
In the derivation chapter that
of dt
dQ
we note from the orbit determination
cos n
I
(K h) I K hi
.
x
x
(9 .4· 1 9)
Differentiating both sides,
_
s i n Q dQ dt (K x I
But
u

for the
I · x W = c os Q sin i and I • K x S = I x S = J S = sin Q sin c os Q c os u cos i (see Chapter 2 for the coordinate transformation
+
 h c o s Q s i n i ( dh s i n i dt
�I
� ) I K h i (K IK h \ 2
x

I
.
x
x
h)
it I K
x
hi
HKx l r F sWr F wS I 1 h si n i h co s i
P OW system and replace wwith U using spherical trigonometery).
. .
K
�l
dt
K
h2 sin2 i
Substituting for d and d from equations (9 .4 1 8) and (9.4 1 2) and t t cancelling terms,
di
dh
dQ = r F w si n dt h si n i
u
(9.420)
Sec. 9.4
VA R I AT I O N OF PA R A M E T E R S OR e l EM E N TS
403
In the following derivation of"'dt an important difference from the previous derivations becomes apparent. Up to now "constants" such as a, 8, have been differentiated and the variation has obviously been due to the perturbations. Now, however , the state vectors of position and velocity will appear in the expression. Since we are considering only the time rateofchange due to �e perturbative force, not the changes due to the 2body reference motion , will not change to first order as a
dS1 = rFw si n dt na2.yTe2" si n i
u
(9 .420)
w
i
result of the perturbations
= :.£ =
a
respect to the perturbation forces, so
( dt =
dr
r
0) but the derivative is only with
Without this explanatory note some of the following would b e rather mysterious. This procedure is necessary to show the perturbation from the twobody reference orbit. C onsider the expression from orbit determination for finding U (u =
dv dt
F
m
p.
w+v)
(I KKxhl ·r = r cos (w + v) xh)

(9.4 2 1 )
Differentiating,
iLl IKxh I (Kxddh .r )  (Kxh ·r ) dt Kxhl = r S i. n (w + v){ + ) dw dv t2 dt dt IKxh\ IKxh \ (Kx �. r) + (Kxh · r) �IKxh\  dVIKxh\ 2 r si n ( w +v) dw dt dt dt dt IKxhj2 r si n (w+v)
404
+(Kxh'r ) [ dh si n i + h cos i � dv h 2 r si n 2 i si n dt dt dt
where
• • 
d "b 1 d t h 2 si' n 2 , r Sin
I
,
j
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
U
1 1
Ch . 9
h sin i [Kx ( r F sW  r F w S) . r ]
KxW · r = r si n i cos U KxS • r = rSxR K = rW K = r cos i Kxh • r = rh si n i cos U and dh and di are given by equations (9 .4 1 2) and (9 .4 1 8). Now an dt dt expression for dv must be found . The true anomaly is affected by the dt
perturbation due to movement of periapsis and also the node. From the conic equation,

U
I
(9 .422)
r ( 1 + e cos v) = h 2 Jl r( de cos v  e sin v d v ) = 2h dh dt dt Jl dt re si n v dv = r cos v de 2h dh dt dt Jl dt
_
(9 .423)
Differentiating the terms which are affected by the perturbations, (94.24)
At this point equation (9 .425) could be solved for dv and put in (9 .42 5) equation (9 .422) and a correct expression would result . However, experience has shown that this is algebraically rather complex and the resulting expression is not as simple as will result from another
dt
formulation of dv Differentiate the identity
dt
Jl re sin v = h r'v
(9.426)
Sec. 9 . 4
p. r

dh de si. n v + p.re cos v dv =  r dt dt dt

VA R i AT i O N O F PA R A M E T E R ES O R E LE M E NTS
Now multiply equation and add to get
(9.425) b y P. sin v and equation (9.427) b y c o s V .
.
v
+ hr ' v
•
405
(9.4·27)
dv dt
=
1 [ p cos v r'Y  ( p+r) si n v dh dt reh
(9.422) beeome s
1
(9.428)
Now equation
1 dw= d t h 2 r si n 2 i sin u
l

]
+ rh si n i cos u [ rF s sin i + rF w cos i cos u ] r h
\
h si n i [ r2 F s si n i cos u + r 2 F w cos i ]
(9.429)
�
( p cos v rF r  (p+rl si n v rF s l h' r si n ' i si n u
, �)
' at
Writing
(�) ut
components of perturbation forces, after algebraic reduction ,
r
s
and
(�) ut
)
w
as the variations due to the three
( dW) ( ) ( )
= .JR cos II F r nae dt r 1 dW = 2.. [si n v ( 1 + 1 + e cos v ) ] F s dt s eh dW  r cot i si n u F w dt w na 2.J1=82 dw = ( dw ) + ( dw ) + ( dw ) dt r dt s dt w dt

(9.430) (9.43 1 ) (9 .432) (9.43 3)
As an aside, note that it can be shown that the change in w due to the in·plane perturbations is directly related to the change in the true anomaly due to the perturbation,
406
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
. anomaly at epoch,
( dw ) = dv (9.434) dt dt r s The derivatia � af dMo follows from the differentiation of the mean dt
_
M o = E  e si n E  n ( t  t J
(9.435)
d M o = d E _ de si n E  e cos E d E _ d n (t  t 0) dt dt dt dt dt de is known, and d n =  � da d E si n E and dt 2 na 4 dt ' dt ' dt
Cos E can be obtained from the expressions
si n v = v'f7 sin EE 1  e cos
The result is (for ellipitcal orbits only)
cos V = cos E  e 1  e cos E
(9.436) (9.437)
1  e2 cos v ) F r dMo = 1_ na a e dt _ ( 1  e2 ) ( 1 + r ) sin v F s _ t dn nae a ( 1  e2 ) dt
_ _ (� _
(9.438)
To use the variation of parameters formulation the procedure is as follows:
Sec. 9 . 4
VA R I AT I O N O F PA R AM E T E R S OR E L E M E NT S
'
407
a. At t = to calculate the six orbital elements. b. Compute the perturb ation force and transform it at t = to to the RSW system. c. Compute the six ratesofchange of the elements (right side of equations). d . Numerically integrate the equations one step . e . The integration has been for the perturbation of the elements, so the changes in elements must be added to the old values at each step. f. From the new values of the orbital elements, calculate a position and velocity . g. Go to step b and repeat until the final time is reached. There are some limitations on this set of parameters. Note that some of them break down when e = 1 or e = 0. Spe cial formulations using other parameter sets have been developed to handle nearcircular and was derived for elliptic orbits parabolic orbits. Note also that the only. 9.4.2 Variation of Parameters in the Universal Variable Formula tion. Since there a�e �y restrictions on the use of the perturbation equations develo � the previous sections, equations relating to the universal varia s are developed here . There are no restrictions on the . results of development . The ameters to be varied in this case are the six components of ro and Yb (these certainly describe the orbit as well as the orbital elepients) . Thus, we would like to find the time derivative of ro and va ,due to the perturbation forces . In Chapt�r 4 we described the position at any time as a function of ro ' va ' f , f , 9 and . g , where the f and 9 expressions were in terms of the universal variable, x. We can express ro and v as
:0
a
r o = Fr + Gv
va =
replaced by
F, G,
F = 1 f
F , G are the same as f , 9,
Fr
+ GV
x and
f, 9 except t is replaced by t and r and ra are interchanged. Thus

(9.439)
x
is
2

G = [ (t


x to )   S ( z ) ]
C (z )
Vii
3
(9 .440)
408
F =� rr
0
G=1
Note that
•
2 Z = L = exx 2
a
_
_ L C (z )
(1
2 ro

•
P E R T U R BAT I O N S
Ch . 9
zS ( z ) )
(9 .440)
(9 .44 1 )
where
ex = 1 = £ v 2 a r Jl
(9 .442)
will be computed. In the differentiation we consider
ex
is used to permit treatment of parabolic orbits . In fact , in the calculation of the derivatives of equation (9 .439), d (ooo ) and d (cwo )
and the acceleration V to result only from the perturbing forces and do not consider changes due to the 2body reference motion. In this development we see from equation (9 .442) that
dt dt r to be constant
Differentiating equation (9.439),
dex 2 •   �  V'v dt Jl d ( ooo ) dt
(9 .443)

__
d (ex F ) r d (exG ) v + exGv + dt dt
•
d (exG ) d ( cwo ) = d ( ex A r+ v + exGv dt dt dt
•
The derivatives in equation (9 .444) can be found from e quations (9.440). After algebraic reduction,
d ( ex F ) _ 1 x r o F r o F dx •      2 v·v   (ex  ) v'/i" dt dt fJ. �
( �

(9 .444)
(9 .445)
Sec. 9.4
d (aG) d: d (aF ) dt
dt
and r , V as before, equation becomes
d It is still necessary to find � and � Interchanging the roles of r 0' v0 dt
d (aG )
1 a V/i ( G + t  t o ) + a x r ( 1  F )  2x V ·V rroVii (9.445) x  E (a d r o ) + VJ£ [ l _ m ( l _ F ) ] a d dt dt r 0 rr 0 l xr F
=[  [ = ( )/

VA R I AT I O N O F PA R A M ET E R S O R E L E M E N T S
1
jJ.
x r ( 1  F ) _ ( 3 t _ 3 t + G ) v .� + r( 1  F ) (a dx ) o VJ1 VJ1 dt
]
409
jJ. Vii
v .� . r F 1 a..2» + r l l ;F l l " d r O I <J dt dt r0 ViI
(4.41 2),
].
dr dt
Vii( t to )

Also equation (4.4 13) becomes
=
which is Kepler' s equation,
( 1  m) x 3 S (z ) + r x 
vIM
0
r
V
x 2 C (z ) .
(9.446)
ro d r0 adt
=
x 2 C (z)
� x ( 1  zS (z ) ) + r ( 1  zC (z ) ) .
(9 .447)
Differentiating equation (9.447),
:=
 ax 2 r ] V ' V
1jJ. [2 r ( 1  F ) + axy';L(t  to ) + OO' ov( G + t  t0 ) a rr o F r ov dx   r ovo + (x  � (t  t0 )  Vii )(a )(9.448) dt jJ.
(9.446),
Differentiating equation
41 0
P E R TU R BAT I O N S
dx 1 ex  =  [x ( r + r  2y'jl (t  t o ) dt J.l.r o exr ( 1 F )  ..Jj!( 1 + rex) (G + t  t o ) ] v·v + r o...fii

0)
Ch . 9
r
•
(9.449)
v
Note that v includes only the perturbative accelerations. Now the perturbed position and velocity can b e calculated by numerical integration of equations (9 .444). The corresponding x is determined from Kepler's equation (4.41 2), and then position and velocity are obtained from equations (4.4 1 8) and (4.41 9). Note that equation (9.443) also must be integrated to obtain ex . 9 .4.3 Example to Introduce General Perturbations. The variation of parameters method of the previous section is classified as a special perturbation te�hnique only because the final integration is accomplished numerically. If these equations could be integrated analytically, the technique would be that of general perturbations. To permit an analytic treatment the perturb ation forces can oe expressed in a power series and integrated analytically. Though this sounds simple enough, in practice the integration may be quite difficult. Also , a series solution method of integration is frequently used. In special perturbations the result is an answer to one specific problem or set of initial conditions. In general perturbations the result will cover many cases and will give a great deal more information on the perturbed orbit. This is especially true for l ong duration calculations. To give the reader a beginning understanding of general perturbations, a very simple example will be treated here which uses the variation of parameters method and a series expansion of the perturbing force . Consider the equation where ex is a constant and J.I. and v are small numbers. Consider the term on the right to be a perturbation. In the absence of the perturbation, the solution would be

x  ex =
•
V
(9.450)
x = cxt + c
(9.45 1 )
the solution will vary only slightly from equation (9 .5 1 ) correct to first order in J.e .v = .at +  fo r c {O ) = v+ 1  Then x will be be given by equation (9 .5 2) is the perturbation and can be expanded as c = v I l . 4 where c will be the parameter.vat a+v a . From equation (9 .. .4.2p. Since p.J. .Sec.45 1 ) . {at + c) + 3p.5 3) The lowest order approximation would be C = v.v which can be easily solved for c.45 1 ).4 Moulton s and many papers discuss it 2p. . Though this example has no physical significance it clearly demonstrates how the perturbation would be treated analytically using a series expansion . 9 . C. The constant of integration.. ] (9 .2p.450) and solving for e we find (9 . is analogous to the orbital elements in orbital mechanics.4.2p. VA R I AT I O N O F PAR AM E T E R S O R E L E M E N TS 41 1 x=a+c Substituting X and c = v [ 1 + P. • .vt 2p.v 2p. For the reader who wishes to pursue the general perturbation analysis Brouwer and Clemence . which is a common method of expression of the perturbation. and V are small.vt . so the variation of C to satisfy equation (9 . allowing c to vary with time . .vc .v {at + c ) c (9 .4.45 0) should be small. c = ve 2 p. . (a t + c) ) 2 x into equation (9.2 p.454) + 2p.2 (at + C)2  .45 2) The righthand side of equation (9. but more practically we would consider � = v .
b . Many other approaches could be treated in this chapter. Desirable qualities may be in opposition to each other such that they all cannot be realized to the fullest extent.e. accuracy. The topic of numerical integration in the context of special perturbations is both relevant and necessary. The selection of an adequate integration scheme for a particular problem is too often limited to what is readily available for use rather than what is best. but to pursue the topic further here would be beyond the scope of this text. economical in computing time. efficiency. variable stepsize provision which is simple and fast. will a constant stepsize be satisfactory)? Factors to be considered for any given method are speed. 9 . the results after numerical integration can be meaningless or. Some of the desirable qualities of a good integration scheme are : a. highly questionable. at best. should be the criteria. such as the disturbing function. if the integration scheme is not accurate to a sufficient degree. 9 . or has not carefully selected. d.41 2 P E R T U R B AT I O N S ell . Are the dependent variables changing rapidly (i. The problem to be solved should first be analyzed. not expediency. . Lagrange's planetary variables or derivations from Hamiltonian mechanics. his integration method. Is the problem extremely sensitive to small errors? c.. such understanding requires a combination of knowledge of numerical analysis and experience. Unfortunately. The following questions may help to narrow the selection possibilities : a. Many results fall into this questionable category because the investigator has not understood the limitations of. The purpose of this section is not the analytic development of various integration schemes but is to summarize several methods and help the reader to benefit from others' experience so he will be able to choose the kind of integration method which will best suit his needs. storage and complexity. 9 in detail. Is a wide range in the independent variables required (thus a large number of integration steps)? b. the method should be stable such that errors do not exhibit exponential growth. allow as large a stepsize as possible. In theory. No matter how elegant the analytic foundations of a particular special perturbation method. c. 5 . 5 COMMENTS ON INTEGRATION SCHEMES AND ERRORS . 1 Criteria for Choosing a Numerical Integration Method.
5 I NT E G R AT I O N SC H E M E S A N D E R RO RS 413 e .86485 The true answer rounded off would have a 4 in the sixth digit. 2 Integration Errors.5 � 9 places must b e carried in the calculations. The lesson here is that the fewer integration steps taken the smaller the . suppose that the machine can carry six digits and we wish to add 4.5 (9. In any numerical integration method there are two primary kinds of errors that will always be present to some degree. it should have a maximum and minimum control on truncation error. 1 1 24n3 /2 ) in number of decimal places. all of these cannot be perfectly satisfied in any one method. Roundoff errors result from the fact that a computer can carry only a finite number of digits of any number.567 = 7.276 + 3 . Brouwer and Clemence 4 (p 1 58 ) give a formula for the probable error after n steps as . Obviously . Before evaluating any particular method of numerical integration it is important to have some understanding of the kind of errors involved .accumulated roundoff error . p 2 7 0) gives the example of error in 200 integration steps as log [ . In the machine the numbers would be rounded off to six significant digits. 9 .843. Truncation error is a result of an inexact solution of the differential equation.388. i t should b e a s insensitive a s possible to roundoff errors. The larger the . It is clear that the occurrence of this roundoff many times in the integration process can result in significant errors. They are roundoff and truncation errors. 9 . In fact. Baker (v 2. The best inhibitor to the significant accumulation of roundoff error is the use of double precision arithmetic. the numerical integration is actually an exact solution of some dif ference equation which imperfectly represents the actual differential equation. 5 .51) If six places of accuracy are required then 6 + 2.476. but the rounding error has caused it to be a s . 1 1 24n3 /2 (in units of the last decimal) or log (. 4.28 + 3. Truncation error results from not using all of the series expression employed in the integration method.Sec. and f. 1 1 29 (200) 3 /2 ] � 2.388. but they are qualities to consider when evaluating an integration method .57 = 7 .864.476. For instance .
Thus. The order of a particular member of the family is the order of the highest power of the stepsize. Of course . we will consider the integration of systems of first order differential equations though there are methods available to integrate some special second order systems.63) dx dt (9. Some representative singlestep methods are RungeKutta. 9 stepsize. The multistep methods are often referred to as predictorcorrector methods. The formulas for the standard fourth order method are : (9 . 9. AdamsMoulton. 9 . The technique approximates a Taylor series extrapolation of a function by several evaluations of the first derivatives at points within the interval of extrapolation .62) (9. Roundoff error is primarily a function of the machine (except for some resulting from poor programming technique) and truncation error is a function of the integration method. the larger the truncation error. The multistep methods usually require a singlestep method to start them at the beginning and after each stepsize change .6. x l with initial conditions x(to l = Xo where x and f could be vectors. errors are unavoidable in numerical integration and the object is to use a method that minimizes the sum of roundoff and truncation error. h.6 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION METHODS Numerical integration methods can be divided into singlestep and multistep categories. so the ideal here is to have small stepsizes .414 P E R TU R B AT I O N S Ch . There i s actually a family of RungeKutta methods of varying orders. EulerCauchy and Bowie . 1 RungeKutta Method.= f(t. In general. in the equivalent Taylor series expansion. Note that this is in opposition to the cure of roundoff errors. A few of the more common methods will be discussed here. We will treat the first order equation .1 ) . Some of the multistep methods ' are Milne . Obrechkoff and AdamsBashforth. 6 . any second order system can be written as a system of first order equations. Gill. GaussJ ackson (sumsquared).
have a relatively small truncation error. This formula is The RungeKutta methods are stable and they do not require a starting procedure. X n + l ) 2 2 k2 h k 3 = h f (t n + 2: .__ + k 3 [ 1 + ft] ) V"'1 1 . The multistep methods take advantage of the history of the function being integrated.) k2 6 3 l2 (9. though at a cost of greater complexity and a requirement for a starting procedure at the 1 1 x n+1 = x n + . x n + "2 ) k 4 = h f (t n + h . It was developed fpr highspeed computers to use a minimum number of storage registers and to help control the growth of roundoff errors.k +.yry.h ) k3 +.% ] + k 2 [ 1 .] ) k2 k 4 = h f (t n + h .Sec. 9 .. One obvious failure is that use is made only of the last calculated step . X n ) kl h Is = h f (tn + 2" ' X rl 2" ) (9.63) and n is the increment number. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O DS 415 k h k 2 = h f (t n + .yV:. 9 . One of the disadvantages is that there is no simple way to determine the truncation error.2 AdamsBashforth Multistep Method. easy to implement .( 1 . x n + k 3 ) (9. They are relatively simple . x n .k 3 6 4 where k l = h f (t n .( 1 + y.6. Another member of the RungeKutta family is the RungeKuttaGill formula. and stepsize is easily changed . This idea leads to multistep or predictorcorrector methods .64) 1 1 + . they are faster than the singlestep methods.65) h k 3 = h f (t n + 2" ' x n + k l [y'% . In general. so it is difficult to determine the proper stepsize .
In 1 926 Moulton added a corrctor . . .6.\7 3 3 8 251 + 7 20 __ \7 4 + .\7k1 f _ and vPf fn n n n 1 = fn = f ( t n ' Xn ) The first few terms are x n+ l = x n + h ( l + % \7 +  5 12 \7 2 + . Some multistep methods calculate a predicted value �or xn+ 1 and then substitute xn+ 1 in the differential equation to get xn+ 1 which is in turn used to calculate a corrected value of xn+ l ' These are naturally called "predictorcorrec tor" methods. 3 9. 1 /2 . 9 5 /2 8 8 k = 0. 3 /8 . 5 \7 k f n = backwards difference operator == \7k. The Adams (sometimes called AdamsBashforth) formula is 416 P E R T U R BAT I O N S ell .66) h = stepsize n = step number ex = 1 .67) A method is available for halving or doubling the stepsize without a complete restart. Also the local truncation error can be calculated (see references for detailed formulas). The AdamsBashforth method is only a multistep predictor scheme . 5 / 1 2 . 25 1 /720.3 AdamsMoulton Fonnulas.\7 5 ) f n 95 288 (9. . 9 x n+ l = Xn + h where N = the number of terms desired k=O L N ' (9 .1 f .beginning and after each stepsize change.
The fourth order formulas retaining third differences are given here. . Then the derivative corresponding to the predicted value is found and used to fmd the corrected value using the corrector formula.69) where the last term in each of the equations is the truncation error term.6.h5 dt5 720 and the corrector is X �l = x n + 2 (9fn+1 + 1 9fn 5fn1 + fn2) 1 9 d5 x W h5 720 dt5 � (9. 6 An estimate of the truncation error for the step from t n to t n+ 1 is f n+ l = f (t n+l ' X �J l ) (9. It is possible to iterate on the corrector formula until there is no Significant change in xn+ 1 on successive iterations. Ralston's text on Numerical Analysis). 9 .1 + 37 f n2 .9 f n 3 ) 24 (9. the error terms are not generally known. The stepsize can be changed if the truncation error is larger than desired. for instance.69).59 f n . so the value used is the expression without those terms {for a discussion of the error terms see.61 O) (C ) � I x n+l .1 1) To use any predictorcorrector scheme the predicted value is computed first. The predictor is h (P) _ X n+1 .x n + (5 5 f ri . In equation (9. This method.68) 25 1 d5 x (�) +.x n+1I I (P 270 (9.Sec. fn+1 is found from the predicted value In using the formulas. 6 N U M E R I CA L I N T EG R AT I O N M ET HO D S 417 formula to the method.
° n 60480 (9. though.418 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .h ) . 9 like other multistep methods.8 k . n + � 84 "x. The general formula for solving the equation X = fIt. It is designed for the integration of systems of second order equations and is faster than integrating two first order equations.1 . n + 1 2 n i \.2f n 8 k f(t n ) = 8 k. 9. Its predictor alone is generally more accurate than the predictor and corrector of other methods. The AdamsMoulton formulation is one of the more commonly used integration methods.1 f(t n h) 2 2   . 36288 ) _ _ 240 1_ 8 2 ". x.2f(t n ) = f n+ 1 + f n.12) and the central differences are defined as 8 1 f ( t n ) = f( t n + h) .6 . The RungeKutta method is suggested for a starter. It exhibits especially good control of accumulated roundoff error effect.1 ' etc. numerical integration methods for trajectory problems of the Cowell and Encke type. x) is x 1 2 0 _ �o n =h ". more complex and difficult for the beginner to implement !?an the o�her methods.LJ _ 289 8 6 "x. requires a single step method to start it to obtain f n ' fn. "x.1 f(t n + h).° n + . and most used.f(t n h ) 2 2 82 f( t n ) = f(tn + h ) + f(t n . The GaussJackson method is one of the best.6. .4 The GaussJackson or Sum Squared (�2 ) Method. though it also includes a corrector. It is.
the accelerations can be found from (9.1 The Nonspherical Earth . p/r. If the potential function.The definition of �2 x n 3can be found in several references (Baker. Some of them become quite complex. However. is due to a spherically symme tric mass body and results in conic orbits. The procedure for calculating it will not be reiterated here since it becomes fairly involved and the reader can find it easily in the abovementioned references. 2 . 9. is known.1 ) One such potential function. They will be stated with a minimal amount of discussion . according to Vinti. Experience has shown that the GaussJackson method is clearly superior for orbital problems using the Cowell and Encke techniques. The RungeKutta method is suggested for starting the multistep methods. the Earth is not a spherically symmetric body but is bulged at the equator.7 ANALYTIC FORMULATION OF PERTURBATIVE ACCELERATIONS Sec. The simplified gravitational potential of the Earth.6. Table 9. V. Local truncation error can and should be calculated for the multistep methods and should be used as a criterion for changing stepsize. flattened at the poles and is generally asymmetric. but only the simpler forms will be treated. but in sufficient detail such that they can be used in the methods of this chapter without extensive reference to more detailed works.72) .1 gives a tabular comparison of a number of integration methods.5 Numerical Integration Summary .I n=2 r (9. 9 . 9 . Roundoff error is a function of the number of integration steps and is most effectively controlled by using double precision arithmetic. 6 N U M E R I CA L I NT E G R AT I O N M ET H O D S 419 A few of the perturbation accelerations commonly used in practice will b. the AdamsMoulton or Adams (Adams.l 005). 2 and NASA C R. 9. ¢.7.Bashforth) methods are preferred.7. is ¢ = � [1 . including some which were not discussed in this chapter.6. For normal integration of first order equations such as occur in the variation of parameters technique.e presented in this section.
Part 1 )7 Method of Numerical Integration Single Step Methods RungeKutta RungeKuttaGill Bowie Ease of Changing StepSize * * Trivial (stepsize varied by error control) Excellent Excellent � N o Truncation Error hS hS h3 Speed Slow Slow Fast Stability Stable Stable Stable Roundoff Error Accumulation Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory �  \Q � .COMPARISON OF INTEGRATION METHODS {From NASA SP33 . Vol t .' � er Order MultiStep A ams Backward Difference GaussJack son * * Obrechkoff � Fourth Order MultiStep PredictorCorrector Milne h5 AdamsMoulton h5 Very fast Very fast Unstable Unconditionally stable Moderately stable Stable Poor Satisfactory Arbitrary Arbitrary Good Awkward and expensive Excellent * Excellent Very fast Fast ***. **GaussJ ackson is for second order equations. * * * Speed of Obrechkoff depends on complexity of the higher order derivatives required. Slow Very fast Satisfactory Excellent (I) o z � "tI m ::c I C ::c til Special Second Order Equations Special RungeKutta MilneStormer [z h7 = Stable Stable Moderately stable Satisfactory Satisfactory Poor f(t. it could be very fast.z)j h5 h6 *RK (singlestep) trivial to change steps. 9 CI) . very difficult to determine proper size.
7 I n = coefficients to be determined by experimental observation r = equatorial radius of the earth P E R T U R BAT I V E A C C E L E R AT I O NS 421 P n = Legendre polynomials e r The first 7 terms of the expression are r .7·3) J  + 3465 z: 3003 r _ z: ) + r .42L + 63L) 2 48 r 4 r r3 r r S . if> = I!:.2 1 0� + 23 1 � ) 8 r r r3 rS r 2 1 (�) 6 (35 ..� (�) 4 (35 si n4 L .30 si n 2 L + 3 ) 8 r 2 ( �) S r ( �) 3 r [ 1  � (�.where J.�� � 8 X = (63 si n s L 70 sin 3 L  + 1 5 sin L)  Taking the partial derivative of if> . r J L = geocentric latitude z sin L =  .J s � ( � ) (35� .e I ' 1 23 1 si n' L §!P.J2 (3 sin 2 L 1 ) 2 r  ( 5 si n 3 L 3 si n L) . 9.] (9 .  I...74) .( �) 3 3 2 r 3 (3 � 7 L)  r3 [1 J 2 2 � (�) ( 5 2 r  1) ] (9 .945 � + J 2 6 16 r r 5 r .L = gravitational parameter Sec.2. = 5 )( �  3 1 5 si n' L  + 1 05 si n ' L 51 r2 Z2  +J 2 4 5r _ (�) 4 ( 3 ..
70 � + 63 �) 2 4 8 r r r4 5 8 5 1  1 75).57 ± O.6 ± O. .44 ± O. 1 5 ± O.2205 2" 6 16 r r (9. Vol 1 .l ( �) 3 ( 3 . There have been various determinations of the J coefficients. These 4 equations include only the zonal harmonicsthat is those harmonics J7 = (0.75) r3 [ 1 + J 2 .64 ± O.5 � ) r2 2 r Note acceleration and the remaining terms are the perturbation accelerations due to the Earth's nonsphericity . I )x 1 0. .(� ) 6 ( 3 1 5 . 8 J It is obvious that the confidence factor diminishes beyond J . l )x 1 0.3003 ""6 ) + .6 J = (0. Z is the 2body J _ J r 2 4 (�)4 ( 1 5 . but a representative set of values will be given here ( see Baker. which are slightly in variance .6 5 = 2 J 3 = (2.03)x 1 0.6 J4 = (1 . 9 = §!! oz � ·x· (9.76) Z6 Z4 + 485 1 . l )x 1 06 J = (I 082 . y.5)x 1 0. l )x 1 0. p ( � )5 (3 1 5 � 945 � + 693 � . 1 r r4 that sin L is replaced by zlr. The first term in x.422 'y = z §!! oy = = 'L X  P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch .6 .1 5 q z r r r3 r5 1 r Z2 + J ..6 6 (0.5 ± O.
the perturbative acceleration is portion (not the ::!!:. simply use r3 r= where . equatorial coordinate system. will be opposite to the velocity of the vehicle relative to the atmo sphere . Thus. p 147). C D = the dimensionle ss drag coefficient associated with A A=  1 .. There are also tesseral harmonics (dependent on bo th latitude and longitude) and sectorial harmonics (dependent on longitude only). 9 .s to be pointed out in the use of the above formulation .. To do this. frontal areas of orbiting object (if not constant). Expressions for the Moon's triaxial ellipsoid potential can be found in Baker. The even numb ered harmonics are symmetric about the equatorial plane and the odd numbered harmonics are antisymmetric.2 Atmospheric Drag. care must be taken to know the Earth's current relationship to this inertial frame due to rotation . The equations are formulated in the geocentric . and other parameters.77) the crosssectional area of the vehicle perpendicular to the direction of motion . Therefore .. Vol 1 . A fairly simple formulation will be given here (see NASA SP33). However. The zonal harmonics 'are not longitude dependent . There are a few ctmtiol). but will not be presented here. s 9. To use the acceleration equations in the perturbation methods it is necessary to transform the perturb ation the UK to PQW transformation of Chapter 2substituting u (argument of latitude) for w. by definition. so the direction of the x axis need not point to a fixed geographic point . 7 P E R T U R BAT I V E A CC E L E R AT I O NS 423 which are dependent only on that mass distribution which is symmetric about the northsouth axis of the Earth (they are not longitude dependent) .7. if tesseral and sectorial harmonics were considered. term) to the RSW sy stem. 7 Drag. then the frame would need to be fixed to the rotation of the Earth . the drag coefficient. The formulation of atmospheric drag equations is plagued with uncertainties of atmospheric fluctuations.Co A 2  m P Va r a • (9 .Sec. A general expression to account for all three classes of harmonics in the potential 2 function is given by Baker (Vol 2.
ie. z refer to the geocentric. equatorial coordinate system the perturbative accelerations are y x = f cos A0 = f COS ie sin A0 = f sin ie sin A0 (9. though small. 9 m p C O A .7) can give the reader a basic understanding of drag effects. altitude above an oblate Earth.n= = va mg = vehicle mass 1 = and r� = r lfl z [ ] y . This formulation could be greatly complicated by the addition of an expression for theoretical density. y .t b ae ==ic. . In the geocentric.3 Radiation Pressure.lli. can have considerable effect on large area/mass ratio satellites (such as Echo).424 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch. Radiation pressure.78) z . but the reader can find this in other documents. 9 . Equations for lifting forces will not be presented here. x+ y = 1 i: a 1 Ox � speed of vehicle relative to the rotating atmosphere th. Equation (9 .ilc coffc. in"tial velocity e rate of rotation of the earth Once again the x. etc. atmospheric density at the vehicle's altitude . equatorial coordinate system.7 .7 .
4 Thrust.Ch. See equation (9. Prove this assertion . 9 . 7 .4 Develop the equations of motion in spherical coordinates. 9 where A = cross section f = 4. iE9 = inclination of equator to ecliptic = 23 .25). Thrust can be handled quite directly by resolving the thrust vector into x . y.5 X 1 0 5 � ) cm/sec 2 m EXERCISES 425 of vehicle exposed to sun (cm).3 Show how the potential function for the nonspherical Earth would be used in conjunction with Cowell's method. .4. but a major force .79) Low thrust problems can be treated using a perturbation approach like Encke or Variation of Parameters. 1 Verify the development of equation (9 . EXERCISES 9. . 9 .4349 0 x . Write out the specific equations that would be used in a form suitable for programming. 9. z directions. m = mass of vehicle (grams) . the variation of eccentricity. Thus the perturbing acceler ation is Ac:J = mean right ascension of the sun during computation. m (9.1 5) . 9 . but high thrust should be treated using the Cowell technique since the thrust is no longer a small perturbation.2 In the variation of parameters using the universal variable it is asserted that one can develop f and 9 expressions to find r 0 and Vo in terms of r and v by t and X by (t) and {x} .
426 P E R T U R BAT I O N S Ch . LIST OF REFERENCES 2. . Years 1 9601 980. * 9 . Methods of Celestial Mechanics. M. 9 . M. Brouwer. Planetary Coordinates for the. DC. 1 960. S ..9 Verify at least one of the equations in equations (9 . New York. and Wilf. 4. and Clemence. Flight Mechanics and Trajectory Optimization. Blackford. New York. 5 . Inc. "The NBody Problem and Special Perturbation Techniques. Her Maj esty's Stationery Office. J . M. Allione . The Macmillan Co . A. 1 9 1 4. . * 9 .ittouck. Mendez. Academic Press. 3 . London . 8 Program the Encke method for the ab ove problem and compare results for a) a near Earth satellite of 1 00 nm altitude and b) a flight toward the Moon with an apogee of approximately 1 5 0. Mathematical Methods for Digital Computers. L.l 005 . A n Introduction to Celestial Mechanics. 1 . New York. D. Baker. Feb 1 968. Ralston . A. F . Jr . Moulton . New York.000 n mi. A strodynamics: A pplications and A dvanced Topics. 5 Describe the process of rectification as used in the Encke method and variation of parameters method . Vol VI. Guidance. 9 9 . Academic Press. 7 Program the Cowell method including the perturbation due to the Moon. M. G. and Wl). R. John Wiley and Sons. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. L. 6 Develop a computer flow diagram for the Encke method including rectification of the reference orbit. 6. C . Washington.445). 1 96 1 ." NASA CR. 1 967. . * 9. Robert M .
2nd ed. Herget. New York. John Wiley and Sons. McGrawHill. 1 0. Th e Determination of Orbits. Longmans. 1 6. Inc. R. C. L. Published privately by the Author. Jr. 9 . 1 3 . The Macmillan Co. Vol 1 . 1 95 3 . Escobal. Michigan. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1 948 . W . Paul. 1 96 5 . DC . New York. R. New York. Academic Press. 1 968 . M. F . Baker. Townsend. Robert M. B . Maud W. New York. 1 96 1 . 1 967. P. Smart. M . John Wiley and Sons. 1 964. 1 963. New York. Celestial Mechanics. A . R . 1 1 .Ch . Part 1 . Orbital Flight Handbook. New York. Dynamical A stronomy . Jr and Makemson. Washington. NASA SP33 . A n Introduction to A strodynamics. Inc. 8 . Introduction to Numerical A nalysis. 1 5 . P . The Computation of Orbits. Methods of Orbit Determination. A stronautical Guidance . 1 9 1 8 (also available in paperback from Dover). Methods of A strodynamics. Ann Arbor. 1 2. . 1 4 . H. Plumber. McGrawHill. D. Escobal. New York. 1 95 6 . Hildebrand.. . Battin. E . New Yark. G. Dubyago . 9 E X E R C ISES 427 7 . Cambridge University Press.
.
68680 1 6 x 1 0 " sec2 1 .9860 1 2 x 1 0' sec . 'Derived from those values of Il .APPENDIX A ASTRODYNAMIC CONSTANTS* Geocentric Mean Equatqrial Radius. 8 1 1 8744 sec Ian sec Gravitational Parameter.. I DU� TUi.. 1 4 5 Ian Time Unit I TU.24764 11sec 806 . 2506844773 deg min 7. 3. 44686457 min 6378. Each of the two sets is consistent within itself.. Earth to Sun Time Unit I 1 I AU 4.327 1 5 44 x 1 0 .407646882 x 1 0 1 6 f 3 sec t_ _ 2 7. r. 2593 6.. 1 Center. 1 97 5 . Ile Angular Rotation. 1 . 1 328 2 1 days 9.292 1 1 58 56 X 1 0' � sec Heliocen tric Mean Distance. .0226757 x 1 06 sec 29.4959965 x 1 0' km 5 . Speed Unit I� TU.9053682 8 km' . 11 0 1  TU' 0 ft' 4. Canonical Units I DU. English Units Metric Units 2.. and AU in use at the NORAD/USAF Space Defense 429 . r..05883 36565 � TV.784852 km sec km' sec2 Gravitational Parameter. 1 9 5 5 63 miles 3443 .77 1 9329 x 1 0' Speed Unit  TU0 AU' � sec 1 .908 1 25 0 x 10 1 1 Tt TU0 AU 5 8 .922786 NM 1 3 . we 0.092567257 x 107 ft 3963 .
foot = 0.2342709 5 .5232 1 63 9 x 1 0 4 2 .3 TU EB radian/TU EB degree/sec DU EB DUEB DUEB DU$fTU EB DU e/TU EB DUa/TUEB sec/ft 3 / 2 sec/km 3 / 2 The following values have been established by international agreement and are exact as shown.344 (exact) meters nautical mile = 1 85 2 (exact) meters 430 . 29577 95 1 3 1 degrees ( 1 . 1 2 64963205 0 .239446309 x 1 0.APPENDIX B MI SCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS AN D C ONVERSIONS second = degree/sec = radian/TUEB = foot = (statute) mile = nautical mile = foot/sec = km/sec = nautical mile /sec = 21f viii. _ The above values are consistent with the rEB and IlEB of Appendix A.e .3048 (exact) meters (statute) mile = 1 609 .3 14 .4 3 . there is no roundoff or truncation. .9 5 2004586 X 1 0 .07 1 0 1 50424 4 .77 88 1 892 x 1 0 8 2 .01 745 32925 1 99 radians radian = 5 7 . 1f = 3 .8 9.08 1 52366 0 .2 9 5 8 1 7457 x 1 0 .903665 5 64 x 1 0 . i. 1 4 1 59 26535 9 (radians) degree = 0.8 5 560785 x 1 0 5 .
Unit Vector. velocity . If A i s a vector . The symbol used in the text to represent a vector quantity will be a boldfaced letter or a letter with a bar over the top in some illustrations. J. A scalar is a quantity having only magnitude . The symbol used in the text to represent a scalar quantity will be any signed number or a letter not b oldfaced or with no bar over it. Scalar. Examples are mass. force and acceleration. K) and (p.APPENDIX C VECTOR REVIEW Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics which saves time and space in the derivation of .relationships involving vector quantities. In threedimensional space each vector equation represents three scalar equations. W). C. then where l A is the symbol used to denote the unit vector in the direction of A Certain sets of vectors are reserved for unit vectors in rectangular coordinate systems such as (I. time or any real signed number. Examples are displacement. vector analysis is a powerful tool which makes many derivations easier and much shorter than otherwise would be possible . A vector is a quantity having b oth magnitude and direction. An exception to this symb ology is sometimes desirable in which case the symbol for the magnitude of A will be IAI. (Example : 3 or A). In this section the fundamental vector operations wil l b e discussed. length of a vector . Thus. 43 1 . A good understanding of these operations will be of significant help to the student in the use of this text. not a null or zero vector. I DEFINITIONS Vector. temperature . Q. speed. A unit vector is a vector having unit ( 1 ) magnitude .
If A. it is possible to express C in terms of A and B .. 1 Similarly. . have the same sense of direction and the same magnitude .432 V E CTO R R E V I EW C Equality of Vectors. such that Since C1 and A are collinear vectors. Coplanar Vectors. Two collinear vectors differ only by a scalar factor. B and C are coplanar vectors. regardless of the position of their origins. The vector C may be resolved into components C1 and C2 parallel to A and B respectively so that a. Two vectors A and B are said to be equal if and only if they are parallel. since C2 and B are collinear we may write C2 = bB. they differ only by a scalar factor B C = aA. Vectors that are parallel to the same plane are said to be coplanar (not necessarily parallel vectors). and A and B are not collinear. Vectors that are parallel to the same straight line are said to be collinear.
V E CT O R O P E R AT I O N S 433 (C . The "dot" product of two vectors A and B. Suppose we wish to determine the resultant of A .2 Then C = C1 + C2 = aA + bB .B which is the same as A + (B). B adj oined to A The resultant C starts from the origin of A and ends at the terrninus of B.C. Scalar or Dot Product. denoted by A • B.l ) C. is a scalar quantity defined by A · B = A I B cos e where e i s the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. From the definition of the dot product the following laws are derived : . C = A +B An obvious extension of this idea is the difference of two vectors.2 VECTOR OPERATIONS Addition of Vectors. e I I l (C .1 ) I AI cos B ..2. The sum or result of two vectors A and B is a vector C obtained by constructing a triangle with A and B forming two sides of the triangle. l .
J . A o A = Aft. K are unit orthogonal vectors. That is.22) Differentiating both sides of the equation above yields Vector or Cross Product.C m (A  B) = (rnA)  B = A .24) (C. B and C form a right handed system.434 V E CT O R R E V I EW C (a) (b) (c) (d) AB = B  A (Commutative law) (Distributive law)  A . if we say "A crossed with B" we mean that the resulting vector C will be in the direction of the extended thumb when the fingers of the right hand are closed from A to B through the smallest angle possible . < 180° ) AxB =C .(mB) = ( A B)m (Associative law) I . The cross product of two vectors A and B. denoted by A x B .K= 1 I .J = J o K=K o I = O where I . then A o B = (A1 I + A2 J + � K) B = B I + .. 23 ) (C.J =K .1=J .B + A . The direction of the vector C is perpendicular to both A and B such that A. .8 J + B3 K l 2 ° ° ( B1 I + B J + B3 K ) 2 A B = A B + A B + A3 B3 l l 2 2 (f) (g) A A = A2 ° (C .(B + C) = A . sma l lest ang le ( L e . is a vector C such that the magnitude of C is the product of the magnitudes of A and B and the sine of the angle between them.
27) since in either case the magnitudes are identical. then A X B = O. the only difference is the sense of the resulting vector C. J.2 V E CTO R O P E R A T I O N S 435 If A and Icl B are parallel. K are unit orthogonal vectors.C. In particular = IAI IB I sin O (C. 26) From the above figure it is easy to see that using the right hand rule : (Le. (Distributive law) (Associative law) (c) where . Other laws valid for the cross product are : (a) (b) A x (B + C) =A x B + A x e m (A x B) = ( m A) x B = A x ( mB) = (A x B) m I xI = J xJ =K x K = Q I xJ =K J xK=I KxI=J I. e < In fact A x B = . 25) AxA=O AxB*BxA (C .(B X A) 180) B x A = C (C.
from the definitions of dot and cross products thus if A = A1 I + Ai + A3 K B = B I I + B2 J + B3 K C = C1 1 + C2 J + C3 K A · (B x C) = A ( BC si n () ) co s ex then 1 J K A ' (B x C) = ( Al l + A2 J + A3 K ) .436 V E CTO R R E V I EW C (d) If or ( Al l + A2 J + � K) X ( B 1 I + B2 J + B 3 K ) A X B = ( A2 B3 . Consider the scalar quantity A' (B x C) If we let () be the angle between B and C and ex the angle between the resultant of (B x q and the vector A then. BI C1 .Al B3 ) J + (� B2 A2 B l ) K then  A = AI I + A2 J + A3 K B = B l 1 + B2 J + B 3 K AXB= (C .29) Scalar Triple Product.28) This result may be recognized as the expansion of the determinant AxB = 1 Al Bl J A2 B2 K � B3 (C.A3 B2 )1 + (A3 B I .
is a vector perpendicular to both (B x C) and A such that it lies in the plane of B and C. The position of P is denoted by OP = r = x(t)I + y(t)J + z(t)K .3 V E LO C I TY 437 = AI ( B2 C3 . The properties associated with this quantity are : (a) (b) (c) A x (B x C ) = (A ' C )B .C2 B3 C3 A3 (C .(A ' B ) C (A x B ) x C = (A ' C )B .21 4) C. denoted b y A x (B x C) .B2 C 1 ) But this is simply the expansion of the determinant A ' (B x C) = Al A2 B I B2 C 1 .2. The vector triple produce.2.3 VELOCITY Velocity is the rate of change of po sition and is a directed quantity.B C3 ) 1 1 2 + A3 ( B 1 C2 .l 3) (C.1 1 ) C2 B2 A2 A ' (B x C ) = C ' (A x B ) = B · (C x A) Vector Triple Product.B3 C) + A ( B3 C .1 0) You may easily verify that Al Bl or C1 A2 B2 A3 B3 C3 C1 Al Bl C2 C3 A3 B3 BI CI Al A2 C2 B2 B3 C3 A3 (C.1 2) (C. 2.C.2.(B ' C)A A x (B x C ) * (A x B) x C (C . Consider the case of a point P moving along the space curve shown below.
. x J Then the velocity relative to the (I........ K) coordinate system is : v = dr dt = d x 1 + Qy J d z + K dt dt dt = Qy and the components o f the particle velocity are If we now let s be the arc length measured from some fixed point A on the curve to the point P.... dr ds • dr ds = But d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 = d s2 ... .....438 V E CTO R R E V I EW z o ... thus .. . " .....9.. then the coordinates of P are functions of s: vx = � dt ' v Y dt ' vz = dz dt r = x ( s) I + y ( s ) J + z ( s) K and dr ds = d X 1 + ..YJ + d ZK ds ds ds dr ds � ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + (d Z ) 2 tl s ds ds If we now take the dot product of .... .with itself.. v C P K y .
This result may be applied to a unit vector (which has constant magnitude) .T dr dr ds dt ds dt ds dt which more simply stated means that the velocity is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is always tangent to the path of the particle. v = wT . dr v = .C. Thus we may write ds = unit vector = T .= .= .. the instan taneous angular velocity of the unit vector. In this special case then. from the definition of a dot product means that tangent to the curve at point P.3 b. the velocity associated with a unit vector is always per pendicular to the unit vector and has a magnitude of w. VE LOCITY 439 which. The instantaneous velocity of a unit vector is the rate of change of arc length traveled and is tangent to the path.
It is suggested that universal variables be used wherever possible . azimuth. Its geodetic latitude. elevation rate . In describing the projects the term "procedure" has the same meaning as "subroutine " in many computer languages. EI. From the 440 . longitude. Az. the day (DAY where 1 January is day zero) and the universal time (UT). The radar determines p. positive to the east) of the launch site. altitude and local sidereal time of the launch site and the output should be position and velocity of the site . Make two separate procedures for SITE and TRACK such that they can be used in a larger program. elevation. EI. The input to SITE should be latitude. Observations of a satellite are made by a radar at this site at a specified date and universal time . I PROJECT SITE/TRACK The geographic location of a radar tracking site on the surface of the earth is known . and of the satellite (R and V). and altitude above mean sea level are specified . azimuth rate. radius vector of the launch site and local sidereal time of the launch site .APPENDIX D SUGGE STED PROJECTS This appendix presents a series of computer projects which have proven to be very valuable in understanding much of the material covered in this text . D . latitude of the launch site. They are especially valuable in developing a practical feel for the application of many of the methods. The output will be the radius and velocity vectors of the satellite . Use standard unit conversions given in the text. An additional procedure will be needed to compute local sidereal time (LST) from the longitude (LONG. range rate . The input to TRACK should be range. Compute the geocentricequatorial components of position and velocity of the radar site (RS and VS). AZ from its tracking and doppler capability. p.
LST. 0) = (. 040075.8 N 7 8 .57 76. 22 1 0. LST _ LST MOD (2®PI). y.5 .75 components are : (. BEGIN REAL D. 9 W 0 1 9 05.27907 599. An algorithm to do this is (in ALGOL) PROCEDURE LSTIME (LONG. LST) .01 2035 7 5 .3 . Following are five sample sets of data for site location..2045 72 1 6 .MOD 1 00) / 1 440 + (UT .5 3 4 ON 4 5.74933340. 1 4923608. END OF LSTIME . LST and LONG are in radians.8 S 1 7 5. PI . .07 1 05 .05 1 37.74933340. 6 8 2. = (.5 90 . GST.775 1 80 1 9. 5. 6 . 1 4 1 59265 3 5 9 . : 1 5 280 (8 Oct) 3 00 5 45 . UT. 5 7 5 for data set 3). UT. .5 1 35 .044 1 8440.1 P R OJ E CT S I T E /T R AC K 44 1 A merican Ephemeris and Nautical A lmanac the Greenwich Sidereal Time (GST) on 1 January 1 970 at 0000 : 00 is 1 . DAY. REAL LONG. . . . GST. e .7 .0027379093®2®PI®D . LST _ LONG + GST + 1 . . 2 2 29.7 . . 7 N 3610 1 024 : 3 0 3 2 8 ( 1 5 Nov) 897. 3 315 . D _ DAY + (UT DIV 1 00) / 24 + (ENTlER (UT) . 8 8 3 W 7 180 0 3 1 7 : 02 244 (2 Sep) 5 04 .48 201.D.05 1 9 5238) . . 007 N 1 04 .5 3 0 . observation time and radar tracking data. 1 65 0 P (km) P (km /sec) � l (deg) E l (deg/ sec) A� (deg/sec) RS VS R V Az (deg) Answers for data set number 1 in x . PI.62624920) = (. E 7 2 . INTEGER DAY. If the above program is used. 9 E 0 0000 : 0 0 Elev (ft) DAY ( 1 9 7 0) 3 6 0 (27 Dec) 0 (1 Jan) 1510 4. . a VALUE declaration must be used in the main program for LST. 1 1 20 0 6 3 7 8 . GST _ 1 . W 15 2 2 1 0 : 5 7 .ENTlER (UT)) / 8 64 .26347 1 9 8 .08 30. Input UT as a decimal (i. 8 0. .63745829) z = .75 1 003 9 1 .7 5. Data Set UT Lat (deg) Long (deg) 3 9 .
. The total change in true anomaly from the observed position to impact or point of closest approach.. 7 0 3 VK . 1 29579 1 9 .442 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D D. elliptical. b . 5 . 01 .001 1 0 .8 .4 1 3 59 3 1 7 . c.707 .1 . Position and velocity vectors at impact or closest approach in the geocentricequatorial coordinate system. Input data for Proj ect PREDICT is stated in terms of the geocentricequatorial inertial components in canonical units : Object Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 RI 0 . 48 4 0 2. 00001 .1 .85 8654 degrees Traj ectory is an ellipse . 0) (. .01 .6 0 .2 VI . 0 0 0 305 The answers for object number 1 are : R V = (.49 0 .998 seconds True anomaly change is 3 29.9 1 046 1 80. Time for obj ect to go from its observed position to point of impact or closest approach. 0 1 7 45 .5 0 . From this information you are required to fmd : a.2 PROJECT PREDICT Project PREDICT is probably the easiest of all the projects in this appendix. . 49 0 0 2.4 1 722472 . rectilinear. 1 0 0 2 . 0) = Object impacts at 3 hours 2 1 minutes 1 8 .9 1 .4 1 4 0 0 65 . 05 . parabolic.1 0 22. The type of trajectory (circular.703 . hyperbolic).9 0 2 0 . 6 2 .293 . d. 1 RJ 1 0 RK 0 VI 0 0 .001 5 30 0 . It requires finding various orbital parameters from given vector position and velocity.4 1 4 2. Check to see if trajectory is going away from the earth. For a number of unidentified space objects the three components of vector position and velocity are generated from radar observations (see Project SITE/TRACK).
5 . If your iteration process is efficient. Data Set 1 2 3 4 5 6 RK Rl 0 1 0 0 0 .3 D.5 0 0 .7 . If you do not get convergence in 50 iterations. When these bounds are violated you must reduce the step size in the Newton iteration such that you go in the correct direction but stay within bounds. To solve this problem use the universal variable approach and refer closely to section 4.jiL d. You will need to write a special procedure to calculate the functions S(z) and C(z). 1 38878 .5 .025 9 1 7 . a . On debugging your program it will be helpful for you to print the values of x. and dt/dx for each iteration. Also for an ellipse.3 1 0 . write a message to that effect and go to the next data set.3 PROJECT KEPLER P R OJ E CT K E P L E R 443 Given the position and velocity vectors of a satellite at a particular instant of time . Put upper and lower bounds on z determined by the computer being used. c. Use a Newtonian iteration to solve for the value of x corresponding to the given 61. If 61 is greater than the period (if it is an ellipse) you should reduce the flight time an integral number of periods. you are to determine the position and velocity vectors after an interval of time . 61.8 .0. Note that the sign of 61 should always be the same as the sign of x. b. The following data is given in e arth canonical units. 61 (calculated) . you should achieve convergence in 5 or 6 iterations. To aid you in this goal the following suggestions should be considered. RJ 61 . x should never be greater than 2m. use where 4 is the given time interval and it is compared to the calculated Write the program as a procedure or subprogram. 1 5 0689 1 .4 of the text for guidance . To determine when convergence has occurred.
1 . 0. .w). find v I and v2 Write your program as a procedure or subroutine.9 20 . In this problem you will need to use a Newton iteration to iterate on z. For convergence criteria use • Note : You can make a check of your results by comparing energy or angular momentum at both points.70655823.. 1 06 1 0. For instance note that y can never be negative .4 PROJECT GAUSS A satellite in a conic orbit leaves position fl and arrives at position f at time bt later.6 for t < 1 where t c is the timeofflight which results from the trial value of z and t is the given timeofflight. 1 65 08 . Follow carefully the suggestions given in Chapter 5 . For ellipses limit z to (211')2 . Care should also be taken as to your initial choice of x as described in the text. Be careful near the point where the value of z corresponds to the t = 0 point in Figure 5 . 1 362596) = (0.01 1 00642) VI( Data Set VI VJ DT 1 0 0 1 11' 3 3 o o 4 o 5 5 . 0 .999 o 1 03 D. You will need to write a procedure to calculate the transcendental functions S(z) and C(z) and their derivatives.444 S U G G E ST E D P R O J E CT S D 6 o Answers for the second data set are : parabolic trajectory. and sign (7T .00006057 ... 0003 6 1 . 1 0.1 . I t ...t c l :::. 3.. write a message to that effect and go to the next data set... t :::.6 for 1 :::..002 1 7 7 1 . It can travel the "short way" (w < 11') or the "long 2 way" (w � 11'). One of the data sets tests this situation.5 1 . R2 V2 = (0. Given r l ' r2 . bt.. 00 1 074 .. Use the universal variable method to solve the problem. If there is no convergence in 50 iterations. 1 8 1 . I�I :::..
3 . 1 03 3 5 2 3 7 radians = .7 . Check for this case . 7 for further discussion o f this project .4 . a message printed and you should go to the next data set ..2 1 .66986992. The plane o f the transfer orbit i s not uniquely defined i f t:J) IT. See section 5 .3 . 1 . location of the tracking site . Also print t:J) and a for each data set . x.66993 1 97 . and the location of an interceptor launch site . 1 2298 1 44.4 . 1 92 1 62 1 2 . = = Data Set 1 2 3 4 S 6 R l (I) R l (J) R l (K) R2(I) R2(J) R2(K) DT DM t:J) Answers for data set number 1 are : VI V2 a D. . This i s not specifi cally required in this problem.5 .5 P R OJ E CT I NT E R C E PT 445 For trouble shooting purposes you should print out the values of z . t c ' dt/dz and znew for each iteration.3 .2 . .0 . D M = + 1 specifies a short way trajectory and DM .6 . Neglect the atmosphere and assume impulsive velocity change from the launch site and at the target. The accomplishment o f this project will involve the use of the . The following data i s i n canonical units.1 .0001 +1 .6 .4804847 1 .201 .S = (0. 1 72 1 740 1 ) = (.7 0 1 0 1 . The output is to be the impulsive velocity change required for both intercept and intercept plusrendezvous for various combinations of launch time and interceptor timeofflight.8 5 +1 . y.7 0 1 0 20 1 .6 .2 .1 specifies the long way.2 . time of radar observation.5 . print out a message and go to the next data set . so a check should be made for that condi tion. .6 5 +1 PROJECT INTERCEPT Write a computer program that takes as its input radar tracking data on a target satellite.6 .9378 1 789) = 4.6 50 +1 1 0 0 0 1 0 .4 .4 1 .1 .6 . If the orbit is rectilinear (parallel position vectors) the problem can still b e solved with some special provisions i n your program.
list reaction times down the left side and timeofflight across the top . d. all variables of interest in the calculations (for the first deltaV calculation only) and the local sidereal time of the launch site for each reaction time . the number of reaction times desired . Make some provision to print out all of your input data.446 SU G G E ST E D P R OJ E CTS D procedures SITE. Use the accompanying flow diagram as a guide for your program. e . and the number of timeofflight increments desired . assign deltaV some large value such as 1 0 1 0 . KEPLER and GAUSS. the starting value of timeofflight increment size. c. Specific requirements for the project are as follows : a . the desired increment size for reaction time . Make any deltaV that corresponds to a long way around transfer orbit negative so you can identify it when printed out . This will aid you in verifying your solution . read in on separate data cards the desired starting value of reaction time . If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target for both directions of motion this will cause asterisks to be printed in your output (in most computers) .45 0 N Longitude : 1 69 . b . Print out only 3 places after the decimal for the deltaVs. g. When you point out your arrays. Use data as follows : Location of launch site (Johnston Island) : Latitude : 1 6. TRACK. If the interceptor strikes the earth enroute to the target.3 2 0 W Elevation : 5 feet Radar tracking site data (Shemya) : Latitude : 5 2 . f. Print out the velocities in km/sec even though calculations are in canonical units. Times should be read in as minutes. Compute the deltaVs for both directions (long and short way) and save the smaller values in doubly subscripted arrays so that they may be printed all at one time . To make your program flexible . The launch time of the interceptor will be specified in terms of "reaction time" which is the time elapsed between tracking of the target and launch of the interceptor.45 0 N Longitude : 1 74. Remove all intermediate write statements from all procedures except the no convergence messages from GAUSS and KEPLER.05 0 E Elevation : 5 2 feet Day : 1 04 ( 1 5 Apr 70) Universal time : 0600 : 00 .
0.1 .44 degrees P R OJ E CT I N T E R C E PT p = 4.6 1 3 km EI = 56.09 deg/sec Data Set No 2 20 minutes 1 minutes 40 5 minutes 1 minute 14 First Reaction time Increment size No . The shaded area is equivalent to the asterisks in your printout: Your first few lines of array output for the intercept only case for data set number 1 should be as follows (in km/sec) : 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 5 9. When the problem is complete you will have four arrays of Figure 5 . 879 **** **** **** **** **** 25 7 .5 p = 1 86.338 **** **** **** 10 8 .038 .74. of timeofflights Data Set No 1 1 0 minutes · 5 minutes 40 5 minutes 5 minutes 14 Note that data set number 2 i s a "blowup " o f a selected region o f data set number 1 . You could draw contour lines through equal deltaVs.9 8 1 **** **** **** **** **** 20 7 . of Reaction Times First timeofflight Increment Size No. 262 **** **** **** **** **** 15 7 .95 degrees Az = 1 5 2 .0 1 2 km/sec == == 447 AZ Ei . 844 **** **** **** 35 7 . 844 **** **** **** **** 30 7 .92 deg/sec 1 . 868 **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** 8.
LATL.448 S U G G EST E D P R OJ E CT S GROUND TO SATELLITE INTERCEPT AND RENDEZVOUS Time of Observation Radar S ite Location "Target" Radar D ata D Launch Site Location ALTL. LONGL Up date LST for SITE LSTL reaction time for launch site VSL RSL ( (Reac ion Tim e ) RTO VTO Reaction Time PlUS TimeofFlight \ ) RT2 VT2 VI I VI2 DV I DV2 L Suffix stands f o r Launch Site R Suffix stands for Radar Site .
INDEX .
.
102 Apoapsis. 28 1 B arker's equation. 3 2 3 masses. 5 5 heliocentric. 272 Conic sections 2026 Conserv ation of angular momentum. 54 fundamental plane. 56 Celestial sphere. 1 09. 5 3 .1 3 1 G auss problem. 297299 451 . 28 Constants astrodynamic. 54 orbit plane. 2 1 . 3 5 8 . 60 Argument of periapsis. 74 geocentricequatorial. 1 3 2 American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac.INDEX Acceleration comparison. 9 3 . 24 height adjustment. 3 3 period of. 57 perifocal. 4 3 0 Conversions. 3 8 9 . 1 620. 423 Azimuth. 1 3 7 B allistic missiles. 1 22. 84 ecliptic. 3 5 7 Corio lis acceleration. 429 Astronomical Unit. 20. 6. 109 B akerNunn camera. 2052 1 0 orbit determination from sighting directions. 5 3 5 8 spherical. 60 and universal v ariables. 2427 Apogee. B urnout. 74 right ascensiondeclination. 374 Computer projects. 4 1 54 1 7 Aerospace Defense Command. 5 6 topocentrichorizon. 203 Aphelion. 94. 84.1 1 6 Kepler problem. 429 Earth's equatorial r adius. 87 ' Anomaly eccentric. 1 8 5 true. 84. 1 8 3 mean. 1 1 AdamsB ashforth numerical method. 4 1 . 8 4 Copernicus. 4 gravitational h armonics. 3 4 Collision cross section. 3 9 4 Bode's law. 3 9 0 station. 3 8 7390 Crossrange errors.9 8 gravitational constant. 296 geometry. 74 BMEWS. 246 Brahe. 5 3 . 4043 Celestial equator. 1 00. 3 2 5 . 9 2 Correction of preliminary orbit Cowell's method of special Cramer's rule. 5 7 principal direction. 277320 computation chart. 2 Astrodynamic constants. 1 6 Conservation of mechanical energy. 5 8 Aristotle. 27 Angular velocity of Earth. 422 gravitational parameter. 3 3 Circular satellite speed. 2 1 2 B asis. 56 Circular satellite orbit. 1 8 8 . 3 5 8 Atmospheric drag perturbation. 3 5 9 Bolzano bisection technique. 2 3 6 24 1 G ibbs problem. 440448 Computer solution differential correction. 349 Angle of elevation. 2 3 4. 1 09 Angular momentum. 9498 transformations. 429 lunar distance. 3 6 1 miscellaneous. 24 Apparent solar time. 4 3 0 Coo rdinates rectangular. 5358. 279 C anonical units. 7483 Coordinate systems. 1 20 (see Differential correction ) perturbations. 1 3 3 B inomial series. 1 5 . 429 flattening. 1 62 Argument of latitude. Tycho. 1 4.
2 7 1 273 Flightpath angle. 3 5 . 429 Geocentricequatorial coordinate system. 306 EarthMoon system.riod o f . 297299 I N DEX in plane.452 Declination. 3 22 trajectories. 1 0 6 precession.3 3 pe. 1 0 3 G reenwich sidereal time. 3 00 launching. 25. 54 Elements of orbit. 3 1 . G ibbsian orbit determination method. 8 7 . function o f true anomaIles. 444 algorithm. 3 6 8 Errors crossrange. 2 1 2. 1 0 3 G round track. 60 Equations of motion nbody.3 0 6 numerical integration. 1 8 2. 3 5 Escape trajectory. 2 8 5 Freeflight range. 1 04 Escape speed. 4 Newton's law of. 20 1 202 f and g series. 3 4 5 Geodetic latitude.1 4 3 . zenith angle. 62 vector. 60 true longitude at. 23 1 24 1 G eocentric constants. 2 1 ff. 5 5 true anomaly a t .1 3 1 Direct ascent. 1 7 equations. 1 0 3 G reenwich meridian. 58 from position a n d velocity. 9. 55 Equinoxes Equatorial radius. 3 3 0 Ephemeris. 1 22. 1 54. Carl Fredrich.2 1 4 Eccentricity. 2 1 2. 2 9 7 . 26 ff. 40. 3 6 6 Differential correction. 1 0 6 mean. 3 5 0 Epoch. 5 8 . 2 3 0 . 221 hyperbolic. 4 1 2 Euler angles. 62 Ecliptic. 1 8 G aussJackson numerical method. 2 5 relation o f energy a n d angular momentum to. 2 1 7 function o f universal variables. 56.1 1 6 Gravitation. 84. 9 4 Geoid. 8 0 f and g expressions.93 . 264 eccentric anomalies.2 1 2 parabolic. 7 G ravitational constant. 3 27 Earth orbit high altitude.1 90. 6 1 Elevation angle. G auss problem. 1 3 Equatorial coordinate system. 1 5 2 Eccentric anomaly. 2 4 1 25 1 universal variables. 1 42. 2 0 . 2 3 0 f and g series method. apparent. 2 4 . 1 4 0 . 60 Dot product. 3 90 . 2 9 . 25 1 258. 25 1 . 2 6527 1 original G auss method. 1 4 G ravitational potential. 9 3 98 effect of rotation.1 8 8 Encke's method of special perturbations. Elliptical orbits. 1 1 7. 2 5 8 264 piteration method. 423 424 Earth oblate. 2 3 3 . 3 1 3 3 time o f flight on. 3 6 8 local. 1 60 low altitude. 9 4 G e ocentric sweep angle. 2 7 1 Departure phase angle. 4 3 3 Drag. 2 1 . 26. 1 0 twobody. 22827 1 . 3 5 8 G amma G auss. 1 0 Equations o f relative motion in spherical coordinates. 3 89 nbody. 4 2 1 G reenwich mean solar time. 1 8 8 . 4 G alileo. 1 0 9 Ellipse. 1 9 8 219 function of eccentric anomalies. 227 418 ( y ) .1 5 5 Direct motion. 94 . 4 1 9. 3 0 . 1 0 9 .3 9 6 Energy. 1 8 1 . 1 8 8. 5 5 Geocentric latitude. 4 G ravitational parameter. 1 5 minimum for lunar trajectory. 293 G (universal constant of gravitation ) . 2 5 1 2 5 8 intercept a n d rendezvous. 2 8 2 time. 3 5 . 94 G eometric properties of conic sections.
5 8 effect of l aunch azimuth on.3 2 6 perturbations of orbit. 62 longitude of ascending. 3. 1 57 Line of nodes. limitations. 1 . 2 second. 1 7 7. 1 Kepler's equation. 3 69. numerical rotation of. 1 8 5 Kepler's laws.3 20 Interplanetary trajectories. 3 7 1 t i m e of flight on.3 05. 234. 60 Latus rectum. 3 44 . 9 5 Laplacian orbit method. 1 1 9 Local horizontal. 1 5 6. 22 1 . 22. 2 7 7 . 429 Heliocentric coordinate systems. 1 8 8 . 220 Mean motion. 6 1 (see Prediction ( see Gauss Lambert problem proble m ) Latitude geocentric. 238. 60 Lunar trajectories. 1 52 Mass of planets. 2 8 8 . 3 69 . 1 7 Local sidereal time. 3 7 0 Integration. 2 H alley's comet. 3 6 1 Maximum range trajectory.1 6 6. 3 65 noncoplanar. 20 Least squares solution. 3 4 5 ephemeris. 3 24 . 1 56 vector. 3 2 1 3 5 5 . 2 Heliocentric constants. 54 Heliocentric transfer. 3 5 8 Newton iteration.3 8 4 general coplanar. 3 2 6 Line of apsides. 1 80 third. 2 6 5 27 1 . 3 8 1 Hohmann. 3 1 Manned flight. 247 Newton's laws. 94 reduced. 3 3 Kepler problem problem ) (see Numerical integratio n ) M a j o r axis. 3 9 6 constraints. 1 9 8 . 3 57 . 2. 1 4 1 .3 6 6 H ohmann transfer. true at epoch. 3 9. 207 I nclination. 8 Node ascending. 1 5 6. 3 2 1 3 5 5 l ibrations of. 1 1 7 Latitude. 1 0 twobody. 1 6 3 . 3 1 Moon. 3 89 trajectories. 349 ( see Selenocentri c ) Inte rcept and rendezvous. 9 9 . Isaac. J ohann. 4. 3 54 geocentric sweep angle. 6 . 8 6 . 1 0 2 Meridian. 3 5 0 free return. 3 8 . 3 623 65 Hyperbola. 3 7 9 . gravitational parameter. 3 0 3 .I N D EX H alley. 2. 370 Hyperbolic orbits. 3 27. argument of at epoch. 1 25 Librations of Moon. 3 9 6 M otion. 1 02 Mean solar time. 8 9 . 3 80 Kepler. 94 geodetic. 3 59374. 7. 1 42 effect of l aunch site on. 62 . 58 regression. 1 1 7 derivatives. 2. 1 8 Influence coefficients. 3 64. 1 4 1 . 44 1 Longitude of ascending node . 4 1 54 1 8 Nbody problem. 2 1 . 1 3 Moving reference frame. 3 24326.8 9 derivatives i n . Edmund.1 8 1 first. 1 8 5 . Greenwich. 1 5 1 .3 5 2 Lunicentric 453 selection of launch dates. equations o f nbody. 3 26 orbital elements of. 3 4 5 noncoplanar. 3 1 6 Injection. 1 4 2 Inertial system. 5 8 Longitude of peri apsis. 3 62 . 3 8 Hyperbolic excess speed. 1 03 Minor axis. 29 1 293 Mean anomaly. 1 0 1 . 1 4 Multistep integration methods.9 3 Mu ( � ) . 1 5 8 Lineofsight. 2. 5 8 Longitude. 6 rotation of. 5 1 . 1 8 5 Mean solar day. 6. 5 Newton. 445 Intercontinental ballistic missile.
1 1 Retrograde motion. 4 1 2 G aussJ ackson. 3 9 64 1 0 Perturbative accelerations atmospheric drag. 4 1 54 1 7 comparison o f methods. 3 9 0 Rectilinear orbits. 1 23 Restricted twobody problem. 2 4 . 9 3 9 8 Reference orbit. 2 8 0 Radar sensors. 1 90 Numerical integration. 424 thrust.1 59 examples. 3 1 . 1 5 6 .3 2 6 Perturbation techniques. 27 1 273 Orbital elements or parameters. 4 2 1 Precession o f the equinoxes. 24 (see Escape speed ) Radiation pressure perturbation. 6 0 Numerical accuracy N oncoplanar lunar trajectories.3 9 0 Encke's method. 27 1 P atchedconic approximation interplanetary. 1 1 7 . 2 0 .454 Nu (v ) . 5 symbols. 2 1 2 computer solution. 1 62 . 3 9 0 Relative motion. 1 62 O rbit. (see Earth orbit ) time of flight on. 20.9 8 Optical sensors. 3 3 Perturbations. 27 1 273 from three position vectors. 2 1 . 5 1 . 4 1 9 radiation pressure. 423 due to the moon. 58 Perifocal coordinate system. 6 1 o f moon. 1 69 Orbit determination. flightpath angle. 203. 3 60 physical characteristics. 4 1 Polar equation o f a conic section. 9 3 . 1 8 Phase angle a t departure. 60 Right ascension. 4 1 2425 errors.1 50. 3 8 6 general. 1 3 2 outofplane changes. 4 1 3 N umerical integration methods AdamsB ashforth. 420 c riteria for choosing. 24 height adjustment. 2 4 Periselenium. 1 0 3 P rojects. 4 1 8 RungeKutta. 6 1 from sighting directions. 1 04 Prediction problem ( Kepler problem ) . 3 3 3 .3 2 6 O rbital maneuvers. 4 1 4 sum squared. 4 1 9 . 3 5 P arabolic speed Parameter. 3 4 1 Period. 20 Polar radius. 1 09 . 3 8 74 1 0 Cowell's method. 57 Perigee. 3 90 .3 7 9 lunar. 4 1 04 1 2 o f Moon's orbit. 2 2 Reference ellipsoid ( spheroid ) . 440448 Q parameter. 83 from optical sightings. 1 0 9 Rectification. 34. 3 24 . Earth 227276 from a single radar observation. 2 1 Osculating orbit.1 22 from position and velocity. 58 determination from position and velocity. 3 9 0 Parabola. 1 1 7. 2052 1 0 Prime meridian. 3 6 6 Pl anets orbital elements. 1 9 3 . 94 Potential energy reference. 2 1 .1 22. 3 59 . 1 3 Rendezvous.3 9 6 variation of parameters method. true anomaly. 56. 1 8 8 Parabolic orbit. 26527 1 Residuals.3 5 2 loss of on nearparabolic orbits.1 76 inplane changes. 3 8 9 Earth potential. 3 24 . 425 Phi ( � ) . 3 6 1 shape of. 1 1 7 . 443 algorithm. 3 44 . 2427 argument of. two body. 1 6 Potential function. 22727 1 Orbit plane. 220 classical formul ations. 22 I N DEX Pe rihelion.1 1 6 from two positions and time. 3 8 7 .3 44 Periapsis. 3 8 5427 due to oblate Earth. 1 3 6 Optical sighting orbit determination. 4 1 8 O b l ate Earth model. 424 R ange and rangerate data. 1 5 1 .
1 9 1 2 1 2 definition of. 23. 1 8 (see Nbody . 3 5 8 . 5 radio interferometers. 1 9 1 . 1 3 6 radar. 23.3 59 orbital elements.1 40 errors. 1 02. 29 1 293 Transfer orbit bielliptical. 1 0 3 Universal variables. 4 1 4 S atellite lifetimes.1 0 9 apparent solar. 1 6 Sputnik. 1 7 5 general coplanar. 6. 1 6. 1 52 Satellite tracking. 4 3 1 455 Sidereal day. 425 Time. 1 6 3 . 7 Universal time.1 6 6 True anomaly. 1 0 3 Topocentric coordinate system. 4 3 7 . canonical. 3 2 8 Time of periapsis p assage. 2 1 7 parabola. 1 7 Specific mechanical energy. 3 60 physical characteristics. 3 3 9 Semil atus rectum. 9.9 8 of planets. 1 03 Time of flight eccentric anomaly. 1 3 1 . 1 0 3 Greenwich sidereal. 1 1 .1 8 8 .4 3 9 Velocity components. 9 9 . 99.1 40 Selenocentric. 4 3 1 Velocity. 85 Traj ectory equation.1 0 4 Solar system.8 9 derivatives in. 1 0 1 Solar pressure. 20 Semimajor axis. 1 5. 2 8 3 Synchronous satellites. 425 Thrust perturbation. 3 1 Sensors. 4 1 9 Zenith angle. 3 27. 1 9 3 physical significance of. 2 1 5 hyperbola. 60 Twobody orbit problem. 1 03 local sidereal. 5 8 Time zones. 1 8 8 universal variables. 1 8 1 . 287 low. 3 9 64 1 2 Vectors. 4 3 7 . 1 9 1 225. 4 3 8 Vinti potential functions. 58 Semi minor axis. 8 6 . 2 9 3 on lunar trajectories. 1 52 Station coordinates. 9 3 . 1 0 2 G reenwich mean solar. 99. 1 0 1 Spacetrack. 40. 60 True longitude at epoch. 1 8 1 . 4 3 4 derivative o f . 1 3 2. 1 8 8 . 9498 Sum square d numerical method. 1 3 5 ellipse. 2 8 8 . 30. 1 3 1 . 1 9 1 development of. 1 9 6 derivatives of. 8 4 . 1 0 1 . 1 0 3 universal. 9 9 . 4074 1 2 Variation of parameters. 23 1 Universal variable formulation. 4 3 7 unit. 1 0 1 . Universal gravitation. 1 1 Units. 1 60 Synodic period.1 9 8 Time o f free flight.1 69 Hohmann. 9 Sidereal time. 3 6 1 Solar time. 1 3 2 Shape of Earth. 3 67� 3 6 8 Threebody problem problem ) Thrust.1 9 0 if. 203 special functions of (C and S ) definitions. 2 3 5 evaluations of.1 3 2 Symmetrical trajectory.4 3 9 d o t product. 1 9 high. 40 Unit vectors. 20. 3 3 3 Specific angular momentum. 1 3 2 Sphere o f influence. 1 6 6.I N D EX Rotating coordinate frame. 8993 RungeKutta numerical method. 4 1 8 Surveillance. 43 1 4 3 9 cross product. 4. 1 0 1 S o l a r day. 44 1 mean solar. 2 1 at epoch. 4 3 3 triple product. 1 3 8 optical.1 4 assumptions. definition of. 2 8 7 maximum range. 2062 1 0 use of.
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